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A TECHNICAL SEMINAR REPORT ON SMART GRID Technical seminar report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the

B.Tech IV-Year Submitted by A.RAVI (08011A0235)

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING

JAWAHARLAL NEHRU TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY HYDERABAD 2012

ABSTRACT:

ENERGY is strength to the nation. Generation & saving energy is definitely strength to our nation. The function of an Electrical grid is not a single entity but an aggregate of multiple networks and multiple power generation companies with multiple operators employing varying levels of communication and coordination, most of which is manually controlled. Smart grids increase the connectivity, automation and coordination between these suppliers, consumers and networks that perform either long distance transmission or local distribution tasks. This paper emphasized on achieving smart grid at three levels i.e., Smart metering at consumer level, phasor measurement at transmission level and micro grid (accommodates renewable energy resources) at distribution level to improve reliability, consumer active participation and power quality.

INTRODUCTION:A SMART GRID delivers electricity from suppliers to consumers using two-way digital technology to control appliances at consumers' homes to save energy, reduce cost and increase reliability and transparency. Such a modernized electricity network is used as a way of addressing energy independence, global warming and emergency resilience issues. A smart grid includes an intelligent monitoring system that keeps track of all electricity flowing in the system, the capability of integrating alternative sources of electricity such as solar and wind. In this paper we discussed how smart metering is economical.

WHY SMART GRID :RELIABILITY More blackouts and brownouts are occurring due to the slow response times of mechanical switches, a lack of automated analytics, and poor visibility a lack of situational awareness on the part of grid operators. INTELLIGENT Capable of sensing system overloads and rerouting power to prevent or minimize a potential outage; of working autonomously when conditions require resolution n faster than humans can respondand cooperatively in aligning the goals of utilities, consumers and regulators EFFICIENT Capable of meeting increased consumer demand without adding infrastructure. ACCOMMODATING

Accepting energy from virtually any fuel source including solar and wind as easily and transparently as coal and natural gas; capable of integrating any and all better ideas and technologies. QUALITY-FOCUSED Capable of delivering the power quality necessary. Free of sags, spikes, disturbances and interruptions to power our increasingly digital economy and the data centers, computers and electronics necessary to make it run. RESILIENT Increasingly resistant to attack and natural disasters as it becomes more decentralized and reinforced with Smart Grid security protocols. GREEN Slowing the advance of global climate change and offering a genuine path toward significant environmental improvement

CHARACTERISTIC 1. Active participation by consumers 2. Accommodates all generation and storage options 3. Optimizes assets & operates Efficiently

TODAYS GRID

SMART GRID

Consumers are uninformed and Informed, involved, and active non-participative with power consumers - demand response and distributed energy resources. Many distributed energy resources focus on renewables Greatly expanded data acquisition of grid parameters - focus on prevention, minimizing impact to consumers Automatically detects and responds to problems - focus on prevention, minimizing impact to consumer system Dominated by central generationenergy resources interconnection Little integration of operational data with asset management business process silos

many obstacles exist for distributed with plug-and-play convenience

4. Anticipates and responds to system disturbances heals)

Responds to prevent further damage- focus is on protecting (self- assets following fault

SMART METERING:
AT CONSUMER LEVEL:
I. II. III. IV.

Meters that can be read automatically. Meters that can communicate with the customers. Time-of-day and time-of-use meters. Control of consumers load.

METERS THAT CAN BE READ AUTOMATICALLY: This avoids sending out meter readers and can facilitate a fast and exact billing of consumption. It is already widely adopted by many power companies.

One of the most important building blocks of a smart grid is implementation of advanced metering infrastructure (AMI), commonly known as smart meters in homes and businesses across the country. . Smart meters differ from conventional electricity meters, because they allow for two-way electronic communication in which valuable information flows dynamically between consumers and electricity producers. Automatic Meter Reading: It is the technology of automatically collecting consumption, diagnostic, and status data from energy metering devices and transferring that data to a central database for billing, troubleshooting, and analyzing. This advance mainly saves utility providers the expense of periodic trips to each physical location to read a meter. METERS THAT CAN COMMUNICATE WITH THE CUSTOMERS: A display shows the customers their current rate of electricity use, allowing them to adjust their consumption level in real time. In todays electric power system, the only thing that gets carried over power lines is power. In tomorrows system, the lines will carry both power and information, in real time, to be used exactly when and how each is needed.

TIME-OF-USE METERS: Time Of Use Metering Time of Usage (TOU) metering involves dividing the day, month and year into tariff slots and with higher rates at peak load periods and low tariff rates at off-peak load periods. This also allows the utilities to plan their transmission infrastructure appropriately. TOU metering normally splits rates into two segments, peak and off-peak. Digital Communication: The grid will be equipped with instantaneous sensors that will gather information from every inch of the grid, collecting data about how much power is flowing where and how reliable it is, at the exact time it is flowing. These data will be communicated wherever they are needed, including to household appliances, which will respond by using only the precise amount of power needed while taking into account the price of energy at any given time. As technology advances, smart meters, in conjunction with pricing information, can act as a portal communicating with smart appliances and technology. CONTROL OF CUSTOMER LOAD: Control systems that react to time-of-use meters to automatically switch certain circuits on or off. The below figure shows the clothes dryer using a load control switch to reduce peak demand.

A Load Control Switch is a remotely controlled relay that is placed on home appliances which consume large amounts of electricity, such as air conditioner units and electric water heaters. A load control switch consists of a communication module and the relay switch and can be used as part of a demand response energy efficiency system.

There is no practical way for electric companies to store electricity for use during peak demand. They also reduce costs for electric companies by reducing the amount of expensive electricity they need to buy from other companies during peak demand.

AT DISTRIBUTION GRID LEVEL:


Distribution System Automation: A first step is the operating of the distribution grid from a central control room, avoiding the need to send people into the field for switching actions. Such systems have already been installed in several places around the world. A second step is by adding sensors and remote control switches, incidents can be isolated and cut off, minimizing problems for electricity. Selective Load Control: Selectively switching off customers to avoid a complete black out. A step further is the ability to turn individual loads on or off within customers premises.

MICROGRID :
Microgrids encompass self contained generation, transmission, distribution, energy storage and energy management for business and academic campus environment. Their benefits include the ability to maintain operations even during utility grid disruptions, contribute excess electricity generated from renewable sources back to utility grids and perform as distributed generation assets that can help stabilize overall grid operations. A. PHOTO VOLTAIC CELLS:They rely on sunlight to produce DC voltage at cell terminals. The amounts of voltage and current that PV cells can produce depends on the intensity of sunlight and the design of the cell. PV systems use cell arrays that are either fixed or track the sun to capture additional energy. To reduce the number of costly PV devices used, mirrors or lenses can be used to concentrate sunlight on to the cells.

A PV systems capability to track load changes is limited by available sunlight. Storage is required for standalone systems if power requirements exceed available sunlight. While the sun shines, PV systems operate highly reliably, quietly, and with no emissions. Their largest drawbacks are their high initial cost, the intermittent nature of the solar resource, and the large collection areas they require. B. MICRO TURBINES Micro turbines are composed of a generator and small gas turbine mounted on a single shaft. Micro turbines rotate at high speeds, some at nearly 100,000 rpm. A permanent magnet generator spinning at this high shaft speed produces the power in the form of high-frequency AC, which is converted to DC and then to standard 50-Hz AC using an inverter. Most micro turbines are fuelled by natural gas but can also use liquid fuels such as diesel or jet fuel. These units currently range in size from 30 to about 100 kW; larger units are under development. Most micro turbines also have a Recuperator to recycle some exhaust heat back to the combustor. A micro turbine with Recuperator typically has 20-30 percent efficiency. Utilization of waste heat can increase overall system efficiency (electricity and heat) to 70- 80 percent. Because the combustion process is closely controlled and relies on relatively clean burning fuels, micro turbines typically produce few emissions. C. FUEL CELLS A fuel cell is an electrochemical cell that converts a source fuel into an electrical current and water. It generates electricity inside a cell through reactions between a fuel and an oxidant, triggered in the presence of an electrolyte. The reactants flow into the cell, and the reaction products flow out of it, while the electrolyte remains within it. Fuel cells can operate virtually continuously as long as the necessary flows are maintained.

Photovoltaics, like micro turbines and fuel cells, generate DC voltage that must pass through an inverter to produce 50-Hz alternating current for distribution on the utility grid. Static Switch Or Smart Switch: In general, a microgrid can operate in both the grid-connected mode and the islanded mode where the microgrid is interfaced to the main power system by a fast semiconductor switch called static switch, (SS). It is also called smart switch. In grid-connected mode, the micro grid supplies to the main supply grid.

AT TRANSMISSION GRID LEVEL:


Phase Measurements: The efficiency and stability of power system operation could be improved with the addition of phase measurement at various key locations on the transmission grid and combined with advanced communication and control systems. A Phasor measurement unit (PMU) measures the electrical waves on an electricity grid to determine the health of the system. In power engineering, these are also commonly referred to as synchrophasors and are considered one of the most important measuring devices in the future of power systems. Synchrophasors measure voltages and currents, at diverse locations on a power

grid, and can output accurately time-stamped voltage and current phasors. Because these phasors are truly synchronized, synchronized comparison of two quantities is possible, in real time. These comparisons can be used to assess system conditions. Phasor measurement units are sampled from widely dispersed locations in the power system network and synchronized from the common time source of a global positioning system (GPS) radio clock. Synchrophasor technology provides a tool for system operators and planners to measure the state of the electrical system and manage power quality. High speed sensors called PMUs distributed throughout their network can be used to monitor power quality and in some cases respond automatically to them. In the 1980s, it was realized that the clock pulses from global positioning system (GPS) satellites could be used for very precise time measurements in the grid. With large numbers of PMUs and the ability to compare shapes from alternating current readings everywhere on the grid, research suggests that automated systems will be able to revolutionize the management of power systems by responding to system conditions in a rapid, dynamic fashion. CONCLUSION:
Smart metering and interaction of the consumer will reduce monthly bill and also reduce

the peak demand that must be require to maintain.


Phasor measurement result in improvement of Power Quality and Stability of Grid..

Micro Grid accommodates Renewable Sources which contributes to the Green Energy.
Micro Grid will reduce global warming.

REFERENCES: [1] www.galvinelectricity.com [2] www.wikipedia.org [3] www.eei.org. [4] www.intelligrid.epri.com