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First edition

Manufacturing processes

ENG-Mohamed Ahmed omar Ali Student at production engineering First edition

Spin Casting
Spin casting is one of forming processes that is used at high productivity of parts (2400 parts per one hour) of thermoset plastics like epoxies , polyesters and polyurethanes and metals like zinc ,tin and lead based alloys .It has feature not found in other forming processes that we discussed. It use semi permanent molds of silicone or organic rubber because one mold make a lot of parts like in die casting and can be modified if any changes happen in design.


1- Pattern preparation: (polyphenolsulfone and polycarbonate)

Because of the need for fast delivery of durable and accurate patterns . By replacing the machined metal patterns, the entire spin casting process, including pattern making, can be completed in as little as one day. So that patterns are made by FDM process: FDM (fused deposition modeling) is a direct digital manufacturing process patented by Stratasys, Inc. The FDM process creates functional prototypes, tooling and manufactured goods from engineering thermoplastics, such as ABS, polyphenolsulfone and polycarbonate. FDM machines dispense two materialsone for the model and one for a disposable support structure. The material is supplied from a roll of plastic filament on a spool or in a cartridge. To construct the model, the filament is fed into an extrusion head and heated to a semi-liquid state. The head then extrudes the material and deposits it in layers as fine as 0.005 inch (0.127 mm) thick. FDM produces complex, intricate shapes with no impact on time or cost. Another similarity is the each is capable of producing multiple parts per cycle. These are not characteristics of machined patterns, and this is why FDM is a faster and more cost-effective solution. If a spin casting mold needs 25 patterns that have With FDM, spin casting can produce thousands of metal, plastic or wax parts in a single day.

FDM machines

Theory of working

FDM is CNC machines (the tool take x & y axis and the table takes z axis) like in the photo and it extrudes two materials model & supplies like in the following photo

Working You will Draw the part on the CAD program and you dont need for add shrinkage or under cuts to Design because it can be made from a castings CAD data by exporting an STL file While shrinkage will vary with the rubber used for the mold and the material that is cast then you give an order to the machine to make the part . After the build is completed, remove the support structures and finish the patterns to the desired quality level. It is import to smooth all surfaces to the quality level needed in the cast parts. To achieve the desired finish, use a combination of DCM (methylene chloride) dipping (PC only), sanding, filling and priming.

2- Mold preparation:
The spin casting mold begins as pre-formed, uncured rubber disks that have a consistency similar to modeling clay. The type of rubberorganic or siliconeis selected based on the material to be cast, type of part and desired production quantities. The rubber disks are stacked to the desired thickness for the core side of the mold. The patterns are then arranged in a balanced, symmetrical pattern to ensure even material distribution as shown in the figure

The patterns are then embedded in the rubber to define the parting line for the cast part For flat bottomed parts, the patterns are laid on top of the rubber. For all others, a shallow pocket is cut into the rubber. The pattern is then set into the pocket, and the excess rubber is shaped around it to establish the parting line. Next, insert a center plug into the middle of the rubber disc to create the sprue . Then arrange locknuts or pins on the perimeter to ensure proper alignment of the two mold halves when assembled for casting. Optionally, preforms for the runner system may also be placed into the mold. The core side of the mold is now complete. Place the core side in a circular mold frame, and spray the surface with mold release. To complete the mold, stack additional uncured rubber discs on top of the core side of the mold. This will be the cavity side of the mold.

An Example for making the mold:

1- Plane the work: This is basically a good look at the work in front of me, how many moulds I plan, how I intend to space and angle them on the rubber. I make sure all the parts that are necessary are present and correct and that there is no damage to greens before I start working. Also I look for potential weaknesses on the models that need to be taken in to consideration.

2- Prepare rubber. Preparation work necessary before the miniatures see the mould, reducing the amount of rubber in the "Can", encouraging the rubber to move and seating the core nicely. Firstly I remove any excess rubber; I want as little material in the mould as I can manage. I measure the thickness of the rubbers and consider the depth of the miniatures compared to the capacity of the moulding Can.

Rubbers can be easily separated into their laminated layers Then I cut the rubber to seat it correctly in the Can, removing Vs of rubber to allow some give.

Cutting away an area to seat the central steel "Core" in the Can.

3- Cut cavities. 1- By placing the part on the rubber and . 2- Pressure is applied, *hard*, with my thumbs and fingers . This leaves a mark in the rubber to act as a guide to the cutting. 3- Make acavity with the cutter to make the shape of the part.


Like for other parts.

- The end shape-

4-Prepare for vulcanisation.

The top piece of rubber is then carefully placed on and the steal lid of the can lifted into place. 5- Press and heat it by vulcanizer . -after vulcanizing-

6- Making runners and Vents by cutter:

7- Last product after casting:

3- Mold Vulcanizing:
The vulcanizer consists of two heated platens mounted on a hydraulic press. The heat and pressure of the vulcanize cause the uncured rubber to flow around the patterns and fill the voids. As the exposure to elevated temperatures continues, the rubber begins to cure, which causes it to become firm yet flexible. The uncured rubber mold containing the patterns is placed into the vulcanizer which is preheated to 315 F (157 C). The pressure is then slowly raised to approximately 1,000 psi (6.9MPa) to squeeze the halves of the mold. The pressure and temperature, which vary by type of rubber, are maintained for one to two hours as shown in the figure:

When vulcanizing is complete, the mold is removed. After a short cooling period, the mold frame is taken off, and the two halves are separated. The patterns, and any metal preforms, are then extracted from the mold. Gates, runners and vents are now cut into the cured rubber with a sharp knife or scalpel. Typically, each is a V-shaped channel. The gates and runners feed casting material to the part cavity from the central hub. The vent allows air in the cavity to escape so that backpressure does not cause a partial fill of the mold cavity show the following figure:

4- Casting process: Apply mold release to both sides of the rubber mold, close the
mold and place it in the spin casting machine.

Prior to starting the spin casting machine, prepare the casting material. If casting metal, melt the material in (a gas or electric furnace). Bring the molten alloy to the ideal casting temperature. If the metal is too cold, it will freeze off before filling the mold, and if too hot, it will degrade the mold prematurely. When casting foundry wax, melt the material in a suitable melting tank or pot. For thermoset materials, combine the two parts of the material kit and stir thoroughly. To prepare the spin caster, select the rotational speed, clamping pressure and cycle time. Each variable will be dependent on the material that is cast. For example, metals will have a cycle time of less than one minute, while plastics will have aduration of five to 10 minutes. Start the spin caster, and as the mold is spinning, pour the casting material into the funnel at the top of the machine . When the cycle is complete, remove the mold from the spin caster. As shown in the following figure:

5- Finishing:
Separate the two halve of the rubber mold to expose the castings. To extract them, flex the rubber or gently pry the casting from its cavity. If any material remains in the gate, runner or vent channels, remove it prior to reusing the mold .Finish the casting by snapping the gates off of the part and grinding or sanding the remainder. The castings are now ready for painting, plating or use. As shown in the following figure:

Process In brief
Molds are formed by placing patterns between disks of uncured rubber. The mold is then loaded into a vulcanizer that applies heat and pressure to cure the rubber. After a few hours, the mold becomes firm yet flexible .The mold is then loaded into a spin casting machine. After the spin cycle starts, the liquid metal, plastic or wax is poured into the rotating mold. Pressure caused by centrifugal force pushes the liquid through the molds runner system, completely filling each mold cavity (figure 2). After the material has solidified, the mold is removed, and the castings are extracted.

Why FDM: all the FDM materials, PC (polycarbonate) and PPSF (polyphenolsulfone) are
the best suited for pattern making. Due to the temperature and pressure applied to the mold during vulcanization, patterns constructed in other FDM materials may warp and distort.

Required equipments :
1- Top or front spin caster machines.

2- Vulcanizer.

3- Gas or electric melting furnace.

4- Silicone ore organic rubber molds according to metal casting.

Materials can be made:

Tin Zinc Lead based alloy Pewter Pattern wax Thermoset plastics

Conditions of use:
1- Cast materials that have melt temperature that is less than 1,000 F (538 C). 2- Slow solidification rate and low viscosity. 3- These conditions are available in the previous materials.

1234Rapid prototyping. Decorative and novelty type items. Fishing lures and fishing tackle components. Industrial manufacturing of parts.

123456Spin casting are semi permanent (non expendable) rubber molds. Ability of making design changing. Low cost. High productivity reach to 2400 parts per hour. Easy of use. Make any complex shape.

1- Used for material their melt temperature dont Exceed 538 C. 2- (Maximum Part Size) The maximum part size that can be cast using spin cast technology is 100 x 50 x 35mm (L x W x H).