notes and the consecutive popping sound of slap tongue.

The example below shows the continuous slap-tongue section.

Example 4-. Jungle p. 16, line 6–8. According to Christian Lauba, speaking of the slap tongues found here: “Not only do I give them a linguistic content (a sense of diction or phrasing) and form but I use them as expressive elements” (Umble 2000, 258). In Chopin’s Sonata for Piano no. 2 in B flat minor op. 35, the famous “Funeral March” of its third movement and “Finale-Presto” of the fourth movement both have a very similar texture and the sense of stormy breath-taking driving. “Only after having written this piece, did I notice the similarity between this work and the final movement of Chopin’s second sonata,” said Christian Lauba (Umble 2000, 258). Tãdj Tajikistan, officially the Republic of Tajikistan (figure 4-5), is a mountainous country in Central Asia. It borders with Afghanistan to the south, Uzbekistan to the west, Kyrgyzstan to the north, and People’s Republic of China to the east. Tajikistan also lies adjacent to Pakistan but is separated by the narrow Wakhan Corridor. Most of Tajikistan’s population belongs to the Tajik ethnic group, who shares culture and history with the Iranian peoples and speak the Persian language (officially referred to as Tajiki in Tajikistan). Once part of the Samanid Empire, Tajikistan became a constituent republic of

which is two or even three times the length of any of the first four etudes. bisbligando. Figure 4-1. which by no means implies easy.reliefweb. The complexity of the content also lifts the etude out of the frame of a study or an etude-like . (http://www. slap tongue. Tãdj is the first etude of the series to which the composer does not assign specific techniques. although it still contains techniques like quarter-tone vibrato.int/mapc/cis/reg/cau/caucia. In addition. the four etudes have quite clear aims of developing certain techniques and the content of the four compositions stays within a certain degree of simplicity. Tajikistan and Central Asia.html) In the first book of Neuf Études.the Soviet Union in the twentieth century. it is the first etude with an extended length of twelve pages with a total performing time of eight minutes. known as the Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic (Tajik SSR). multiphonics and so on.

contrary to Lauba’s common approach of slow-fast-slow in other etudes such as Balafon. and Gyn. which gives the audience the impression of a form of fast-slow-fast. . Tãdj is based on three modes: The beginning of Tãdj evokes the music which is played in Tãdjikistan or Iran where you can find three modes in the same song: our occidental mode. 2009. this etude is divided into several sections with different textures. Savane. February 14. e-mail to author. Because of its length. the work does not offer enough repeated patterns or exercises and makes the etude drift further from its original definition and more toward a concert piece.composition and makes the etude incline more toward a concert piece. the pentatonic scale (Chinese mode) and the Arabic mode with 1/3 and 1/4 tones. similar to the way Liszt’s Études d’Exécution Transcendante differs from the earlier concert piano etudes.4-3 4-3 Christian Lauba. The constant switching demands extended techniques.

Gyn is the “etude based upon the study of attack and resonance.Example 4-. 258). The whole first page is mainly composed of only two notes: the D (tonic) and the A (dominant) in a modal system. They are not only the languages of the etudes but also the expressions of the phrases. The numeration. Jean-Marie Londeix has suggested the saxophonist play the first seven lines while circular breathing (Umble 2000. which . The strict definitions and articulation of different attacks are very important through the entire piece. Gyn As notated on the first page of the score. (or “rhythmization” by Londeix) of the bisbligando. Tãdj p. which is the very subtle timbre trill. Half of the piece is devoted to bisbligando. along with contrasting articulations and extremely dynamic changes. 1. although some extremely wide interval leaps.” The main foci of techniques in this etude are multiphonics and bisbligando. line 1–3. Especially in the first pages. which quickly establishes the musical traits from middle eastern and central Asia. are also extremely challenging to the performer. the nuances of the subtle differences within each of the different articulations are so vital.

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