THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SERVICE QUALITY AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION: A CASE STUDY OF TGL EXPRESS SDN. BHD.

LAU JIA LI

UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA

UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA
BORANG PENGESAHAN STATUS TESIS
JUDUL: THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SERVICE QUALITY AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION: A CASE STUDY OF TGL EXPRESS SDN. BHD.
SESI PENGAJIAN: 2009/2010
Saya

LAU JIA LI
(HURUF BESAR)

mengaku membenarkan tesis (PSM/Sarjana/Doktor Falsafah)* ini disimpan di Perpustakaan Universiti Teknologi Malaysia dengan syarat-syarat kegunaan seperti berikut: 1. 2. 3. 4. Tesis adalah hakmilik Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Perpustakaan Universiti Teknologi Malysia dibenarkan membuat salinan untuk tujuan pengajian sahaja. Perpustakaan dibenarkan membuat salinan tesis ini sebagai bahan pertukaran antara institusi pengajian tinggi. **Sila tandakan ()

SULIT

(Mengandungi maklumat yang berdarjah keselamatan atau kepentingan Malaysia seperti yang termaktub di dalam AKTA RAHSIA RASMI 1972) (Mengandungi maklumat TERHAD yang telah ditentukan oleh organisasi/badan di mana penyelidikan dijalankan)

TERHAD

TIDAK TERHAD
Disahkan oleh

__________________________ (TANDATANGAN PENULIS) Alamat Tetap: No.22, JLN KILANG KECIL, BKT JENUN, 06720, PENDANG, KEDAH.

___________________________ (TANDATANGAN PENYELIA) DR. AHMAD BIN JUSOH Nama Penyelia

Tarikh:

20 April 2010

Tarikh:

20 April 2010

CATATAN:

* **

Potong yang tidak berkenaan. Jika tesis ini SULIT atau TERHAD, sila lampirkan surat daripada pihak berkuasa/organisasi berkenaan dengan menyatakan sekali sebab dan tempoh tesis ini perlu dikelaskan sebagai SULIT atau TERHAD. Tesis dimaksudkan sebagai tesis bagi Ijazah Doktor Falsafah dan Sarjana secara penyelidikan, atau disertasi bagai pengajian secara kerja kursus dan penyelidikan, atau Laporan Projek Sarjana Muda (PSM).

“I hereby declare that I have read this thesis and in my opinion this thesis is sufficient in terms of scope and quality for the award of Bachelor Degree in Management (Technology)”.

Signature : ……………………….. Name Date : DR AHMAD BIN JUSOH : 20 APRIL 2010

BHD.THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SERVICE QUALITY AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION: A CASE STUDY OF TGL EXPRESS SDN. LAU JIA LI This report is proposed To fulfill the requirement of Bachelor of Management (Technology) Conferment The Faculty of Management and Human Resources Development Universiti Teknologi Malaysia APRIL 2010 .

” Is the result of my own research except as cited in the references. Bhd. The thesis has not been acepted for my degree and is not concurrently submitted in candidature of any other degree.ii I declare that this thesis entitled “ The Relationship Between Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction: A Case Study of TGL Express Sdn. Signature Name Date : : : ______________________ LAU JIA LI 14 April 2010 .

iii This research is especially to my beloved mother and father and friends for their kindness and support and everything they’ve done for me… Thanks… .

secretary of TGL Express Sdn. Dr. without which it will be impossible to complete the research. Last. Without them. who have been providing useful and inspirational ideas regarding the research. Ahmad bin Jusoh. for his thorough guidance throughout the process of completing this research. they have been helping me in distributing the questionnaires to their customers. I would like to thank to my parents and siblings who was constantly being caring. especially Lee Lip Voon. I would also like to express my appreciation for the financial support that my family have provided. I would also like to thank all my friends and seniors who had helped me in providing information. (TGL) and all the staffs. I would like to express my heartfelt gratitude towards my supervisor. care and support. They have been providing me with a lot of information and feedback to enable me to successfully complete my research. understanding and supportive of my efforts throughout the duration of the research.iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS First and foremost. Lee Siew Im. He had offered advices and explanation that had helped me better understand the topic. I would like to thank Ms. Bhd. For instance. Thank you. without which the research would not be possible. Besides that. it will difficult to fulfill all the objectives of the research within the given period of time. .

are paying attention in service quality and customer satisfaction in order to obtain competitive advantages. Based on the SERVQUAL instrument. Bhd. The research will measure the service quality of TGL using SERVQUAL instrument. A total of 80 sets of questionnaires were distributed randomly to the customers of TGL and the Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS) was used to process the data. From the data analysis it was found that the service quality was low based on the SERVQUAL model while the customer satisfaction was average. which is a truck freight brokering company. 1985). . the customer satisfaction and also examine the relationship between service quality and customer satisfaction of TGL. service quality and customer satisfaction play an important role in determining success of an organization. (TGL).v ABSTRACT In the fast-paced and highly competitive market.. the service quality (P-E) will be obtained from the difference between the customers’ perception (P) and expectation (E) (Parasuraman et al. especially the service-based organizations. This because the performance of a service-based company is based solely through their ability to provide good service to their customers in orders to satisfy their needs. This research will be carried out on TGL Express Sdn. The Spearman correlation is used to test the relationship between service quality and customer satisfaction and the results yield that there is no relationship between the TGL’s service quality and their customers’ satisfaction. Many companies or industries.

Korelasi Spearman digunakan untuk menguji hubungan di antara kualiti perkhidmatan dengan kepuasan pelanggandan hasil kajian menyatakan bahawa tidak terdapat hubungan di antara kualiti perkhidmatan dan tahap kepuasan pelanggan TGL. dan juga tentang hubungan di antara kualiti perkhidmatan dengan kepuasan pelanggan TGL. Ini adalah kerana prestasi sesuatu syarikat yang berdasarkan perkhidmatan hanya bergantung kepada kebolehan syarikat tersebut memberikan perkidmatan yang baik demi mencapai permintaan pelanggan. Berdasarkan intrumen SERVQUAL.vi ABSTRAK Dalam pasaran yang bersaing pantas dan kuat ini. kualiti perkhidmatan dan kepuasan pelanggan memainkan peranan yang penting bagi menentukan kejayaan sesuatu organisasi. manakala tahap kepuasan pelanggan berada di tahap sederhana. kualiti perkhidmatan (P-E) akan diperolehi daripada perbezaan di antara tanggapan (P) dan jangkaan (E) pelanggan-pelanggan tersebut (Parasuraman et al.. Kajian ini ditumpukan kepada TGL Express Sdn. Bhd. . Berdasarkan analisa data kajian. kita mendapati bahawa kualiti perkhidmatan adalah dalam tahap rendah berdasarkan model SERVQUAL. Kajian ini menguji kualiti perkhidmatan TGL dengan menggunakan instrumen SERVQUAL. Sejumah 80 set soal selidik diagihkan secara rawak kepada pelanggan-pelanggan TGL dan Statistical Package for the Social Science Version (SPSS) digunakan untuk menganalisa data. (TGL) yang menawarkan perkhidmatan pembrokeran kargo trak. 1985). Semakin banyak syarikat dan industri-industri terutamanya syarikat yang berdasarkan perkhidmatan telah mengambil pehatian ke atas kualiti perkhidmatan dan kepuasan pelanggan untuk tujuan memenangi kelebihan kompetitif. tahap kepuasan pelanggan.

4 1.vii TABLES OF CONTENTS CHAPTER TITLE PAGE TITLE OF RESEARCH DECLARATION DEDICATION ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ABSTRACT ABSTRAK TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS LIST OF APPENDICES i ii iii iv v vi vii xi xiv xv xvi 1 INTRODUCTION 1.5 1.7 1.3 1.8 Introduction Company Background Problem Statement Purpose Objectives Scope Research Limitations Significance of the Study 1 2 3 4 5 5 5 6 .6 1.1 1.2 1.

2 Service 2.5 Research Instrument 3.5.4 Customer Satisfaction 2.6 Perception 2.2 Introduction Definition 2.1 2.1 Primary data 3.3 3.5 SERVQUAL 2.4 Introduction Research Design Conceptual Framework Data Collection Method 3.viii 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.2.5.4 Quality Dimensions Difference Between SERVQUAL and SERVPERF 2.5.7 Customer Satisfaction Measurement Previous Studies on Service Quality based on SERVQUAL Instrument 8 8 8 9 10 11 11 12 13 18 19 19 20 23 26 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.1 Quality 2.3 Service Quality 2.2.2 3.1 3.5.1 Selection of Service Quality Measurement Model 2.1 Section A: Demographic Data 3.3 2.2.2 SERVQUAL Instrument 2.6 2.2 Section B: Customer’s Expectation and Perception 3.2.3 Section C: Customer Satisfaction 29 29 31 31 32 32 34 34 35 .5.2.5 Expectation 2.4.2.

3 Customers’ Perception on Responsiveness 4.1 Customers’ Perception on Tangibility 4.1 4.2 Location 4.7.6.3 Period of Time being a Customer of TGL 4.6 Service Quality Expectation Customers’ Expectation based on SERVQUAL Five Dimensions 4.4 Frequency of Usage 4.7 Population and Sampling Data Analysis 3.6.2 Correlation Analysis 36 37 37 39 4 DATA ANALYSIS 4.4 Service Quality Perception Customers’ Perception based on SERVQUAL Five Dimensions 4.2.5 4.3 Customers’ Expectation on 42 42 43 44 45 46 46 47 47 48 49 49 50 51 52 52 53 53 .1 Descriptive Analysis 3.ix 3.2 Customers’ Expectation on Reliability 4.2.2 Customers’ Perception on Reliability 4.5 Customers’ Perception on Empathy 4.1 Ethnic 4.4 Customers’ Perception on Assurance 4.7.2 Introduction Demographic Data 4.4.6.2.2.6 3.4.1 Customers’ Expectation on Tangibility 4.4.4.3 4.4.

1 5.5 Customers’ Expectation on Empathy 4.3 5.9 Customer Satisfaction Relationship between Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction based on the Service provided by TGL 58 54 55 56 57 5 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 5.6.2.2.1 Level of Service Quality 5.3 Relationship between Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction 5.4 Customers’ Expectation on Assurance 4.5 Recommendations Future Researches 60 60 61 62 63 65 66 REFERENCES 68 APPENDICES 75 .8 4.2 Introduction Research Conclusion 5.2.7 Level of Service Quality (Service Quality = Perception – Expectation) 4.x Responsiveness 4.6.2 Customer Satisfaction 5.

3 3.7 2.5 3.xi LIST OF TABLES TABLE NO.2 Frequency Distribution of Respondents based on 44 .11 2.4 3. Perception and Satisfaction Interpretation of Pearson or Spearman’s r Value Frequency Distribution of Respondents based on Ethnic 35 36 37 38 3.8 2.2 Definition of Quality Definition of Service Definition of Service Quality Definition of Customer Satisfaction Definition of Expectation Definition of Perception Lehtinen and Lehtinen’s Three Dimensions Gronroos’s Three Global Dimensions Garvin’s Eight Dimensions Chakrapani’s Three Dimensions Service Quality Determinants Ten Dimensions SERVQUAL’s Five Dimensions 22-Item List with SERVQUAL 5 Dimensions 7-Point Likert Scale of Customers Expectation and Perception 9 9 10 11 12 12 13 14 14 15 16 17 34 35 3. TITLE PAGE 2.10 2.5 2.1 39 43 4.7 4.12 3.6 2.1 2.1 3.6 7-Point Likert Scale of Customers Satisfaction Determining Sample Size from a given Population Method of Analysis for Objectives Research Mean of Customers’ Expectation.3 2.4 2.2 2.9 2.

13 Frequency Distribution for Customers Expectation on the Level of Service Quality Provided by TGL Based on Reliability 4.9 Frequency Distribution for Customers Perception on the Level of Service Quality Provided by TGL Based on Assurance 4.6 Frequency Distribution for Customers Perception on the Level of Service Quality Provided by TGL Based on Tangibility 4.10 Frequency Distribution for Customers Perception on the Level of Service Quality Provided by TGL Based on Empathy 4.4 Frequency Distribution of the Frequency of Usage of TGL Service 4.8 Frequency Distribution for Customers Perception on the Level of Service Quality Provided by TGL Based on Responsiveness 4.7 Frequency Distribution for Customers Perception on the Level of Service Quality Provided by TGL Based on Reliability 4.xii Location 4.11 Frequency Distribution for Customers Expectation on Overall Service Quality 4.5 Frequency Distribution for Customers Perception on Overall Service Quality 4.12 Frequency Distribution for Customers Expectation on the Level of Service Quality Provided by TGL Based on Tangibility 4.3 Frequency Distribution for Period of Time being a Customer of TGL 4.14 Frequency Distribution for Customers Expectation on the Level of Service Quality Provided by TGL Based on Responsiveness 54 53 52 51 51 50 49 48 48 47 46 45 .

18 Normality of Service Quality The Difference of mean between the Customers’ Perception and Expectation based on SERVQUAL Dimensions Frequency Distribution of Customers’ Satisfaction based on the Service Quality Provided by TGL 56 56 4.21 Normality of Customer Satisfaction Relationship between Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction of TGL 57 58 5.17 4.xiii 4.2 Summary of Service Quality Mean Values Relationship between Customer Perception and Customer Satisfaction of TGL 61 64 .19 57 4.1 5.15 Frequency Distribution for Customers Expectation on the Level of Service Quality Provided by TGL Based on Assurance 54 4.16 Frequency Distribution for Customers Expectation on the Level of Service Quality Provided by TGL Based on Empathy 55 4.20 4.

3 Flow Chart of Research Process Conceptual Framework Items in Questionnaire Positive Correlation Negative Correlation No Correlation Ethnicity of the Respondents Location of the Respondents Scatter Diagram between Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction 30 31 33 40 41 41 44 45 59 5.3 3.1 3.2 4.2 3.1 2.1 Scatter Diagram between Customer Perception and Customer Satisfaction 65 .2 Gaps Model of Service Quality The Measurement Model for American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI) 21 25 3.4 3.xiv LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE NO. TITLE PAGE 2.5 3.1 4.6 4.

Bhd.xv LIST OF ABBREVIATION ACSI CSI SPSS TGL UTM : : : : : American Customer Satisfaction Index Customer Satisfaction Index Statistical Package for Social Science TGL Express Sdn. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia .

xvi LIST OF APPENDICES APPENDIX TITLE PAGE A B Questionnaire (Borang Soal Selidik) SPSS Data Analysis 75 83 .

at least be at par with the customers’ expectation.. customer loyalty. Today’s companies are trying to maintain higher level of quality to meet the demands of the increasingly competitive conditions (Solis et al. customer satisfaction. In order to maintain their position in the market. 2005). profitability and cost reduction (Seth et al. organisations do not gain profits from products but depend on providing certain kind of service to their customers. the organizations have to ensure that their service quality must exceed or Customer satisfaction and service quality are important for service based companies. courier services.. According to .. Examples of organisations in the service industry include banks.CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1. These hospitals. It has a strong impact on business performance. In order to achieve customer satisfaction.. hotels. Customer satisfaction along with service quality is important concepts used by organizations as a means of creating customer loyalty and competitive advantages (Iacobucci et al. 1998).1 Introduction Since the 1980s. the attainment of quality in products and services has become a major concern in the business world (Parasuraman et al. and so on. This will ensure customer satisfaction and thus give the company an advantage over its competitors. companies are required to provide valuable services and at the same time with lower cost. The successes of these companies depend on the quality of their service as well as the level of satisfaction of customers. 1985). 1995). recreational services.

especially in terms of quality. the quality of service is very important to ensure the level of customer satisfaction.2 Company Background Mr Lau Hoh Chu has started his business in truck freight brokering from home since year 2005 before he officially founded TGL Express Sdn. due to the fact that service quality is intangible. A truck freight broker connects the shippers that need to transport their goods. when a shipper needs to transport a container from Kedah to Johor by a certain time. “service quality is more difficult for the consumer to evaluate than goods quality”. Bhd. market conditions.bluemarblelogistics. All the processes involved require experience and systematic planning in order to ensure that everything is coordinated properly. their service quality is very important to achieve customer satisfaction. For example. The high competition in today’s scenario is affecting their daily decisions (Solis et al. the broker will have to provide a carrier which will be able to fulfill the task reliably. 1998). with carriers that provide transport services (www. and like wise. They need to have access to important information such as the availability of shipments.com). their customers’ satisfactions depend on how well they are served while dealing with the company. (TGL) on . and a high level of customer satisfaction will ultimately increase the level of success of the truck freight brokers. rates. availability of equipments. Their business activities include contacting the shippers and carriers to coordinate the time and service required to satisfy the needs of all parties involved in the transaction. Since truck freight brokers need to constantly deal with their customers. 1. Thus.2 Parasuraman et al. (1985). Thus. heterogeneous and also that the production and consumption of many services are inseparable. 1979). weather and so on so that they will be able to effectively complete their tasks (Taff. unlike product based companies. when a carrier needs goods to be transported. the broker will make use of his contacts to look for shippers in need..

and even into Thailand (until Bangkok) and Singapore. service-based companies used service quality to gain advantageous competitive position among their rivals. and generally. Currently. The customers will only continue to obtain goods and services from the companies which can meet their needs and also satisfaction. if the company can provide their customers better experience or performance that exceeds the customers’ expectation. the only way to gain a competitive edge is by providing excellent service quality. More over. more customers will be attracted. good service quality signifies good business performance. 1. Due to fierce competition. with shippers. Besides. Only then. trucks and containers. The services provided by TGL ranges throughout the Peninsular Malaysia. when facing a stronger and more financially stable competitor. it is very difficult for a company to offer lower prices. thus. which includes services utilising lorries. For instance. with carriers that provide transport services and connecting the carriers who have transport but do not have goods.3 the 1st of July 2008. Services provided by TGL include connecting the shippers that needs to transport their goods. When facing stiff market competition.3 Problem Statement TGL’s customers are becoming more demanding in their services. TGL is a small and medium company with only six employees involved in land trucking freight broker. Since TGL is only a small and medium company. According to Abu (2004). it is better for companies to compete in terms of service quality rather than in prices. the challenge is rather great for them to maintain their position among their competitors. customers nowadays always expect to receive high level of quality in order to meet their demands. these small companies will be able to gain an advantage and survive in the industry. customers play an important role in the market place. One of the main functions in .

TGL is facing the same scenario discussed above. 2004). These information can be used by TGL for their improvements. TGL needs to direct their service policy towards achieving their customers’ satisfaction. it is important for the TGL management to improve their service quality in order to attract more new customer. there is still lack of studies regarding the service quality dimensions and improvement strategies for truck freight brokers. responsiveness. this research also proposes the use of SERVQUAL instrument of five dimensions which include tangibles. In this matter. the level of success of a given company depends on the quality and value of service provided. reliability. .4 Purpose The purpose of this research is to know the level of service quality provided by TGL. The companies which intend to survive must produce very good quality of goods or services to fulfill their customers’ expectation and satisfaction. TGL is a small and medium company that lacks a system or model to control their service quality and their customer satisfaction. Even though there are a lot of researches on the different dimensions to measure service quality in the service sector (Abu. 2004). 1. Therefore. According to Zineldin (2005).4 determining how successful a company is the level of customer satisfaction. assurance and empathy to help TGL to improve their service quality. Besides. Thus. As a customer-based company. their customer satisfaction and the relationship between them. while maintaining customer loyalty. companies which do not offer customer-oriented services will be at a disadvantage (Fečiková. where they need to keep up with the development of the competition by constantly maintaining the satisfaction level of their customers. In this competitive environment. in order to remain competitive in the trucking freight brokering market. TGL has to maintain its customer satisfaction in order to achieve maximum profit.

the results are generally only applicable for TGL only. the outcome of the test will not perfectly follow the normal statistical conditions. 1. the customer population is relatively small. (b) The sample size is too small to be analyzed statistically. the results cannot be used to picture the condition of the whole truck freight brokering industry. As a result.7 Research Limitations Several research limitations are found during the study and they are listed in the following section: (a) The survey is done only among TGL customers. and not sufficient to produce a . 1.6 Scope This study will focus on the customers of TGL. It is important to determine the service quality of TGL that will influence the customers’ satisfaction. Since the scope of the survey is very small. To determine the level of satisfaction among its customers. thus. Since TGL is a small-and-medium sized company.5 Objectives The objectives of this study are:- (a) (b) (c) To determine the level of service quality provided by TGL. To determine the relationship between service quality and customer satisfaction.5 1. The data of this research will be collected from the customers of TGL by using questionnaires.

companies can shape their service policy based on the findings of the study. thus making it impossible to customize the study according to local conditions. Since the questionnaire is prepared only in English and Malay. but also other companies of the same scale and type. Thus. (c) The accuracy of the data might be doubtful. especially from Chinese and Indian background might not fully understand each statement in the questionnaire. Even though there are some organisations which offer logistics services such as EAE Group of Companies. This research also provides useful information that can be implemented not only by TGL. Inaccuracy of data in these cases will often cause inconsistent results.6 reliable result. By understanding the customers’ perceptions and expectations. the customer satisfaction value failed the normality test due to the lack of sample size. For instance.8 Significance of the Study The findings of this research will show the level of satisfaction on the service quality among customers of TGL by using suitable instruments such as the SERVQUAL. As a result. a small number of respondents. the level of service quality can be improved consequently. The finding of the research can help TGL to improve the service quality. there is still little research done on small companies which deal only with trucking freight brokering such as TGL. (d) The survey might not be suitable for the industry. This is due to the fact that the truck freight brokering business in Malaysia is almost unheard of. it is very difficult to obtain relevant information regarding truck freight brokering companies in Malaysia. 1. in future. the company will gain positive image and become more competitive. in order .

.7 to achieve continuous advancement to meet the ever-growing demand of today’s market.

2. service quality. Thus. The main purpose of the literature review is to take a critical look at the literature that already exists in the area of research. expectations and perceptions.1 Quality There are many different views to defining quality. The definitions by different authors are shown in Table 2.CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2. past studies related to the relationship between service quality and customer satisfaction. difference between the SERVQUAL and SERVPERF. The definitions are followed by quality dimensions as described by various authors.1 Introduction This section discusses the literature review of the research. service.2. customer satisfaction measurement and finally. Among topics that will be discussed in this section include the definitions of important terms such as quality.1. . SERVQUAL instrument. selection of service quality measurement models. customer satisfaction. quality can be defined as a form of overall measurement on whether the product or service has the ability to satisfy the given needs.2 Definition 2.

take place in interaction between the customer and service employees and/or physical resources or goods and/or systems of the service provider. Its production may or may not be tied to a physical product. (1974) Crosby (1984) Olshavsky (1985) Definition of Quality Quality is “fitness for use.” Zeithaml and Bitner Services (1996) Kotler (1999) are defined as “deeds.2.9 Table 2. which is essentially intangible and does not result in the ownership of anything. Morgan and Murgatroyd (1994) Quality is “the totality of features of a product or service that bears its ability to satisfy given needs.2 Service Table 2. processes and performances. but not necessarily. similar in many ways to attitude. not as goodness.1: Definition of Quality Authors Juran et al.2: Definition of Service Authors Norman (1984) Definition of Service Service is “social act(s) which take place in direct contact between the customer and representatives of service company.” Gronroos (1990) “A service is an activity or series of activities of a more or less intangible nature that normally.” .” Service is “any benefit or activity that one party offers to another.” 2. which are provided as solutions to customer problems.” “Quality is conformance to requirements.” Quality is a form of overall evaluation of a product.

” Parasuraman et al. Table 2. Delivering quality service means conforming to customer expectations on a consistent basis.3: Definition of Service Quality Authors Lewis and Booms (1983) Definition of Service Quality “Service quality is a measure of how well the service level delivered matches the customer expectations. which takes place in the interaction between customers and the service provider in order to meet the customers‟ demands. 2007). Table 2.2. Service quality is the measure of effort provided by the organisation in order to help their customers meet and satisfy what they expect and need.3 shows the definitions of service quality as given by different authors.3 Service Quality Service quality is an intangible concept that is difficult to conceptualize and measure (Lee. 2. Service can be defined as an intangible activity.2 shows the definitions of service given by different authors.10 Table 2. . (1994) Roest and Pieters‟ (1997) Edvardsson (1998) Service quality is the difference between the customer‟s expectation and perceived actual delivered performance. (1985) Bitner et al. “The consumer‟s overall impression of the relative inferiority or superiority of the organisation and its services.” A relativistic and cognitive discrepancy between experiencebased norms and performances concerning service benefits. The authors have similar views that service quality is based on the difference between the customer‟s expectation and the perceived actual delivered performance of the service provider.

5 Expectation The definitions of expectation by different authors are shown in Table 2.2.5.” 2. (1996) “The degree to which a consumer‟s pre-purchase expectations are fulfilled or surpassed by a product. Generally. in turn. Customers make feedback to the evaluation of the difference between the expectation and the final consequence after expensing.2.4. be measured by assessing guest‟s evaluation of a performance on specific attributes. (1987) Tse and Wilton (1988) Definition of Customer Satisfaction The impression that is created after the evaluation of a used product or service. Zeithaml et al. the customer will be satisfied if the perceived quality exceeds or is at least at par with their expectations.” “A guest‟s post-consumption judgment of a product or service that can. 1988). Customer satisfaction will only occur after the customers have tried the product or service. depending on whether it is defined in the service quality literature or the customer satisfaction literature (Parasuraman et al. Customers will evaluate the quality of a product or service based on their expectations or hopes before using the product or service..4 Customer Satisfaction Customer satisfaction has been defined by a number of researchers as shown in Table 2. There are two different contexts in defining expectation. Oliver (1981) defined expectation according to the . Table 2. (1993) The difference of predicted service (what a customer believes will happen) and the perceived service (what a customer believes actually did happen).11 2.4: Definition of Customer Satisfaction Authors Cadotte et al. Peter and Olson (1996) Gunderson et al.

the former refers to the outcome which customers predict or forecast while the latter refers to the hope or desires set by the customers themselves.2.6: Definition of Perception Authors Parasuraman et al. (1988). (1988) Boulding et al. Cronin and Taylor (1992) and Boulding et al. Loosely defined. (1988) Expectation is “desires or wants of consumers. (1993). Table 2. (1993) Expectation is “pre-trial beliefs” of a product or service. Table 2.12 customer satisfaction literature while the definition provided by Parasuraman et al.” Perception of service quality can defined as “prior .” Parasuraman et al. 2. (1988) was based on the service quality literature.6 Perception Table 2. Perception is the key factor used to measure the service quality. what they feel a service provider should offer rather than would offer. i. perception can be defined as the quality of service received based on the customer‟s judgment.6 shows the definitions of perception by different authors.5: Definition of Expectation Authors Oliver (1981) Definition of Expectation “Expectation is consumer-defined probabilities of the occurrence of positive and negative events if the consumer engages in some behavior. In the context of service quality. Definition of Perceptions Perception of service quality is “the consumer‟s judgment about an entity‟s overall excellence or superiority. as supported by Parasuraman et al.e.” Boulding et al.

They are as explained in the following:- (a) Lehtinen and Lehtinen (1982) with three dimensions of service quality.7: Lehtinen and Lehtinen‟s Three Dimensions Dimensions Interactive Quality Definition Interactive quality is the interaction between contact personnel and customers as well as between customers and other customers.” Robbins (2005) Perception is “a process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment. The dimensions will be defined in Table 2.3 Quality Dimensions Since the development of service quality research in early 1980s. Physical Quality Physical quality is the physical aspect of the service such as equipment or building.7. Corporate Quality Corporate quality is the quality that involves the company‟s image or profile.” 2. physical and corporate quality. Source: Lehtinen and Lehtinen (1982) . the dimensionality of quality is distinguished by several of authors over the time. Table 2. which are interactive.13 (1993) expectations of what will and what should transpire during the contact and the actual delivered service during the service encounter.

ease of repair. Features Attributes of a product that supplement a product‟s basic performance. Functional Quality Corporate Image Functional quality is the way which the service is delivered such as friendliness. The Table 2. Table 2. there are performance. politeness and so on.8.8: Gronroos‟s Three Global Dimensions Dimensions Technical Quality Definition Technical quality is the quality of the service actually delivered. helpfulness. speed. and so on. Corporate image is built by both technical and functional quality and others factors like traditional marketing activities. reliability. 1988) developed three global dimensions. colour. Reliability The propensity for a product to perform consistently over its useful design life. size.9. technical quality and corporate image. 1988) (c) Garvin (1987) list eight dimension of product quality. such as capacity. . Conformance Numerical dimensions for a product‟s performance. conformance. serviceability. which are functional quality. Durability The degree to which a product tolerates stress or trauma without failing.9: Garvin‟s Eight Dimensions Dimensions Performance Definitions Refers to the efficiency with which a product achieves its intended purpose. Sources: Gronroos (1984. durability.14 (b) Gronroos (1984. dimensions will be defined as the following in Table 2. durability. aesthetics and perceived quality as Table 2. Serviceability Resolution of problems and complaints. whether the service performed correctly and accurately. features.

(1985) developed ten dimensions and labeled them as “service quality determinants”. competence. Parasuraman et al.10: Chakrapani‟s Three Dimensions Dimensions Service or Product Dependability Definition Refers to what is offered to the customers and whether the product or service meets the customer needs. Dependability refers to the customer confidence in the organisation‟s continued commitment to the product or service being sold. Parasuraman et al. (1988) refined the dimensions into only five dimensions which are tangibles. communication. Source: Garvin (1987). Table 2. Source: Chakrapani (1998) (e) In their initial research. credibility. and smell. access.11. reliability. These ten dimensions are reliability. Exceeding Expectation Exceeding expectation is what provides depth to the service or quality. Table 2.12 shows the definitions of these five dimensions. responsiveness. feel. look. . responsiveness. dependability or support and exceeding expectation. assurance and empathy. Customers imbue products and services with their understanding of their goodness. (d) Chakrapani (1998) propounded three dimensions of quality. such as taste. Perceived Quality The quality of a service or product based on the customer‟s opinion.15 Aesthetics Subjective sensory characteristics. After few years.10 shows the definition of the dimensions. security. Table 2. courtesy. The service offered exceeds customer expectations and makes the customer „feel important‟. which are service or product. sound. understanding or knowing the customer and tangibles as shown in Table 2.

respect. Competence “Possession of the required skills and knowledge to perform the service. For example the organisation will always give response to their customer as fast as possible like calling back customer quickly. danger and doubt for example physical safety. for instance when explaining the service. Security Freedom from risk. transaction processes and so on. Source: Parasuraman et al. Physical evidence of the service such as tools to provide the service or the appearance of the personnel. (1985). Communication Refers to communicating with customers in a suitable language when providing information. Understanding/ knowing Tangibles Efforts to understand what their customers really needs. for instance learning the customers‟ specific requirements. financial security and confidentiality.16 Table 2. believability and honesty. so that customers trust and believe with the service they provide. Credibility Good image which include trustworthiness. . operational support personnel need the relevant skill and knowledge about the operations. Access The organisation can be easily approachable and contactable. Courtesy Concerns proper behaviour like politeness.11: Service Quality Determinants‟ Ten Dimensions Dimensions Reliability Definitions Being reliable means that the organisation performs the service right at the first time and that it honors its promises.” For example. costs. For example provide the correct service. For example customer can easily get the service by using telephone because the lines are not busy. keep the correct record. Responsiveness The willingness and readiness to provide service. delivery the service on time. consideration and friendliness of personnel in face-to-face or telephone contacts with the end customer.

and communication materials. which are not relevant for service-based companies. Gronroos‟ three global dimensions. Responsiveness The willingness to be helpful to customers and respond quickly to their queries and requests. Empathy The ability to provide customized or individualized attention based on each customer‟s needs and requirements.17 Table 2. reliability. responsiveness. Assurance The knowledge and courtesy of employees which enables customers to trust in their ability to perform the promised service. the SERVPERF considers only the performance of the company. Thus. Reliability The ability to dependably and accurately perform the promised service. (1988). The models mentioned above are developed based on different types of companies. in order to evaluate the service quality of a company. In addition to these four models. namely tangibles. Source: Parasuraman et al. appearance of personnel. For instance. The main difference is that. as opposed to SERVQUAL model which compares the expectation of the customer with the performance of the company. The dimensions of SERVPERF are same as SERVQUAL. equipment. namely the Lehtinen and Lehtinen‟s three dimensions. and also Parasuraman‟s models explained above. .12: SERVQUAL‟s Five Dimensions Dimensions Tangibles Definitions The appearance of physical facilities. a few models can be used. assurance and empathy. Garvin‟s eight dimensions and Chakrapani‟s three dimensions takes into account the performance and quality of products. Cronin and Taylor (1992) have also developed a model named SERVPERF in reaction to Parasuraman‟s SERVQUAL model.

It differs from the SERVQUAL instrument. and according to Lee (2007). Cronin and Taylor (1992) argued that their unweighted SERVPERF instrument was better than weighted SERVQUAL instrument on measuring the service quality. SERVQUAL and SERVPERF are always being compared to determine which one of them is a better method to measure service quality in the service sector. some have expressed criticism towards this instrument. This is because multi-cultural studies will involve samples of different culture and thus varying expectations. However. 2004). which uses the gap between the expectation and perception of the customer to measure the service quality. 2007). This is because the unweighted SERVPERF used only the performance to measure the service quality. SERVPERF instrument will be more stable than the SERVQUAL instrument. Therefore. Generally. Cronin and Taylor (1992) have developed a “performance-based” service quality measurement called SERVPERF which measures the service quality based only on the customers‟ perception.18 2. it is necessary to use the SERVQUAL instrument to measure the performance by taking into account the expectations of the samples. Babakus and Mangold (1992) and also Oliver (1993). if the study is based on the performance of service quality. if it is a multi-cultural study.4 Difference Between SERVQUAL and SERVPERF Even though the SERVQUAL instrument has been widely used to measure the service quality in many researches in the service sectors (Sachdev and Verma. while the weighted SERVQUAL used the gap between the customers‟ perception and expectation. These instruments have their respective advantages and disadvantages. SERVQUAL instrument will be more accurate to measure the service quality (Lee. this is supported by Babakus and Boiler (1992). Cronin and Taylor (1992) also argued that the SERVPERF instrument is more consistent on reliability and validity. .

1 Selection of Service Quality Measurement Model As explained above. there are many different models that can be used to measure a company‟s service quality. such as models developed by Lehtinen and Lehtinen. dental services. 2007). hospitals and so on (Sachdev and Verma. it is still suitable for this study. 2004)..5 SERVQUAL 2. because the companies can understand the expectations and perceptions of customers and they can improve it.19 2. (1994) also stated that the expectation in the SERVQUAL is important in measuring the customer satisfaction. the SERVQUAL model will be used to determine the service quality of TGL Express Sdn. hotels. There are also some criticisms about the SERVQUAL model. In this study. commercial and non-profit settings like tyre retailing. SERVQUAL is a “multiple-item scale with good reliability and validity” (Parasuraman et al.5. Cronin and Taylor and so on. According to Nyeck et al. hospitality. the SERVQUAL model focused only on how the service is delivered rather than the outcomes of the service encounter. SERVQUAL has been widely used by researchers in many different industrial. banking. Bhd. Cronin and Taylor (1992) have stated that though the expectation-perception gap might be able to be used to infer customers‟ disconfirmation. Besides. 1988). Parasuraman et al. Parasuraman. “SERVQUAL model remains the most complete attempt to conceptualize and measure service quality. recreational services. Baki et al. (TGL) as perceived by their customers. Gronroos. (2009) have used the SERVQUAL model in their study on logistic . In order to solve the problem. (2002). Despite criticisms on the SERVQUAL model. According to Buttle (1996). the actual perceptions are more reliable than the calculated values.” SERVQUAL is more suitable in cross-cultural studies which include the variance expectations in each culture (Lee. he suggested Gronroos‟s three global dimensions where the technical quality will focus on what service is delivered and functional quality will focus on how the service delivered.

20 services. The disconfirmation model will show 3 types of result: (a) (b) (c) Positive effect. and Zero effect. 1988).. This situation leads to a lot of researchers studying on the measurement of service quality. (1993) and Peter and Olson (1996) involve comparing the perceived performance with the expectations of the customer. Based on the five SERVQUAL dimensions. (1988) SERVQUAL will provide the customers‟ perception and expectation to measure service quality. SERVQUAL is used to measure the gap between the customers‟ expectation (E) and perception (P) based on the disconfirmation model (whereby. assurance and empathy as the key dimensions or determinants of service quality.. which is a satisfying result (P>E). Negative effect. the SERVQUAL model can be applied for this research. responsiveness. the SERVQUAL instrument can be used for the purpose of this study. SERVQUAL = P-E). means do not shows satisfy or not satisfy (P=E). Since TGL is a similar type of company. which is a dissatisfying result (E>P).5. Zeithaml and Berry in 1988 to measure the service quality. 2. only companies which are able to deliver high quality service quality will have the chance to be successful (Parasuraman et al. reliability. which are tangibles.2 SERVQUAL Instrument Starting from the 1980s. . SERVQUAL instrument is well known with its 22-item list and five dimensions model. Since customer satisfaction as defined by Zeithaml et al. SERVQUAL instrument is developed by Parasuraman. SERVQUAL is one of the most widely accepted methods of service quality measurement (Parasuraman et al. 1988). This research will also study on the relationship between the service quality and customer satisfaction and according to Parasuraman et al.

The service quality specification might not fully meet the management‟s perception of the customers‟ expectation due to reasons like resource constraints.21 Besides that. There are: Word of Mouth Communications Personal Needs Expected Service Gap 5 Past Experience Customer Perceived Service Service Delivery (including pre.and post-contact) Translation of Perceptions into Service Quality Specifications Management Perception of Customer Expectations Figure 2. the gap model which was developed by Parasuraman et al.1.1: Gaps Model of Service Quality Company Gap 3 External Communications Gap 4 to Customers Gap 1 Gap 2 GAP 1 : The gap between the customer expectation and management perception on the customers‟ expectation. market conditions and poor service designs. (1985) discussed about the gaps between customers‟ expectation and perception of service quality can be identified in the Figure 2. GAP 2: The gap between management perception and service quality specifications. The management might not know what level is required to be perceived as high quality. .

it means that the customers‟ satisfaction are not met because they expect more. According to Parasuraman et al. Media advertising and other forms of communications can affect customer expectation.22 GAP 3: The gap between service quality specifications and service delivery. the score of expectations will be subtracted from the score of perceptions. The gap is positive when the perception is greater than the expectation while the gap is negative when the expectation is greater than the perception. GAP 4: The gap between service delivery and external communication. Lastly. The actual delivered service might not be as stated in the service quality specifications as it depends largely on the employees‟ performances. SERVQUAL instrument will be divided into two columns. This is the difference between the service expected by the customers and the actual service that they received. If a company promises more than they can deliver. so the company need to further improve to reach the customers‟ needs. If the gap is negative. . the first used to measure the customers‟ expectation of the research company and the second was used to measure the customers‟ perception. the customers‟ expectations will increase and thus. The overall service quality score will be determine by using the mean score of the five dimensions. their perception on the quality of the actual delivered service will be reduced. Both the customers‟ expectation and perception will use seven-point scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 7 (strongly agree). GAP 5: The gap between expected and perceived service. (1988).

Organisations are willing to spend a lot of money to improve the customer satisfaction management because the quantitative measurement of customer satisfaction is very important to comprehensively measure the effect of a product quality on the customer behavior (Fečiková. Thus measuring the level of customer satisfaction is very important in order to be able to carry out improvements. suggestion boxes or toll-free telephone number for their customers to make complaint or suggestions.6 Customer Satisfaction Measurement Customer satisfaction is the key point to ensure the successes of the organisations because only the organisations which are able to retain their customers will be successful and gain profit.” Hence. customer satisfaction measurement is very important for an organisation to measure the level of their customers‟satisfaction. According to Fečiková (2004) the market research techniques that are used to measure the customer satisfaction are as below:- (a) (b) (c) (d) Customer satisfaction survey methodologies. This . (2003) stated that “customer satisfaction is a measure on how the organisation‟s „total product‟ performs in relation to a set of customer requirements. For example companies can provide form.23 2. Standardized packages for monitoring customer satisfaction. According to Strydom (2004). management can take early action to measure their customer satisfaction. and Various types of computer software. Focus group to study the customer satisfaction issue. Hill et al. before the changing levels of customer preferences and satisfaction. 2004). there are few methods of customer satisfaction measurement:- (a) Complaint and suggestion system: Businesses should allow their customers to give suggestions and make complaints.

24 method will help the companies resolve their problems rapidly (Strydom, 2004).

(b)

Customer Satisfaction Index (CSI): CSI is a survey used to measure the experiences on the quality of goods or service by the people who have used it. For example, a detailed questionnaire will be sent out to the customer and ask for the experiences with the seller. The replies are tabulated and ranked from the best to the worst. CSI survey should include the additional questions posed to measure the customers‟ repurchase intention, this is very important because only satisfied customers will repurchase the product or service (Strydom, 2004).

(c)

Customer value analysis: The use of a customer information database to make a forecast on the customers based on their purchase histories. This method normally will use computerized, list information on current and potential customers. The main records are identification and personal data, product purchases, product usage and consumption patterns (Strydom, 2004).

(d)

American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI): ACSI (Figure 2.2) is a cause-and-effect model used to measure the customer satisfaction across the U.S economy. This method will link the drivers of

satisfaction (customer expectations, perceived quality and perceived value) to customer satisfaction. Besides, customer satisfaction is also linked to outcomes of satisfaction (customer complaints and customer loyalty which is measured by price tolerance and customer retention) (www.theacsi.org).

25

Perceived Quality Perceived Value Customer Expectations Customer Satisfaction (ACSI)

Customer Complaints

Customer Loyalty

Figure 2.2: The Measurement Model for American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI)

On the other hand, based on Fečiková‟s (2004) study, monitoring customer satisfaction is also important for a company. The company needs to follow the systematically manage and consider their actual condition. The company should:-

(i)

Identify the customers by recognizing the internal and external customers. Internal customers are the customers within the company (employees) while the external customers are the customers which are in the marketplace. Then, the critical dimension is that the company needs to classify their customers according to their importance, such as key customers, important customers, less important and so on.

(ii)

Carry out preliminary study to determine the critical features of the product, using it to understand customers‟ demands and obtaining feedback from customers.

(iii)

Design an effective questionnaire to achieve useful information.

(iv)

Design the most suitable method for monitoring their customer satisfaction, using “the right method for the right customer” which means to provide a unique questionnaire for unique respondents.

26 (v) Evaluate the questionnaire with the suitable statistical methods to consider the four important factors which are level of importance of customers, level of satisfaction, type of customer and type of method.

(vi)

Ensure feedback.

Thus, customer satisfaction measurement provides the companies with significant information for the modern management processes and also an early warning signal for the future businesses (Edvardsson and Gutafson, 1999). It is important to understand the level of satisfaction of the customers in order to carry out improvements.

2.7

Previous Studies on Service Quality based on SERVQUAL Instrument

Kook‟s (2007) study was on Measuring Customer Satisfaction of Tesco Stores (M) Sdn. Bhd. in Malacca. Through the analysis, there were six factors used to measure the customer satisfaction in Tesco Malacca, namely product features, personnel performances, service quality, environment, location and prices. The

finding of the research was that, the prices were the main factor affecting the customer satisfaction, and then it was followed by the service quality, then product features, environment and location. The finding of this research has shown that service quality is important to measure the customer satisfaction. SERVQUAL

dimensions are used to measure the service quality and the dimension which satisfies the customers most is empathy. The main factor is the operation time of Tesco, because the operation time is convenient for their customers. However, the lack of good and systematic complaint management system is one of the reasons that customers were dissatisfied with the service quality. Thus, the service quality is an important factor that may affect the customer satisfaction. If the service quality (like complaint management system) increases, the customer satisfaction may also increase.

Based on the finding. reliability.” The objectives of the study are i) to determine the level of customers‟ expectation of the service provided by the bank. According to the findings. . The SERVQUAL dimension that satisfied the customer most is the dimension of tangibility.902. Pearson Analysis is used to analyze the relationship between the service quality and customer satisfaction.932 and 0. assurance and empathy. responsiveness and empathy is 0.” Through the research. the stronger the relationship between the two variables. Coefficient of correlation. assurance and empathy. They are not satisfied with the service quality. reliability. Johor Bahru. 0. responsiveness. The closer the r value to number 1. r is used to find the strength between the service quality and customer satisfaction. This study also shows that the relationship between service quality and customer satisfaction is very strong and is always affecting one another. The research was analyzed through the five dimensions of SERVQUAL instrument. 0. the coefficient of correlation.928 respectively. assurance. Samsudin‟s (2007) study was entitled “Kualiti Perkhidmatan Kaunter dengan Kepuasan Pelanggan: Satu Kajian Kes di Majlis Bandaraya Melaka Bersejarah.913. thus Hong Leong Bank need to improve their service quality to meet their customers‟ expectation. even if the customers‟ perception on service quality is high. the r values for the dimensions tangibility. it is most likely lower than their expectation. SERVQUAL instrument is used to measure the 5 dimensions which are tangibles. 0. SERVQUAL instrument also included computing the difference between the customers‟ ratings to pair their expectation and perception statement. responsiveness. The findings have shown that the customers have very high expectation. as well as perception on the service quality provided by the Hong Leong Bank at Jln Wong Ah Fook. reliability.93. However. ii) to determine the level of customers‟ satisfaction from the service provided by bank. r is very close to 1. This is because the customers of Hong Leong Bank have higher expectations than what they perceive they were getting at that time. namely tangibles. in order to maintain or expand their customer base.27 Another study was done by So (2007) entitled “A Study of Service Quality from the Perspective of Customers at Hong Leong Bank at Jln Wong Ah Fook. we know that the relationship between service quality and customer satisfaction is very high and strong because for all 5 dimensions. iii) to determine the quality of service provided by bank.

customer value. the company will have to focus on improving the responsiveness and reliability. In addition. 22-statements of what an excellent postal company should be like and in the second part the same 22-items.28 Zisis et al. which then helps customers make their purchasing decisions and indirectly increase customer satisfaction. customer satisfaction and so on. This research yields SERVQUAL related results such as:- (a) “Tangibles” affect service quality as well as customer value and customer satisfaction. but this time on what the company is really practicing. Thus. (2009) conducted a research entitled “The Application of Performance Measurement in the Service Quality Concept: The Case of a Greek Service Organisation. Wang et al. The results of the study yields that the customers‟ perception minus customers‟ expectation (P-E) value for dimensions responsiveness and reliability is below zero. the authors have modified the SERVQUAL model to specifically suit the industry attributes and local culture of China. (c) “Reliability” is also a very important factor which contributes positively to customer satisfaction. (2004) carried out a study entitled “An Integrated Framework for Service Quality. Customer Value. Satisfaction: Evidence from China‟s Telecommunication Industry. thus indicating that customers feel that the postal company‟s service does not meet their expectations with respect to these dimensions and in order to further improve. The SERVQUAL survey consist of two parts. The researchers have used Parasuraman‟s SERVQUAL survey as a tool to determine the level of performance of the company. (b) “Empathy” is not directly significant in customer satisfaction but contributes in improving customer value. their survey is designed based on the five basic dimensions of SERVQUAL and also some added customized dimensions such as network quality. .” The study focused on the measurement model of service quality in China‟s mobile communication market based on SERVQUAL model.” It is a case study on a Greek postal company to assess and improve their service quality by applying performance measurement in service quality concept.

conceptual framework. followed by the limitations of this particular study at this particular setting. 3.2 Research Design The research design is important to help the researcher to understand the whole process of the research. The researcher should follow the steps or procedures as shown in Figure 3. The main purpose of having a research methodology is to help the researcher to conduct the research in a systematic way. the purpose and the objectives of the research will be identified in order to understand the outcome that is expected from the study. Among topics that will be discussed in this section include the research design. Then. The first step of designing the research is to identify the problems which lead to the need of carrying out the research. past researches will be studied to gain . After that. research instrument. data collection.1 Introduction This section discusses the methodology of this research.CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3. the scope of study will be defined so that the research will be not too extensive. Then. the data analysis method. in the literature review. population and sampling and finally.1 to achieve the target of the research.

the data will be analyzed and the conclusion as well as recommendations will be made based on the findings from the data analysis. The next step is to collect the data which are then analyzed in order to provide the desired results. once sufficient. Start Problems statement Purpose and objectives Scope and limitation Literature review Data collection Primary data No Sufficient data? Yes Data analysis Conclusion and recommendation Final report End Figure 3.1: Flow Chart of Research Process .30 background knowledge regarding matters related to the topic of research. The primary data for this research will be collected and.

only primary data is collected to achieve the objectives of the study. From this measurement of service quality. Customers’ Expectation Customers Gap Customers’ Perception Service Quality Customers’ Satisfaction Figure 3.2: Conceptual Framework 3.3 Conceptual Framework Figure 3. assurance and empathy and to determine whether the customers of TGL are satisfied with their service quality.2 shows the conceptual framework of this research. . The research is designed to determine the service quality of TGL from their customers’ expectation and perception by using five dimension of SERVQUAL which are tangibles.31 3. it will be possible to find out the relationship between the service quality and customer satisfaction. Bhd. (TGL). responsiveness. reliability. However.4 Data Collection Methods Data can be divided into two types. This research will focus only on the customers of TGL Express Sdn. in this research. which are primary data and secondary data.

The questionnaire used in this research is designed based on the SERVQUAL instrument which was developed by . meanings. On the other hand. Qualitative data presents itself in the form of concepts. 3. the questionnaire is used as the method of survey to obtain primary data from the customers of TGL.32 3. This is because surveys using questionnaire is inexpensive and can be done quickly and flexibly. and it always involves a very large number of respondents for the research. in this study. Thus. the qualitative measurement is more subjective. description and so on. E-mail and postal surveys will be used in this research because the customers of TGL are from all over Peninsular Malaysia. characteristics. and postal service and so on.1 Primary Data Primary data is the information that is collected by the researcher himself from a specific project or study (Burns and Bush. inexpensive and quick to obtain results. mean. Questionnaire is one of the method that mostly used by researchers to obtain primary quantitative data. telephone. The survey can be conducted through few modes such as by using e-mail. definitions. and it involves a small number of respondents. and the most suitable instrument for this research is the questionnaire.5 Research Instrument The research instrument used in a study must be able to accomplish or meet the purpose and objectives of the study. Quantitative measurement is objective. as opposed to the quantitative data which are mainly counts and measures of things. mode. 2003). it is statistically valid and is in the form of numbers for example percentages. Besides. The use of questionnaire is selected due to the fact that the method is flexible. average and so on.4. Primary data is normally collected by using quantitative research like surveys using questionnaires or qualitative research through interviews or discussions. face to face meeting.

and Section C as Figure 3. The questionnaire is adapted from the SERVQUAL instrument. English and Bahasa Malaysia. because the customers of TGL are from various races and background. The questionnaire consists of three sections namely Section A.33 Parasuraman. In addition. Zeithaml and Berry in 1988.e. The questionnaire used bilingual i. The questionnaires are distributed to the customers of TGL by using fax. there will also be a few questions to measure the customers’ level of satisfaction.3. Questionnaire Section A Section B Section C Demographic Respondents Customer’s Satisfaction Customer’s Expectation Customer’s Perception Tangible Reliability Empathy Responsiveness Assurance Figure 3. e-mail. These questions are used to test whether the customers are satisfied with the service of TGL. by post and also by hand.3: Items in Questionnaire . Section B. Each item is evaluated by using the 7-point Likert scale.

5.5. frequency of usage and the period of time being a customer of TGL. location.34 3. and will not be used in the data analysis.2 Section B: Customer’s Expectation and Perception In this section.1: 22-Item List with SERVQUAL 5 Dimensions Dimensions Tangible Reliability Responsiveness Assurance Empathy 22-Item List 1-4 5-9 10-13 14-17 18-22 The level of customers’ expectation and perception will be rated using a 7point Likert scale which ranges from 1 (strongly disagree) to 7 (strongly agree) as the Table 3.1 Section A: Demographic Data This section aims to obtain demographic information of the customers such as ethnic. There will be 22 questions (22-item list) based on the SERVQUAL’s five dimensions as shown in Table 3. Table 3. .2.1. 3. The demographic information is obtained solely to better understand our respondents. the respondents are requested to rate TGL’s service quality based on their expectation and perception.

Table 3.2: 7-Point Likert Scale of Customers’ Expectation and Perception Scales 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Level of Feedback Strongly Disagree Disagree Slightly Disagree Average Slightly Agree Agree Strongly Agree 3.35 Table 3.3: 7-Point Likert Scale of Customer Satisfaction Scales 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Level of Feedback Strongly Dissatisfied Dissatisfied Slightly Dissatisfied Average Slightly Satisfied Satisfied Strongly Satisfied .5. the customers are required to rate their satisfaction level on certain areas of the company’s service quality in order to determine their overall level of satisfaction on the quality of service provided by TGL. Like in the previous sections.3.3 Section C: Customer Satisfaction In this section. the rating is done using a 7-point Likert scale as in Table 3.

6 Population and Sampling Table 3. According to Coldwell and Herbst (2004).36 3. A set of sample is chosen from the population to conduct statistical calculations in order to make inferences or extrapolations from the sample to the populations.4. Berenson et al.” A sample is a subset of the population. since the customer . (2008) said that “a sample is the portion of population selected for analysis. random samples have to be selected. Based on Table 3. (2008) “a population consists of all items or individuals about which you want to draw a conclusion.4: Determining Sample Size from a given Population Note: “N” is population size “S” is sample size. therefore is definitely smaller than the population. “a population is a group of individual persons. objects or items from which samples are taken for measurement such as a population of presidents or professors. books or students. Source: Krejcie and Morgan (1970) Berenson et al. In order to get an unbiased and representative result. The current total number of customers is approximately 100.” It is made up of all members of the group on which statistical inferences are to be made upon.” Thus the population of TGL’s customers refers to every single company which had ever received service from the company.

processed and transformed into useful information. They are the descriptive analysis and correlation analysis.37 population of TGL is at approximately 100.1 Descriptive Analysis According to Barenson et al. There are a lot of methods that can be used to analyze the data. Method of Analysis .Descriptive Analysis: Mean Score / Median Score . Analysis of the data will be carried out by using the computer software. and from there.” In this research.Descriptive Analysis: Mean Score / Median Score . The SPSS is the most suitable because there is a big number of data to be analyzed. (2005). presenting and analyzing a set of data.Correlation Analysis: Pearson / Spearman & Scatter Diagram 3.7 Data Analysis After collecting the data using the questionnaires. 2 To determine the level of satisfaction among its customers. but in this research two types of data analysis will be used.7.5. the . The analysis method for each objective is shown in Table 3. 3 To determine the relationship between service quality and customer satisfaction. Table 3. 3. the suitable sample size will be 80 randomly chosen customers.5: Method of Analysis for Objectives Research No 1 Objectives Research To determine the level of service quality provided by TGL. descriptive analysis “focuses on collecting. summarizing. This piece of information is expected to be able to meet all the objectives of the study. Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). the conclusion can be drawn. the data will be analyzed.

Table 3. 7-point Likert scale will be distributed into three levels as Table 3.00 1. According to Downing and Clark (2003). 7-point Likert scale will be used to provide the range in customers’ expectation.6. To calculate the mean.01-5.00 3. were done using mean or median values. Perception and Satisfaction Mean 5. which are to determine the level of service quality provided by TGL and level of satisfaction among its customers respectively. Leech et al.00 Level High Average Low .00-3. (2005) on the other hand stated that mean is used when the data is normally distributed or is considered a parametric statistic. X Xi = Mean = Score = Number of scores n As discussed in the research instrument.38 first and second objectives. while median is used when the data is non-normal or non-parametric statistics. depending on the normality of the data. perception and satisfaction.01-7. Below is the equation to calculate the mean: X   Xi n Where. the mean value is used to “calculate the average of all the number” while median is “the halfway point of the data”.6: Mean of Customers’ Expectation.

20 Source: Joseph et al. correlation analysis is a group of statistical techniques used to measure the strength of the relationship (correlation) between two variables. is a tool used to graphically illustrate the possible relationship . namely the Pearson correlation and the Spearman correlation. For both methods.60 0. According to Morgan et al.05. The Table 3. According to Taylor (2008). where the p-value is greater than 0. it means that there is a very strong relationship between the variables.00 0.7.80 0.7. Positive value means that there is a direct relationship between the variables. while Spearman correlation will be used when the data is nonparametric or not normally distributed.39 3. interpretation of Pearson or Spearman’s r value is as shown in Table 3.2 Correlation Analysis According to Joseph et al..21 – 0.41 – 0. There are two types of correlation analysis that are common in data analysis. if the correlation is not significant. Pearson correlation is suitable when both of the variables are normally distributed.81 – 1. there will be no association or relationship between two variables (Morgan et al. “a scatter diagram. The correlation analysis will clearly explain the relationship between the two variables. while negative value means that there is an inverse relationship. Besides that. 2001).05. it means that the variables are not related. On the other hand. If the value is close to -1 or +1. the range of correlation value is similar. which is negative (-) 1 to positive (+) 1 (Morgan et al.61 – 0. if the value of r is close to 0..7: Interpretation of Pearson or Spearman’s r Value r Value (+/-) 0. (2001).01 – 0. The correlation is said to be significant if the p-value is less than 0. scatter diagram also used to clearly show the relationship between two variables. also known as scatter plot. (2003) Correlation Very Strong Strong Moderate Weak Very Weak Besides that.40 0. 2001). (2003).

4: Positive Correlation . The yaxis is used to plot the dependent variable while the x-axis is used to plot the independent variable and the plane is used to plot the observations (Taylor. 2008). the x-axis. and the plane. Y Axis Dependent Variable X Axis Independent Variable Source: Taylor (2008) Figure 3. the y-axis values decreases.6 shows a very scattered pattern in the plots indicating that there are no relationship between the x-axis values and the y-axis values. namely the y-axis. Figure 3.5 shows a negative correlation between x-axis and y-axis.40 between two quantitative variables. where the values in the y-axis increases as the values in the x-axis increases. Figure 3. where as x-axis values increases.4 shows a positive correlation between x-axis and y-axis. Figure 3.” There are three variables that have to be defined in the scatter diagram.

41 Y Axis Dependent Variable X Axis Independent Variable Source: Taylor (2008) Figure 3.6: No Correlation .5: Negative Correlation Y Axis Dependent Variable X Axis Independent Variable Source: Taylor (2008) Figure 3.

Out of the 74 sets of questionnaires. only 70 sets were considered in the analysis as the remaining 4 were thought to be outliers. location.1 Introduction This section discusses the data analysis of the research. where the data were considered extreme and thus not suitable for analysis. Bhd.CHAPTER 4 DATA ANALYSIS 4. (b) To determine the level of satisfaction among its customers. The data analysis was carried out using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) software after the questionnaires were collected from the customers of TGL Express Sdn. 4.2 Demographic Data This section describes the demographic background of the respondents of TGL. which are: (a) To determine the level of service quality provided by TGL.(TGL). A total of 80 sets of questionnaires were distributed but the staffs only managed to retrieve 74 sets. The analysis of the data will be aimed to meet the objectives proposed in Chapter 1. The demographic information of the respondents includes ethnic. . (c) To determine the relationship between service quality and customer satisfaction.

0 Table 4.1.1 and Figure 4.1 Ethnic The frequency and the percentage for the ethnic of respondents are shown as in Table 4. 4. covering 15.1 15. .2.1 shows that majority of the respondents of TGL are Chinese. These results show that customers of TGL are mostly Chinese. in which they cover 55.43 frequency of usage and the period of time being a customer of TGL.4 percent of the respondents are from other ethnicity.7 percent of the total respondents. covering 27.7 27. and lastly 1.4 100.7 1.1: Frequency Distribution of Respondents based on Ethnic Ethnic Chinese Malay Indian Others Total Frequency 39 19 11 1 70 Percent 55.7 percent of the total respondents. This is followed Malay. Table 4. The demographic data section provides us with basic background information about the respondents.1 percent and Indian.

44 40 30 20 39 10 19 11 0 Chinese Malay Ethnic 1 Indian Others Figure 4.2 Location The frequency and the percentage for the location of respondents are shown as in Table 4.3 8.0 .3 18.6 14.7 5. Table 4.1 5.3 2.9 2.2: Frequency Distribution of Respondents based on Location Location Kedah Selangor Pulau Pinang Pahang Johor Kuala Lumpur Kelantan Perak Melaka Perlis Negeri Sembilan Total Frequency 17 13 10 6 5 4 4 4 3 2 2 70 Percent 24.7 5.5 7.2.7 4.9 100.2 and Figure 4.1: Ethnicity of the Respondents 4.2.

9 61.45 Even though TGL has customers from all over Peninsular Malaysia.3 percent.2.4 100.3 15. naturally the number of customers from Kedah will be greater.6 percent. This is because since TGL is located in Kedah. Melaka with 4. Location Kedah Selangor 2 3 4 4 17 2 Pulau Pinang Pahang Johor Kuala Lumpur Perak Kelantan Melaka 4 Negeri Sembilan Perlis 5 13 6 10 Figure 4. accounting for 24.2.3: Frequency Distribution for Period of Time being a Customer of TGL Period of Time Below 1 year 1 year 2 years 3 years 4 years Total Frequency 4 3 11 9 43 70 Percent 5.2: Location of the Respondents 4. 7.7 percent each from Kuala Lumpur.3 percent of the respondents.7 12.7 4. This is followed by Selangor with 18. 14. Pulau Pinang. 5.5 percent. 8.0 . we can see that most number of customers is from Kedah.3 Period of Time being a Customer of TGL Table 4. and finally Perlis and Negeri Sembilan with 2. according to the Table 4.1 percent from Johor.9 percent. Pahang. Kelantan and Perak.3 percent.

most number of customers have been cooperating with TGL for 4 years.1 8.3.9 percent. Most number of respondents used the service between 1 to 2 time(s) a week.4 above shows the respondents’ usage frequency of TGL service in one week. 64. 3 years.9 100. in which these customers account for 61. 12. This is followed by 27.3 percent who have cooperated for 1 year. 5. This is followed by 15.2.7 percent new customers below 1 year cooperating period and lastly 4.7 percent cooperating for 2 years.9 percent for those using it everyday in a week.7 percent of the total respondents.7 percent feel that the .1 percent of the total respondents who used the service 3 to 4 times a week and 25.7 27.4 Frequency of Usage Table 4.46 Based on the Table 4.4 percent of the total respondents.3 Service Quality Perception According to Table 4.6 2. while the remaining 35.3 percent from the total respondents feel that TGL’s service quality is in high level. accounting for 8.7 percent of respondents who used the service less than 1 time a week.5. accounting for 35.4: Frequency Distribution of the Frequency of Usage of TGL Service Frequency of Usage Below 1 time 1-2 time(s) 3-4 times 5-6 times 7 times Total Frequency 18 25 19 6 2 70 Percent 25.7 35.0 Table 4. 4. 4. A small number of respondents use TGL service 5 times or more.6 percent for those who use TGL service 5 to 6 times a week and lastly 2.

even though more customers feel that the level of TGL’s service . These dimensions will be used to evaluate the perception of TGL’s customers on the service quality.273 4.1 Customers’ Perception on Tangibility According to Table 4.45.0 Mean: 5.036 and the standard deviation is 0. From the data analysis. 4. responsiveness.273.7 64.00 3. Table 4.5: Frequency Distribution for Customers Perception on Overall Service Quality Level Low Average High Mean Score 1.6 percent of the total respondents perceive that the tangibility of TGL’s service is in average level.133 and the standard deviation of 0. Thus.3 100. the overall mean of the customer’s perception based on the dimension tangibles is 5.6.01 – 5.4 percent feels that it is in high level. reliability.133 Standard Deviation: 0.00 5. This supported by the overall mean of the customer perception at 5.01 – 7. 58. while the remaining 41. assurance and empathy.4 Customers’ Perception based on the SERVQUAL Five Dimensions This section discusses about the TGL’s customers perception on the level of TGL’s service quality.00 Total Frequency of Respondents 25 45 70 Percent 35.47 service quality is of average level.00 – 3.4. The data analysis will based on the SERVQUAL five dimensions which are tangibles. Thus. it can be said that the customers of TGL perceive their level of service quality as high.

7.00 – 3.48 quality based on tangibility is average.4.00 – 3.00 3. the overall mean of the customers’ perception of . The value of overall mean is 5.036 Standard Deviation: 0.01 – 7.00 Total Frequency of Respondents 41 29 70 Percent 58.7: Frequency of Customers Perception on the Level of Service Quality Provided by TGL Based on Reliability Level Low Average High Mean Score 1.00 3.4 100.00 5.00 Total Frequency of Respondents 35 35 70 Percent 50.452 According to Table 4.01 – 5. Besides that.00 5. Table 4. half of the respondents (50%) rate it as average level while the remaining half (50%) rate it at high level.6: Frequency of Customers Perception on the Level of Service Quality Provided by TGL Based on Tangibility Level Low Average High Mean Score 1.114 Standard Deviation: 0. Thus the customer perception of service quality provided by TGL based on its reliability is high.114 and the standard deviation is 0.45 4. the customers’ perception based on the dimension reliability on the level of service quality that provided by TGL.0 Mean: 5.01 – 7.0 Mean: 5.6 41.2 Customers’ Perception on Reliability Table 4.01 – 5.0 100.452.0 50. the overall mean value still falls in the high level category.

229 Standard Deviation: 0.00 – 3.00 Total Frequency of Respondents 33 37 70 Percent 47.1 52.036. which yields overall mean of 5.3 Customers’ Perception on Responsiveness Table 4.229 is higher than that for tangibility at 5.366 Table 4.7 percent .4. The number of respondents who rate the level of service quality as average is almost equal with those who rate it at high level.2 percent of the total respondents rate the service quality as in high level while the remaining 45.8: Frequency of Customers Perception on the Level of Service Quality Provided by TGL Based on Responsiveness Level Low Average High Mean Score 1.49 service reliability is higher than that of the service tangibility. with percentage of 47.4. 4.00 5.01 – 5.366. The overall mean is 5. indicating that the customers’ perception on the level of service quality based on responsiveness is in high level.4 Customers’ Perception on Assurance Table 4.8 shows the customers perception on the level of service quality provided by TGL based on responsiveness.9 100.01 – 7.0 Mean: 5.229 and the standard deviation is 0.036 and reliability at 5.1 percent and 52. 4.00 3. The overall mean for responsiveness at 5.9 percent respectively.9 shows the customers perception on the level of service quality provided by TGL based on assurance. The results show that 54. Thus. the customers of TGL feel that this company have the willingness to help the customers and provide prompt service.114.

50 rate it as average.398.398 4.10.7 54. Furthermore. it shows the customers perception on the level of service quality provided by TGL based on empathy. The value of overall mean is higher than that of tangibility and reliability but lower than that of responsiveness and assurance.398.00 Total Frequency of Respondents 32 38 70 Percent 45. indicating that generally.0 Mean: 5. The results show that 51. 1988).3 100. This indicates that the respondents perceive that the knowledge and courtesy displayed by TGL employees are able to give trust and confidence to the customers.4 percent of the total respondents feel that the level of service quality based on empathy is high while 48. individualized attention the firm provides to its customers (Parasuraman et al.00 3.01 – 7.01 – 5.154 Standard Deviation: 0. In the context of SERVQUAL dimensions. the level of service quality based on empathy is high.6 percent feels that it is average. The analysis also shows that the overall mean value of the customers’ perception based on assurance is 5.4. . Table 4..00 5. the overall mean and standard deviation of the customers’ perception on the level of service quality based on empathy is 5.9: Frequency of Customers Perception on the Level of Service Quality Provided by TGL Based on Assurance Level Low Average High Mean Score 1. empathy is the caring.154 and the standard deviation is 0.131 and 0.5 Customers’ Perception on Empathy According to Table 4.00 – 3.

00 3.00 Total Frequency of Respondents 34 36 70 Percent 48.398 4.257 Table 4.00 3.11: Frequency Distribution for Customers Expectations on Overall Service Quality Level Low Average High Mean Score 1. The results show that all respondents expect TGL to provide high level of service quality.00 5.257. Thus.11 shows the customers’ expectations of the overall service quality provided by TGL.131 Standard Deviation: 0.537 Standard Deviation: 0.00 5.10: Frequency of Customers Perception on the Level of Service Quality Provided by TGL Based on Empathy Level Low Average High Mean Score 1.0 100.01 – 7.00 – 3.51 Table 4.4 100.01 – 7.00 – 3.00 Total Frequency of Respondents 70 70 Percent 100.537 and the standard deviation is 0.6 51. .0 Mean: 5.01 – 5.0 Mean: 5.5 Service Quality Expectation Table 4.01 – 5. TGL’s customers have very high expectation on the service quality provided by them. The mean value of service quality based on the customers’ expectation is 5.

and also the appearance of personnel (such as being well dressed and appearing neat and professional).476.00 Total Frequency of Respondents 18 52 70 Percent 25.01 – 5. From the data.52 4. The overall mean of the customers expectation on the service quality provided by TGL based on tangibility is 5. Most of the respondents. the respondents of TGL have high expectation on the appearance of physical facilities and equipments (such as fax and printer).7 percent of the total expect average level of service quality based on tangibility. assurance and empathy. 4.12: Frequency Distribution of Customers Expectations on the Level of Service Quality Provided by TGL Based on Tangibility Level Low Average High Mean Score 1.00 – 3.7 74.12 shows the customers expectation on the level of service quality provided by TGL based on tangibility.00 3.3 percent of the total. The rest of the respondents which covers 25.0 Mean: 5. specifically 74.01 – 7.454 and the standard deviation is 0. .1 Customers’ Expectation on Tangibility Table 4.454 Standard Deviation: 0. These dimensions are used to evaluate the expectation of TGL’s customers on the service quality.476 Table 4. The data analysis will be based on SERVQUAL five dimensions which are tangibles. expressed that they expect the TGL’s service quality based on the dimension tangibles to be at the high level.00 5. reliability.3 100.6 Customers’ Expectation based on the SERVQUAL Five Dimensions This section will discuss the customers’ expectation on the level of TGL’s service quality. responsiveness.6.

00 5.01 – 7. The majority of the respondents. amounting to 91. Table 4.00 – 3.13: Frequency Distribution of Customers Expectations on the Level of Service Quality Provided by TGL Based on Reliability Level Low Average High Mean Score 1.509 Standard Deviation: 0.3 Customers’ Expectation on the Level of TGL’s Service Quality Based on Responsiveness Table 4. Thus.14 shows the customers’ expectation on the level of service quality provided by TGL based on responsiveness of their service.2 Customers’ Expectation on Reliability Table 4.4 percent of the total.6 percent feels that it is sufficient at average level. expects that the TGL’s service quality based on responsiveness to be high. This indicates that the customers strongly expect the company to deliver and accomplished the tasks that have been promised.509 and the standard deviation is 0. Majority of the respondents. while the remaining 8.1 82.414 4.9 100.13 shows the customers’ expectation at the level of service quality provided by TGL based on reliability.6. amounting to 82.00 Total Frequency of Respondents 12 58 70 Percent 17. the overall mean of the customers’ expectation based on reliability of the service is 5.9 percent of the total respondents expect the level of service quality provided by TGL based on reliability to be at high level.6.414.0 Mean: 5.69 .00 3. The overall mean of customers’ expectation is 5. The overall mean based on reliability is higher than that of tangibility.53 4. while the remaining 17.01 – 5.1 percent expects the service quality based on reliability of their service to be in average level.

00 5.00 – 3.579.407 Table 4.01 – 5.6.00 – 3.3 100.00 5.01 – 5.7 84.01 – 7.365.00 Total Frequency of Respondents 11 59 70 Percent 15.15: Frequency Distribution of Customers Expectations on the Level of Service Quality Provided by TGL Based on Assurance Level Low Average High Mean Score 1.7 percent feel that it is sufficient at the average level.00 Total Frequency of Respondents 6 64 70 Percent 8.579 Standard Deviation: 0. Table 4. Thus.0 Mean: 5.69 Standard Deviation: 0. and this value is higher than the overall means based on tangibility and reliability but lower than that of responsiveness.6 91.01 – 7. The overall mean of customer expectation based on assurance is 5.3 percent of the total expects the service quality based on the assurance it provides to be at high level while the remaining 15.54 and the standard deviation is 0.4 100. accounting for 84. most customers expect that TGL’s employees are able to provide prompt and efficient service.15 above shows the customers’ expectation on the level of service quality provided by TGL based on assurance.4 Customers’ Expectation on Assurance Table 4.365 4.0 Mean: 5.00 3. while the standard .00 3. Most number of respondents.14: Frequency Distribution of Customers Expectations on the Level of Service Quality Provided by TGL Based on Responsiveness Level Low Average High Mean Score 1.

359 Table 4. but lower than dimension reliability.454 and 0.454 Standard Deviation: 0. 4. The high value of overall mean indicates that the customers strongly expect TGL employees to be caring and able to provide individualized attention according to their respective needs. .407.16 shows the customers’ expectation on the level of service quality provided by TGL based on empathy.3 100.00 3. The high value indicates that customers strongly expect that the knowledge and courtesy of TGL’s employees are able to provide trust and confidence to the customers to continue cooperating with TGL. The overall mean of empathy is same as overall mean of tangibles. responsiveness and assurance.7 percent would be satisfied with average level.00 – 3.01 – 5. The overall mean and standard deviation of customers’ expectation on the service quality provided by TGL based on empathy is 5.7 84. while the remaining 15.5 Customers’ Expectation on Empathy Table 4.00 Total Frequency of Respondents 11 59 70 Percent 15.01 – 7.00 5. The results show that 84.6.0 Mean: 5.55 deviation is at 0.16: Frequency Distribution of Customers Expectations on the Level of Service Quality Provided by TGL Based on Empathy Level Low Average High Mean Score 1.3 percent of the total respondents expect the service quality based on the dimension of empathy to be at high level.359 respectively.

404 .114 5.077 70 .454 5. reliability.418 -0.56 4.133 Expectation (E) 5.537 P-E -0. which is customers’ perception minus customers’ expectation (P-E).17: Normality of Service Quality Kolmogorov-Smirnov(a) Statistic df Sig.454 5. Generally. thus indicating good performance of service quality while a negative value simply means the quality of service received by the customers is less than the customers expected level.690 5.036 5. Based on the SERVQUAL instrument.18 below. thus indicating poor service quality performance.200 which is greater than 0. assurance and empathy are used in this data analysis.18: The Difference of mean between the Customers’ Perception and Expectation based on SERVQUAL Dimensions Tangible Reliability Responsiveness Assurance Empathy Overall Service Quality Perception (P) 5. A positive value of service quality means that the service quality is more than expected by the customer.425 -0. According to Table 4. Dimensions of tangibles. .154 5. the difference of mean between the customers’ perception and expectation yields negative values for all dimensions.131 5.323 -0.229 5.509 5. service quality is measured by using the gap between the customers’ perception and customers’ expectation. responsiveness. Table 4. it indicates that TGL is performing below the expected level of their customers.239 This section discusses the service quality provided by TGL.200(*) Service Quality Mean: -0.404 Standard Deviation: 0.7 Level of Service Quality (Service Quality = Perception – Expectation) Table 4.461 -0.17 shows the normality of the service quality.05.395 -0. The result shows that the value of the computed service quality is significant since the value of significance is 0. Table 4.579 5.

4 percent feels that they are highly satisfied with TGL’s service quality.6 41.163 70 . 2001).00 3.20. the median should be used to determine the central tendency of the customer satisfaction level (Morgan et al.000 with a standard deviation of 0. the customer satisfaction median is 5. Since the distribution is not normal.0 Median: 5. Therefore. and generally customers will be satisfied if the service or product meets their expectations.19: Frequency Distribution of Customers’ Satisfaction based on the Service Quality Provided by TGL Level Low Average High Mean Score 1.6 percent from the total expressed that their level of satisfaction is average.469.8 Customer Satisfaction Table 4.57 4. .000 Customer Satisfaction Table 4.00 Total Frequency of Respondents 41 29 70 Percent 58.01 – 5. From the results of this study. more than half of the respondents. amounting to 58. while the remaining 41.00 5. Customer satisfaction can only be measured after the customers have really tried the service or product.20: Normality of Customer Satisfaction Kolmogorov-Smirnov(a) Statistic Df Sig. the significance value of zero also indicates that the result for customer satisfaction is not distributed normally (result is only significant if p > 0.01 – 7.469 Table 4.. From our results. Referring to Table 4.00 – 3. .000 Standard Deviation: 0.05). the level of customer satisfaction falls in the ‘Average’ range.19 shows the level of customers’ satisfaction towards the service quality provided by TGL.4 100.

then we can conclude that there is no systematic association between them. Table 4. According to Table 4. 2001). 2008).9 Relationship between Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction based on the Service provided by TGL Table 4. (2-tailed) N Customer Satisfaction . 70 Spearman's rho Service Quality Correlation Coefficient Sig. If the result is significant.184 . Correlation of Spearman is used to test the relationship between service quality and customer satisfaction of TGL.000 .05) and there is no correlation between service quality and customer satisfaction (Morgan et al. then there is either positive or negative correlation between the two variables. we know that Spearman rank correlation is used to measure nonparametric correlations. 70 .21: Correlations of Spearman Service Quality 1.000 . we know that the result is not significant since the pvalue is 0.21. while if the result is insignificant.127 70 1. (2-tailed) N Correlation Coefficient Sig.21 shows the relationship between service quality and customer satisfaction of TGL. This is also supported by the correlation scatter plot in Figure 4.184 . According to the research methodology at Chapter 3.58 4..3 where the fit line is almost horizontal showing that there is no significant relationship between the service quality and customer satisfaction (Taylor.127 (result is only significant if p < 0.127 70 Customer Satisfaction .

00 R Sq Linear = 0.00 Customer Satisfaction Figure 4.50 4.00 4.50 0.032 -1.50 -1.00 Service Quality -0.00 5.50 6.50 5.59 0.3: Scatter Diagram between Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction .

2 Research Conclusion The conclusion to this research can be drawn based on the objectives of the study. There are three points that will be discussed in this section. . research limitations and research recommendations for future research work. Bhd.1 Introduction This section discusses the research conclusion from the data analysis in this study. The objectives of this study are: (a) To determine the level of service quality provided by TGL Express Sdn. (b) To determine the level of satisfaction among its customers. the objectives of this research can be achieved.CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 5. (TGL). they are discussions and conclusions of the result which relate to the research objectives. 5. (c) To determine the relationship between service quality and customer satisfaction. Based on the data analysis results described in Chapter 4.

404. which falls in the ‘High’ range. This shows that the customers perceive TGL’s service as good. which yields a mean value of 5. but is still insufficient to meet the increasing expectations in the highly competitive current scenario.61 5.579 5.537.114 5.036 5. However.2. Besides that. thus the negative value.154 5.1: Summary of Service Quality Mean Values Tangible Reliability Responsiveness Assurance Empathy Overall Service Quality Perception (P) 5.537 SERVQUAL (P-E) -0.425 -0.229 5. The research shows that TGL scores .395 -0.461 -0. Basically. is comparatively higher. expectations (E) and also the SERVQUAL service quality value (P-E). who stated that it is important that a company be customer-oriented in the heavily competitive world to ensure customer satisfaction and loyalty.418 -0. The reason that the service quality based on SERVQUAL is negative in value is due to the fact that the expectation of the customers.1.509 5.690 5.454 5. This simply indicates that the quality of service provided by TGL does not meet the expectations of their customers.133 Expectation (E) 5. it must be noted that the service quality provided by TGL as perceived by their customers has a mean value of 5.323 -0. The summary compares the service quality based on the different SERVQUAL dimensions as well as the overall service quality in the form of customers’ perception (P).454 5. the service quality of TGL can also be evaluated by considering separately the five dimensions of SERVQUAL. we can conclude that TGL’s service quality is high.1 Level of Service Quality The service quality of TGL measured in this research can be summarized as in Table 5. This is supported by Fečiková (2004).133.404 The results show that the service quality of TGL based on SERVQUAL is 0.131 5. Table 5.

The customers feel that it is crucial that their request and queries are attended to promptly to since there usually is time limitations for the delivery of goods. followed by assurance. followed by assurance. 5. the median is used to measure the central tendency of the customers’ satisfaction. the median value is 5. reliability. which falls in the upper-limit of the ‘Average’ range. with more tendencies towards the ‘High’ side. TGL should focus on closing the gap between the two in order to improve on their service quality based on SERVQUAL. and lastly tangibles.2 Customer Satisfaction Since the distribution of the data is not normal. All the mean values are in the ‘High’ range. In our case. due to the fact that the customers . This result tallies with the case study on the postal company conducted by Zisis et al. it indicates that the customers of TGL are moderately satisfied with their service quality. empathy. a large gap between the perceived and expected values of service quality indicates that particular area requires attention. reliability. This occurred despite the SERVQUAL service quality value being negative. From the research.62 highest in responsiveness. Lastly. tangibles and finally empathy. From the customers’ expectations.2. Thus. Though the values are all in the ‘High’ range. Thus. (2009) which also yields responsiveness as the most important dimension in service quality. Another point worth discussing is the view of the customers in terms of which dimension to prioritize. though responsiveness yields highest value in terms of customers’ perception. we can conclude that the customers perceive that the most important dimension is responsiveness. but they are simply expecting better.000. it is has the biggest gap between the perception and expectation of customers. the lower values indicate areas that TGL should improve in order to further improve the overall service quality. showing that the customers actually feel that the service quality provided by TGL is good.

the main possibility being that the five dimensions of SERVQUAL might not accurately portray the situation in the company. However. but their expectations on what an excellent company should be like is relatively too high for TGL. it serves as an early warning of how the customers are feeling. and there are other dimensions related to the service which we have left out. which means that the service quality provided by TGL does not affect the customer satisfaction. 5. However. the fact that the customers’ satisfaction value is only in the ‘Average’ range should not be taken lightly as. there might be a few possibilities where exceptions might happen.2. there is no relationship between the service quality and customer satisfaction. Basically. customers’ satisfaction must be maintained at a high level in order to ensure customer loyalty and company popularity. Fečiková (2004) also proposed that it is important for companies to monitor their customers’ satisfaction since it affects their behaviour and purchasing decisions. In short. it is common knowledge that the service quality relates directly with customer satisfaction and the customers should be more satisfied as the quality of service improves.3 Relationship between Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction The relationship between service quality and customer satisfaction is tested using the Spearman correlation method since the value of customer satisfaction is not significant. From the analysis. according to Edvardsson and Gutafson (1999).63 are fairly satisfied with what TGL is providing. (2004) uses a modified SERVQUAL model which includes additional dimensions to suit the actual industry attributes and local conditions. this should not have occurred as. There might also be some other reasons. This means that the customers’ satisfaction level is not only influenced by the five basic SERVQUAL dimensions. Besides. causing the variable to be non-parametric. such as the fact that there might be inaccuracy of data due to the small sample size . This is also the reason that some researches such as the study on the telecommunications industry in China by Wang et al.

000 70 Customer Satisfaction . 70 . the unweighted SERVPERF used only the performance to measure the service quality. 70 . we find that the unweighted SERVPERF instrument might be more suitable than the SERVQUAL instrument in terms of measuring the relationship between service quality and customer satisfaction.000 70 1.1.508** . Correlation is significant at the 0.2 and Figure 5. past experiences and so on.508** . which states that satisfaction is indeed affected by the service quality and excellent service quality is one of the criteria which increases customer satisfaction.8 percent.000 (result is only significant if p < 0. As proposed by Cronin and Taylor (1992).000 . we have a significant correlation which is at 0.000 . Based on Table 5. The reason that relationship becomes weak when using SERVQUAL service quality value is that the expected value is given based on the customers own judgement. (2-tailed) N **. On the other hand.2.2: Relationship between Customer Perception and Customer Satisfaction of TGL Correlations Customer Perception Spearman's rho Customer Perception Correlation Coefficient Sig. Thus. (2-tailed) N Customer Satisfaction Correlation Coefficient Sig.01 level (2-tailed). Besides that. Table 5. if we were to relate the service quality as perceived by the customers with the customer satisfaction. 1. the result will yield positive relationship as shown in Table 5. there is a positive relationship between customer satisfaction and customer perception at 50.64 and also the possibility that the customers did not express what they really felt in terms of their satisfaction level. while the weighted SERVQUAL used the gap between the customers’ perception and expectation.05). such as place of origin. This supports by the findings of Yan (2006). and thus the scores will be influenced by several factors.

3 Recommendations The objectives of this study include determining the service quality provided by TGL.40 Customer Perception 5. This is further supported by the fact that the .00 4. by analyzing the results. the result can be used to further improve the performance of TGL in order to gain success and advantage over their competitors.80 5.65 5.00 5. Therefore. Thus. The results of the research can be used to understand what the customers actually think about them. The recommendations for the improvement of TGL’s performance based on the findings of this research are as follows: (a) Customers in this industry places greatest importance on the responsiveness of the service.60 4.20 5. as well as what they actually want from them. It is important that the company is able to respond promptly to the customers request as the delivery services are often urgent matters which requires immediate attention.1: Scatter Diagram between Customer Perception and Customer Satisfaction 5.249 4.50 5.50 6.80 R Sq Linear = 0. their customers’ satisfaction and the relationship between these two variables.00 4.60 5. TGL will be able to know which specific area needs immediate attention and proper planning and management of resources can be arranged.00 Customer Satisfaction Figure 5.

there are still issues. The issues include: (a) The study shows that the five basic dimensions of SERVQUAL might not be suitable in measuring the service quality of the company. In addition to the service quality factors. In another study. indicating that responsiveness is most critical to the customers. As proposed by Strydom (2004). there are dimensions which customers feel is less important to them. (2004) modified their SERVQUAL model by adding extra dimensions such as network quality to obtain better result in their research on the telecommunication industry in China. there might also be other determinants which might have an impact on the customer satisfaction. (b) TGL should always monitor and maintain their customer satisfaction level by obtaining feedback from their customers. This is in line with a statement by Dayang and Francine (2009) that the importance of each dimension in the SERVQUAL model varies across industries. Wang et al. Further more. which need to be addresses in future researches.4 Future Researches Even though all the objectives of this research have been achieved in this report. This will provide them with early warning if their customers are not comfortable with any aspect of their operation. customer value analysis and so on.66 gap between customer perception and expectation is greatest for responsiveness. Customer Satisfaction Index (CSI). since there might be other dimensions that might have a greater impact on the customer satisfaction. This statement can be supported by Yan’s (2006) study on customer satisfaction based on the . even among the five basic dimensions of SERVQUAL. TGL should always be aware of their customers’ satisfaction level through methods such as complaint and suggestion system. which have arisen during the study. 5.

Since the SERVPERF model measures performance based solely on the customers’ perception (Lee. during our study. Besides. Furthermore. However. we found that there are many instances where the SERVPERF would be a more suitable model to measure the service quality. the relationship between service quality and customer satisfaction will also be stronger. (b) A similar study should be carried out using the SERVPERF model which measures solely performance. it is believed that more significant figures could be obtained on the actual performance of TGL. Thus. commercial and non-profit settings (Sachdev and Verma. . We felt that the SERVQUAL model can be used in our truck freight brokering setting since the credibility has been proven in various different industries. focus group discussions and expert opinions should be carried out to determine the suitable dimensions which will be able to obtain the best results regarding the service quality of a truck freight broker. and its relationship with the customers. 2007). 2004). (2009) in their study on logistic services. by having more significant values for service quality. The selection of SERVQUAL model in the initial stages of our study was due to the fact that it has been widely used by researchers in many different industrial.67 perceived value model for auto repair shops. and also to find out the relationship between service quality and customer satisfaction. Yan (2006) stated that price and personnel attitude are also factors which affect customer satisfaction. it was used by Baki et al.

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APPENDIX A
BORANG SOAL SELIDIK QUESTIONNAIRE

FAKULTI PENGURUSAN DAN PEMBANGUNAN SUMBER MANUSIA FACULTY OF MANAGEMENT AND HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT “HUBUNGAN ANTARA KUALITI PERKHIDMATAN DAN KEPUASAN PELANGGAN: SATU KAJIAN KES DI TGL EXPRESS SDN. BHD.” “THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SERVICE QUALITY AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION: A CASE STUDY OF TGL EXPRESS SDN. BHD.”

Saya merupakan pelajar tahun akhir Universiti Teknologi Malaysia dalam jurusan Pengurusan Teknologi. Kajian ini bertujuan untuk menyempurnakan Projek Sarjana Muda yang telah ditetapkan oleh universiti. Oleh itu, kerjasama daripada anda amatlah dihargai dan diucapkan ribuan terima kasih diatas kesudian menjawab soal selidik ini. Semua jawapan dan maklumat yang diberikan hanya digunakan untuk tujuan pembelajaran sahaja. I am a final year student of Universiti Technologi Malaysia majoring in the field of Technology Management. This research is being done for the purpose of completing the degree programme set by the University. Your co-operation in this survey is much appreciated and I sincerely thank you for taking time to respond to this questionnaire. All information provided will be treated strictly confidential and will be used for academic purposes only.

ARAHAN / INSTRUCTION: A) Borang selidik ini mempunyai tiga bahagian iaitu: This questionnaire has three sections as follows: BAHAGIAN A / SECTION A BAHAGIAN B / SECTION B BAHAGIAN C / SECTION C : Demografi Responden / Demographic Data : Jangkaan dan Persepsi Pelanggan / Customer’s Expectation and Perception : Kepuasan Pelanggan / Customer Satisfaction

B) Responden dikehendaki menjawab semua soalan yang dikemukakan. Respondent is required to answer all the questions.

76 Bahagian A / Section A: Demografi Responden / Demographic Respondent Sila tandakan ( ) di dalam ruangan yang di telah disediakan. Please answer the following questions by ticking ( ) in the appropriate box. 1. Etnik / Ethnic: Melayu / Malay Cina / Chinese India / Indian Lain-lain / Others

2.

Lokasi / Location:

_____________________________ (Sila Nyatakan / Please State)

3.

Tempoh masa menjadi pelanggan TGL Express Sdn. Bhd. (TGL) / Period of time being a customer of TGL Express Sdn. Bhd. (TGL):

Kurang daripada 1 tahun / Below than 1 year 1 tahun / 1 year 2 tahun / 2 years 3 tahun / 3 years 4 tahun / 4 years

4.

Berapa kali mengunakan perkhidmatan TGL dalam 1 minggu/ How often used service of TGL in 1 week:

Kurang daripada 1 kali / Below than 1 time 1 – 2 kali / 1 – 2 time(s) 3 – 4 kali / 3 – 4 times 5 – 6 kali / 5 – 6 times 7 kali / 7 times

77

Bahagian B / Section B: Jangkaan dan Persepsi Pelanggan / Customer’s Expectation and Perception Sila bulatkan jawapan anda mengikut skala seperti berikut / Please circle your answer based on the following scales: Skala / Scales 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Penerangan Jawapan / Answer Explanation Sangat Tidak Bersetuju / Strongly Disagree Tidak Bersetuju / Disagree Agak Tidak Bersetuju / Slightly Disagree Sederhana / Average Agak Beretuju / Slightly Agree Bersetuju / Agree Sangat Bersetuju / Strongly Agree

Jangkaan / Expectation 1. TGL sepatut mempunyai kelengkapan yang moden cth: fax, pencetak. TGL should provides up-to-date equipment e.g. fax, printer. 2. TGL sepatut mempunyai persekitaran yang selesa dan 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1

Persepsi / Perception 2 3 4 5 6 7

2

3

4

5

6

7

TGL should shows a sincere interest in solving the problems. 6. When you have problems. When TGL’s employees promise to do something by a certain time.g. 5. TGL’s physical facilities should be visually appealing. Apabila pekerja TGL berjanji untuk melakukan sesuatu tugas. TGL sepatut memberikan kenderaan pengangkutan seperti lori dalam keadaan yang baik. 7. . TGL sepatut memberi pertolongan dengan ikhlas untuk menyelesaikannya. TGL sepatut memberikan perkhidmatan yang bertepatan dengan kehendak pelanggan. lorries in well condition. TGL’s employees should be well dressed and appear neat. TGL should be provide transportation e. 4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 . 3. Pekerja TGL sepatut mempunyai penampilan yang baik seperti cara pakaian. mereka sepatut menepati janji. they should do so.78 menarik. Apabila anda menghadapi masalah.

11. TGL should provides their services at the time they promise to do so. TGL sepatut menyimpan rekod urus niaga secara tepat. 8. 9. Pekerja TGL sepatut memberitahu anda bila pekhidmatan akan dilakukan. TGL’s employees should be always willing to help. 10. 13. TGL sepatut tidak menggunakan alasan tiada masa untuk 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 . TGL should keep their transaction records accurately. TGL’ employees should tell you exactly when services will be performed. 12. TGL sepatut memberikan perkhidmatan pada masa yang dijanjikan. TGL’s employees should provide you with prompt service. Pekerja TGL sepatut membantu pelanggan pada bila-bila masa.79 TGL should provides correct services to meet their customer needs. Pekerja TGL sepatut memberikan perkhidmatan yang cekap dan pantas kepada anda.

Anda sepatut merasai selamat apabila berurusan dengan TGL. TGL’s employees should be patient and courteous. Pekerja TGL sepatut berbudi bahasa dan bersopan-santun. Pekerja TGL sepatut mempunyai pengetahuan yang baik dalam menjawab soalan anda. 14. TGL should gives you individual attention. The behaviour of TGL’s employees should instill confidence in you. 17. TGL’s employees should be equipped with the necessary knowledge to answer your question(s). Tabiat pekerja TGL patut menyakinkan anda.80 memberikan tindak balas kepada anda. TGL should not used too busy as a reason to respond to your requests promptly. 18. You should able to feel safe performing transactions with TGL. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 . 15. 16. TGL sepatut memberikan perkhidmatan kepada setiap pelanggan secara individu.

TGL should have their customer’s best interest at heart. TGL’s employees should prepare to solve problems individually. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 22. TGL operating hours should be convenient to all of their customers. Pekerja TGL sepatut memahami kehendak anda. TGL sepatut mengambil berat kehendak anda. TGL sepatut beroperasi pada waktu yang sesuai bagi semua pelanggan.81 19. Pekerja TGL sepatut bersedia untuk menyelesaikan masalah secara individu. TGL’s employees should understand your needs. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 21. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 20.

Anda akan mencadangkan perkhidmatan TGL kepada orang lain. anda amat berpuas hati terhadap perkhidmatan TGL. 2. terima kasih Thank you very much . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Sekian. You would strongly recommend TGL’s service to the others. You are extremely satisfied with TGL’s overall service quality. You will definitely use TGL’s service again. Secara keseluruhannya. 3.82 Bahagian C / Section C Sila bulatkan jawapan anda mengikut skala seperti berikut / Please circle your answer based on the following scales: Skala / Scales 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Kepuasan Pelanggan / Customer Satisfaction Sangat Tidak Memuaskan / Strongly Dissatisfied Tidak Memuaskan / Dissatisfied Agak Tidak Memuaskan / Slightly Dissatisfied Sederhana / Average Agak Memuaskan / Slightly Satisfied Memuaskan / Satisfied Sangat Memuaskan / Strongly Satisfied 1. Anda akan menggunakan perkhidmatan TGL lain kali.

62 5. Deviation Minimum Maximum Range Interquartile Range Skew ness Kurtosis Custom Expectation er Mean 95% Conf idence Interval f or Mean 5% Trim med Mean Median Variance Std.105 .066 .1309 5.300 .287 .23 1.1327 5.5369 Low er Bound Upper Bound 5.37 .566 .5329 5. Deviation Minimum Maximum Range Interquartile Range Skew ness Kurtosis Tests of Norm ality Kolmogorov-Smirnov Statistic Custom Perception er Custom Expectation er .679 5.308 .73 1.984 df 70 70 Sig. Lilliefors Significance Correction .980 .5981 5.0675 5.83 APPENDIX B SPSS DATA ANALYSIS De s criptive s Statistic Custom Perception er Mean 95% Conf idence Interval f or Mean Low er Bound Upper Bound 5.287 . This is a low er bound of the true significance.40 .0900 .19 .055 .03070 Std.1979 5.566 .050 df 70 70 a Shapiro-Wilk Sig.114 -.539 *. .119 -.5500 . .075 .25685 5. Error .11 .03267 5% Trim med Mean Median Variance Std.04 6. a.4756 5.200* Statistic .27330 4.

0 22.40 5.4 98.9 100.9 7.1 2.6 78.1 2.25 Total 2 13 13 13 14 8 5 2 70 Percent 2.00 6.0 47.0 2.0 V alid P ercent 2.00 4.1 14.4 100.80 5.25 Total 2 5 26 17 11 3 5 1 70 Percent 2.9 87.0 V alid P ercent 2.1 30.0 Frequency V alid 4.0 Frequency V alid 4.1 100.4 2.1 37.50 5.50 4.0 12.9 100.50 5.1 91.9 100.25 5.0 20.0 58.9 4.4 87.9 18.4 7.3 90.3 10.60 5.9 20.6 18.0 Pe r ception Re s pons ive ne ss Cumulative Percent 2.6 18.00 5.3 7.25 5.6 90.6 18.6 20.0 20.40 4.3 15.1 17.0 V alid P ercent 2.9 100.75 5.25 4.0 70.0 Frequency V alid 4.0 4.00 Total 2 1 2 7 9 14 14 3 11 5 2 70 Percent 2.9 22.7 72.0 .1 2.9 20.1 12.00 5.1 12.75 6.0 Pe r ception Re liability Cumulative Percent 2.0 11.0 12.0 V alid P ercent 2.4 7.1 24.4 40.4 100.3 7.0 Pe r ception As s ur ance Cumulative Percent 2.00 5.1 24.9 100.80 6.7 7.9 7.1 1.1 100.25 4.3 15.9 18.9 10.0 50.6 100.3 10.9 7.84 Pe r ception Tangible s Cumulative Percent 2.0 2.0 Frequency V alid 4.3 7.6 20.7 4.1 97.9 10.75 5.00 Total 2 5 9 16 19 10 7 2 70 Percent 2.9 21.9 27.50 4.9 7.9 10.60 4.1 71.0 4.4 2.20 4.1 1.1 37.6 18.50 5.1 2.9 1.75 6.9 1.75 5.7 7.9 22.0 97.0 11.1 14.0 74.25 5.1 100.20 5.9 10.75 6.3 15.3 15.50 4.9 27.00 5.9 45.9 100.0 97.7 4.

6 62.3 7.0 V alid P ercent 1.7 97.00 Total 4 8 8 14 10 11 12 1 2 70 Percent 5.9 1.4 2.25 6.40 5.1 98.4 100.00 5.0 82.3 12.00 5.60 5.7 8.0 Frequency V alid 4.4 11.4 1.20 6.75 6.4 11.3 1.3 11.1 27.00 5.0 V alid P ercent 1.7 11.6 100.4 2.50 6.60 4.6 14.1 4.6 61.4 4.3 2.6 95.6 48.4 1.3 12.80 6.0 14.4 100.6 14.85 Pe r ception Em pathy Cumulative Percent 5.6 4.6 12.7 98.7 70.75 5.9 97.0 V alid P ercent 5.9 22.40 4.0 Expe ctation Re liability Cumulative Percent 1.3 2.4 20.9 91.0 28.4 15.80 5.0 Frequency V alid 4.6 100.0 14.25 5.60 4.1 55.40 5.9 24.9 8.40 6.0 .3 11.1 1.0 Expe ctation Tangible s Cumulative Percent 1.1 28.00 6.9 100.4 85.50 5.00 6.7 17.60 Total 1 3 8 7 20 10 9 6 3 2 1 70 Percent 1.9 78.60 5.3 15.6 12.4 5.7 38.4 100.4 17.4 10.20 5.1 100.1 4.4 100.1 25.80 6.80 5.9 22.75 Total 1 11 6 9 16 17 5 3 1 1 70 Percent 1.4 95.9 24.7 92.9 1.9 100.50 4.0 28.1 1.7 17.7 8.4 4.4 10.20 5.0 Frequency V alid 4.7 17.7 11.3 1.9 8.3 15.7 17.4 15.4 20.3 7.6 4.

25 6.3 5.9 12.6 22.4 28.7 14.3 87.6 22.4 1.50 5.9 100.1 8.7 27.6 22.7 80.3 5.6 91.6 22.9 10.60 5.3 11.4 100.4 7.75 5.7 14.6 12.7 32.0 Expe ctation As surance Cumulative Percent 4.50 Total 1 5 6 16 20 16 4 2 70 Percent 1.9 12.4 2.0 Frequency V alid 4.4 74.9 11.9 61.00 5.1 8.25 5.00 6.9 28.40 Total 1 2 8 12 20 9 9 7 1 1 70 Percent 1.6 24.3 100.0 Valid P ercent 4.1 55.1 97.00 5.4 17.00 6.40 5.20 6.9 11.25 5.3 15.4 17.3 11.4 2.75 6.4 97.1 40.9 10.4 8.00 5.0 .0 Expe ctation Em pathy Cumulative Percent 1.0 1.1 100.4 11.00 6.25 Total 3 8 8 20 17 4 10 70 Percent 4.6 24.4 4.75 5.75 6.4 28.20 5.3 15.4 7.1 28.4 11.0 68.3 100.80 6.6 100.0 85.50 5.9 5.0 V alid P ercent 1.0 V alid P ercent 1.7 100.0 Frequency V alid 4.1 28.86 Expe ctation Re s pons ive ne ss Cumulative Percent 1.4 100.4 1.9 100.60 4.1 98.6 17.0 Frequency Valid 4.0 1.7 2.9 5.7 2.80 5.6 12.9 28.

00 2.945 df 70 70 Sig.287 .287 .33 5.1 58.7 21.00 6.46896 4.057 .08 .67 6. This is a low er bound of the true significance.4041 -.23946 -1.4 22.192 5.02862 5% Trim med Mean Median Variance Std.34 -.3983 -.4 22. Error .00 5.4612 -.4 4.1594 5. Deviation Minimum Maximum Range Interquartile Range Skew ness Kurtosis Tests of Norm ality Kolmogorov-Smirnov Statistic Service Quality Custom Satisfaction er .9 12.541 .3 100.06 1.004 *.67 5.4 4.4 10.00 Total 1 7 18 15 16 9 1 3 70 Percent 1.4 37.566 .02 .6 81.4 11.7 100.9 1.9 1. Lilliefors Significance Correction Cus tom e r Satis faction Cumulative Percent 1.220 .0 Frequency V alid 4. .7 21.3900 .0 25.077 .0 V alid P ercent 1.0 25.00 .4 10. Deviation Minimum Maximum Range Interquartile Range Skew ness Kurtosis Custom Satisf action er Mean 95% Conf idence Interval f or Mean 5% Trim med Mean Median Variance Std.67 .700 . .9358 5.33 4.9 12. a.67 5.566 .4 94.0 .05605 Std.000 Statistic .3 100.0423 5.0476 Low er Bound Upper Bound 4.3 95.313 -.093 -.0000 .3470 -.985 .200* .163 df 70 70 a Shapiro-Wilk Sig.87 De s criptive s Statistic Service Quality Mean 95% Conf idence Interval f or Mean Low er Bound Upper Bound -.00 4.

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