Transparent & Flexible Electronics



Transparent & flexible electronics

Nanotechnology VOL. I 2011
Massimo Marrazzo - 1

Transparent & Flexible Electronics

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Nanotechnology Graphene Nanotubes Printed electronics Ink for "printed electronics" Printer for "printed electronics" Transparent and Strong Plastic Transparent Electronics Flexible and trasparent displays Electronic paper / E-paper / E-ink Printed battery Charging batteries without wires WiTricity Solar Energy Seebeck effect - Thermoelectric Printed Memory Printed Antennas Wireless technologies Nanotube Radio Sound Lens Bio-Sensors Virtual Muscles Gecko Mems Ecology Link to transparent electronics Applications of transparent or flexible electronics Invisibility Cloak Acronyms Books Journal Papers Links Show/Convention/Exposition Blogs Toolbox iPad & iPhone applications for Nanotech Android applications for read RSS Nanotech 2011 Update pag.3 7 8 13 19 21 24 25 30 32 33 45 46 48 55 77 79 81 84 87 94 98 101 106 113 115 116 117 125 128 130 133 134 136 136 137 138 139 140

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Transparent & Flexible Electronics


What is Nanotechnology? Nanotechnology originates from the Greek word “nanos” meaning “dwarf". A nanometre is one billionth (10-9) of a metre, which is tiny, only the length of ten hydrogen atoms, or about one hundred thousandth of the width of a hair! Although scientists have manipulated matter at the nanoscale for centuries, calling it physics or chemistry, it was not until a new generation of microscopes were invented in the nineteen eighties in IBM, Switzerland that the world of atoms and molecules could be visualized and managed. In simple terms, nanotechnology can be defined as 'engineering at a very small scale', and this term can be applied to many areas of research and development: from medicine to manufacturing to computing, and even to textiles and cosmetics. It can be difficult to imagine exactly how this greater understanding of the world of atoms and molecules has and will affect the everyday objects we see around us, but some of the areas where nanotechnologies are set to make a difference are described below. From Micro to Nano Nanotechnology, in one sense, is the natural continuation of the miniaturization revolution that we have witnessed over the last decade, where millionth of a metre (10-6 m) tolerances (microengineering) became commonplace, for example, in the automotive and aerospace industries enabling the construction of higher quality and safer vehicles and planes. It was the computer industry that kept on pushing the limits of miniaturization, and many electronic devices we see today have nano features that owe their origins to the computer industry — such as cameras, CD and DVD players, car airbag pressure sensors and inkjet printers.
©2008 Institute of Nanotechnology


What is Nanotechnology? A basic definition: Nanotechnology is the engineering of functional systems at the molecular scale. This covers both current work and concepts that are more advanced. In its original sense, 'nanotechnology' refers to the projected ability to construct items from the bottom up, using techniques and tools being developed today to make complete, high performance products. The Meaning of Nanotechnology When K. Eric Drexler popularized the word 'nanotechnology' in the 1980's, he was talking about building machines on the scale of molecules, a few nanometers wide motors, robot arms, and even whole computers, far smaller than a cell. Drexler spent the next ten years describing and analyzing these incredible devices, and responding to accusations of science fiction. Meanwhile, mundane technology was developing the ability to build simple structures on a molecular scale. As nanotechnology became an accepted concept, the meaning of the word shifted to encompass the simpler kinds of nanometer-scale technology. The U.S. National Nanotechnology Initiative was created to fund this kind of nanotech: their definition includes anything smaller than 100 nanometers with novel properties.

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biodomotica. are expected to be developed. The third generation is expected to begin emerging around 2010 and will feature nanosystems with thousands of interacting components. The current era. A few years after that. an international. National Nanotechnology Initiative has described four generations of nanotechnology development (see chart below). materials designed to perform one task. introduces active nanostructures for multitasking. drug delivery devices. The second phase.S. as Roco depicts it. and sensors. is that of passive nanostructures. actuators. which we are just entering. the first integrated nanosystems.Transparent & Flexible Electronics © 2002-2008 Center for Responsible Nanotechnology TM CRN is an affiliate of World Care®. Four Generations Mihail (Mike) Roco of the . functioning (according to Roco) much like a mammalian cell with hierarchical systems within systems. for example. non-profit. 4 Massimo Marrazzo . 501(c)(3) organization.

Name metre 5 . nano means relating to nanotechnology. and was officially confirmed as standard in 1960.000001 0. Length of a bee. When used as a prefix for something other than a unit of measure.000000000000001 0. 100 nanometres (nm) or in the case of electrical capacitance.000000000001 0.(symbol n) is a prefix in the metric system denoting a factor of 10−9 or 0.000000000000000001 0.01 0. meaning "dwarf".000000001 0. Radius of a Hydrogen Atom is about 23 pm. the use of the nano prefix for the farad unit of electrical capacitance is uncommon.wikipedia.biodomotica. such as 30 nanoseconds (symbol ns). An SI prefix is a name that precedes a basic unit of measure to indicate a decadic multiple or fraction of the unit. In the United as in "nanoscience". Size of a typical nucleus of an atom is 10 fm.Transparent & Flexible Electronics . It is frequently encountered in science and electronics for prefixing units of time and length.http://en. 100 nanofarads (nF). Each prefix has a unique symbol that is prepended to the unit symbol. m dm cm mm ìm nm pm fm attoDecimal 100 10-1 10-2 10-3 10-6 10-9 10-12 10-15 am Representative objects with this size scale Height of a 7-year-old child. or on a scale of nanometres. 10-18 Estimated size of an electron Massimo Marrazzo . See nanoscopic scale. The prefix is derived from the Greek νάνος.000000000000000000001 0.001 0. Size of our palm. Size of typical dust particles. capacitors of that size are more often expressed in terms of a small fraction of a microfarad or a large number of picofarads.000000000000000000000001 Prefix yotta zetta exa peta tera giga mega kilo hecto deca deci centi milli micro nano pico femto atto zepto yocto Symbol Y Z E P T G M k h da0 10 d c m ì n p f a z y Short scale Septillion Sextillion Quintillion Quadrillion Trillion Billion Million Thousand Hundred Ten One Tenth Hundredth Thousandth Millionth Billionth Trillionth Quadrillionth Quintillionth Sextillionth Septillionth Long scale Quadrillion Trilliard Trillion Billiard Billion Milliard Milliardth Billionth Billiardth Trillionth Trilliardth Quadrillionth The International System of Units (SI) specifies a set of unit prefixes known as SI prefixes or metric prefixes. 10n 1024 1021 1018 1015 1012 109 106 103 102 101 10-1 10-2 10-3 10-6 10-9 10-12 10-15 10-18 10-21 10-24 SI prefixes Decimal 1000000000000000000000000 1000000000000000000000 1000000000000000000 1000000000000000 1000000000000 1000000000 1000000 1000 100 10 1 0. Thickness of ordinary paperclip. The diametre of a C60 molecule is about 1 nm.1 0.

Transparent & Flexible Electronics 6 Massimo Marrazzo .biodomotica.wikimedia.svg .org/wiki/Commons:Featured_picture_candidates/ http://commons.

which is brittle. required for such applications as touchscreens. graphite itself consists of many graphene sheets stacked together. The issue is that single sheets of graphene are hard to produce.wikipedia. Transparent conducting electrodes Graphene's high electrical conductivity and high optical transparency make it a candidate for transparent conducting 7 .org/wiki/Graphene Graphene is a one-atom-thick planar sheet of sp2-bonded carbon atoms that are densely packed in a honeycomb crystal lattice. the smallest transistor so far. In 2008. and OLEDs. It can be viewed as an atomic-scale chicken wire made of carbon atoms and their bonds. The name comes from GRAPHITE + ENE. 10 atoms wide was made of graphene.http://en. In particular. one atom thick. Researchers are looking into methods of transferring single graphene sheets from their source of origin (mechanical exfoliation on SiO2 / Si or thermal graphitization of a SiC surface) onto a target substrate of interest. and graphene films may be deposited from solution over large areas. liquid crystal displays. Massimo Marrazzo . organic photovoltaic cells. Graphene has a high carrier mobility. and even harder to make on top of an appropriate substrate. graphene's mechanical strength and flexibility are advantageous compared to indium tin oxide. Integrated circuits Graphene has the ideal properties to be an excellent component of integrated circuits. Graphene is an atomic-scale chicken wire made of carbon atoms.biodomotica. as well as low noise allowing it to be utilized as the channel in a FET.Transparent & Flexible Electronics Graphene .

.Transparent & Flexible Electronics N a n otu be s http://en.000. Inorganic nanotubes have also been synthesized.wikipedia. optical. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are allotropes of carbon with a nanostructure that can have a length-to-diameter ratio greater than 1.http://www. These cylindrical carbon molecules have novel properties that make them potentially useful in many applications in 3D model of three types of single-walled carbon nanotubes. and chemical properties. while they can be up to several millimeters in length (as of 2008).biodomotica. optics and other fields of materials science. mechanical. They exhibit extraordinary strength and unique electrical properties. Nanotubes are categorized as single-walled nanotubes (SWNTs) and multi-walled nanotubes (MWNTs). and are efficient conductors of heat. electronics. Their name is derived from their size.unidym.html What are Carbon Nanotubes? Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are tubular cylinders of carbon atoms that have extraordinary electrical.000th of the width of a human hair).000. since the diameter of a nanotube is in the order of a few nanometers (approximately 1/ .com/technology/about_carbon. 8 Massimo Marrazzo . thermal.

All this in a material that is over 10. one.5 to about 10 nanometers (one nanometer = 10-9 meter) and their lengths are typically between a few nanometers and tens of microns (one micron = 10-6 meter).html CARBON NANOTUBES Carbon nanotubes (fullerene nanotubes) are part of the fullerene family of carbon materials discovered by Dr. Massimo Marrazzo . They include single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). It readily bonds with itself into extended sheets of atoms comprising linked hexagonal rings shown below. Carbon is a truly remarkable atom. length. There are multiple forms of carbon nanotubes. and nested (endohedral or endotopic) SWNTs. and conduct heat better than diamond. often having millions of carbon atoms bonded together to form a tiny tube.unidym. Each tubular fullerene is a huge carbon molecule. Each carbon atom is covalently bonded to its three nearest neighbors.Transparent & Flexible Electronics Individual carbon nanotubes can conduct electricity better than copper. Richard Some forms of carbon nanotubes are metallic and highly conducting. and can form the basis of electronic switches. varying in diameter. Smalley and colleagues in 1985. carbon nanotubes can possess higher mobilities than single crystal silicon. . In electronic applications. i. and in the tendency of the nanotubes to form ropes and bundles of tubes. possess higher tensile strength than 9 . Carbon nanotube diameters range from about 0.http://www.biodomotica. two or more tubular fullerenes nested inside another tubular fullerene.. other forms are semiconducting.000 times thinner than a human hair.

stiffness. The carbon nanotubes' stiffness and toughness derives from their molecular perfection. Basic Structure There are literally hundreds of different carbon nanotube structures. a classification scheme was devised to describe the different conformations of graphene cylinders. wrapped into a tube and bonded seamlessly to itself. Carbon nanotubes. 10 Massimo Marrazzo . As one might imagine. the tube can be either metallic or semiconducting.the inside and the outside. As suggested by the carbon nanotube figure above. and a single gram of nanotubes has over 2400 m2 of surface area! The nature of the carbon bonding gives the tubes their great tensile strength and electrical and thermal conductivity. the molecular perfection of carbon nanotubes. One can identify these structures by thinking of the carbon nanotube as a sheet of graphene wrapped into a seamless . achieve values very close to their theoretical limits because of their perfection of structure . These properties include high surface area. No other element in the periodic table bonds to itself in an extended network with the strength of the carbon-carbon bond. This classification scheme uses an ordered pair of numbers.biodomotica. rather than stay home with their donor atoms. and toughness. Soon after fullerene nanotubes were discovered. The metallic tubes conduct electricity just as metals do and the semiconducting ones have great promise as the basic elements of a new paradigm for electronic circuitry at the molecular level. Solid graphite is made up of layers of graphene stacked as shown above. excellent electrical and thermal conductivity. The unit vectors of the 2-dimensional graphene lattice are shown as a1 and a2 below. which is among the strongest of chemical bonds. one must wrap the graphene sheet in a way that permits every carbon atom in the cylinder to be bonded to three other carbon atoms where the sheet joins to itself. and is based upon the diagram of graphene shown below. The number of ways this wrapping can be achieved is countable according to the numbering scheme given in the figure below. however. Some of the electrons in the carbon-carbon bonds are free to move about the entire graphene sheet. In order to make a seamless graphene tube of a uniform diameter. every atom is on two surfaces . and the second number is the distance of the vertex from the origin along a2. This is a true molecule with every atom in its place and very few defects: an example of molecular perfection on a relatively large scale. however. giving the structure good electrical conductivity. the structure of a fullerene nanotube is that of a sheet of graphene. forming a Y-shaped vertex of carbon-carbon bonds. and their long tubular shape endow them with physical and chemical properties that are unlike those of any other material. In most materials the actual observed stiffness and toughness are degraded very substantially by the occurrence of defects in their structure. and tremendous tensile strength. there are many ways to wrap a graphene cylinder.m). For example. Each carbon atom in the graphene sheet is bonded to three other carbon atoms. (n. Each vertex that could possibly join to the origin during a wrapping operation is labeled with an ordered pair wherein the first number of the pair is the distance (in lattice repeat units) of the vertex from the origin along a1. The special nature of the bonded carbon sheet.there are no structural defects where mechanical failures can begin! It is. and the cylinder can have a wide range of dimensions. The tight coupling between atoms in the carboncarbon bond provides an intrinsic thermal conductivity that exceeds almost all other materials. Depending on the orientation of the graphene sheet forming the tube's wall. high strength steel typically fails at about 1% of its theoretical breaking strength. the tubular geometry of carbon nanotubes that gives them their most exotic properties.Transparent & Flexible Electronics This unique sheet structure is called graphene. In a single tube.

As more and more transistors are packed on chips. there is a separate electron gun for each pixel in the display. 230 (2007)]. Nanotubes have tremendous thermal conductivity.http://www. and electron microscope cathodes. Massimo Marrazzo . which enable dramatic cost savings in such devices as LCDs and OLED-based displays. general cold-cathode lighting sources.. Furthermore.unidym. Field Emission Carbon nanotubes are the best field emitters of any known material. given their high electrical conductivity. the larger the electric field.biodomotica. and organic LED lighting. 2. plastic solar cells. devices based on individual carbon nanotubes may eventually replace existing silicon devices. Beyond their performance.http://thefutureofthings. and very porous. If the tip is placed close to another electrode and a voltage is applied between the tube and electrode.html High Speed Carbon Nanotube Based Chips A team of electrical engineers from Stanford University and Toshiba have developed nanotube wires that can withstand data transfer speeds comparable to those of commercially available chips. and steady. such devices are compatible with solutionbased printing techniques. Nature Nanotech. microprocessors are getting hotter and noisier. Instead of a single electron gun. Thus the sharper the tip is. Even with only a few volts applied to an electrode a few microns away from the nanotube tip. researchers have shown CNT-based transistors employing a sparse nanotube network to achieve mobilities of 1 cm2/V-s (Schindler et al.Q. The high current density. the film is seen to be a just a few layers of endless carbon nanotube ropes. personal digital assistants and many others. portable computers. and the unbeatable sharpness of their tip. Integrated Circuits Nanotubes might also represent a solution to thermal management problems plaguing the semiconductor industry. the researchers reported they had successfully used nanotubes to wire a silicon chip operating at the same speeds as today's processors. In light of their high carrying capacity. The industry is searching for new types of heat sinks to control temperatures on chips. Due to the unique conducting and semiconducting properties of nanotubes. long-lived behavior make carbon nanotubes ideal field emitters for this application. In a paper published in the _Nano Letters" Journal. . Wei. The films have an ideal conductivity for multiple types of touch screens which have applications including point-of-sale terminals. but almost completely and transparent carbon nanotube films have been demonstrated in the laboratory to be effective in all these areas. Lett. Nanotubes also prove to be useful additives to polymer-based TFTs and help to overcome some of the shortcomings of those devices. including LCD displays. The magnitude of the electric field is inversely proportional to the radius of curvature of the tip. Additionally. Phys. several prototypes for future memory devices based on nanotubes have been demonstrated. Other applications utilizing the field-emission characteristics of carbon nanotubes include: high-resolution x-ray sources. Appl. These fields are large enough to pull a substantial number of electrons out of the tip. For example. et al. This is understandable. while those using an aligned array of single-walled nanotubes can reach as high as 480 cm2/V-s [Kang et al. low turn-on and operating voltage.. Specifically. Physica E (2006). 79 1172 (2001)].html Transparent Conductive Films One of the more amazing attributes of carbon nanotubes is that they can form films that are highly electrically conductive. a large electric field builds up near the tip of the tube. As "cold cathode" electron emitters. carbon nanotube films have been shown to be capable of emitting over 4 Amperes per square centimeter. Printable Transistors The semiconducting properties of carbon nanotubes can be exploited to create printable transistors with extremely high performance. cell phones. the current is extremely stable [B. as in a traditional cathode ray tube display. and a number of firms are developing nanotube-based heat sinks.Transparent & Flexible Electronics . The film is only about 50 nanometers thick. electric fields in the range of a millions of Volts per centimeter will build up near the tip. Under an electron 11 . high-performance microwave tubes. nanotubes might replace copper interconnects in integrated circuits. An immediate application of this behavior receiving considerable interest is in field-emission flat-panel displays. individual nanotubes have been shown to be superior to existing silicon transistors and diodes. lightning arrestors. The transparent films used initially for touch screens also reach any application that requires a large-area transparent conductor.

(Credit: Gael Close Stanford University) .Copyright © 2008 The Future of Things. 12 Massimo Marrazzo .com .Transparent & Flexible Electronics Silicon CMOS integrated circuit with Carbon nanotube interconnect.biodomotica.

- http://www. which are organic polymers. and can utilize any solution-based material. such as flexible displays. etc. printing displays. elasticity. Printing typically uses common printing equipment. such as screen printing. electronic paper. Electrically functional electronic or optical inks are deposited on the substrate. inorganic semiconductors. very low-cost. malleability. which can be deposited by solution-based.http://en. including organic semiconductors. offset lithography and inkjet. Paper's rough surface and high water absorption rate has focused attention on materials such as plastic.wikipedia. RF-ID tags. creating active or passive devices.wikipedia. and flexible displays. in contrast. These other terms refer to the ink material. such as thin film transistors or resistors. The biggest advantage of conductive polymers is their processability.html Printed electronics (also called electronic printing) is the term for a relatively new technology that defines the printing of electronics on common media such as paper. they can combine the mechanical properties (flexibility. The term printed electronics is related to organic electronics or plastic electronics. Therefore. smart labels. vacuum-based or some other method. Printed electronics is expected to facilitate widespread and very low-cost electronics useful for applications not typically associated with conventional silicon based electronics. insulator solution. flexography.http://en. .com 13 . . Instead of printing graphic arts inks. Such compounds may have metallic conductivity or be semiconductors.Transparent & Flexible Electronics Printed electronics . Printed electronics is a set of printing methods used to create electrical devices. SWNT. contact printing and offset Conductive polymers or more precisely intrinsically conducting polymers (ICPs) are organic polymers that conduct electricity. specifies the process.) of plastics with high electrical conductivity. nanotubes. etc) are used to print active devices. ceramics and silicon. in which one or more inks are composed of carbon-based compounds. metallic Massimo Marrazzo . etc. decorative and animated posters. Conductive polymers are also plastics. such as thin film transistors.nanowerk. toughness. This printing preferably utilizes common press equipment in the graphics arts industry. gravure.http://alislab. nanoparticles. and active clothing that do not require high performance. Printed electronics is expected to facilitate widespread. gravure. and functional clothing. low-performance electronics for applications such as flexible displays. families of electrically functional electronic inks (conducting polymer.biodomotica. such as screen printing. Printed electronics. plastic using standard printing processes.

Transparent & Flexible Electronics The fabrication of electronic devices on plastic substrates has attracted considerable recent attention owing to the proliferation of handheld. and then peeling them off and transferring them to plastic. high quality semiconductors (such as silicon) require high growth temperatures. Unfortunately. they developed a general. Plastic substrates possess many attractive properties including biocompatibility. A group of researchers at the California Institute of Technology now showed that highly ordered films of silicon nanowires can be literally glued onto pieces of plastic to make flexible sensors with state-of-theart sensitivity to a range of toxic chemicals. behind them lies the reddish semiconsuctor layer. shock resistance. Achieving high performance electronics or sensors on plastic substrates is difficult. The gate electrode lies invisibly behind the white insulator layer. because plastics melt at temperatures above 120 degrees C. light Media Technology http://www. Source: [pmTUC] Institute for Print. The finger structure of the source/drain electrodes can be seen.php - http://printedelectronics. portable consumer electronics. 2005 First polymer electronic transistor produced completely by means of continuous mass printing By Mike Hanlon September 15. and scalable strategy for achieving high performance electronics on low cost plastic substrates. softness and transparency.idtechex. Caltech) By Michael Berger. Central to continued advances in high-performance plastic electronics is the development of robust methods for overcoming this temperature restriction.gizmag. parallel. flexibility.asp 14 Massimo Marrazzo . Copyright 2008 Nanowerk LLC . so their application to flexible plastics is prohibited. Photograph of the flexible sensor chip (Image: Heath Group. These nanowires are crystalline wires made out of doped silicon – the mainstay of the computer industry.biodomotica. By etching nanowires into a wafer of silicon.

biocompatible LEDs could light the way for next gen biomedicine By Ben Coxworth October 22. articles provide commentary. materials and manufacturing. or military/industrial applications. Many groups have been trying to produce flexible electronic circuits. 2010 Researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have created bio-compatible LED arrays that can bend. by contrast. The U Illinois arrays. this free portal covers the progress to printed electronics in all its forms .Transparent & Flexible Electronics About Printed Electronics World Printed Electronics World provides you with a daily update of the latest industry developments. 15 . transfer printed onto the fingertip of a vinyl glove Massimo Marrazzo . displays. and even be implanted under the skin. Launched in May Flexible. stretch. monitoring medical conditions. the leading printed electronics analyst and event organiser. analysis and give a balanced view of the issue. sensors. An LED array. however. most of those incorporating new materials such as carbon nanotubes combined with silicon. the arrays are actually intended for activating drugs. Hosted and written by IDTechEx. While this might cause some people to immediately think _glowing tattoos!". Copyright © 2008 IDTechEx Ltd.gizmag. - http://www. or performing other biomedical tasks within the body.biodomotica. they could also be incorporated into consumer goods. Down the road. use the traditional semiconductor gallium arsenide (GaAs) and conventional metals for diodes and detectors.from transistor circuits to power.

to create a mesh-like grid of LEDs and photodetectors. Recently. by stamping GaAs-based components onto a plastic film.biodomotica. That array was added to a pre-stretched sheet of rubber. John Rogers and his team were able to create the array's underlying circuit. 16 Massimo Marrazzo . The research was recently published in the journal Nature Materials. The resulting device can be twisted or stretched in any . The coiled wires.Transparent & Flexible Electronics Bending with a folded piece of paper Last year. which was then itself encapsulated inside another piece of rubber. Prof. this one being biocompatible and transparent. with the electronics remaining unaffected after being repeatedly stretched by up to 75 percent. are the secret to its flexibility. they added coiled interconnecting metal wires and electronic components. which spring back and forth like a telephone cord.

com/?p=14473 Roll-to-roll Plastic Displays Oct 22 2010 A new company puts silicon transistors on plastic for flexible displays This plastic material is used as the backing for Phicot’s amorphous silicon electronics. Credit: Phicot Massimo Marrazzo .com 17 .Transparent & Flexible Electronics .targethealth.http://blog.biodomotica.

and less expensive than inorganic conductors. Organic electronics not only includes organic semiconductors. inorganic conductors will remain the only viable option. It also creates the possibility of new applications that would be impossible using copper or silicon. for many applications. as compared to inorganic conductors. conductors and light emitters. but also organic Organic electronics. more flexible. This is as opposed to traditional electronics which relies on inorganic conductors such as copper or silicon. In general organic conductive polymers have a higher resistance and therefore conduct electricity poorly and inefficiently.Transparent & Flexible Electronics Organic electronics (see also Printed electronic) .biodomotica. like melanin. Conductive polymers are lighter. with relatively small amounts of conductive metals to boost conductivity. like the molecules of living things. or small molecules.wikipedia.http://en. New applications include smart windows and electronic paper. or plastic electronics. . However. Researchers currently are exploring ways of "doping" organic semiconductors. is a branch of electronics that deals with conductive polymers. Conductive polymers are expected to play an important role in the emerging science of molecular computers. Organic electronics can be printed. 18 Massimo Marrazzo . This makes them a desirable alternative in many applications. It is called 'organic' electronics because the polymers and small molecules are carbon-based. New film technologies for printed polymer electronics developed October 22nd. Creative Materials is expanding its line of products for the printed electronics market. scale-up for high volume manufacturing can be easily achieved. and manufacturing processes. introduces 125-26. .nanowerk. silicon and indium tin oxide. 125-26A/B119-44 is a flexible two-part epoxy ink that features superior adhesion to ITOcoated surfaces and other low surface-energy substrates. The inks ad here to a very wide range of plastic films such as Makrofol® and Bayfol® and other flexible materials.. contacts and electrodes to be applied much more easily and effectively than with conventional methods. .php Methode's Inkjet Printable Conductive Ink Allows Printing of Circuits on Polyester with No Secondary Curing June 24.printelectronicnews.http://www.. formulated for thermal and piezo inkjet Inc.biodomotica. makes it possible for engineers to print working electrical circuits. The range of applications is wide – for example. These new inks boast excellent adhesion to plastic films.printing circuits with fineline widths and spaces. Massimo Marrazzo . 2010 (Nanowerk News) Methode Development Company. 2010 Creative Materials. an exceptional conductive ink for screen. Inc. which are mostly more complicated and more energy. it is possible to apply line widths with a resolution of less than 30 micrometers that are no longer visible to the human eye. other flexible Fine-Line Epoxy Ink Recommended for Printed Electronics Applications December 2nd. as well as to rigid substrates. With this technology. as invisible conductor tracks they can be used to simplify the complex design of touchscreens. prototyping. http://www.cgi?story_id=36811 Conductive nano inks for printed electronics Leverkusen | February 17th.printelectronicnews. Customized service along the entire process chain. The 19 .http://www. These can be applied digitally using Depending on the process. Our newest 2010 Conductive nano inks for flexible circuits Bayer MaterialScience develops conductive and formable nano inks for use in areas such as printed polymer electronics under the BayInk® name. right from their desktops – facilitating product development. announces that its conductive inkjet printable ink can now print circuits directly onto treated polyesters. This enables conductor tracks.and material-intensive.nanotech-now. This product has been used successfully in printed electronics applications and is recommended where high-performance on coated substrates is necessary. a business unit of Methode Electronics.Transparent & Flexible Electronics Ink for “printed electronics” http://www. 2010 The two conductive inks BayInk® TP S and BayInk® TP CNT from Bayer MaterialScience have been developed primarily for use in the growing “printed electronics” market.

Transparent conductive film for use in displays is one of the headline applications for carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency and National Science Foundation Printed electronics will enable the development of ultra-low-cost RFID circuits for use as electronic barcodes. Copyright © 2007: PennWell Corporation. In order to achieve ultra low cost.http://www. and a newly developed insulator ink.php?f_year=2005&f_submit=one&f_absid=100770 High-Performance All-Inkjet-Printed Transistors for Ultra-low-cost RFID Applications Dec 16. . David Howard Redinger and Steven K. but the challenge is to bring down production costs. all such devices have been fabricated using silicon substrates with thermally grown oxides or using vacuum sublimated developed by Xerox researchers. Xerox Research Centre of Canada. there have been several demonstrations of printed transistors with mobilities approaching or exceeding 1 cm2/V-s. 2010 Alejandro De La Fuente Vornbrock. performance must be maintained without silicon substrates or vacuum processing. .htm Epson Inkjet Technology Used to Fabricate World's First Ultra-Thin Multilayer Circuit . A liquid-based organic semiconductor however. Tulsa. It means TEC is non-particle type ink before sintering and specially designed by InkTec. Steven Edward Molesa.http://nanotechweb.By Beng Ong . Advanced Materials and Organic Electronics Transparent Electronic Conductive TEC is the acronym of _Transparent Electronic Conductive." and one of the salient features of that TEC ink is its transparency at liquid phase. Copyright © 2008 SEIKO EPSON CORP https://buffy. The interconnected material is seen as being more robust than today's ITO electrodes and could prove a popular choice for flexible devices. OK 20 Massimo Marrazzo . vacuum processing.http://www.Research fellow and manager. Recently. Volkman (Professors Ali Niknejad and Vivek Subramanian) Semiconductor Research Corporation. which is a world-class research and manufacturing company of inkjet applications.Transparent & Flexible Electronics . Epson recently succeeded in producing a 20-layer circuit board sample by using an inkjet system to alternately "draw" patterns and form layers on the board using two types of ink: a conductive ink containing a dispersion of silver micro-particles measuring from several nanometers to several tens of nanometers in Inkjet prints transparent CNT film. since it eliminates the need for lithography. is used to print the semiconductor channel layers for large-area transistor arrays. and allows the use of low-cost web Semiconductor ink advances flexible displays The technique being developed fabricates devices using high-volume inkjet printing to replace the photolithographic techniques used to create the thin-film-transistor backplane circuits used in

Sheet or Web-fed Screen Printing Flexographic Printing Inkjet Printing Leveraging additive print processes. Massimo Marrazzo .ntera. NanoChromics Ink Systems can be combined with other printed electronic technologies (and traditional graphics inks) on the same substrate. Compatibility with existing.http://www.Transparent & Flexible Electronics Printer for “printed electronics” .php Web-Fed (Roll-to-Roll) Printed NCD Displays on Flexible Substrate Printing Processes NanoChromics Ink Systems are compatible with existing printing equipment and 21 . widely available printing equipment minimizes capital investment for traditional graphics printers looking to expand into printed electronics and functional media.

http://www. lower-cost copper nanoparticle inks. while the substrate is CDT is sole supplier of the Litrex range of Ink Jet. This speed allows copper inks to be sintered too quickly for a surface oxide layer to develop. cutting. Here’s what’s happening: 1. Here’s the photonic curing contribution: The challenge has long been . To support the Litrex printer range CDT can offer materials. so conductivity is improved. High energy peak pulses.TEMPERATURE SUBSTRATES: PULSED LIGHT EXCELS The world of printed electronics is moving out of R&D and into production. 2. 3.) Functionally conductive inks and coatings now contain nanoparticles that permit the use of low-cost substrates such as paper. delivered in milliseconds. PET and polyethylene films.oled-display. and new developments in materials—particularly nanoparticle inks and photonic curing from Xenon Corporation—are in the driver’s seat.xenoncorp. Cambridge Display Technology have also partnered industry leaders across the globe to offer a fully inclusive ink jet package. Citala can manufacture flexible displays and optical shutters using the same line.© Copyright 2008 Citala. Citala's R2R-schematic diagram .com/index. coating.) It is now possible to print at room temperature on flexible substrates such as printed circuit boards. Citala was one of the first companies to offer genuine R2R manufacturing. All Rights Reserved . print heads. The high energy removes the . How do you sinter or anneal nanoparticle inks at substrate 22 Massimo Marrazzo . which are typically below 160C? Xenon’s photonic pulsed light curing answers this challenge.Transparent & Flexible Electronics .http://www.http://www.html Roll To Roll Manufacturing Citala. gold and most More about OLED Inkjet Printing and PLED at http://www. R2R enables solutions for patterning. enabling the production of large.citala. know-how and skills development packages.php/flexible-display-technology/Roll-To-Roll-Manufacturing.html PHOTONIC SINTERING OF NANOPARTICLE INKS ON LOW. quickly heat only the inks and not the substrates. and combining different layers of customizable displays.biodomotica. leaving only the metal flakes which are sintered or annealed. US-based roll-to-roll (R2R) manufacturing is state-of-the art with a track record of reliability. cost-effective quantities.) New developments allow inkjets and screen printers to use silver.

http://www.dimatix. Purdue University Together.asp?sect=5&page=12 The Litrex _ precision inkjet printer is a low-cost.engr. http://www. and biomaterial applications. researchers at Illinois and Purdue have overcome a major obstacle in producing transistors from networks of carbon nanotubes. Massimo Marrazzo . electronics and the biosciences. .dea.brunel.htm Over four years research work at Brunel University has demonstrated the feasibility of manufacturing electrical circuit interconnect via the established printing technology of offset lithography. LCD. - http://www.Transparent & Flexible Electronics . a technology that could make it possible to print circuits on plastic sheets for applications including flexible displays and an electronic skin to cover an entire aircraft to monitor crack Dimatix is driving a revolution in micro-production technology that will deliver a new generation of applications in imaging. leading to reduced production time and raw material use when compared to conventional thick film printing printed electronics. It has been shown that offsetlithography can be used as a process for manufacture of low specification electrical 23 .php?xId=074108960714 'Nanonet' circuits closer to making flexible electronics reality By Emil © 2008 Cleaner Electronics Research Group Conventional and Lithographically printed circuit boards for telephone This demonstrator surpassed all others in complexity and processor speed. compact system for research and development of OLED/ .

http://www. in valves. and in unmanned aircrafts. silicon circuits conform to many shapes . in micro-fluidics and biomedical sensors. . The material could also be used in micro-electromechanical devices.html Researchers from the University of Michigan (UM) have developed a composite plastic.html Foldable and stretchable.biodomotica. © Copyright Technology Research News.htm Difference Between Silicon and Silicone 24 Massimo Marrazzo .http://www.Transparent & Flexible Electronics Transparent and Strong Plastic Transparent Plastic .com . but much lighter and transparent. Light. The composite plastic could be used in the making of stronger and lighter armor for soldiers and police forces and for protecting their vehicles.http://thefutureofthings. Copyright © 2009 The Future of Things. All rights reserved. which they say is strong as Flexible silicon Stretchable and bendable computer circuits made from ordinarily brittle single-crystal silicon promise flexible electronic devices that perform at nearly the same level as today's rigid computer chips. The scientists name several possible applications for their LLC 2000-2008. All rights reserved .

Val Kilmer tries to work out where he and his team have wound up on the surface.' Director Antony Hoffman reckoned it might take a while to realise the transparent map.4 eV). principal scientist at Nokia's research centre in Cambridge. Nokia unveiled what it called the Morph concept.or Invisible Electronics Dec 2009 By Pratima Transparent electronics is a emerging But it's still inspiring engineers to work out how to make a roll-up. are hoping that they can develop something similar much more quickly. Bower explained the idea at the Printed Electronics conference in Dresden in April: 'You can take a standard candy-bar phone and transform it. he unrolls a see-through computer that tries to match the local landscape with the images collected by scores of unmanned Mars probes over the years. How it works? Transparent oxide semiconductor based transistors have recently been proposed using as active channel intrinsic zinc oxide (ZnO). it is transparent in the visible region of the spectra and therefore. Working on morph A couple of years ago.defrosters 7. which is a particular advantage for electronic drivers. 4.indiastudychannel.heaters 6. We are trying to build a library of functional surface materials that provide the ability to change colour or haptic feedback.optical coatings etc .aspx Transparent Electronics -. Applications: They have been widely used in a variety of applications like: 1. Tolis 25 . director of the materials and devices applications lab at Sharp Laboratories of America.Transparent & Flexible Electronics Transparent Electronics . 'Red Planet' is not showing much sign of becoming a cult classic and ultimately profitable like 'Blade Runner'. What is Transparent Electronics? Its just Technology for next generation of optoelectronic devices and employs wide band-gap semiconductors for the realization of invisible circuits.touch display panels 3. Ten years on. Engineers such as Chris Oxide semiconductors are very interesting materials because they combine simultaneously high/low conductivity with high visual transparency. where the response speed is of major importance. So. It was a bomb at the box office. But thanks to Hollywood we still have the vision.theiet. And we still don't have technology to do this. since ZnO is a wide band gap material (3. The main advantage of using ZnO deals with the fact that it is possible to growth at/near room temperature high quality polycrystalline ZnO.cfm Transparent electronics look to use in smart objects June 2010 By Chris Edwards Transparent electronic materials will make it possible to build a new generation of smart objects. says: ''Red Planet' was shown in 2000. Besides that. A set of videos showed what the portable computer and phone of the future might look like. 'Red Planet' was set in 2056. also less light sensitive. We also need compliancy to reshape Massimo Marrazzo .antistatic coatings 2.http://www.biodomotica. see-through map. After crash-landing on Mars in the 2000 movie 'Red Planet'. which is satisfying the requirements of everything invisible or multi-purpose objects. You can wrap it around your wrist so that it becomes a wearable cells.flat panel displays 5. 'We are working hard to enable the Morph concept.

Keszler points to a paper on the creation of a p-type transistor by Hiroshi Kawazoe and colleagues at the Tokyo Institute of Technology in 1997 as the birth of modern transparent electronics. Carbon nanotubes and plastics are vying with metal oxides for a role in transparent electronics. non-crystalline silicon. This is where we believe transparent metal oxides fit in: filling a gap between organic materials and alpha-silicon in terms of cost and performance. allowing us to fabricate discrete transparent components. That is a big opportunity for a lot of people. electrons do not move easily through most of them. According to Keszler. With the two types available. the key component. indium. disrupting its ability to conduct electricity. often called alpha-silicon. 'However. She compares metal oxides to lower-grade forms of silicon used in flat-panel displays. it became feasible to build thin-film diodes and transistors. But you need to use really high temperatures to get this. 26 Massimo Marrazzo .' says Bower. in the way that it should for a workable transistor. 'The phase we are in now. the best materials have a conductivity more than ten times worse than the contact metals used today in silicon chips. Li says even with this lower performance.' says Li. And transparency is something we require. 'Polysilicon gives you great mobility. is a very rare and expensive metal. Mobility is only one of the concerns that researchers have with metal oxides. on indium gallium zinc oxide transistors. There is a reason why transparent metal oxides are not more widely used in electronics. Li says many of these materials are binary oxides that are difficult to produce reliably using sputtering . Douglas Keszler of Oregon State University.Transparent & Flexible Electronics the device. Peter Harrop.' As with the the transistor. The coming third generation will put active transparent components into many more devices. Indium tin oxide (ITO) has become the one material that appears almost everywhere as a conductive coating for flat-screens and touchscreens.' says Voutsas. there is still a useful role for these devices. such as polycrystalline and amorphous.' Li says ITO represents the first generation of transparent electronics. Thin-film transistors made out of metal oxides date back to the the 1960s but it's only since the late 1990s that research has shown that it is possible to create a library of standard components that you can see through. There are replacements but they need to gain traction. aircraft makers used transparent conductive oxides to deliver heat to windshields to keep them free of ice. but the metals have a solid lead historically. a leading researcher into transparent metal . with flexible and even stretchable displays. Whereas alpha-silicon generally has a mobility of around 1cm/Vs. Unfortunately. chairman of analyst firm IDTechEx. researchers are working with a range of metals in the hope of finding combinations that work. giving researchers a strong incentive to find other options. says: 'It's a defeat that indium tin oxide is still used for transparent electronics.' she claims. showing a Photoshop-assisted mockup of Nokia's take on the transparent navigator. Alpha-silicon you can make at much lower temperatures but at the expense of lower mobility. which Keszler co-founded. In the Second World War. Sharp worked with startup Inpria. forming just passive conductors on the surface of screens. all the conductors were n-type. which is still five times lower than the polysilicon used in high-end displays but is usable.the balance between the two metals in the oxide varies. research associate at the University of Cambridge. The roll-up map is not the only applications for see-through electronics. 'And the threshold voltage is high.' says Flora Li. That is why you don't see a product that uses amorphous-oxide TFTs. 'We believe metal oxides can enable transparent electronics and they have been around for some time. Up to that point. reckons these materials will find uses in car dashboards and windows to provide extra real estate for computer circuits. the current doesn't saturate. researchers have managed to achieve around 30cm'/Vs for the widely available material zinc oxide. we consider the second generation. As with the organic polymers used in printed electronics.biodomotica.

com/computing/21964/?a=f High-quality.php New work at the University of Southern California (USC) has now demonstrated the great potential of massively aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes for high-performance transparent electronics. Making high-quality graphene sheets is usually a translucent and . and gate electrodes.technologyreview. Korean researchers have found a way to make large graphene films that are both strong and stretchy and have the best electrical properties yet.sciencenews. With work continuing on indium-based oxides. Jack Munushian Associate Professor in USC's Department of Electrical Engineering. 'But we think that this is one of the technologies that will emerge soon. layers of carbon atoms called graphene are also excellent electrical conductors that could find use in flexible computer displays.' says Li. the metals can migrate into other layers. which Li found with indium zinc oxide and hafnium oxide gates. easily available winner in transparent conductive oxides. © 2009 Ji Hye Hong .. molecular electronics and new wireless communications. tells Nanowerk. On the other hand. materials scientists have yet to find a genuine low-cost. zinc oxides seem to work well with hafnium oxide._bendable_electronics_ Graphene from gases for new. What we found really works with indium zinc is aluminium.© 2009 . Prachi Patel-Predd 27 . . "We have fabricated these transistors through low-temperature processing." By Michael Berger." Chongwu Zhou.biodomotica. clear graphene films are a leap toward bendable OLED displays. which can be scaled up for mass production. 'We found the indium migrated into the hafnium layer and destroyed the device.technologyreview. Copyright 2008 Nanowerk LLC Massimo Marrazzo . "We fabricated transparent thin-film transistors on both rigid and flexible substrates with transfer printed aligned carbon nanotubes as the active channel and indium-tin oxide as the source. but now several research groups have discovered ways to make patterned graphene circuits using techniques borrowed from microchip manufacturing.http://www.©2009 . which allowed device fabrication even on flexible substrates.http://www.http://chem.Transparent & Flexible Electronics Like silicon-based SKKU Graphene Research Laboratory . painstaking process.' Voutsas concludes.sciencenews. By Patrick Barry . bendable electronics Flexible..

http://pubs. Article ASAP DOI: 10. David B. "We have demonstrated fully-transparent thin-film transistors (TFTs) on both glass and flexible plastic substrates" Dr. Janes) 28 Massimo Marrazzo . http://www. Its University of Southern California creators believe the prototype points the way to such long sought after applications as affordable "head-up" car windshield displays. Alexander Badmaev. Researchers at Purdue University. which would allow integration of the devices with a number of other technologies (e. for displays). with a lattice of more than 20. ultra thin. University of Southern California.biodomotica. restricting the speed of operation and requiring relatively large device sizes. Wellestablished TFT technologies such as amorphous silicon and poly-silicon are well-suited for many current applications .g.g. and the University of Southern California now have reported nanowire TFTs that have significantly higher mobilities than other TFT technologies and therefore offer the potential to operate at much higher speeds. large-area electronics and printed electronics (e. Northwestern University. Koungmin Ryu.Transparent & Flexible Electronics . these TFTs have modest carrier mobilities. However. The modest mobility corresponds to a modest operating speed for this class of TFTs.1021/nn800434d Publication Date (Web): December 10. radio-frequency identification tags . Janes tells Nanowerk.000 nanotube transistors capable of high-performance electronics printed upon it using a potentially inexpensive low-temperature process.php USC researchers print dense lattice of transparent nanotube transistors on flexible base It's a clear. 2008 Report high-performance fully transparent thin-film transistors (TTFTs) on both rigid and flexible substrates. Po-chiang Chen. Image of NWTs on a plastic substrate.nanowerk.php Transparent and flexible electronics with nanowire transistors Thin-film transistors (TFTs) and associated circuits are of great interest for applications including displays. mobilities in organic TFTs are generally quite low. a measure of the velocity of electrons within the material at a given electric field. Guozhen Shen and Chongwu Zhou* Department of Electrical Engineering. low-power "e-paper" displays. colorless disk about 5 inches in diameter that bends and twists like a playing card. Organic TFTs are generally better suited for flexible applications.1021/nn800434d Transparent Electronics Based on Transfer Printed Aligned Carbon Nanotubes on Rigid and Flexible Substrates Fumiaki N. They also provide compatibility with a variety of substrates. ©2008 www. showing the optical clarity and mechanical California 90089 ACS Nano.eurekalert.almost all mobile phone color screens use them .http://www.but face challenges in extensions to flexible and transparent applications. which allows higher levels of integration within a given chip area. In and can be made transparent. Hsiao-kang Chang.RFID). they can be fabricated using much smaller device . Lewis Gomez De Arco.acs. The lattices could also be used to create cheap. Alternatively. Los . as well as the potential for room-temperature processing. Arrows point to the transistor array regions (Image: Dr. Ishikawa.

Transparent & Flexible Electronics

The Clear Future of Electronics: Transparent Memory Device A group of scientists at Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) has fabricated a working computer chip that is almost completely clear -- the first of its kind. The new technology, called transparent resistive random access memory (TRRAM), is described in this week's issue of the journal Applied Physics Letters, which is published by the American Institute of Physics. 11.12.2008 - Electronics can be so transparent One of the newly emerging areas of semiconductor technology is the field of transparent electronics. These thin-film materials hold the promise of a new class of flexible and transparent electronic components that would be more environmentally benign than current electronics. However, the emerging transparent electronics technology is facing manufacturing problems: current fabricating processes do not separate the device manufacturing from material synthesis. The transparent electronic materials, which are largely inorganic oxides. are directly deposited on the device substrate under harsh conditions which may cause damage to the existing layer or flexible substrate. The etching of small dimension oxide multilayer is also difficult due to the low selectivity of the etching recipe. New research results demonstrate that nanofabrication techniques could solve these problems. A group of researchers from Clarkson University and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory report that clear nanocrystals can serve as the appropriate electronic materials in the transparent device. "The purpose of our work is to demonstrate the fabrication of transparent devices using nanofabrication and nanomaterials" Dr. Feng Hua tells to Nanowerk.
By Michael Berger, Copyright 2008 Nanowerk LLC

- Transparent Electronic Products Soon a Reality Since the arrival of low-cost transparent transistors, R&D into transparent electronics has progressed rapidly. It will soon be possible, for instance, to embed transparent electronic circuits into large areas like windows, enabling the display of video imagery.
Copyright © 1995-2008 Nikkei Business Publications, Inc.

By Michael Berger, Copyright 2008 Nanowerk LLC

- Nanotubes Enable Flexible, Transparent Electronics Flexible electronics have taken an important leap forward with the development of a new type of flexible, transparent electrode made using carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Jackson State University researchers made the electrode by applying boron-doped CNTs to glass and polymer film surfaces. The devices are 89% transparent to visible light and are robust; they maintain their conducting properties even after being folded and exposed to harsh environmental conditions.

- Invisible Electronics Northwestern University researchers report that by combining organic and inorganic materials they have produced transparent, high-performance transistors that can be assembled inexpensively on both glass and plastics.

- Advanced Display Nanodevice Transparent Thin film transistor(TFT) - OSU Licenses New Transparent Electronics to HP Scientists and engineers at Oregon State University have developed a new class of materials that can be used to create safe, inexpensive and transparent electronic circuits, and licensed the exclusive rights to develop and market products based on this technology to HP. Massimo Marrazzo - 29

Transparent & Flexible Electronics

Flexible and trasparent displays
For more info about this please see: Nanotechnology vol.2 Technology for E-books Readers (B/W & colors display)

Flexible Display



30 Massimo Marrazzo -

Transparent & Flexible Electronics

Transparent TFT-LCD


Transparent OLED


Massimo Marrazzo - 31

2 Technology for E-books Readers (B/W & colors display) .pdf by Emily Cooper .com/public/ 32 Massimo Marrazzo .cooperhawk.http://www.Transparent & Flexible Electronics Electronic paper / E-paper / E-ink® For more info about this please see: Nanotechnology vol.biodomotica.biodomotica.

Huang’s group overcame this problem by demonstrating that a low-vapor-pressure ionic liquid – essentially molten salt – could function in the vacuum environment. indicating that nanowires are very good candidates for battery electrodes. either for cathode or anode studies.” he added. the researchers found that during charging the tin oxide nanowire rod nearly doubles in length. This unexpected finding goes against the common belief of workers in the field that batteries swell across their diameter. World’s smallest battery created By Darren Quick December 2010 Nano Battery A tin oxide anode contorts in response to ions flowing in as the battery charges. Atomic-scale examination of the charging and discharging process of a single nanowire had not been possible before because the high vacuum in a TEM made it difficult to use a liquid electrolyte. “Our experiments also lay a foundation for in-situ studies of electrochemical reactions.biodomotica. a greater and greater percentage of the volume of these devices is taken up by the batteries needed to keep them running. not longitudinally. This is far more than its diameter increases and could help avoid short circuits that may shorten battery life. Sandia Labs 33 .Transparent & Flexible Electronics Printed battery . Because nanowire-based materials in lithium-ion batteries offer the potential for significant improvements in power and energy density over bulk electrodes the researchers wanted to gain an understanding of the fundamental mechanisms by which batteries work. Now a team of researchers working at the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT) is claiming to have created the world’s smallest battery. electrodeposition and general chemical synthesis research field. and will have broad impact in energy storage. By following the progression of the lithium ions as they travel along the nanowire. it has already provided insights into how batteries work and should enable the development of smaller and more efficient batteries in the future. Huang says the experiments could be extended to other materials systems. This means that although the work was carried out using tin oxide nanowires.” The research team’s work is reported in the December 10 issue of the journal Science.” he said. Massimo Marrazzo . corrosion. “The methodology that we developed should stimulate extensive real-time studies of the microscopic processes in batteries and lead to a more complete understanding of the mechanisms governing battery performance and reliability.” Huang said. and although the tiny battery won’t be powering next year’s mobile phones. They therefore formed the battery inside a transmission electron microscope (TEM) so they could study the charging and discharging of the battery in real time and at atomic scale resolution. The tiny Because battery technology hasn’t developed as quickly as the electronic devices they power. “These observations prove that nanowires can sustain large stress (>10 GPa) induced by lithiation without breaking. an ionic liquid electrolyte. It consists of a bulk lithium cobalt cathode three millimeters long.gizmag. “Manufacturers should take account of this elongation in their battery design. lithium-based battery was created by a team led by Sandia National Laboratories researcher Jianyu Huang. and has as its anode a single tin oxide (Sn02) nanowire 10 nanometers long and 100 nanometers in diameter – that’s one seven-thousandth the thickness of a human hair.

. Myeongseong Chemical This battery. we will dramatically improve the performance of the battery cell structure design and optimization of polymer electrolyte interface control electrode materials.. 34 Massimo Marrazzo . It is a world first because the all-solid polymer lithium secondary battery employs a printing process. Kurehaerasutoma Co. ITSUBO Advanced Materials Innovation Center and Hatanaka Electric in Japan announced a large area printed lithium polymer battery that can be reshaped as shown in the pictures.. bendable.. cell thickness 450µm (external dimension) Initial charge and discharge efficiency of 99% Initial capacity of 45mAh (electrode material utilization efficiency of 80%) Operating voltage 1. Such batteries are welcome as the printed electronics sector is expected to grow rapidly.asp Energy Printing Lithium Ion Batteries January 2010 The Advanced Materials Innovation Center (AMIC) of MIE Industry and Enterprise Support Center. Ltd. It has been jointly conducted by the government and academia.http://newenergyandfuel.biodomotica. Mie University. the Hawkes Ocean Technologies Deepflight submarines. Development of this cell is continuing at the Principal Research and Development Center for Next Generation Batteries.Making small electronic and electric devices self-sufficient Mar 2010 | Japan Printed lithium reshaping battery In February 2010. A safe.Transparent & Flexible Electronics http://www. large area battery has resulted.. thin.energyharvestingjournal. Mie Prefecture Industrial Research Institute (Kinseimatekku Co. This is the statement from Mie Prefecture Industrial Support Center for the Promotion of Education and Science. For more read : Energy Harvesting and Storage for Electronic Devices 2009-2019 ." Photos prototype polymer lithium secondary batteries Prototype battery performance "Cell size A6 (external dimension).. plus a separator.8 V (voltage at 50% depth of discharge) Discharge rate of 0. has developed a lithium polymer battery that can be manufactured by printing technology.0C of more than 100 cycle times (the current ongoing evaluation) Operating Temperature 0 ~ 25 C° In .. Ltd. Ltd. the PC-Aero pure electric aircraft etc. but even more powerful batteries will be welcome. Shin-Co. which offers ease of stacking. "This development of advanced materials and innovation creates a new generation all-solid polymer lithium secondary battery.). a Japanbased foundation.. Toppan Printing Co. Power Scavenging .02C ~ 1. Ministry of Industry-Academia Collaboration Urban Areas (a development in the Mie Ise Bay area)." Second generation lithium batteries that are safer and have better performance are incorporated in the Lightning Car Company's Lightning sports car. Ltd. involving new electrode material and electrode interface control technology and a new polymer electrolyte. the KleenSpeed Technologies 200mph Formula One car. Ltd.. avoids the safety and reliability challenges of manufacturing polymer electrolyte lithium ion secondary batteries.

The capacity issue is of some concern. the thickness of the flexible substrate can be reduced.biodomotica. costs can be reduced. Suzuka National College of Technology and MIE Prefecture Industrial Research Institute. but 4 volts. The research group used a normal sheet-shaped flexible substrate but employed a printing technology that can be applied to roll-to-roll production. The sheet-shaped battery is being researched to be used with a flexible solar cell and be attached to a curved surface. The AMIC says it did not use a printing technology to package the polymer electrolyte for the prototypes. increased surface areas and laminated construction. Quite thin. During the coming year. or 500 microns – that’s a 35 . The effort is a three-year project that will end in March 2011. it is possible to build a sheet that can be used both as a power generator and as power storage.. Shin-Kobe Electric Machinery Co. Its negative and positive electrodes were formed on a flexible substrate by using printing technology. The lithium polymer battery is being developed in a research project of MIE Industry and Enterprise Support Center with the partners of Toppan Printing Co Ltd. determine potential applications for the battery and set out the targets such as battery capacity. yet. Kinsei Matec Co. Kureha Elastomer Co. and reducing costs for lithium technology is going to be a paramount concern. using simple printing to construct the battery internal parts has to have a serious impact over time as the various anode and cathode materials are adapted to the assorted construction methods. Printed Lithium Ion Sheet Battery Side View. Having the construction technology for simply sheets of batteries might open far larger fields of uses. but the point is to get something small and light for something small and light..Transparent & Flexible Electronics Printed Lithium Ion Sheet Battery. That could be disappointing. Using a roll-to-roll production. Such things at this point in time aren’t going to have huge power demands. Massimo Marrazzo . If the battery is integrated with a solar cell formed on a flexible substrate. When a roll-to-roll production method is used. MIE University. The AMIC isn’t disclosing the battery capacity. the research group plans to improve manufacturing technologies for commercial production.. enabling the manufacturing of thin batteries. There are two battery prototypes.. Meisei Chemical Works Ltd. The thickness of the battery is about 500µm. Ltd. Ltd. Ltd. Nor did they disclose the details of the polymer electrolyte or the negative or positive electrode materials. But the design and production by using printing technology offers reduced thickness. One has an output voltage of about 4V at room temperature while the other has an output voltage of about 2V.

MIT and Eni said this is the first time a solar cell has been printed on paper. Bulovic said. MIT professor Karen Gleason headed the research and has submitted a paper for scientific review but it has not yet been published. the trick was coming up with ways to use paper. Quantum dots The paper solar cells are one of many avenues being pursued around nanoscale materials at the Eni-MIT Solar Frontiers Center. current technologies are not sufficient." he said. (Credit: Martin LaMonica/CNET) The materials MIT researchers used are carbon-based dyes and the cells are about 1. there could be a lot of value. is a promising way to lower the weight of solar ." Bulovic said.biodomotica.http://news. which is also receiving a $2 million National Science Foundation grant. "If you could use a staple gun to install a solar panel. a compelling one indeed. part of a suite of research projects aimed at energy breakthroughs. "Absolutely. During the press conference. paper. This research bodes well for the future of lithium batteries. which Bulovic showed at a press conference Tuesday. holds a solar cell printed onto a piece of paper to spell MIT. This is the first paper solar cell. according to MIT and Eni. in which paper is coated with organic semiconductor material using a process similar to an inkjet printer. are still in the research phase and are years from being commercialized. and at 4 volts per cell. Perhaps printing is the path. Susan Hockfield. the technique. Still quite expensive.html by Martin LaMonica May 2010 CAMBRIDGE. the center's director. CEO of Italian oil company Layers of these materials could essentially be sprayed using different manufacturing techniques to make a thin-film solar cell on a plastic.Transparent & Flexible Electronics One has to think now that seeing something much lower in cost and simpler to manufacture will push research for thinner and lighter substrates. director of the Eni-MIT Solar Frontiers Research Center. "We are not very active (in alternative energy) today because we don't believe today's technologies are the answer of our problems. or metal foils. lithium needs to get the manufacturing costs down.cnet. innovations in the anode and cathode materials and some clever electrolyte application processes.--Scientists at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have successfully coated paper with a solar cell. But any material could be used if it can be deposited at room temperature.5 percent to 2 percent efficient at converting sunlight to electricity. he said. The printed solar cells. However. MIT's president. and Paolo Scaroni. . on Tuesday officially dedicated the Eni-MIT Solar Frontiers Research Center." he said. Scaroni said that Eni is funding the center because the company understands that hydrocarbons will eventually run out and believes that solar can be a replacement. said Vladimir Bulovic. At the same time. Eni invested $5 million into the center. Mass. Vladimir Bulovic. 36 Massimo Marrazzo .

while the nano-tubes collect and store electrical energy. MIT is focusing much of its effort on quantum dots. "I'm giving you a whole bunch of 37 .000 to 100. or tiny crystals that are only a few nanometers in size. which will provide clues as to whether it will make a good solar cell material. these batteries endured 300 charges flawlessly. an area that’s constantly evolving. a way of isolating good candidates for quantum dot solar cells. the predominant material for solar cells. Following tests. Bulovic showed one of the center's labs. solar power could produce three times the country's needs. "It usually takes 10 years from the time between when you invent something and you commercialize it." Bulovic said while explaining solar's potential during the tour. Researchers at the center are also looking at different molecules or biological elements which can act as solar cell material. is durable and is made from abundant materials. Researchers from Stanford invented a very slim rechargeable Lithium-Ion battery (it’s only 300 µm thick) that can easily bend. Hui Wu and Yi Cui managed to transform a simple piece of paper into a functional flexible battery. he explained. This technology can easily be applied in paper-based electronics. The lithium compound works as electrodes. If The laser provides data on how the light excites electrons in the material. By using different materials and sizes. including a transition to electric vehicles. For example. Many companies sell or are developing thin-film solar cells. were covered with photovoltaics with 10 percent efficiency. which are less efficient but are cheaper to manufacture. the easement strip on highways could be coated with material that could capture energy from the sun.html Flexible Li-Ion battery Mircea / September 2010 Stanford scientists created a new flexible Li-Ion battery that’s as slim as a piece of paper and can easily bend. The piece of paper was covered on both sides with a layer of nano-tubes and a lithium compound.S.Transparent & Flexible Electronics Silicon. this technology can be used to store electrical energy. researchers can fine-tune the colors of light that quantum dots can absorb.biodomotica. The piece of paper separates the electrodes and keeps the whole thing together. These cheap thin-film materials can be used on their own or added to silicon-based solar panels to enhance the efficiency. During a tour. Bulovic said. A human hair is about 50. But don't expect a revolution in solar power tomorrow. where researchers use a laser to blast light at nanomaterials for picoseconds. A picosecond is one trillionth of a second." He estimated that many of the technologies in the labs were in the first three years of a five-to-seven-year development cycle . Also. Scientists Liangbing Hu.” Massimo Marrazzo .http://laptopreviewshop.000 nanometers thick.3 percent of the U. as Rice University professor Pulickel M. Bulovic said. Ajayan states: “Such simple fabrication techniques could prove useful for integrating other nanomaterials for building the next generation of energy-storage devices.

Yuan Ultra-thin Flexible Secondary Lithium-ion Paper Batteries by Standford University Researchers by Kevin Xu on September 2010 First we saw Flexible e-ink display and at the middle of this month Sony also introduces Flexible Electronic Paper display and recently the Department of Materials Science and engineering.1021/nn1018158 Publication Date (Web): September 13. The current collectors and Li-ion battery materials are integrated onto a single sheet of paper through a lamination process. and excellent flexibility. radio frequency sensing. 2010 Copyright © 2010 American Chemical Society There is a strong interest in thin.http://winarco. 2010. and Yi Cui* Department of Materials Science and Engineering.2 mg/cm2). Stanford. we report a new structure of thin. flexible energy storage devices to meet modern society needs for applications such as interactive packaging.http://pubs. pp 5843–5848 DOI: 10. The current collectors and Li-ion battery materials are integrated onto a single sheet of paper through a lamination process. Stanford University. and consumer products. despite being thin (300 µm). In this article. 38 Massimo Marrazzo . Stanford University researchers has showing their new Innovation of Ultra-thin Flexible Secondary Lithium-ion Paper Batteries. exhibits robust mechanical flexibility (capable of bending down to <6 mm) and a high energy density (108 mWh/g).Transparent & Flexible Electronics .com . lightweight (0. Flexible Secondary Li-Ion Paper Batteries Liangbing Hu†. flexible Li-ion batteries using paper as separators and free-standing carbon nanotube thin films as both current collectors. The Standford University Researcher is using paper as separators and free-standing carbon nanotube thin films as both current collectors. If the researcher able to bring their product to the surface. The CNT film functions as a current collector for both the anode and the cathode with a low sheet resistance (5 Ohm/sq). This new prototypes have been tested to be able to recharge up to 300 times without any problems.biodomotica. The paper functions as both a mechanical substrate and separator membrane with lower impedance than commercial it will be a great contribution for our future batteries. Fabio La Mantia. .1021/nn1018158 Thin. the rechargeable Li-ion paper battery. After packaging. Hui Wu†. California 94305 ACS Nano. 4 (10).

Massimo Marrazzo . or engaging in joint development projects.1 mA/cm 2 Nominal capacity (per active area) 4.5V Typical thickness (total) 0.powerpaper. medical. and today its batteries and integration technologies enable a vast range of products for consumer.5cm (1 inch) Nominal continuous current density (per active area) 0. manufacturers interested in integrating Power Paper's thin printed batteries into their own products. with a 30 percent slimmer laminate profile (as thin as 500 microns ~ 0. ©2008 Power Paper Ltd. Currently. and offer the same “green” advantages as the ST Series. the company does not offer its thin batteries as stand-alone products. UT batteries are available in a variety of shapes and sizes.5 mAh/cm 2 Nominal internal resistance (1kHz impedance) 50 Ohm max Shelf life 3 years Temperature operating range -20° to +60° C C Power Paper's printable. The general specifications for Power Paper’s current generation of batteries are as follows: Primary cell (multiple cell battery packs are possible) Power Paper Specifications Power Paper has developed a number of standard clean printed batteries for use in a variety of products and applications.html Blue Spark UT (Ultra-Thin) Series The UT Series is the industry’s thinnest printed battery currently in production. please see partnership opportunities or contact us. environment-friendly battery technology. even under high duty ©2010 Blue Spark Technologies.Transparent & Flexible Electronics .7 mm Bending radius 39 . Typical standard form factors are 1. and industrial applications.http://www. storage capacity and thickness can be adjusted according to each customer’s power requirements. .5V.biodomotica. with peak drain currents of at least 1 mA.http://www.powerpaper.bluesparktechnologies. The batteries are extremely flexible and durable. capable of delivering approximately 12 mAh of energy.020 in). however. Power Paper pioneered the industry's first printable thin and flexible batteries over 10 years ago. Overall voltage.

com/news/a-printed-battery. for example. The new battery is also different in other ways from conventional batteries. the batteries can be produced in large quantities for a fraction of what it takes to produce conventional batteries. The printable version weighs less than one gram on the scales.elektor.The battery contains no mercury and is in this respect environmentally friendly. but is produced using a printing process. Its voltage is 1. . Thin.html Power cells produced T-shirt fashion By James Sherwood July 2009 Power boffins have developed a prototype battery that’s not only lighter and thinner than existing power cells.lynkx A printed battery March 2009 40 Massimo Marrazzo .com/2010_01_01_archive. is not even one millimeter thick and can therefore be integrated into bank cash cards.5 V. Printed Batteries Provide Paper-Thin Power August 2009 A team of German scientists has invented the world's first printable .Transparent & Flexible Electronics .http://www.http://ozlab1. flexible and environmentally friendly.biodomotica. which lies within the normal range.blogspot.

http://gigaom. Theoretically. using specially designed viruses. By tweaking their DNA. has to be accentuated. The hope is that these tiny batteries — which could be used in embedded medical sensors — and eventually other electronics. which has been funding Belcher’s research through the Army Research Office Institute of Collaborative Biotechnologies and the Army Research Office Institute of Soldier Nanotechnologies. By using high efficient printing technologies and the adaptation of the used materials. without high heat. These might be e.biodomotica. but so far. these fibers could be woven into soldiers’ uniforms allowing clothing to sense biological or chemical agents as well as collect and store energy from the sun to power any number of devices. could be printed easily and cheaply onto surfaces and woven into fabrics.Transparent & Flexible Electronics The printed battery is an innovation developed by the department Printed Functionalities of the Fraunhofer ENAS in Germany. Gross and cool. 6 V). So far. The team still has to create a cathode for the battery.5 V are realized (3 V. The combination with other flexible or thin modules. The printed batteries are especially suited for thin and flexible products. toxic solvents or expensive equipment. medical patches and plasters for transdermal medication and vital signs monitoring. can be programmed to bind to inorganic materials. Viruses are very orderly little critters and in high concentrations organize themselves into patterns. the viruses. two of the three main components of a 41 . so good. Parts of the batteries’ components may even be composed. More info Fraunhofer website . intelligent chip and sensor cards. Eventually the work could also be used to make tiny electronics made up of silicon-covered viruses.” lead researcher Angela Belcher told MIT Technology Review late last year when describing her work.5 V.g. the researchers note that when a platinum cathode is attached.” The idea of thread-like electronics has gotten the interest of the Army. Hereby flexible displays and solar cells may be manufactured in the same manner of preparation and combined where required. The battery system is zinc manganese which might be regarded as environmentally friendly. like metals and semiconductors. just four. We’re still waiting to see some viral bling. “It’s not really analogous to anything that’s done now. at least. Series connections of printed batteries are possible for the first time. “It’s about giving totally new kinds of functionalities to eight-millionths of a meter in diameter. “the resulting electrode arrays exhibit full electrochemical functionality.” Belcher has also successfully created fibers that glow under UV light. called M13. tiny cobalt oxide wires and has even developed viruses that bind to gold. Massimo Marrazzo . 4. thus integer multiples of the nominal voltage of 1. as well as lab on chip analyses. The latest technology of tomorrow uses viruses to construct everything from transistors to tiny batteries to solar cells. the researchers have been able to use viruses to assemble the anode and electrolyte. Researchers at MIT published a paper in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences this week describing how they’ve successfully created tiny batteries. the production yield reaches almost 100 MIT Researchers Print Tiny Battery Using Viruses By Craig Rubens August 2008 Using nanorobots to build circuits is so last year’s fantasy.

asp?id=10%20ES%2027F3%203ISQ&EnquiryType=BBS Transparent lithium ion secondary battery An Andalusian University has developed a novel transparent lithium ion secondary battery comprising a first transparent support. including lighting if combined with solar cells The invention also includes a method of manufacturing the battery. Hiroaki Konishi and Takeo Suga at Waseda University have designed the battery — which consists of a redox-active organic polymer film around 200 nanometres thick." Professor Peter a first transparent electronic conductor and transparent positive and negative After UV irradiation. an expert in electroactive materials at the University of Strathclyde .pdf?PHPSESSID=d0c174598bdecb3c53c795480705a8c4 Enterprise Europe Pdf document: transparent_lithium_ion_secondary_battery. praised the high stability and fabrication strategy of the polymer-based battery. a solid lithium ion electrolyte between the negative and positive electrodes. Dr Nishide said: This has been a challenging step.http://www. Because of its high radical density. the polymer then becomes crosslinked with the help of a bisazide crosslinking agent.Transparent & Flexible Electronics .com .de/data/newsletter/1314/transparent_lithium_ion_secondary_battery.http://www.000 cycles. Nitroxide radical groups are attached. However. which act as charge carriers. The plastic battery plays a part in ensuring that organic device technologies can function in thin film and flexible form as a complete package. the photocrosslinking method used by the Japanese team overcomes the problem and makes the polymer mechanically tough.biodomotica. This is just one of many advantages the 'organic radical' battery has over other organic based materials according to the researchers. .pdf 42 Massimo Marrazzo . A drawback of some organic radical polymers is the fact they are soluble in the electrolyte solution which results in self-discharging of the battery — but the polymer must be soluble so it can be spin-coated.gizmag. . since most crosslinking reactions are sensitive to the nitroxide radical. The power rate performance is strikingly high — it only takes one minute to fully charge the battery and it has a long cycle life. a second transparent conductor and a second transparent support. often exceeding Flexible see-through battery power By Mike Hanlon February 2007 Flexible see-through battery power All is no longer as it seems — the clear flexible plastic in the image is a battery — it is a polymer based rechargeable battery made by Japanese scientists. the battery has a high charge/discharge capacity. Its transparency to sunlight enables the integration of this battery into glass surfaces of buildings making it suitable for an energy saving and self-sustainable system. Drs Hiroyuki Nishide. The team made the thin polymer film by a solution-processable method — a soluble polymer with the radical groups attached is _spin-coated" onto a surface." The news is reported in the edition of The Royal Society of Chemistry journal Chemical Communications.

excellatron. such as high pressure. Copyright © 2008 Oak Ridge Micro-Energy.htm Thin Film Batteries A unique packaging technology has also been developed by Excellatron. Miniature thin film lithium battery on a ceramic substrate for use in an implantable medical device. thin film batteries can be deposited directly onto chips or chip packages in any shape or size. . Rechargeable thin film solid state batteries manufactured by ©Copyright 2008 Excellatron Massimo Marrazzo .http://www.biodomotica. Inc.oakridgemicro. The total thickness of the battery is only 0. enabling long-term shelf life of thin film batteries under harsh environmental Thin-film rechargeable lithium batteries Thin-film rechargeable lithium batteries were developed by Dr. John Bates and his team of scientists and engineers from more than a decade of research at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Some of the unique properties of thin-film batteries that distinguish them from conventional batteries include: All solid state construction Can be operated at high and low temperatures (tests have been conducted between -20°C and 140° C) Can be made in any shape or size Cost does not increase with reduction in size (constant $/cm2) Completely safe under all operating conditions. high temperature. Unlike conventional batteries. the batteries are quite flexible. and high humidity.Transparent & Flexible Electronics .com 43 .http://www. and when fabricated on thin plastics.

N. The thin film is comprised of the support substrate. — Researchers at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute have developed a new energy storage device that easily could be mistaken for a simple sheet of black paper. ©2000-2008 Front Edge Technology. Can be bent and twisted without damage. Inc. All solid-state. More than 1. Beyond Batteries: Storing Power in a Sheet of Paper Troy. Ultra thin Safe & environmentally friendly Long cycle life Flexible form factor Low self-discharge Bendable As thin as 0. collectors. Copyright © 1996—2008 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute .co. and nevertheless is thinner and more lightweight than even the thinnest current polymer batteries (several hundred µm thick). portable sensors.biodomotica.html Thin-film rechargeable batteries Cooperation development with Iwate University Film rechargeable battery An achievement in unparalleled thinness Thin-film rechargeable batteries are possible with a thickness of a few µm. 000 cycles at 100% depth discharge. Less than 5% per NanoEnergy® is a miniature power source designed for highly space limited micro devices such as smart card.002 inch) including package. Can be made into different shapes and sizes. using ceramic electrolyte LiPON developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratories.05 mm ( . Contains no liquid or environmental hazardous material. .com/gen. 44 Massimo Marrazzo . and RFID tag.geomatec.Y.http://www.Transparent & Flexible Electronics .frontedgetechnology.http://www. and electrodes.

CNET News.html PDF . potentially useful for powering Franklin Hadley.blogspot.Transparent & Flexible Electronics Charging batteries without wires .mit.html Scientists invent wireless device that beams electricity through your home . sans wires. It changes the way that people and devices interact with power and Once a cell phone or other electronic device that is enabled with WildCharge technology is placed on the pad — anywhere on the pad and at any orientation — it will instantaneously receive power from the pad. cell phones without http://www. At the Consumer Electronics Show next week.html Wireless power gets recharged By Erica Ogg Staff 45 .uk/sciencetech/article-460602/The-end-plug-Scientists-invent-wireless-device-beams-electricity-home. but does not interfere with Wi-Fi or Bluetooth devices and won't demagnetize credit cards.biodomotica. Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies Massachusetts Institute of Technology http://web. two companies--Arizona-based start-up WildCharge and Michigan-based Fulton Innovation--will demonstrate what are expected to be very different ways to give gadgets And charging speed is the same as if the device is plugged to the wall! © 2008 WildCharge_ .http://12degreesoffreedom. © 2008 Fulton Innovation .co. Baarman said.cnet.htm The WildCharger pad is flat and thin with a conductive surface. © 2008 CBS Interactive Inc .html No strings (or wires) attached Researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology think that transmitting power without wires is not only possible but within reach.html MIT team experimentally demonstrates wireless power transfer. It is that LLC Massimo Marrazzo .display/category_ID/255/How_It_Works.html eCoupled technology_ is intelligent wireless power. The process creates an electromagnetic field.dailymail.cfm/fuseaction/category.

WiTricity is based on strong coupling between electromagnetic resonant objects to transfer energy wirelessly between them. - http://12degreesoffreedom. As WiTricity operates in the electromagnetic near-field. In their first paper. is a term coined initially by Dave Gerding in 2005 and used by an MIT research team led by Prof.biodomotica.blogspot. For wrist watches.or. When a watch is placed on a charger. two 60-centimeter copper coils can transmit electricity over a distance of two meters. the ordinary contact recharging method is not practical as it could lead to deterioration on a watch's quality characteristics such as water resistance. .http://www. the group also simulated GHz dielectric resonators. which induces an alternating voltage in the internal coil of the watch. however. a portmanteau for wireless .com/2008/03/wireless-electricity. The system consists of WiTricity transmitters and receivers that contain magnetic loop antennas critically tuned to the same frequency.http://en. the receiving devices must be no more than about a quarter wavelength from the transmitter (which is a few meters at the frequency used by the example system).html 1 Wall outlet 2 Resonant copper coil attached to frequency converter and plugged into outlet 3 Electromagnetic field 4 Resonant copper coil attached to light bulb Wireless Light Marin Soljaèiæ and colleagues used magnetic resonance coupling to power a 60-watt light WiTricity. to describe the ability to provide electrical energy to remote objects without wires.html Non-contact recharging system watches Watches recharged by using a charger are called rechargeable watches. The mechanism of non-contact recharging system watches is explained below. Marin Soljaèiæ in 2007. a non-contact recharging system can be employed. 46 Massimo Marrazzo .Transparent & Flexible Electronics WiTricity . an alternating magnetic field is created.jcwa. This induced voltage is rectified and stored in the energy storage unit to power the quartz watch. In this regard. through the air and around an so that the watch can be recharged without opening the case back when it is simply placed on a charger. Tuned to the same frequency.

the induced voltage is generated based on Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction. An alternating current of approximately 20 Hz is applied to the primary coil inside the charger to produce an alternating magnetic field. Place the watch on the charger. Massimo Marrazzo .Transparent & Flexible Electronics 1. 47 . 3. The alternating voltage induced across the secondary coil is rectified and stored in the secondary battery. The secondary battery transmits the electrical energy to the driving circuit to run the quartz watch. 2. Across the secondary coil inside the watch.biodomotica. 4.

says Atwater. 48 Massimo Marrazzo . "It's an important advance. professor of applied physics and materials science. "What's most important in a solar cell is whether that absorption leads to the creation of charge carriers. which focuses on sustainability research. Flexible Solar Cells with Silicon Wire Arrays Pasadena." says Atwater." he says. "We've surpassed previous optical microstructures developed to trap light. each of which. high-quality solar cell. and graduate student Michael Kelzenberg—assessed the performance of these arrays in a paper appearing in the February 14 advance online edition of the journal Nature Materials. [Credit: Caltech/Michael Kelzenberg] The light-trapping limit of a material refers to how much sunlight it is able to absorb. Atwater notes that the solar cells' enhanced absorption is "useful absorption. Howard Hughes Professor." The silicon wire arrays created by Atwater and his colleagues are able to convert between 90 and 100 percent of the photons they absorb into electrons—in technical terms." The key to the success of these solar cells is their silicon wires.http://media." "Many materials can absorb light quite well but not generate electricity—like. and director of Caltech's Resnick Institute." he explains. "These solar cells have. for the first time." says Harry Atwater." When brought together in an array. flexible polymer film. the wires have a near-perfect internal quantum efficiency. "Light comes into each wire. "High absorption plus good conversion makes for a high-quality solar cell. Argyros Professor and professor of chemistry at Caltech.Transparent & Flexible Electronics Solar Energy . Calif." he says. The solar cell does all this using only a fraction of the expensive semiconductor materials required by conventional solar cells. Atwater and his colleagues—including Nathan Lewis. the George L. a team of scientists from the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) has created a new type of flexible solar cell that enhances the absorption of sunlight and efficiently converts its photons into electrons. The silicon-wire arrays absorb up to 96 percent of incident sunlight at a single wavelength and 85 percent of total collectible sunlight. This is a photomicrograph of a silicon wire array embedded within a transparent. and a portion is absorbed and another portion scatters. black paint. they're even more effective. Caltech Researchers Create Highly Absorbing. The collective scattering interactions between the wires make the array very absorbing. because they interact to increase the cell's ability to absorb light.biodomotica. for .— Using arrays of long. thin silicon wires embedded in a polymer substrate. "is independently a high-efficiency.caltech. surpassed the conventional light-trapping limit for absorbing materials.

Since the silicon material is an expensive component of a conventional solar cell." he says. The composite nature of these solar cells." Each wire measures between 30 and 100 microns in length and only 1 micron in diameter. In addition to Atwater. By developing light-trapping techniques for relatively sparse wire arrays.Transparent & Flexible Electronics This is a schematic diagram of the light-trapping elements used to optimize absorption within a polymerembedded silicon wire array. an inherently lower-cost process than one that involves brittle wafers." says Atwater. "We're now scaling up to make cells that will be hundreds of square centimeters—the size of a normal cell. Atwater says. a National Science Foundation Materials Research Science and Engineering Center at Caltech. their volume is equivalent to that of a two-micron-thick film. "When we first considered silicon wire-array solar cells. are to increase the operating voltage and the overall size of the solar cell. a cell that requires just onefiftieth of the amount of this semiconductor will be much cheaper to produce. Emily Warren. Lewis. we realized that more light could be absorbed than predicted by the wire-packing fraction alone. we assumed that sunlight would be wasted on the space between wires. In addition." Atwater. the all-Caltech coauthors on the Nature Materials paper." explains Kelzenberg. Atwater adds. Lewis. not only did we achieve suitable absorption. Boettcher received fellowship support from the Kavli Nanoscience Institute at Caltech." notes Atwater." In other words. Their research was supported by BP and the Energy Frontier Research Center program of the Department of Energy. "But it wasn't until now that we could show that they are both highly efficient at carrier collection and highly 49 . "So our initial plan was to grow the wires as close together as possible. Morgan Putnam. and their colleagues had earlier demonstrated that it was possible to create these innovative solar cells." he explains. Lori Oliwenstein (626) 395-3631 lorio@caltech. "because flexible thin films can be manufactured in a roll-to-roll process. and Ryan Briggs. and made use of facilities supported by the Center for Science and Engineering of Materials. "They were visually striking." Atwater says that the team is already "on its way" to showing that large-area cells work just as well as these smaller versions. just 2 percent of it is silicon. _But in terms of area or volume. like those used to make conventional solar cells. while these arrays have the thickness of a conventional crystalline solar cell. "The structures we've made are square centimeters in size. we also demonstrated effective optical concentration—an exciting prospect for further enhancing the efficiency of silicon-wire-array solar Massimo Marrazzo . and 98 percent is polymer." The next steps. _The entire thickness of the array is the length of the wire. and graduate students Daniel Turner-Evans.biodomotica. "Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications." are postdoctoral scholars Shannon Boettcher and Joshua Spurgeon. [Credit: Caltech/Michael Kelzenberg] This effect occurs despite the sparseness of the wires in the array—they cover only between 2 and 10 percent of the cell's surface area. "Having these be complete flexible sheets of material ends up being important. means that they are also flexible. undergraduate student Jan Petykiewicz. and Kelzenberg. But when we started quantifying their absorption.

the Solaris’ non-toxic materials based process for recharging DSSCs allows for future improvements in the installed base of solar cells through recharging with newly developed. When combined with government subsidies.solarisnano. long-life photovoltaic system in the world.Transparent & Flexible Electronics . offer significantly lower manufacturing costs because of their simplicity and use of low-cost active materials such as TiO2. Michael Grätzel won the 2010 Millennium Technology Prize for the invention of the Grätzel cell. courtesy of Dr.000 with a five year payback period. This cell was invented by Michael Grätzel and Brian O'Regan at the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne in 1991[3] and are also known as Grätzel cells. we believe that this product can exceed a billion dollars of annual revenue for Solaris within the next restoring the performance of the original solar cell. allowing them to function beyond the lifetime of current silicon A dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC.000 or more with payback periods in excess of twelve years in most US residential markets. Our proven and validated process for recharging of low manufacturing cost dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC) eliminates the existing lifetime limitations of these photovoltaics. higher-efficiency dyes. Winfried Hofmann. also known as Graetzel .http://www. Based on conservative market growth and penetration.http://en. DSC or DYSC[1]) is a class of low-cost solar cell belonging to the group of thin film solar cells.solarisnano. RWE-Schott Dye-sensitized electrochemical photovoltaic these solar cells will cost the consumer less than $3. like the chlorophyll in green leaves. The titanium dioxide is immersed under an 50 Massimo Marrazzo . covered with a molecular dye that absorbs sunlight. Solaris' nontoxic chemical process allows the degraded dye in already installed DSSCs to be removed and replaced with new dye. .wikipedia. This is in comparison to current silicon technology which requires cash outlays of $12. This technology represents the world’s first and only rechargeable photovoltaic with the capability for post-installation upgrades. Solaris Nanosciences has demonstrated a completely rechargeable dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC or Graetzel Cell) creating the lowest manufacturing cost.php Various colors in a series-connected dye solar cell modules.[4] Grätzel's cell is composed of a porous layer of titanium dioxide nanoparticles. DSSCs which are based on low cost materials and simple construction. DSSC or Graetzel Cell . Furthermore. a photoelectrochemical system.[2] It is based on a semiconductor formed between a photo-sensitized anode and an electrolyte.php Solaris has proprietary and patented approaches for dramatically lowering the cost of solar panels and improving the efficiency of photovoltaics. have to date suffered from limited operating lifetimes due to the degradation of the sensitizer dyes.

inl. In the dye-sensitized solar cell. as well as providing the electric field to separate the charges and create a current. Sunlight passes through the transparent electrode into the dye layer where it can excite electrons that then flow into the titanium dioxide.S. increasing the number of molecules for any given surface area of cell. . The dye molecules are quite small (nanometer sized). semiconductor and electrolyte. flowing into the electrolyte.Transparent & Flexible Electronics electrolyte solution. Department of Energy's Idaho National Laboratory) Researchers at Idaho National Harvesting the sun's energy with antennas INL researcher Steven Novack holds a plastic sheet of nanoantenna arrays. (Cambridge. along with partners at Microcontinuum Inc. Nanotechnology R&D usually occurs on the centimeter scale. this scaffolding is provided by the semiconductor material. The electrolyte then transports the electrons back to the dye molecules. (Credit: U. Dye-sensitized solar cells separate the two functions provided by silicon in a traditional cell design. Charge separation occurs at the surfaces between the dye. To address this problem.https://inlportal. After flowing through the external circuit. Massimo Marrazzo . but this INL-patented manufacturing process demonstrates nano-scale features can be produced on a larger scale. MA) and Patrick Pinhero of the University of Missouri. be imprinted on flexible materials and still draw energy after the sun has set. As in a conventional alkaline battery. a nanomaterial is used as a scaffold to hold large numbers of the dye molecules in a 3-D matrix. above which is a platinum-based Normally the silicon acts as both the source of photoelectrons. In existing designs. the photoelectrons are provided from a separate photosensitive dye. the bulk of the semiconductor is used solely for charge transport. are developing a novel way to collect energy from the sun with a technology that could potentially cost pennies a yard.biodomotica. created by embossing the antenna structure and depositing a conductive metal in the pattern. so in order to capture a reasonable amount of the incoming light the layer of dye molecules needs to be made fairly thick. an anode (the titanium dioxide) and a cathode (the platinum) are placed on either side of a liquid conductor (the electrolyte). they are re-introduced into the cell on a metal electrode on the 51 . much thicker than the molecules themselves. The electrons flow toward the transparent electrode where they are collected for powering a load. which serves double-duty. Each square contains roughly 260 million antennas.

just outside the range of what is visible to the eye. The deposited wire is roughly 200 nanometers thick. The sun radiates a lot of infrared energy. imprinted on plastic and imaged with a scanning electron microscope. Each "nanoantenna" is as wide as 1/25 the diameter of a human hair. Department of Energy's Idaho National Laboratory) 52 Massimo Marrazzo . with higher efficiency than conventional solar cells.biodomotica. the nanoantennas absorb energy in the infrared part of the . Because of their size. some of which is soaked up by the earth and later released as radiation for hours after sunset. uses a special manufacturing process to stamp tiny loops of conducting metal onto a sheet of plastic.Transparent & Flexible Electronics The new approach. An array of loop nanoantennas. (Credit: U. Nanoantennas can take in energy from both sunlight and the earth's heat.S. which garnered two 2007 Nano50 awards.

Transparent & Flexible Electronics Commercial solar panels usually transform less that 20 percent of the usable energy that strikes them into electricity. The team estimates individual nanoantennas can absorb close to 80 percent of the available energy. The circuits themselves can be made of a number of different conducting metals, and the nanoantennas can be printed on thin, flexible materials like polyethylene, a plastic that's commonly used in bags and plastic wrap. In fact, the team first printed antennas on plastic bags used to deliver the Wall Street Journal, because they had just the right thickness

- Solar energy 'revolution' brings green power closer. Power from light: Photovoltaic (PV) devices convert light into electrical energy. PV cells are made of semiconductor materials such as silicon. When light shines on a PV cell, the energy is transferred to electrons in the atoms of the PV cell. These electrons become part of the electrical flow, or current, in an electrical circuit. First wave photovoltaic cell used thick silicon-wafer cells but were cumbersome and costly. The second generation of photovoltaic materials were developed about 10 years ago and use very thin silicon layers. These brought the price down dramatically but still need expensive vacuum processes in their construction. The third wave of PV, now being developed by firms such as Nanosolar, can print directly on to other materials and does not use silicon.

- Future Of Solar-powered Houses Is Clear: New Windows Could Halve Carbon Emissions Professor John Bell said QUT had worked with a Canberra-based company Dyesol, which is developing transparent solar cells that act as both windows and energy generators in houses or commercial buildings. "The transparent solar cells have a faint reddish hue but are completely see-through," Professor Bell said. "The solar cells contain titanium dioxide coated in a dye that increases light absorption. "The glass captures solar energy which can be used to power the house but can also reduce overheating of the house, reducing the need for cooling."
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- HP Licenses Technology to Xtreme Energetics for Creation of Super-efficient Solar Energy System HP and Xtreme Energetics (XE), a solar energy system developer based in Livermore, Calif., today announced they have entered into an agreement for the development of a solar energy system designed to generate electricity at twice the efficiency and half the cost of traditional solar panels. Under the technology collaboration and licensing agreement, HP will license its transparent transistor technology to XE in return for royalty payments. The transparent transistor technology that will be used in XE's solar energy device was co-developed by HP and Oregon State University. The technology includes thin film transparent transistors, which are made from low-cost, readily available materials such as zinc and tin. The materials raise no environmental concerns and allow for higher mobility, better chemical stability and easier manufacture.
© 2008 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P

- Nano Solar uses an inkjet to create solar cells that are extremely thin, and cheap to manufacture. The Technology is interesting. Because it is printed the cells are amazingly thin, transparent even. So it can be applied to windows, or other surfaces. Using copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) an inorganic photovoltaic compound literally used as an ink a film, or sheet can be printed to what ever size and shape is needed and then nanocomponents in the ink align themselves properly via molecular self-assembly.
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- Nanosolar SolarPly_. Light-weight solar-electric cell foil which can be cut to any size. Non-fragile. No soldering required for electrical contact.
Copyright © 2002 - 2008, Nanosolar, Inc.

Massimo Marrazzo - 53

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- NanoPower Windows (nanosilicon photovoltaic solar cells) The technological potential of adapting existing glass windows into ones capable of generating electricity from the sun's solar energy has been made possible through a ground breaking discovery of an electrochemical and ultrasound process that produces identically sized (1 to 4 nanometers in diameter) nanoparticles of silicon that provide varying wavelengths of photoluminescence and high quantum efficiency (50% to 60%).
Octillion Corp. © 2008

- Scientists Invent Solar Cell Sheet That Collects Energy at Night Researchers at Idaho National Laboratory, along with partners at Microcontinuum Inc. (Cambridge, MA) and Patrick Pinhero of the University of Missouri, are developing a novel way to collect energy from the sun with a technology that could potentially cost pennies a yard, be imprinted on flexible materials and still draw energy after the sun has set.
Copyright © 2008, Next Energy News.

- 'Major Discovery' Primed To Unleash Solar Revolution: Scientists Mimic Essence Of Plants' Energy Storage System In a revolutionary leap that could transform solar power from a marginal, boutique alternative into a mainstream energy source, MIT researchers have overcome a major barrier to large-scale solar power: storing energy for use when the sun doesn't shine.
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- Konarka builds Power Plastic® that converts light to energy — anywhere. The company develops and manufactures light-activated Power Plastic® that is inexpensive, lightweight, flexible and versatile. This material makes it possible for devices, systems and structures to have their own low cost embedded sources of renewable power. By integrating energy generation functionality into everyday devices, Konarka allows manufacturers to offer truly wireless applications. - Konarka builds products that convert light to energy anywhere. Download PDF file - In this article, they will examine solar cells to learn how they convert the sun's energy directly into electricity. - Researcher from Groningen developes transparent solar cells

- HP teaming with Xtreme Energetics to produce cheaper, more efficient cheaper solar - Xtreme Energetics' ultra-efficient, pretty solar systems catch HP's eye.

54 Massimo Marrazzo -

Transparent & Flexible Electronics

Seebeck effect - Thermoelectric
Electricity from the body heat

Energy-harvesting chips and the quest for everlasting life
Erick O. Torres, Student Member, IEEE, and Gabriel A. Rincón-Mora, Senior Member, IEEE Georgia Tech Analog and Power IC Design Lab

Modern electronics continue to push past boundaries of integration and functional density, towards the elusive completely autonomous self-powered microchip. As systems continue to shrink, however, less energy is available on-board, leading to short device lifetime (runtime or battery life). Research continues to develop higher energy-density batteries but the amount of energy available is not only finite but also low, limiting the system's lifespan, which is paramount in portable electronics. Extended life is also particularly advantageous in systems with limited accessibility, such as biomedical implants and structure-embedded micro-sensors. The ultimate long-lasting solution should therefore be independent of the limited energy available during start-up, which is where a self-renewing energy source comes in, continually replenishing the energy consumed by the micro-system. State-of-the-art micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) generators and transducers can be such selfrenewing sources, extracting energy from vibrations, thermal gradients, and light. The energy extracted from these sources is stored in chip-compatible, rechargeable batteries such as thin-film lithium ion, which powers the loading application (e.g., sensor, etc.) via a regulator circuit. Since harvested energy manifests itself in irregular, random, low energy "bursts," a power-efficient, discontinuous, intermittent charger is required to transfer the energy from the sourcing devices to the battery. Energy that is typically lost or dissipated in the environment is therefore recovered and used to power the system, significantly extending the operational lifetime of the device. Harvesting Energy Energy harvesting is defined as the conversion of ambient energy into usable electrical energy. When compared with the energy stored in common storage elements, like batteries and the like, the environment represents a relatively inexhaustible source of energy. Consequently, energy harvesting (i.e., scavenging) methods must be characterized by their power density, rather than energy density. Table 1 compares the estimated power and challenges of various ambient energy sources. Light, for instance, can be a significant source of energy, but it is highly dependant on the application and the exposure to which the device is subjected. Thermal energy, on the other hand, is limited because the temperature differentials across a chip are typically low. Vibration energy is a moderate source, but again dependent on the particular application. Energy Source Light Challenge Conform to small surface area Estimated Power (in 1 cm3 or 1 cm2) 10 µW - 15 mW (Outdoors: 0.15 - 15 mW) (Indoors: <10 µW) 1 - 200 µW (Piezoelectric: ~ 200 µW) (Electrostatic: 50 - 100 µW) (Electromagnetic: < 1µW) 15 µW (10° gradient) C


Variability of vibration


Small thermal gradients

Comparison between different ambient energy sources

Vibration Energy
Energy extraction from vibrations is based on the movement of a "spring-mounted" mass relative to its support frame. Mechanical acceleration is produced by vibrations that in turn cause the mass component to move and oscillate (kinetic energy). This relative displacement causes opposing frictional and damping forces to be exerted against the mass, thereby reducing and eventually extinguishing the oscillations. The damping forces literally absorb the kinetic energy of the initial vibration. This energy can be converted into electrical energy via an electric field (electrostatic), magnetic field (electromagnetic), or strain on a piezoelectric material. These energy-conversion schemes amount to harvesting energy from vibrations.

Massimo Marrazzo - 55

A coil attached to the oscillating mass traverses through a magnetic field that is established by a stationary magnet.and p-type materials electrically joined at the hightemperature junction are therefore constructed. as its plates separate because of vibrations. This scheme produces higher and more practical output voltage levels than the electromagnetic method. is initially charged and. Large thermal gradients are essential to produce practical voltage and power levels. The most attractive feature of this method is its IC-compatible nature. given that MEMS variable capacitors are fabricated through relatively mature silicon micro-machining techniques. increasing the number of turns of the coil. 56 Massimo Marrazzo . each is limited by the size constraints of a microchip. Temperature differentials between opposite segments of a conducting material result in heat flow and consequently charge flow. in a piezoelectric material causes charge separation across the . producing an electric field and consequently a voltage drop proportional to the stress applied. (a) Piezoelectric energy harvesting beam and (b) MEMS varactors (c) in an energy-harvesting circuit Electrostatic (capacitive) energy harvesting relies on the changing capacitance of vibration-dependant varactors [3. The oscillating system is typically a cantilever beam structure with a mass at the unattached end of the lever. mechanical energy is transformed into electrical energy (Figures 3b and 3c). The voltage produced varies with time and strain. The coil travels through a varying amount of magnetic flux. effectively producing an irregular ac signal. Thermal Energy Thermal gradients in the environment are directly converted to electrical energy through the Seebeck (thermoelectric) effect. allowing heat flow to carry the dominant charge carriers of each material to the low temperature end. A varactor. since it provides higher strain for a given input force (a). or variable capacitor. C consequently producing low voltage and power levels. Piezoelectric energy conversion produces relatively higher voltage and power density levels than the electromagnetic system.biodomotica. since mobile. 8-9]. Strain. Methods to increase the induced voltage include using a transformer. or deformation. temperature differences greater than 10° are rare in a micro-system. The induced voltage is inherently small and must therefore be increased to viably source energy. and/or increasing the permanent magnetic field. high-energy carriers diffuse from high to low concentration regions. However. Nevertheless. The generated voltage and power is proportional to the temperature differential and the Seebeck coefficient of the thermoelectric materials. establishing in the process a voltage difference across the base electrodes. Piezoelectric energy harvesting converts mechanical energy to electrical by straining a piezoelectric material. Thermopiles consisting of n. inducing a voltage according to Faraday's law.Transparent & Flexible Electronics Electromagnetic vibration energy harvester Electromagnetic energy harvesting uses a magnetic field to convert mechanical energy to electrical. with moderate power density.

coolers and generators (TEGs). Thomas Johann Seebeck discovered that a thermal gradient formed between two dissimilar conductors produces a voltage. A thermoelectric device creates a voltage when there is a different temperature on each side. Low thermal conductivity is necessary to maintain a high thermal gradient at the junction. thermoelectric effect may also be called the Peltier–Seebeck effect. this term is applied when speaking about small. The development of materials that are able to operate in higher temperature gradients.wikipedia. though it is not generally termed a thermoelectric effect (and it is usually regarded as being a loss mechanism due to non-ideality in thermoelectric devices). Traditionally. Ideal thermoelectric materials have a high Seebeck coefficient. Practical examples are the finger-heartratemeter by the Holst Centre and the thermogenerators by the Fraunhofer Gesellschaft. this results in the diffusion of charge carriers. Thermoelectrics contain no materials that must be replenished. and the Thomson effect. .. Thermoelectrics In 1821. while on the other end of the scale. large thermocouples are used in nuclear RTG batteries. salinity gradients. and that can conduct electricity well without also conducting heat (something that was until recently thought impossible). Heating and cooling can be reversed. The ceramic plates add rigidity and electrical insulation to the system.http://en. wind energy. it creates a temperature difference (known as the Peltier effect).Transparent & Flexible Electronics Thermoelectrics .g. the heat that is generated whenever a voltage is applied across a resistive material. Miniature thermocouples have been developed that convert body heat into electricity and generate 40µW at 3V with a 5 degree temperature gradient. Conversely when a voltage is applied to it.wikipedia. high electrical conductivity. is somewhat related. The Peltier–Seebeck and Thomson effects can in principle be thermodynamically reversible. charge carriers).and N-doped bismuth-telluride semiconductors sandwiched between two metallized ceramic plates. hence. and the proportionality constant is known as the Peltier coefficient. into electricity. The heat absorbed or produced is proportional to the current. Standard thermoelectric modules manufactured today consist of P. Frequently. will result in increased efficiency. whereas Joule heating is not. Today. due to knowledge of the Seebeck and Peltier effects. At atomic scale (specifically. Advantages to thermoelectrics: No moving parts allow continuous operation for many years.000 hours of steady state operation. This effect can be used to generate electricity. and 57 . The semiconductors are connected electrically in series and thermally in parallel. Joule heating. or to heat them or cook them. This separation derives from the independent discoveries of French physicist Jean Charles Athanase Peltier and Estonian-German physicist Thomas Johann Seebeck. the Seebeck effect. thermoelectric devices make very convenient temperature Thermoelectric effect The thermoelectric effect is the direct conversion of temperature differences to electric voltage and vice versa. In many textbooks. In 1834. Tellurex Corporation (a thermoelectric production company) claims that thermoelectrics are capable of over 100. Jean Charles Athanase Peltier discovered that running an electric current through the junction of two dissimilar conductors could. Because the direction of heating and cooling is determined by the polarity of the applied voltage. solar power. and low thermal conductivity. such as in automobile engine combustion. Massimo Marrazzo . like those used in wearable electronics and wireless sensor networks. and kinetic energy). wireless autonomous devices. the thermally induced current. similar to a classical gas that expands when heated. depending on the direction of the current. The flow of charge carriers between the hot and cold regions in turn creates a voltage difference. the Peltier effect. the term thermoelectric effect or thermoelectricity encompasses three separately identified effects. thermal energy.http://en. to diffuse from the hot side to the cold side. At the heart of the thermoelectric effect is the fact that a temperature gradient in a conducting material results in heat flow. an applied temperature gradient causes charged carriers in the material. whether they are electrons or electron holes. One downside to thermoelectric energy conversion is low efficiency (currently less than 10%).biodomotica. cause it to act as a heater or cooler. thermoelectric materials can be used as heaters. captured. Future work in thermoelectrics could be to convert wasted heat. to cool objects. to measure Energy harvesting (also known as power harvesting or energy scavenging) is the process by which energy is derived from external sources (e.

One such combination. The voltage created is of the order of several microvolts per kelvin difference. When two dissimilar semiconductors (p-type and n-type) at the same temperature are connected together they establish a static electric potential difference. thinking that the two metals became magnetically polarized by the temperature gradient. Seebeck. so he called the phenomenon the thermomagnetic effect. The Danish physicist Hans Christian Ørsted played a vital role in explaining and conceiving the term "thermoelectricity".html The Seebeck Effect The generator module is a unique semiconductor device that relies upon the Seebeck effect to generate electricity. is created in the presence of a temperature difference between two different metals or semiconductors. which creates a current however. With the electron flow or current comes the ability to power electrical devices such as the fan's motor. The effect is that a voltage. at this time did not recognize there was an electric current involved.http://www. This is because the metals respond differently to the temperature difference.Transparent & Flexible Electronics Seebeck discovered that a compass needle would be deflected when a closed loop was formed of two metals joined in two places with a temperature difference between the junctions.biodomotica. has a Seebeck coefficient of 41 microvolts per kelvin at room temperature. copper-constantan.ecofan. This causes a continuous current in the conductors if they form a complete 58 Massimo Marrazzo . the thermoelectric EMF. □□□□□ . With the introduction of a temperature difference heat flows across the joined semiconductors which in turn permits electrons to flow. which produces a magnetic .

Cardiff 59 . It produces on average 25 µW of electricity from a temperature difference of 2–3K generated by body heat. (b) Crosssectional view of a thermoelectric module which consists of a number of n.http://www. A quartz digital wristwatch requires merely 20 to 40 µW. its commercialization has been restricted mainly due to the cost of the thermoelectric converter employed. Massimo Marrazzo .Transparent & Flexible Electronics Seebeck-Thermoelectric .and p-type thermocouples connected electrically in series but thermally in parallel and sandwiched between two ceramic plates.biodomotica. Using such data. or other consumer electronics. Although it is technologically successful. Figure below shows a schematic cross-section of a thermoelectric watch.artechhouse. At such a power level.66%). The conversion efficiency is about 0. This eliminates the needs for replacing batteries or for lengthy cabling from central power sources. This indicates that the power of about 2–5 mW may be obtained with a realistic surface area of 0. The rate of heat generation for an average human body is typically around 100W.1 m2 (equivalent to an area of 40 cm × 25 cm) that enables heat extraction from a body without causing significant inconvenience or discomfort. it is possible to use thermoelectric devices to harvest ambient heat for powering remote sensor networks or mobile devices. Such a power level is sufficient for some low-power applications. A successful example in this attempt is the thermoelectric wristwatch developed by Seiko and Citizen. United Kingdom Thermoelectric module. the temperature difference between human body and ambient is around 5–10K. A miniature thermoelectric converter that consists of 2. the power output that can be harvested using a thermoelectric device is estimated to be 20–50 µW/ Low Power Systems Advance in modern microelectronics has led to a significant reduction in the power level requirement.268 pairs of Bi2Te3 thermocouples is mounted on the bottom case of the watch.aspx?strName=Beeby-718_CH05. (a) Schematic diagram of a thermoelectric module. A particularly attractive feature of thermoelectric devices is their ability to generate electricity from body heat that could power medical implants. personal wireless devices. Modern-day remote wireless sensors can operate at a power level of about 130 µW. In a normal environment.pdf Thermoelectric Energy Harvesting Gao Min .1% (compared with the corresponding Carnot efficiency of 0.

452. Paradiso GVU In more extreme temperature differences. . sweat glands keeping the skin of the palms and soles pliable. GA 30332-0280 Cambridge. 4 mph 350 swimming 500 mountain climbing 600 long distance run 900 sprinting 1. This “insensible perspiration” consists of water diffusing through the Morton. but robbing the user of heat in adverse environmental temperatures is not practical. Table indicates that while sitting.html Thermal generating system watches . MD.jcwa.630 Derived from: . College of Computing Responsive Environments Group.7-6. Baltimore.4Wof power. non-sweating) even under the best of conditions. The Williams & Wilkins Co. Media Laboratory Georgia Tech MIT Atlanta.1.048 1.http://www. Using a Carnot engine to model the recoverable energy yields 3.Transparent & Flexible Electronics A schematic diagram of thermoelectric wristwatch.http://www. and the expulsion of water-saturated air from the 60 Massimo Marrazzo . Watts 81 93 116 128 128 128 163 163 163 175 268 407 582 698 1. a total of 116W of power is available.biodomotica.400 Human energy expenditures for selected activities. higher efficiencies may be achieved. Evaporative heat loss from humans account for 25% of their total heat dissipation (basal. A miniature thermoelectric converter is placed on the bottom case of the watch.pdf Human Generated Power for Mobile Electronics Thad Starner Joseph A. Human Locomotion and Body Form. MA 02139 Power from Body Heat Activity Kilocal/hr sleeping 70 lying quietly 80 sitting 100 standing at ease 110 conversation 110 eating meal 110 strolling 140 driving car 140 playing violin or piano 140 housekeeping 150 carpentry 230

the maximum power available without trying to reclaim heat expended by the latent heat of vaporization drops to 2. practical body-worn. The neck is approximately 1/15 of the surface area of the “core” region (those parts that the body tries to keep warm at all times). further diminishing the returns of the Carnot engine unless a wetsuit is employed as part of the design. Total power for each action is included in parentheses.96W of power given optimal conversion.60-0. comfort. and easy removal by the user. This selfregulation causes the location of the heat pump to become the coolest part of the body. the 61 . and efficacy of such a system are relatively limited. The head may also be a convenient heat source for some applications where protective hoods are already in place . The surface area of the head is approximately three times that of the neck and could provide 0. access to major centers of blood flow. Thus.8W. Possible power recovery from body-centered sources. When the skin surface encounters cold air. assuming even heat dissipation over the body. thermally-powered systems have been created. □□□□□ Massimo Marrazzo . The reduced temperature at the location of the heat exchanger would cause the body to restrict blood flow to that area. a rapid constriction of the blood vessels in the skin allows the skin temperature to approach the temperature of the interface so that heat exchange is reduced. The Seiko Thermic wristwatch uses 10 thermoelectric modules to generate sufficient simbolo mu microW to run its mechanical clock movement from the small thermal gradient provided by body heat over ambient temperature. Even given all the limitations mentioned above.20-0.32W could be recovered conveniently by such a neck brace. the neck offers a good location for a tight seal. a maximum of 0. Even so.the head is also a very convenient spot for coupling sensory input to the user. such a system would encapsulate the user in something similar to a wetsuit.biodomotica. While a full wetsuit or even a torso body suit is unsuitable for many applications. As a rough estimate. The above efficiencies assume that all of the heat radiated by the body is captured and perfectly transformed into power. However.Transparent & Flexible Electronics lungs.8-4.

It works on the principle of thermoelectric generators. Device Design: In the medical field. © 4/2008 Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft . are exploring devices and semiconductor materials for the generation of electricity from small temperature gradients in the body. Pacemakers.biodomotica. 62 Massimo Marrazzo .de/EN/press/pi/2007/08/Researchnews82007Topic1. research scientists at the Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated Circuits IIS in Erlangen have developed a way of harnessing natural body heat to generate electricity.jsp Electricity from body heat In collaboration with colleagues from the Fraunhofer Institute for Physical Measurement Techniques IPM and the Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Engineering and Applied Materials Research IFAM.http://www. which introduced a "Thermic" wristwatch that ran on heat from the skin.Transparent & Flexible Electronics Fraunhofer Institute . TEG for short. The company's goal is to produce a device that will be able to generate 100 µW at 4 V in a slim package about 1 inch squared.fraunhofer.eng. such as between the skin and the C environment. comparable in size to current Li-ion pacemaker batteries. Biophan hopes to extend the operating life of small implants by continuously recharging them with a bismuth telluride semiconductor-based thermoelectric energy-scavenger. as well as the company Biophan.uci. the feasibility of scavenging power from this source was proven for nonbiomedical applications by Japanese watch company . and lower-power devices might even run indefinitely. might have their lives extended from one decade to three by this method once the device is perfected.http://bme240. made from semiconductor elements. for example. As far back as 1998. Up to 5° of difference can be found across certain parts of the body.html Thermoelectrics Introduction: Scientists of the Fraunhofer Society.

heat. December 9.html Fujitsu Develops Hybrid Energy Harvesting Device for Generating Electricity from Heat and Light Kawasaki. it is possible to derive energy from two separate sources. requiring electrical wiring and replacement 63 . and is gaining interest as a future next-generation energy source. etc. Energy harvesting technology would eliminate the need for replacing batteries and power cords. Japan. About Energy Harvesting Energy harvesting is the process for collecting energy from the surrounding environment and converting it to electricity.biodomotica. Since there is no need for electrical wiring or battery replacements. electricity is supplied by either a power plant or a battery. With this single device. Furthermore. Massimo Marrazzo . The new technology has great potential in the area of energy harvesting. Conventionally. this technology paves the way to the widespread use of highly efficient energy harvesting devices. 2010 — Fujitsu Laboratories Ltd. radio waves. It also has great potential for powering a variety of sensor networks and medical-sensing technologies.http://www. the idea of using ambient energy in the forms of light. In recent years. has become increasingly attractive. today announced that it has developed a new hybrid energy harvesting device that generates electricity from either heat or light. because the cost of the hybrid device is economical. and a number of methods to produce electricity from these different kinds of energy sources have been developed. which converts energy from the surrounding environment to electricity. which previously could only be handled by combining individual devices.Transparent & Flexible Electronics □□□□□ Fujitsu .com/global/news/pr/archives/month/2010/20101209-01. this development could enable the use of sensors in previously unserved applications and regions.

In addition. or light and vibrations . Newly-developed Technology Fujitsu Laboratories has developed a new hybrid harvesting device that captures energy from either light or . as it can be manufactured from inexpensive organic materials. production costs can be greatly reduced. and it can also generate power from heat in thermoelectric mode.Transparent & Flexible Electronics Overview of energy harvesting Technological Challenges Since the amount of power available by energy harvesting is quite limited. there has been interest in utilizing multiple forms of external energy simultaneously . which are the most typical forms of ambient energy available for wide-scope application. Single device featuring operation in both photovoltaic mode (left) and thermoelectric mode (right) 64 Massimo Marrazzo . this has been achieved by combining different kinds of devices. which leads to higher costs.biodomotica. device production costs can remain low Details of the new technology are as follows.the device can function as a photovoltaic cell or thermoelectric generator (Figure below). In the past. New structure for hybrid generating devices By changing the electrical circuits connecting two types of semiconductor materials . Since the organic material and its process cost are inexpensive. Development of an organic material for hybrid generating devices Fujitsu Laboratories successfully developed an organic material that is suitable for a generator in both photovoltaic and thermoelectric modes. 2. 1.P-type and N-type semiconductors . The organic material features a high generating efficiency that can produce power from even indoor lighting in photovoltaic order to collect a sufficient amount for practical use. This makes it possible for a single device to capture energy from either heat or light without combining two harvesting devices.such as light and heat.

by augmenting one source with the other. you never have to worry about changing batteries as long as your environment is cooler than your body.html Turning Body Heat Into Electricity Osman Can Ozcanli.which generate electricity from temperature differentials. It is usually a thin conductive material that exploits the temperature difference between its two sides to generate electricity. such as your Nintendo Wii (14 watts). for example. you probably own a thermoelectric generator--only working in reverse. photovoltaic cells . where it would be problematic to replace batteries or run electric lines. and heartbeats . which is enough for small things such as heart rate monitors and watches. Eighty percent of body power is given off as excess heat.without batteries and electrical wiring. Some people fondly remember Seiko's Thermic watch. Current technology for converting body heat into electricity is capable of producing only a few milliwatts (one thousandth of a Watt). In medical fields. blood pressure. But only in sci-fi fantasies such as the Matrix film series do you see complete capture of this reliable power source. one side would get extremely cold and the other extremely hot. August 2010 Developments in nano-engineering could unleash new body-powered devices. meaning if you were to apply electricity to the device. known as the Seebeck effect. the technology could be used in sensors that monitor conditions such as body temperature. The basic technology behind the concept of turning body heat into electricity is a thermoelectric device. the technology can also be used for environmental sensing in remote areas for weather forecasting. This new technology from Fujitsu Laboratories doubles the energy-capture potential through the use of both ambient heat and light in a single device. It debuted in 1998 to rave reviews. If either the ambient light or heat is not sufficient to power the sensor. A resting male can put out between 100 and 120 watts of If you own a Seiko Thermic. Recent developments in nanotechnology engineering promise to usher in lots more body-powered devices. The same idea is also used in cooling some computers. If you own a USBpowered drink chiller. The idea of converting the human body's energy into electricity has tantalized scientists for years. and thermoelectric devices .com 65 . Massimo Marrazzo .forbes.http://www. your cellphone (about 1 watt) and your laptop (45 watts). Such devices can work in reverse. have only been available as separate devices. in theory enough to power many of the electronics you use. In addition.which generate electricity from light.biodomotica. which runs continuously off body heat on 1 microwatt (onemillionth of a watt).Transparent & Flexible Electronics Results Until now. Prototype hybrid generating device manufactured on flexible substrate □□□□□ . this technology can supply power with both sources. but Seiko produced only 500 units before discontinuing it.

biodomotica. It generated about 100 microwatts while the patient was asleep and up to 600 microwatts when awake and active. which worked well. Leonov and Vullers started by redesigning the EEG device so it consumed less power. In 2007 the duo built a body-heat powered electroencephalograph device that monitored brain activity. Place these generators side by side to multiply the amount of power being harvested. This time.powered devices become practical. so it had to consume a lot more power than their first prototype. The following year. they built the system as a washable shirt.M. But when the capacitor was charged. the sensation of cold became overwhelming to the patient. That cut out the waste and enabled them to shrink the device even more.Transparent & Flexible Electronics A thermoelectric device placed on skin will generate power as long as the ambient air is at a lower temperature than the body. Scientists Anantha Chandrakasan. and his colleague Yogesh Ramadass have created extremely efficient circuitry in an EKG sensor with a built-in processor and wireless radio. 66 Massimo Marrazzo . A patch of material one square centimeter in area can produce up to 30 microwatts. which was great. powered with body heat. At MIT. commercially available 10-milliwatt pulse oxymeters. In 2006 Vladimir Leonov and Ruud J. In the shirt prototype they used a secondary battery as a storage device that constantly recharged using body heat. director of MIT's Microsystems Technology Laboratories. too. The group had to design the device so it could work with a record low power of 62 microwatts vs. It was about the size of a watch and was successfully tested on patients. or pulse oxymeter. they built a body-heat powered electrocardiograph device (EKG) that monitored heart activity.500 microwatts. Combining other forms of generation with smart storage systems will likely be the ways that body-heat. the duo added photovoltaic cells to the top of the device to harvest solar power to offset some of the thermoelectric generation and make the device less chilly for the patient. The 50-square-centimeter prototype was placed on the forehead of a person and harvested 3. researchers are working on improving the efficiency of the circuitry that harnesses the minute amounts of power generated by standard thermoelectric generators. Vullers from Belgium built a working prototype of a blood oxygen . it would waste any extra energy available from the thermoelectric device. but came with a side effect: With so much area covered with thermoelectric devices sucking the heat. Next. The EEG had to wirelessly transmit real-time data to a computer. In previous prototypes they used a super capacitor.

A company that is closely related to MIT. a Belgium/Netherlands nanotechnologies research center.5 Watts of energy.http://medgadget. . There is research being done by the U. Here's more about this prototype's technology: Massimo Marrazzo . With this efficiency. 67 .com/archives/2007/10/wireless_eeg_powered_by_body_heat. Department of Energy and the University of California-Berkeley on developing more efficient thermoelectric generators.4% of the heat energy into usable electrical power. MIT Professor Peter Hagelstein published a paper in November that showed a way to improve the efficiency of thermoelectric generators by up to 4 times in practice and up to 9 times in theory. is another interesting device developed by the IMEC. a thermoelectric generator currently can only convert 0. powered by body heat. Devices with that kind of efficiency could be used anywhere there is wasted heat--on the walls of power plants or lining the hoods of automobiles.biodomotica. if you were to cover all of your body with thermoelectric generators you could produce 0. This would feel extremely cold and would hardly be enough to power a cellphone.html October 2007 Wireless EEG Powered by Body Heat This autonomous electroencephalogram system.S. is starting to work on commercializing Hagelstein's ideas. Currently.Transparent & Flexible Electronics There's even greater potential in improving the efficiency of thermoelectric generators.

low power consumption of only 0. Higher power generation would cause an uncomfortable sense of The EEG system uses IMEC's proprietary ultra-low power biopotential readout ASIC to extract high-quality EEG signals with micro-power consumption. The small . This will allow a significant reduction of the production cost. The generator is composed of 10 thermoelectric units interconnected in a flexible way. The whole system consumes only 0. a semiconductor process for manufacturing thermopiles is under development. The EEG system is operational in less than one minute after switching on the device.research.8mW and autonomous operation increase the patient's autonomy and quality of life. The thermoelectric generator is mounted on the forehead and converts the heat flow between the skin and air into electrical power.a-star. Also. Future research targets further reduction of the power consumption of the different system components including the radio and processor. the generated power is about 2-2. A low-power digital signal-processing block encodes the extracted EEG data which is sent to a PC via a 2.03mW/cm2 which is the theoretical limit of power generation on human skin. .5mW or 0.4GHz wireless radio.Transparent & Flexible Electronics The entire system is wearable and integrated into a Microfabrication: The power of heat Published online September 2010 68 Massimo Marrazzo . detection of certain kinds of brain trauma and monitoring of brain activity. At room temperature. Potential applications are detection of imbalance between the two halves of the brain.

the heart of which is a thermopile. Moreover. The tool for converting heat flow into electricity is a thermoelectric generator (TEG). A human body constantly generates heat as a useful side effect of However. the heat flow cannot be effectively converted it into electricity. such as your Nintendo Wii (14 watts).1.biodomotica. on average. Furthermore. …. …. the rest of it is rejected in a form of water vapor.Transparent & Flexible Electronics . it is fairly good power. This is explained by the fact that warm-blooded animals have received in the process of evolution a very effective thermal management.youngester. However. not much heat is dissipated from the skin and only about 3–5 mW/cm2 is available indoors. (For example. therefore. Place these generators side by side to multiply the amount of power being harvested. your cellphone (about 1 watt) and your laptop (45 watts). A thermoelectric device placed on skin will generate power as long as the ambient air is at a lower temperature than the body. in theory enough to power many of the electronics you use. PV cells of the same area typically generate much less power because not much light is available indoors. Massimo Marrazzo .) At last. Typically. due to the laws of thermodynamics. where the authors and the reader of this paper are resting 69 . a quite useful electrical power still can be obtained using a person as a heat generator. If we recall that watches consume 1000 times less. only a part of this heat is dissipated into the ambient as a heat flow and infrared radiation. only a few watts of heat flow can be harvested unobtrusively on a person and thermoelectrically converted into several milliwatts in a form of electricity. This includes a very high thermal resistance of the body at ambient temperatures below 20–25 °C if the skin temperature decreases below thermal comfort. therefore. Therefore. nobody would accept a large device on his/her face. only a small fraction of the heat flow can be used in a wearer’s friendly and unobtrusive energy scavenger.html Electricity Generated by Human Body A resting male can put out between 100 and 120 watts of energy. the heat flow is quite limited.2 As a result. The body has high thermal resistance. Eighty percent of body power is given off as excess heat. The human body is not a perfect heat generator as a heat supply for a wearable TEG. A patch of material one square centimeter in area can produce up to 30 microwatts. the heat flow from it practically cannot be used.http://technicalstudies. a human being generates more than 100 W of heat.

Transparent & Flexible Electronics . a graduate student of MIT and Professor Anantha Chandrakasan of MIT. even by body heat. This chip is expected to lengthen the life span of batteries in mobile phones. implantable medical devices and sensors. there will be an inbuilt DC-to-DC converter that would help to reduce the voltage.http://www. This is exactly what will be achieved by a new concept chip designed by Texas . The energy efficient chip is the handiwork of Joyce Kwong.biodomotica.http://www. Texas Instruments to manufacture chips powered by body heat Arpita Mukherjee | Feb 2008 Imagine the day that will come when in order to recharge the batteries of your mobile phone you only have to hold it in your grasp for a few minutes saving a bit of your electricity bill. will be ready for commercial application within the next five years. To enable the chip to work at 0. Instead of using a separate Wireless EEG System Self-Powered By Body Heat And Light ScienceDaily (April 2008) . The energy efficient chip is capable of functioning at Electricity from body heat .Ultimate solution for power-hungry gizmos Bharat | August 2007 70 Massimo Marrazzo . .3 volts of energy that can be provided by any small heat source.3V energy the memory and logic circuits currently prevalent with the existing 1V chips need to be redesigned.sciencedaily.ecofriend. It is a challenge to researchers to develop chips capable of functioning at low power as at very low power levels the imperfections in the silicon become more apparent.

com/piezoelectricity.http://www. In principle. the microphone you spoke into probably used piezoelectricity to turn the sound energy in your voice into electrical signals your computer could interpret. A breakthrough in piezoelectric power generation is the new voltage regulation circuits that we developed at Louisiana Tech University that efficiently converts the piezoelectric charge into a usable voltage.memsinvestorjournal. Piezoelectricity You've probably used piezoelectricity (pronounced "pee-ay-zo-electricity") quite a few times today. a piezoelectric transducer together with two rectifying diodes is sufficient for generating dc output voltage. Assistant Professor. All rights reserved.http://www. the regulation circuit gives time-averaged power of 2 mW per shoe during a regular walk. The transducer can therefore replace the regular heel shock absorber with no loss in user experience. the plastic-based generator is soft and robust matching the properties of regular shoe fillings. "pressing electricity") is much simpler than it sounds: it just means using crystals to convert mechanical energy into electricity or viceversa. a miniature coin cell is depleted in less than three days whereas the shoe power generator gives power output as long as the user keeps walking. Let's take a closer look at how it works and why it's so useful! Massimo Marrazzo . As an GPS receivers. Combined with the polymer transducer. the show power generator can be used to power RF transponders. vibratory MEMS generators might give out only microwatts of electrical power. the power harvesting technologies often fall short in terms of power output. commercially available running sensors for shoes consume over 100 uW of electrical power and requirements for GPS locators are even higher. your gramophone would have been using piezoelectricity to "read" the sounds from your LP records. and locator tags that require a milliwatt power source. The shoe power generator that our group has developed is based on a low-cost polymer transducer that has metallized surfaces for electrical contact. .with an average current consumption 0. If you've got a quartz watch. For example. While this may be sufficient for emerging ultra low power sensors. Piezoelectric transducers generate electrical charge when compressed. If you've been writing a letter or an essay on your computer with the help of voice recognition software. The polymer used in the shoe transducer provides over 5 mJ of energy per step but at voltages too large (>50 V) to be directly used in low power sensors.explainthatstuff. A conversion circuit coverts the high voltage to a regulated 3 V output for charging batteries or for directly powering electronics at better than 70% conversion efficiency. however. many current applications require milliwatt power levels. Unlike the conventional ceramic transducers. This makes piezoelectric materials especially advantageous for power harvesting as they do not require bias voltage for operation.D. Louisiana Tech University Energy harvesting is an attractive way to power MEMS sensors and locator devices such as GPS.biodomotica.5 mA. The total energy output can therefore easily surpass conventional batteries.Transparent & Flexible Electronics Piezoelectric . piezoelectricity is what helps it keep regular 71 . The generated power output can be compared to typical storage capacity of 30 mAh for lithium coin/button cells -.html Text copyright © Chris Woodford 2009. If you're a bit of an audiophile and like listening to music on vinyl. In addition to running sensors and inertial navigation. A significant challenge in harvesting piezoelectric energy is that piezoelectic materials are optimal for generating high voltages but provide only a low current output. Piezoelectricity (literally. Ph.html Microstructured piezoelectric shoe power generator outperforms batteries by Ville Kaajakari.

In practice. This effect carries through the whole structure so net positive and negative charges appear on opposite. In most crystals (such as metals). a crystal becomes mechanically stressed (deformed in shape) when a voltage is applied across its opposite faces. a bit like a climbing frame. Think of a crystal and you probably picture balls (atoms) mounted on bars (the bonds that hold them together). The atoms are essentially fixed in place but can vibrate slightly. That's pretty much piezoelectricity in a nutshell but. in other words) across the sides of a crystal when you subject it to mechanical stress (by squeezing it). by crystals.biodomotica. repeating structure) and more like threedimensional. Photo by courtesy of US Geological Survey. current flows if we connect the two faces together to make a circuit. However. scientists don't necessarily mean intriguing bits of rock you find in gift shops: a crystal is the scientific name for any solid whose atoms or molecules are arranged in a very orderly way based on endless repetitions of the same basic atomic building block (called the unit cell). it isn't. Now. in piezoelectric crystals. what we have is actually less like a climbing frame (which doesn't necessarily have an orderly. if you squeeze or stretch a piezoelectric crystal. and causing net electrical charges to appear. Quartz—probably the best known piezoelectric material. So a lump of iron is just as much of a crystal as a piece of quartz. Normally. the crystal becomes a kind of tiny battery with a positive charge on one face and a negative charge on the opposite face. pushing some of the atoms closer together or further apart." They have to move to rebalance themselves—and 72 Massimo Marrazzo . they "squeeze themselves" by vibrating back and forth. you deform the structure. upsetting the balance of positive and negative.Transparent & Flexible Electronics What is piezoelectricity? Squeeze certain crystals (such as quartz) and you can make electricity flow through them. for the sake of science. let's have a formal definition: Piezoelectricity (also called the piezoelectric effect) is the appearance of an electrical potential (a voltage. piezoelectric crystals are electrically neutral: the atoms inside them may not be symmetrically arranged. but their electrical charges are perfectly balanced: a positive charge in one place cancels out a negative charge nearby. Put a voltage across a piezoelectric crystal and you're subjecting the atoms inside it to "electrical pressure. repeating arrangement of atoms in a solid. In a crystal. the unit cell (the basic repeating unit) is symmetrical. The reverse-piezoelectric effect occurs in the opposite way. patterned wallpaper. outer faces of the crystal. What causes piezoelectricity? What scientists mean by a crystal: the regular. The reverse is usually true as well: if you pass electricity through the same crystals. In the reverse piezoelectric .

If you squeeze the crystal you force the charges out of balance. 4. even if they're not symmetrically arranged. Now the effects of the charges (their dipole moments) no longer cancel one another out and net positive and negative charges appear on opposite crystal faces. the electric dipole moments—vector lines separating opposite charges—exactly cancel one another out.biodomotica. you've produced a voltage across its opposite faces—and that's piezoelectricity! Massimo Marrazzo . The effects of the charges exactly cancel out.) 3. the charges in a piezoelectric crystal are exactly balanced. By squeezing the 73 . (More specifically. 2.Transparent & Flexible Electronics that's what causes piezoelectric crystals to deform (slightly change shape) when you put a voltage across them. How piezoelectricity works 1. Normally. leaving no net charge on the crystal faces.

7. Copyright © 1995-2008 ScienceDaily LLC .com/nature/journal/v451/n7175/abs/nature06381. Si nanowire arrays show promise as highperformance. (Email: majumdar@me. Although bulk Si is a poor thermoelectric material. but those with diameters of about 50 nm exhibit 100-fold reduction in thermal conductivity. 163-167 (10 January 2008) | doi:10. which may be provided directly or indirectly by a battery. Department of Materials Science and 6. These authors contributed equally to this work. Te. Here we report the electrochemical synthesis of large-area.http://www. 25 March 2008. Arun Majumdar2.S.Transparent & Flexible Electronics Nanowires . USA 9. and hydraulic energy into electric energy for battery-free nanodevices.xml Energy harvesting for self-powered nanosystems Zhong Lin (Z.Y. which cannot be explained by current theories. vibration. Wenjie Liang1. Renkun Chen2. A nanodevice requires a power source.4 5. Approximately 90 per cent of the world's power is generated by heat engines that use fossil fuel combustion as a heat source and typically operate at 30–40 per cent efficiency. by greatly reducing thermal conductivity without much affecting the Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity. since the parameters of 1 ZT are generally interdependent .4Peidong Yang1. which is a function of the Seebeck coefficient. 74 Massimo Marrazzo . Berkeley. Sb. Their efficiency depends on the thermoelectric figure of merit ZT of their material components.) Wang Energy from sources such as body movement or blood flow is converted to electrical energy by deforming piezoelectric semiconducting nanowires. But it is highly desirable for wireless devices to be self-powered. Correspondence to: Arun Majumdar2. the lattice contribution to thermal conductivity approaches the amorphous limit for Si. SPIE Newsroom. Accepted 9 October 2007 Allon I.htm Body Heat To Power Cell Phones? Nanowires Enable Recovery Of Waste Heat Energy Energy now lost as heat during the production of electricity could be harnessed through the use of silicon nanowires synthesized via a technique developed by researchers with the U.3. For such nanowires. California . and Ag) and processes used are not often easy to scale to practically useful dimensions. Over the past five decades it has been challenging to increase ZT > 1. thermal conductivity and absolute temperature. Garnett1. That requires exploring innovative nanotechnologies for converting mechanical. wafer-scale arrays of rough Si nanowires that are 20–300 nm in diameter. Department of Mechanical Engineering. Department of Chemistry.3.nature. California 94720.html Enhanced thermoelectric performance of rough silicon nanowires Nature 451. the materials (Bi.1040 Developing novel technologies for wireless nanodevices and nanosystems is of critical importance for in situ. Raul Diaz Delgado1. such that roughly 15 terawatts of heat is lost to the environment. and P. Mark Najarian3. While nanostructured thermoelectric materials can increase ZT >. and even wearable personal electronics.1038/nature06381. Berkeley. Pb.4 & Peidong Yang1.M. . DOI: 10. Received 7 June 2007. electrical resistivity.4 Correspondence and requests for materials should be addressed to A. USA 8.1117/2. Erik C. Department of Energy's (DOE) Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and the University of California (UC) at real-time and implantable biosensing and defense applications.berkeley.1200801. Materials Sciences Division.biodomotica. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. University of California.5. Thermoelectric modules could potentially convert part of this low-grade waste heat to electricity.5. scalable thermoelectric materials.6 at room These nanowires have Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity values that are the same as doped bulk Si.http://www. (Email: p_yang@berkeley. yielding ZT = 0.sciencedaily.L.3.http://spie.

polymers. and Jin Liu for their contribution. The nanogenerator is driven by an external ultrasonic wave or mechanical vibration. nanorobotics. Thanks to Xudong Wang. Schematic diagram showing the DC nanogenerator built using aligned ZnO nanowire arrays with a zigzag top electrode. This research was supported by the National Science Foundation. and the output current is continuous. and blood pressure).com 75 . NASA. and sonic wave detection. the Defense Research Projects Agency. and textile fibers) of any shape. Relevant applications include implantable biosensing. metals. and hydraulic movement (such as flow of body fluid and blood. and the National Institutes of Health.. The lower plot is the output from a nanogenerator with the ultrasonic wave on and off. Jinhui Song. or contraction of blood vessels) into electrical energy to power nanodevices and nanosystems. ceramics.Transparent & Flexible Electronics We have demonstrated an innovative approach for converting mechanical energy into electricity using piezoelectric zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires that can be grown on any substrate (e.g. microelectromechanical systems.biodomotica. muscle stretching. 2 The output current reached 600nA for a 3mm nanogenerator. wireless and remote sensing. vibrations (such as acoustic and ultrasonic waves). Massimo Marrazzo . The principle and technology demonstrated here have the potential to convert energy from mechanical movement (such as body motion.

gatech. “At a strain rate of less than two percent per second. and (d) Image of the LING structure.http://gtresearchnews.2 volts.Georgia Institute of Technology By combining a new generation of piezoelectric nanogenerators with two types of nanowire sensors. 76 Massimo Marrazzo . researchers have created what are believed to be the first self-powered nanometer-scale sensing devices that draw power from the conversion of mechanical energy.26 volts at a strain of 0.” Lateral nanogenerators integrating 700 rows of zinc oxide nanowires produced a peak voltage of .Transparent & Flexible Electronics .7 milliwatts per cubic centimeter. vertical integration of three layers of zinc oxide nanowire arrays produced a peak power density of 2. (b) Design of a lateralnannowire integrated nanogenerator (LING) array. The new devices can measure the pH of liquids or detect the presence of ultraviolet light using electrical current produced from mechanical energy in the environment. (Click image for highresolution version.” said Self-Powered Nanosensors: Researchers Use Improved Nanogenerators to Power Sensors Based on Zinc Oxide Nanowires Writer: John Toon . (c) Scanning electron microscope image of a row of laterally-grown zinc oxide nanowire arrays. Figure shows (a) Fabrication of a vertical-nanowire integrated nanogenerator (VING). In a separate nanogenerator. Credit: Zhong Lin Wang) The alternating current output of the nanogenerators depends on the amount of strain applied.biodomotica. “The power output is matched with the external load.19 percent. we can produce output voltage of 1.

Each state is stable without application of an external field which means that information in the memory will not be lost when the power is turned off. The memory function is based on an intrinsic mechanism related to orientation of the polymer chains. a premier center for commercial innovation. and PARC (Palo Alto Research Center Incorporated).se/about-us/technology-overview Thinfilm’s technology is based on using a ferroelectric polymer as the functional memory material sandwiched between two sets of electrodes in a passive matrix – each crossing of metal lines defines a memory cell. The polymer chains can be oriented in two different ways representing “0” and “1”. a provider of advanced printed memory technology. - Thinfilm Works with PARC to Develop Next-Generation Printed Memory Solutions November 4th.biodomotica. today announced that they are working together to provide next-generation memory technology enabled through printed electronics. 2010 Thinfilm (Thin Film Electronics ASA).Transparent & Flexible Electronics Printed Memory http://www. This is referred to as a non-volatile 77 . Thinfilm has demonstrated 110 nm cells and shown that no lower limits Massimo Marrazzo .thinfilm. The intrinsic character of the polymer means that the technology is extremely scalable.

com/?p=46 Custom Printed Circuits with Embedded Power The TPT Advantage Why design the circuit to fit the battery? With the Embedded Power Platform® and TPT’s customizable battery technology. Custom Design and Manufacture With manual sheet-fed.thinprofiletech. By printing the battery in-line with the circuit. Battery Specifications Property Specification Battery Chemistry Cathode Anode Voltage Capacity Self-Discharge Durability and Flexibility Operating Temperature Storage Temperature Thickness Battery Tab Connection Form Factor Production Status Carbon Zinc Manganese Dioxide Zinc 1.5 mAh/cm2. we can put our knowledge and experience to work for you. 4.1 mm (100 microns. This is very important in realizing our Memory Everywhere vision The Thinfilm-patented passive matrix is the “Holy grail” of memory architectures that dispenses with the need of active circuitry within the memory cell. An additional important characteristic of the technology is that it is based on non-toxic TM materials.biodomotica. and web roll-to-roll presses.0 mm (1000 microns. as pioneers in the field of printed electronics. 4 mils) to 1.5 . we deliver a more robust solution that delivers more capacity at lower price. 6.Transparent & Flexible Electronics could be found. This enables ultimate packing for high density memories as well as the possibility to stack memory layers on top of each other. TPT can tailor the size of each run to the opportunity or substrate used.0 V Up to 2. we design the battery to fit the circuit and its product form factor requirements. Best of all. 40 mils) Anisotropic conductive film (ACF) or ultrasonic weld Virtually unlimited Mass production 78 Massimo Marrazzo . The passive array memory architecture allows the memory portion to be separate from the read/write electronics enabling stand alone application without integration with printed logic.0 V. and easily scale up when demand rises. .http://www.5 V. 3. We handle a large variety of substrates and conductive materials in both sheet and web format. automatic sheet-fed. depending on formulation and thickness <1% per month ISO 7810 Compliant -10° (15° to 60°C (140° C F) F) -20° (-5° to 40° (105° C F) C F) 0.

total them up and charge the customer's account while adjusting the store's inventory. you're it Rice. Chao Chair in Chemistry as well as a professor of mechanical engineering and materials science and of Massimo Marrazzo .edu/media/ 79 . It would allow a customer to walk a cart full of groceries or other goods past a scanner on the way to the car.F.rice. and W.http://www. Korean collaboration produces printable tag that could replace bar codes 3/18/2010 RFID tags printed through a new roll-to-roll process could replace bar codes CREDIT: GYOU-JIN CHO/SUNCHON NATIONAL UNIVERSITY Rice researchers.T. the scanner would read all items in the cart at once.biodomotica. the T.Transparent & Flexible Electronics Printed Antennas . have come up with an in collaboration with a team led by Gyou-jin Cho at Sunchon National University in Korea.asp?MODE=VIEW&ID=13899 Nano-based RFID tag. printable transmitter that can be invisibly embedded in packaging. The technology reported in the March issue of the journal IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices is based on a carbon-nanotube-infused ink for ink-jet printers first developed in the Rice lab of James Tour.

cost-efficient.biodomotica. seamless manufacturing route. Reel to reel technology. who expects the technology to mature in five years. and that would be enough to handle every item in every Walmart. When they receive the RF signal. other metals are being considered for inclusion in a polymer matrix to make a screenprintable conductor for antennas. Smart label from the Fraunhofer Institut Zuverlässigkeit und Mikrointegration (IZM) in Munich.electroscience. a key element in radio-frequency identification (RFID) tags that can be printed on paper or plastic. will bring the cost of printing the tags down to a penny apiece and make them ubiquitous. "We are going to a society where RFID is a key player. they emit.Transparent & Flexible Electronics computer science. That means you can produce one trillion of them from a gram of nanotubes — a miniscule amount. Germany Fraunhofer IZM reel to reel process The choice of substrate material allows for relatively high processing temperatures (up to 150 ° for the few C minutes it takes to cure the paste). It's infinitesimal. _The amount of nanotubes in an RFID tag is probably less than a picogram. there's no lifetime limit." . more nanotubes occur naturally in the environment. Cho and his team are developing the electronics as well as the roll-to-roll printing process that. Tour allayed concerns about the fate of nanotubes in packaging." Tour said. "If there's no power source. he said. Our HiPco reactor produces a gram of nanotubes an hour. The ink is used to make thin-film transistors.http://www. "In fact. is considered to be faster than traditional methods of handling substrate" said Cho. a professor of printed electronics engineering at Sunchon.html New Flexible Polymer Silver from ESL ElectroScience The rapid growth in the use of these devices has necessitated the search for a fast. Central to the success of this manufacturing route is the use of polymer based thick-film pastes that can be screen-printed using specially adapted printers that accept a reel to reel process. Line/space resolutions of 200 µm have been achieved quite easily and the spread in resistance values of tracks printed at this thickness are good. It may well be that this resistivity is too high for some applications and ESL is working on a lower-resistivity polymer . Copyright © 2004-2008 ESL ElectroScience. While silver is the metal that has been chosen to produce the pioneer product. The tags power up when hit by radio waves at the right frequency and return the information they contain. Printable RFIDs are practical because they're passive. The substrate chosen is thee plastic C that is used for credit cards. The resistivity of ESL1901-S is 15-20 mΩ/square at a thickness of 25 µm when cured at 80 ° for two hours. such as is used in the newspaper industry. All rights reserved 80 Massimo Marrazzo . so it's not even fair to say the risk is minimal. Institutes like Fraunhofer IZM are preparing smart cards/labels using continuous production lines.

24.5. throughputs are often closer to 2 Mbit/s symmetric at 10 km with fixed WiMAX and a high gain antenna.7. 36. A typical Wi-Fi home router using 802.3. from point-to-point links to full mobile cellular type access. 60.4/5 OFDM 15.4 5 a 3.11 Freq. WiMAX.8. interoperable implementations of IEEE Wi-Fi is the trade name for a popular wireless technology used in home networks.16 standard. 2. 9.11b or 802. similar to the way the term Wi-Fi is used for interoperable implementations of the IEEE 802. WiMAX is a term coined to describe standard. A commonly-held misconception is that WiMAX will deliver 70 Mbit/s over 50 kilometers.000 16. in urban environments they may not have line-of-sight and therefore users may only receive 10 Mbit/s over 2 km. 9. video games and more. 20 OFDM 54 --5.11a to the licensed 3. In reality.7[y] b 2. 65. Mobile WiMAX devices typically have an omni-directional antenna which is of lower-gain compared to directional antennas but are more portable. Wi-Fi in the 2. Increased power limits allow a range up to 5000m. However. 20 70 230 250 820 43. Wi-Fi networks have limited range.11y-2008 extended operation of 802. 30. 150[z] y IEEE 802. As of 2009[update].wikipedia. this means that in a line-ofsight environment with a portable Mobile WiMAX CPE. 72. However.biodomotica.9. 40 70 230 250 820 135.4 g 802. it is only being licensed in the United States by the FCC. 2 DSSS. 57. WiMAX is very different from Wi-Fi in the way it works.2. In practice. speeds of 10 Mbit/s at 10 km could be delivered. WiMAX can do one or the other — operating over maximum range (50 km) increases bit error rate and thus must use a lower bitrate. which is also called WirelessMAN.4 GHz frequency block has slightly better range than Wi-Fi in the 5 GHz frequency block. 36. 11 DSSS 38 125 140 460 6. the Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access. 12. 48.wikipedia.11 network standards Approximate indoor Approximate Outdoor Bandwidth Data rate per stream Modulation range range (MHz) (Mbit/s) (m) (ft) (m) (ft) 20 1.Transparent & Flexible Electronics Wireless technologies Wi-Fi . laptops with integrated Mobile WiMAX or other Mobile WiMAX devices.http://en. n • • WiMAX . 90. 18. fixed WiMAX networks have a higher-gain directional antenna installed near the client (customer) which results in greatly increased range and throughput.2[z] 81 . otherwise reduce each data rate by 10%. It is also important to consider that a throughput of 2 Mbit/s can mean 2 Massimo Marrazzo . 24. 21. is a telecommunications technology that provides wireless data in a variety of ways. Lowering the range allows a device to operate at higher bitrates.000 20 5. 18. Wi-Fi performance decreases roughly quadratically as the range increases at constant radiation levels. mobile phones. 802.7 GHz band. Protoco (GHz) l – 2. 120. Typically. In current deployments. Range also varies with frequency band.11g with a stock antenna might have a range of 32 m (120 ft) indoors and 95 m (300 ft) outdoors. z Assumes Short Guard interval (SGI) enabled. 48.http://en.4 20 OFDM.16 wireless networks. It is based on the IEEE 802.11 Wireless LAN standard. FHSS 20 66 100 330 35 115 120 390 6. 28. Outdoor range with improved (directional) antennas can be several kilometres or more with line-of-sight. DSSS 38 125 140 460 54 7. 14. Mobile WiMAX networks are usually made of indoor "customer premises equipment" (CPE) such as desktop modems. 12.

that free community wi-fi networks have shown that with proper Data Rate 1 Mbit/s 3 Mbit/s 53 . where the end user's wireless termination point is fixed in location. which means that QoS parameters can be guaranteed for each flow. many coffee shops. Different 802. Wi-Fi has introduced a QoS mechanism similar to fixed Ethernet. and both have a connection to wireless connectivity and the Internet. and transportation hubs contain Wi-Fi access points providing access to the Internet for customers. as opposed to guaranteed. Comparison with Wi-Fi Comparisons and confusion between WiMAX and Wi-Fi are frequent.5 Mbit/s downlink and 0.". For example. Due to the ease and low cost with which Wi-Fi can be deployed. Typically Wi-Fi is used by an end user to access their own network. Version Version 1.5 mW (4 dBm) ~10 meters Class 3 1 mW (0 dBm) ~1 meter In most cases the effective range of class 2 devices is extended if they connect to a class 1 transceiver. wi-fi can have very long ranges. Despite this.5 Mbit/s downlink and 1. Wi-Fi is more analogous to a cordless phone. from mobile (similar to data access via a cellphone) to fixed (an alternative to wired access. 1 Mbit/s symmetric or some asymmetric mix (e. covering many kilometers that typically uses licensed spectrum (although it is possible to use unlicensed spectrum) to deliver a point-to-point connection to the Internet from an ISP to an end user. that uses unlicensed spectrum to provide access to a network. Higher-gain directional antennas can be used with a Mobile WiMAX network with range and throughput benefits but the obvious loss of practical mobility. typically covering only the network operator's own property.biodomotica.Transparent & Flexible Electronics Mbit/s.480 Mbit/s .) · Wi-Fi is a shorter range system. hotels.g.16 standards provide different types of access. Bluetooth™ http://en. This is accomplished by the higher sensitivity and transmission power of Class 1 devices. however. · WiMAX and Wi-Fi have quite different Quality of Service (QoS) mechanisms.2 Version 2. · WiMAX is highly scalable from what are called "femto"-scale remote stations to multi-sector 'maxi' scale base that handle complex tasks of management and mobile handoff functions and include MIMO-AAS smart antenna subsystems. and sometimes as part of a business relationship. Each connection is based on specific scheduling algorithms. If WiMAX provides services analogous to a cellphone. possibly because both begin with the same two letters.5 Mbit/s uplink. compared to pure class 2 network. are based upon IEEE standards beginning with "802. Maximum Permitted Power mW(dBm) Range (approximate) Class 1 100 mW (20 dBm) ~100 meters Class 2 2. 0. · WiMAX is a long-range system. where packets can receive different priorities based on their tags. often informally. It's important to note. typically tens of meters. the two standards are aimed at different applications. symmetric simultaneously.wikipedia. WiMAX uses a mechanism based on setting up connections between the Base Station and the user device. creating wireless personal area networks (PANs). it is sometimes used to provide Internet access to third parties within a single room or building available to the provider.0 + EDR WiMedia Alliance (proposed) 82 Massimo Marrazzo . This means that QoS is relative between packets/ Bluetooth is a wireless protocol utilizing short-range communications technology facilitating data transmission over short distances from fixed and/or mobile devices.5 Mbit/s uplink or 1. each of which required slightly different network equipment and configurations. which may or may not be connected to the Internet.

Because an already weak signal is backscattered to the reader from a larger number of tags and from longer distances. Other sensor types are combined with active RFID tags. relying on storing and remotely retrieving data using devices called RFID tags or 83 . Semi-passive tags are similar to active tags in that they have their own power source. disposable diagnostic devices such as _smart" disposable wireless skin patches or personal drug delivery systems and read directly with a cell phone under existing Gentag/Altivera patents. 3) Can perform active functions (such as temperature logging) under its own or semi-passive (also known as battery-assisted). or person for the purpose of identification using radio waves. also the time consumption for collecting the energy is omitted and the response comes with shorter latency time. typically 100 times more.biodomotica. Most RFID tags contain at least two parts. and a battery life of up to 10 years.) (ISO 14443) up to a few meters (Electronic Product Code (EPC) and ISO 18000-6). animal. depending on the chosen radio frequency and antenna design/size. RFID tags come in three general varieties:. Chipless RFID allows for discrete identification of tags without an integrated circuit. The lack of an onboard power supply means that the device can be quite small: commercially available products exist that can be embedded in a sticker.html A particular focus area for Gentag using RFID cell phones are diagnostic applications. including humidity.gentag. For passive tags. The enhanced sensitivity can be leveraged as increased range (by one magnitude) and/or as enhanced read reliability (by reducing bit error rate at least one magnitude). Semi-passive tags have three main advantages 1) Greater sensitivity than passive tags 2) Longer battery powered life cycle than active tags.passive. The enhanced sensitivity of semi-passive tags place higher demands on the reader concerning separation in more dense population of tags. the tag is operating active Whereas in passive tags the power level to power up the circuitry must be 100 times stronger than with active or semi-active tags. Special active RFID tags may include temperature sensors. the separation requires more sophisticated anti-collision concepts. the reverse (tag-to-reader) link usually collides first. For semi-passive tags. where energy is reflected back to the reader as with passive tags. thereby allowing tags to be printed directly onto assets at a lower cost than traditional tags. thus being pure passive devices (they are only active when a reader is nearby to power them). the reader-to-tag link usually fails first. The second is an antenna for receiving and transmitting the signal. whereas semi-passive and active tags require a power source. The battery-assisted reception circuitry of semi-passive tags leads to greater sensitivity than passive tags. Copyright © 2008 Gentag. but the battery only powers the microchip and does not power the broadcasting of a signal. If energy from the reader is collected and stored to emit a response in the future. Active tags may include larger memories than passive tags. better signal processing and some more intelligent assessment which tag might be where. modulating and demodulating a (RF) signal.Transparent & Flexible Electronics RFID . .wikipedia. even when no reader is present for powering the circuitry. light. Radio-frequency identification (RFID) is an automatic identification method. and may include the ability to store additional information received from the reader. But thanks to deep-space technology.http://en. Some tags can be read from several meters away and beyond the line of sight of the reader. RFID sensors can be integrated into low cost. usually a small battery. Temperature logging is used to monitor the temperature profile during transportation and storage of perishable goods as fresh produce or certain pharmaceutical products. Passive tags require no internal power source. shock/vibration. The response is usually powered by means of backscattering the RF energy from the reader. Passive tags have practical read distances ranging from about 10 cm (4 in. active.http://www. Inc Massimo Marrazzo . An RFID tag is an object that can be applied to or incorporated into a product. An additional application for the battery is to power data storage. that distance is now 600 feet[6]. pressure and concentrations of gases like ethylene. Many active tags today have operational ranges of hundreds of meters. or under the skin in the case of low frequency (LowFID) RFID tags. One is an integrated circuit for storing and processing information. and other specialized functions. non-invasive. Due to their simplicity in design they are also suitable for manufacture with a printing process for the antennas. radiation.

therapeutic. the radio also offers unique opportunities for radio controlled devices to be placed in the body for various diagnostic. DNA. In addition. 0. interfacing with muscle or brain function · Ultra small hearing aid · RF antenna. Nanotube Radio. less complex. (a) Schematic of the nanotube diagnostic instrumentation. A current measuring device. because it does not rely on ionizing a particle to make measurements. The radio is several orders of magnitude smaller than previous radios due to the use of the nanotube's electro-mechanical movement instead of a conventional radio's electrical components.. J. The nanotube application could also measure the masses of large molecules or those that are difficult to ionize. proteins. Berkeley Lab's nanotube radio promises smaller. Radio transmissions tuned to the nanotube's resonance frequency force the charged nanotube to vibrate. Because its scale is compatible with biological systems. to create a highly sensitive.html Nanotube Radio for Communications and Medical Applications Alex Zettl and his team at Berkeley Lab have invented and constructed a fully functional. and lower power-requirement wireless communication devices. such as a sensitive speaker. Weldon. e. used as drug release triggers. tunable band-pass .http://www. and demodulator—to convert an electromagnetic signal into a mechanical signal and then into an electrical signal amplified and demodulated to produce audible sound. This change may be used to detect the impingement of particles. No.Transparent & Flexible Electronics Nanotube Radio . e..biodomotica. A mass spectrometer constructed using this technology can detect the mass of less than a single hydrogen atom. Field emission of electrons from the tip of the nanotube is used to detect the vibrations and also amplify and demodulate the signal. whether solid or gaseous. A-D 84 Massimo Marrazzo . Garcia. Zettl. the nanotube may be altered by contact with particles at the atomic scale that change the resonance frequency of the nanotube. H. and sensory (auditory and visual) functions. (b) Transmissionelectron micrographs of a nanotube radio off resonance (top) and on resonance (bottom) during a radio transmission. integrated radio receiver based on a single carbon nanotube (CNT).. 0. K.g. A. monitors the output of the radio. amplifier. inexpensive mass spectrometer or gas sensor.lbl. as in traditional mass spectrometers. or demodulator · Mass spectrometer · Chemical sensor FOR MORE INFORMATION: Jensen. The nanotube serves simultaneously as all essential components of a radio -. amplifier.antenna. The radio can be configured to be either a receiver or a transmitter. Vol. APPLICATIONS OF TECHNOLOGY: · All-in-one radio receiver for cell phones/wireless networks/GPS and other electronic devices · Radio controlled devices that can exist inside the body. tunable pass filter. monitoring.g. Nano Letters.. Berkeley Researchers Create First Fully Functional Nanotube Radio Block diagram for a traditional radio.http://www. All four essential components of a radio. Available for licensing. & Flexible Electronics .lbl. . amplifier.biodomotica. antenna. and demodulator may be implemented with a single carbon Copyright Technology Review 2011 .com 85 .gov/Science-Articles/Archive/MSD-nanoradio.technologyreview.html Published patent application WO/2009/048695 available at http://www. Massimo Marrazzo .http://www. As the radio is brought into tune with the transmitted signal. .the nanoradio is nineteen orders-of-magnitude smaller than the Philco vacuum tube radio from the 1930s (Credit: Berkeley / A.biodomotica.http://www. the nanotube radio is tuned to a different frequency than that of the transmitted radio signal so the nanotube does not vibrate and only static noise can be heard.html Smallest Radio Receiver in the World Radio evolution . which blurs its image in the video but allows the music to become audible. Jensen) Copyright © 2008 The Future of Things. the nanotube begins to vibrate. At the beginning of the video.Transparent & Flexible Electronics Video . All rights reserved 86 Massimo Marrazzo .com .http://thefutureofthings. Zettl and This QuickTime video was recorded on the nanotube radio using a Transmission Electron Microscope. The song is the theme music to Star Wars by John Williams.

" says Kaili Jiang from the research team. once fed by sound frequency electric currents. Copyright © 2008 American Chemical Society - http://pubs.newscientist. © 2008 Tokyo Institute of Technology - http://www. Doi:10. Zai-Qiao Bai. 2008 We found that very thin carbon nanotube films.1021/nl802750z (2008). Stretchable. This phenomenon could be attributed to a thermoacoustic effect (see page 92).http://www. stretchable.html Video Nanotube-based speaker plays music from an iPod beneath it. L.1021/nl802750z Publication Date (Web): October 29. A carbon nanotubes loudspeaker placed in front of an iPod to demonstrate the possible integration with display devices Xiao. On the basis of this finding. Transparent Carbon Nanotube Thin Film Loudspeakers Lin Xiao. The sound output from the loudspeaker was clear and the acoustic performance relatively constant across the audible frequency spectrum. Yuying Zhang. which could open up new applications of and approaches to manufacturing loudspeakers and other acoustic devices.http://pubs. pp 4539—4545 DOI: 10. Shoushan Fan Department of Physics & Tsinghua-Foxconn Nanotechnology Research Centre.acs. which possess the merits of nanometer thickness and are transparent. The ultra small heat capacity per unit area of carbon nanotube thin films leads to a wide frequency response range and a high sound pressure level. 8 (12). et al.php?id=340 Carbon nanotubes: Loud and clear To make a loudspeaker from the films was extremely simple. Kaili Jiang. don't require any of the bulky magnets and sound cones of conventional speakers. Beijing Normal Beijing 100084. Such a single-element thin film loudspeaker can be tailored into any shape and size. and Department of . Zhuo Chen. Yang Wang. Li Qian. People's Republic of China Nano 87 .1021/nl802750z Flexible. People's Republic of China. stretchable. Chen Feng. Nano Lett. . could emit loud sounds. Liang Liu.acs. we made practical carbon nanotube thin film loudspeakers. Beijing 100875. transparent carbon nanotubes thin film freestanding or on any insulating surfaces. Qunqing Li. Massimo Marrazzo . flexible. _All that was needed were two electrodes attached to the carbon nanotube films through which the audio frequency voltage is applied. 2008. Tsinghua University.natureasia. and magnet-free.Transparent & Flexible Electronics S ou n d Ultrathin loudspeakers made from transparent and flexible carbon nanotube films.

flexible.http://www2. The entire diaphragm therefore radiates in phase. crisper.biodomotica.html Flexible. Warwick Audio Technology's FFL technology is a carefully designed assembly of thin. Hot nanotube sheets produce music on demand Sheets made of carbon nanotubes behave like a loudspeaker when zapped with a varying electric current. less than 0. Transparent Nanotube-Based Loudspeakers Researchers from Tsinghua University and Beijing University have recently developed a thin film based on carbon nanotubes (CNT) that could replace conventional magnetic . and its particular method of sound generation could make public announcements in places like passenger terminals clearer. which when excited by an electrical signal will vibrate and produce sound. freestanding or placed on a variety of rigid or flexible insulating A groundbreaking new say Chinese researchers. Usually. and easier to hear. flat speakers. The discovery could lead to new generation of cheap. which in turn vibrates a mechanical cone. conducting and insulating. could be hung on a wall like a picture. has been developed by University of Warwick engineers.Transparent & Flexible Electronics by Colin Barras © Copyright 2008 Reed Business Information Ltd. transparent. and low total harmonic distortion (THD). Lightweight and inexpensive to manufacture. the loudspeaker can generate sound with wide frequency range. or printed with a design and hung on the wall like a picture. stretchable. The speaker laminate operates as a perfect piston resonator. and can be tailored into many shapes and sizes. it's flat. materials resulting in the development of a flexible laminate. Video . □□□□□ 88 Massimo Marrazzo . All speakers work by converting an electric signal into sound.http://thefutureofthings. so producing the sound. the signal is used to generate a varying magnetic field.25mm thick. high sound pressure levels (SPL). forming an area source. Flat flexible speakers . The wave front emitted by the vibrating surface is phase By applying an audio frequency current through the CNT. the speakers are slim and flexible: they could be concealed inside ceiling tiles or car interiors. The uniqueness of this advancement is that the films are flexible. producing a plane wave with very high directivity and very accurate sound imaging.

researchers built a "thermophone" out of thin sheets of Paper-Thin Nanotube Speakers Can Turn Up the Volume by Nina Bai November 5th. With carbon nanotubes. The phenomenon is known as the thermoacoustic 89 . "A key parameter that determines the sound generation efficiency is the heat capacity per unit area. The team used a laser vibrometer to detect vibrations in the sheet. they heat and expand the air near them. In the late 19th century. Unlike standard loudspeakers that generate sound by vibrations in the surrounding air molecules. The physics behind the nanotube speakers is different from that of conventional speakers. When they applied an electric current with an audio frequency to the sheets. but found nothing [Physorg. until now.biodomotica. flat loudspeakers. The researcher describe their device in Nano Letters. Examples of carbon nanotubes´ musical abilities can be heard here and here.Transparent & Flexible Electronics .http://blogs. et al. 2008 Next-generation loudspeakers could be as thin as paper. why didn’t I think of that!’.physorg. thanks to the low heat capacity of the nanotubes. China. The team. the sheets broadcast the sounds loud and -. The basic idea of using the thermoacoustic effect to make speakers isn’t new.html Carbon nanotubes could act as an efficient music speaker November 3.http://www. that it brings up a strong wave of ‘Duh. These nanotube speakers could eventually be used to add audio capabilities to windows. no one has thoroughly investigated their acoustic properties. the nanotube speaker doesn’t emit vibrations. which consists of scientists Shoushan Fan and colleagues at Tsinghua University in Beijing. Instead. Chinese researchers have discovered that sheets of carbon nanotubes can amplify sound as loud as conventional speakers can. and clothing. "It is so wonderfully simple. Put simply. The speaker produces sound when a current passes through. The new nanotube speakers can produce sounds 20 to 30 decibels louder than the thermophone. Credit: Lin Xiao. video screens. "The difference is that thunder is not a controlled discharge." [researcher Kaili] Jiang says [Nature News]. When an electric current is applied to the nanotubes. but it could only produce a whisper of a sound. and Beijing Normal University. it generates sound much as lightning produces thunder. you can control the sound and play music. The heat capacity per unit area of a carbon nanotube sheet is 260 times smaller than that of a platinum foil sheet [New Scientist].While carbon nanotubes are widely praised for their strength and electrical □□□□□ Carbon Nanotubes Speaker . A team of Chinese researchers has found that zapping sheets of carbon nanotubes with an electric current causes the nanotubes to emit sound. hope that the discovery could lead to the development of cheap.discovermagazine. and as stretchable as rubber. The researchers made the speaker by aligning carbon nanotubes. (PhysOrg." says physical chemist Howard Schmidt at Rice University [Nature News]. that’s a measure of how much heat energy must be applied to a material to raise its temperature. into thin flexible sheets. ©2008 discovermagazine." [explains Jiang]. due to a thermoacoustic creating sound waves. each about 10 nanometers in diameters. 2008 by Lisa Zyga Video Excerpt from a video of Lin Xiao´s nanotube music]. as clear as glass. Massimo Marrazzo . The thermally induced pressure oscillations can heat the speakers up to 80 ° but the researchers say temperatures s lightly C above room temperature would be adequate for consumer applications.

an American scientist has taken that technology underwater.biodomotica. for instance. and to remain hidden themselves. Lin. leading to the invention of the "thermophone." Although the principle is the same. Specifically. Another possibility is incorporating the nanotube speakers into textiles to create musical clothes. 2010 One of the sound-generating carbon nanotube sheets Two years ago. generating a sound. and speed of underwater objects. the nanotube speaker likely works as a thermoacoustic device: when an alternating current passes through the sheet. These temperature oscillations cause pressure oscillations in the surrounding air. but found nothing.1021/nl802750z. it should continue to emit sound. © 2009 PhysOrg. in which nanotubes can be made to generate sound waves via a thermoacoustic effect – every time an electrical pulse is sent through the microscopic layer of nanotubes. ASAP Article. of the University of Texas at Dallas. Transparent Carbon Nanotube Thin Film Loudspeakers. Research scientist Ali Aliev. the nanotube sheet acts much more efficiently than foil because it doesn´t require nearly as much applied heat to increase its temperature.Transparent & Flexible Electronics To create the nanotube speaker. they might be fitted over the front of an LCD screen to replace conventional speakers.gizmag. .com . et al. depth. where he claims it could allow submariners to detect other submarines. producing the sound. Chinese scientists coated one side of a flag with a thin sheet of nanotubes. even if part of the nanotube sheet breaks. Unlike standard loudspeakers that generate sound by vibrations in the surrounding air molecules. the sheet experiences rapid temperature oscillations alternating between room temperature and 80 °C (176 ° F). the nanotube speaker doesn´t emit vibrations. Now. One advantage of this method is that. has determined that the low-frequency sound waves created by carbon nanotube sheets can be used by sonar systems to determine the location.. Aliev and his team also determined that the sheets could be tuned to transmit specific frequencies that would cancel out certain noises. The team used a laser vibrometer to detect vibrations in the sheet." ASAP Nano Lett.. while the nanotube sheet remains static. More information: Xiao. The Chinese researchers envision several interesting applications for the nanotube speakers. then played a song using the flapping sheet-coated flag as a speaker. "Flexible. the researchers sent an audio frequency current through a thin sheet of carbon nanotubes.http://www. when scientists passed a current through a thin foil to produce sound. It was a demonstration of flexible speaker technology. it causes the air around them to heat up. 90 Massimo Marrazzo . the nanotube sheet´s heat capacity is 260 times smaller than platinum foil. noises such as those that a submarine makes while passing through the water. however. This thermoacoustic phenomenon was actually discovered in the late nineteenth century. unlike conventional speakers. which in turn creates a sound Nanotube sheets could lead to stealthier submarines By Ben Coxworth September 2. 10. making nanotubes 260 times more efficient and able to produce a louder sound. Instead. Because the nanotube sheets can be stretched to be visually transparent and still produce sound..

physorg. about 20 microns thick. which are ideal for probing the depths of the ocean with sonar.http://www. On the plus side.doi. however. the team discovered that nanotubes excel at producing low frequency sound waves. leaving the friendly sub undetected. 2010 Thin. which received their electrical pulses alternately instead of simultaneously. the rumble of a the hydrophobic (water-repellent) nature of the sheets causes an air envelope to form around the nanotubes. As with the air envelopes. The team also confirmed previous studies noting the ability of nanoscience speakers to cancel noise when tuned to the correct frequency — say. but found that this negatively affected the desired thermoacoustics. The sheets can oxidize when in contact with water at high temperatures. Aliev encapsulated them in thin. the high surface tension and vibrational frequency of water causes the nanotubes to bundle into acoustically-poor ropes.biodomotica. The researchers also experimented with stacking the sheets several 91 . The optimum arrangement turned out to be a layer of just two separated sheets. Meaning. these underwater sound generators could cancel out the sonar signal being sent out by another sub. flat gas-filled containers with acoustically-transparent windows.” Aliev said. a research scientist at the NanoTech Institute.” More information: Journal paper: http://dx. Layers of nanotube sheets can be built … 21/nl100235n □□□□□ Massimo Marrazzo . which in turn acts as a kind of resonating chamber for the sound waves. the sheets still needed to be protected from the water. Led by Dr. In order to do so. the resonance that resulted from the sound waves being generated in such an enclosed space proved to be a benefit – the encapsulated sheets were actually ten times more effective at transmitting low-frequency sound underwater than non-encapsulated sheets. “Nanotube sheets can easily be deployed on curved surfaces. periodically heating the skin of a sub—or even an airplane—warms the thin pocket of air around the vehicle and reduces friction and turbulence. Be that as it may. The research has just been published in the journal Nano Letters. for sonar projector applications or for control of the boundary layer losses for marine vehicles. almost transparent sheets of multi-walled (MWNT) nanotubes are connected to an electrical source. like the hull of a sub. and ocean water can cause the sheets to short circuit.Transparent & Flexible Electronics One obstacle that Aliev had to overcome was the fact that the sheets do not do well in direct contact with water. boosting their strength.html Nanotech Speakers Hold Promise for Sonar Uses June 14. “They’re very light. Ali Aliev. and they’re 99 percent porous. . which rapidly heats the nanotubes causing a pressure wave in the surrounding air to produce sound. Or. each with a different function.

http://www. increasing its intensity (volume). digital video cameras.unsw. Using just ordinary acoustic mesh and double sided tape to seal the speaker to the front cavity.http://en. this 19.http://www.wikipedia. e-books and other mobile equipment. it bounces back and forth within the chamber with low loss (See standing wave). The chamber has interior surfaces which reflect an acoustic wave. A definition is in order – it’s the study of phenomena influenced by thermodynamics and acoustics. how does such a little vibration make such a lot of sound? The answer is that our ears are rather sensitive (see our page on decibels and hearing). Which raises an obvious question: if there is no amplification. this waterproof speaker application allows for decreased application costs.Murata Electronics North America today announced the launch of the world's first ultra-thin waterproof piezoelectric speaker. Even though the motion is slight. both of which can be used to generate sound oscillations. (sometimes written soundbox).html Thermoacoustics work both . Thermoacoustics is heat that makes noise and noise that makes heat.http://www. where it is gradually lost by internal friction.http://www. these features make the speaker ideal for mobile phones.1mm speaker enables greater design freedom for the rapidly growing and evolving mobile making almost no x 14.phys. digital still cameras. More specifically sound oscillations that transport heat or cold. 2010 .html Resonance and Standing Waves □□□□□ .html How can a resonating chamber amplify sounds? Let's compare a string on immoveable mountings (an unplugged electric guitar approaches this) with a string on an acoustic guitar. For example. As such.wikipedia. of the 50 new Japanese mobile phone models announced in late 2010. So the string converts some of its energy to sound in the air. In the former. even a small energy (even less than a millijoule) over several seconds makes a reasonably loud sound. heat makes sound. Consequently.http://en. sound makes heat. the string on the acoustic guitar moves the belly of the instrument slightly. Consequently. There have been numerous indicators that demonstrate the growing trend towards waterproofing mobile equipment. . IC recorders.nsf/pages/08032010 Ultra-Thin Waterproof Piezoelectric Speaker Smyrna. The high torque nature of the speaker's piezoelectric motor also makes it idea for operation in very small and thin back cavities where dynamic speakers struggle to is an open chamber in the body of a musical instrument which alters the instrument's tone quality by modifying the way the instrument resonates. August 3. The speaker achieves IPX7 grade waterproof protection without the need of a costly water proof acoustic membrane. and good sound performance.five-shades-of-green-energy. So nearly all the energy of the pluck remains in the string. (Internal losses in the string are still very important.glenbrook. it combines with and reinforces the standing wave. When a wave enters the chamber. the belly is large enough to move air substantially and make a sound. GA. almost one 92 Massimo Marrazzo .il. . Simply A sound box or sounding box. In contrast. thin size. however. so no work is done by the string. With a thickness of only Copyright © 2008 Joe Wolfe . The string itself is inefficient at moving air because it is thin and slips through the air As more wave energy enters the A resonance chamber uses resonance to amplify sound. the bridge (almost) doesn't move. music players. □□□□□ Resonance .) So there is no extra energy: the energy for the sound comes from the string. The purpose of the sound box is to amplify the volume of the instrument.Transparent & Flexible Electronics Thermoacoustic effect .murata-northamerica. its vibration decreases more rapidly than does that of a similar string on an electric guitar.biodomotica.k12.

9µF±30%. Specific speaker characteristics include an average sound pressure level of 92.murata-northamerica.biodomotica.html Massimo Marrazzo . Murata Electronics North America. “We developed this waterproof speaker based on feedback from our customers and market" Sample pricing of Murata's waterproof piezoelectric speaker is approximately $2.murata. 5Vrms sine wave.0dB (1400Hz±20%.0±3.90 in small quantities and the lead-time is 11 weeks.http://www. This trend is aided by Murata's speaker ability to overcome the above mentioned technical and cost challenges.Transparent & Flexible Electronics in four were waterproof." said Peter Tiller. Further information can be found on-line at http://www. 10cm) and a capacitance of 0. “Too often we hear of consumers losing a phone or camera due to accidental submersion in 93 .com . We hope our new speaker will allow more mobile consumer products to be waterproof and survive life's little accidents. senior group product manager.

The interface between these liquids then forms a natural diopter. To control the shape of the lens. Electrowetting technology First demonstrated more than five years ago by both Philips Research and Varioptic. endoscopy systems. Editor . this is accomplished by translating the optical elements within the lens against each other.biodomotica. To control the shape of the lens. mechanical lens motion sharply contradicts the biological methods found in nature. manufacturers are now developing different types of small deformable lenses that can be tuned over various focal distances. an electric field is applied across the hydrophobic coating so that it becomes less hydrophobic—a process called electrowetting that results from an electrically induced change in surface tension. As a result it is possible to implement lenses that transition smoothly from being convergent to divergent and vice versa. 94 Massimo Marrazzo . While some of these systems employ fixed-focal-length lenses. the aqueous solution begins to wet the sidewalls of the tube. they are finding applications in smart machine-vision cameras. As the predominant method of focusing images for over a century. Because these lens systems can be miniaturized relatively easily. 2010 Many of the optical systems used in machine-vision and image-processing systems are based on glass or plastic lenses. . By leveraging principles based on these methods. By employing an electrically conducting water solution and electrically nonconducting oil. and cell phones.html Disparate technologies are being employed in the development of miniaturized autofocus lenses Andrew Wilson.optoiq. these consist of an electrically conducting water solution and electrically nonconducting oil (see figure below).Transparent & Flexible Electronics Le n s . As a result. due to the index difference of the two liquids. an electric field is applied across the hydrophobic coating and the aqueous solution wets the sidewalls of the tube. liquid lenses that use electrowetting technology perform autofocusing by employing a lens comprising two immiscible fluids of different refractive indexes. altering the radius of curvature of the meniscus between the two fluids and thus the lens' focal length.Jul 1. In traditional mechanically based lens systems. the surface of the initially convex lens can be made completely flat or even concave. an interface that forms a natural diopter is created due to the index difference of the two altering the radius of curvature of the meniscus between the two fluids and thus the lens' focal length. By increasing the electric field. In both the Philips and Varioptic designs. others require lenses where the focal length must be changed.

it appears that. they are now being deployed by companies developing smart cameras for machine 95 . most notably cell phones and endoscopy systems where miniaturization is an important design consideration.biodomotica. the differential rotation of molecules in the element results in a lens that can be focused from infinity to 10 cm. the differential rotation of the liquid-crystal molecules from the center to the periphery of the element is changed. By tuning this voltage. autofocus lenses based on Varioptic's electrowetting technology have already been employed in both the DataMan 100 and 200 series of image-based ID readers from Cognex and the QX Hawk barcode imager from Microscan. for example.Transparent & Flexible Electronics Liquid crystals Liquid crystals are also being employed in other types of electro-optical adaptive lens designs to perform autofocusing. While such autofocus lenses have for a number of years been the subject of much research. In applying this voltage. □□□□□ Massimo Marrazzo . focusing light at the desired focal distance (see figure below). Indeed. In future. whichever technology is adopted. Here. such self-adaptive lenses will be used in other applications. In the technique used by LensVector. a control voltage is applied to dynamically change the rotation of molecules in a liquidcrystal cell to achieve a change in refractive index. the differential rotation of molecules in the element results in a lens that can be focused from infinity to 10 cm. Liquid crystals are also being employed in other types of electro-optical adaptive lens designs to perform autofocusing. a control voltage is applied to dynamically change the rotation of molecules in a liquid-crystal cell to achieve a change in refractive index. By tuning this voltage.

1364/OE.http://www.opticsinfobase. 2nd article .Transparent & Flexible Electronics .http://www.cfm?uri=oe-16-11-8084 Liquid micro-lens array activated by selective electrowetting on lithium niobate substrates S.php Liquid lens for Autofocus The liquid lenses that we develop are based on the electrowetting phenomenon described below : a water drop is deposited on a substrate made of metal. and Pietro Ferraro Optics Express. The variation of voltage leads to a change of curvature of the liquidliquid interface. Vespini. covered by a thin insulating layer. Compared to conventional electrowetting devices. L. the pyroelectric effect allowed to have an electrode-less and circuit-less De Nicola. A. □□□□□ . which in turn leads to a change of the focal length of the 16.opticsinfobase.cfm?uri=OPN-19-12-34 □□□□□ 96 Massimo Marrazzo . Grilli.biodomotica. An interferometric technique was used to characterize the curvature of the micro-lenses and the corresponding results are presented and discussed. one is an insulator while the other is a conductor.varioptic. Vol. Issue 11. The voltage applied to the substrate modifies the contact angle of the liquid drop. Finizio. S. pp. The preliminary results concerning the imaging capability of the micro-lens array are also reported. 8084-8093 (2008) doi:10. An array of liquid micro-lenses was generated by electrowetting effect in pyroelectric periodically poled crystals.008084 Lens effect was obtained in an open microfluidic system by using a thin layer of liquid on a polar electric crystal like LiNbO3. .http://www. Miccio. The liquid lens uses two isodensity liquids.

2 mm 97 . By Benno Hendriks and Stein © Copyright 2009 IEEE Illustration: Bryan Christie Massimo Marrazzo . uses electrostatic forces to alter the shape of a drop of slightly salty water inside a glass cylinder 3 millimeters in diameter and 2.Transparent & Flexible Electronics .org/dec04/4172 Through a Lens Sharply FluidFocus

In addition.S. more easily wettable surface that allows the DNA to go through it more easily. graphene nanopores with sub-nanometer thickness may provide a way to distinguish among bases. to increase the robustness of graphene nanopore devices. Michael Researchers at the University of Pennsylvania have developed a new. Although grapheneonly nanopores can be used for translocating DNA. inserted into the electrolyte. Neil Peterman. The pore divides two chambers of electrolyte solution and researchers apply voltage. Because of the ultrathin nature of the graphene pores. they block the flow of ions and are detected as a drop in the measured current. realizing a low-cost. Kimberly Venta. As the molecules . The Department of Health specifically disclaims responsibility for any analyses. the tiny DNA strands are pushed through nanoscale-sized. Research was conducted by Merchant.Transparent & Flexible Electronics Bio-Sensors . The research was supported by a National Institutes of Health grant and also grants from the U. Penn Genome Frontiers Institute. Healy. The pores. Wanunu. which drives ions through the pores. Nanotechnology Institute of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and Pennsylvania Department of Health. can be driven single file through such nanopores. Jordan Reese July 2010 Using electric fields. John Bartel. Johnson and Drndiæ of Penn's Department of Physics and Astronomy. Department of Defense. provide Penn physicists with electronic measurements of the translocation of DNA. atomically thin pores in a graphene nanopore platform that ultimately may be important for fast electronic sequencing of the four chemical bases of DNA based on their unique electrical signature. DNA molecules. interpretations or conclusions.upenn. carbon-based nanoscale platform to electrically detect single DNA molecules. Because the four DNA bases block the current differently. Nano-Bio Interface Center at Penn.biodomotica. only a few atomic layers thick. Luo. Graphene nanopore devices developed by the Penn team work in a simple manner. Ion transport is measured as a current flowing from the voltage source. 98 Massimo Marrazzo . researchers were able to detect an increase in the magnitude of the translocation signals relative to previous solid state nanopores made in silicon nitride. burned into graphene membranes using electron beam technology. coating the graphene membranes with a layer of oxide consistently reduced the nanopore noise level and at the same time improved the robustness of the device. high-throughput DNA sequencing technique. for similar applied voltages. Army Research Office. Ray. Fischbein.http://www. of titanium oxide on the membrane which further generated a cleaner. Penn researchers also deposited an ultrathin layer.

but not always .functionalized with (conductive) linkers such as proteins and peptides to interface with soluble biologically relevant targets (linkers need not be conductive as long as they are capable of localizing the target molecule in close vicinity of the tube). various studies contradict one another. pH Few-layer graphene (1-5 nm thick) is suspended over a 1 ìm hole in a 40 nm thick silicon nitride (SiN) membrane.upenn. Scale bar is 10 nm. CNTs are often .http://www. is applied between the reservoirs to drive DNA through the nanopore. . Although CNT transistors have been used as biosensors for some years have succeeded in identifying the sensing mechanism. A bias voltage. (a) Device schematic. has not been reached yet.through modeling and specific control experiments . VB. Massimo Marrazzo .com/spotlight/spotid=4056. (b) TEM image of a nanopore in a graphene 99 .biodomotica. the choice of gate potential can strongly affect the outcome of real-time biosensing experiments. the ultimate singlemolecule sensitivity. Although a variety of different sensing mechanisms has been suggested previously.Transparent & Flexible Electronics . and the sensing mechanism remained under debate. possibly down to single-molecule sensitivity. (c) Ionic current-voltage measurement for this 10-nm graphene nanopore device in 1M KCl. researchers have recognized their outstanding potential for electronic detection of biomolecules in solution.php Biosensing mechanism with carbon nanotubes explained Transistors are the key elements of many types of electronic (bio)sensors. Since the discovery that individual carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can be used as nanoscale transistors.nanowerk. The SiN membrane is suspended over an approx. They found that the majority of their experiments can be explained by a combination of electrostatic gating and Schottky barrier effects. One of the reasons that hampers the full exploitation of these promising nanosensors is that the sensing mechanism is still not well understood. 50 x 50 ìm2 aperture in a silicon chip coated with a 5 ìm SiO2 layer.http://www.physics. To detect biologically derived electronic signals. Researchers in The Netherlands . Because these two mechanisms have different gate-potential dependence. which is theoretically possible.html Graphene nanopore devices. The device is inserted into a PDMS measurement cell with microfluidic channels that form reservoirs in contact with either side of the chip.

is a potential barrier formed at a metal—semiconductor junction which has rectifying characteristics. designed to detect trace amounts of specific bacteria. the type and concentration of dopants in the semiconductor. "In our recent work we have demonstrated that we can successfully construct basic logic circuits (AND and OR) using computational primitives inherent in antigen-antibody interaction. Not all metal—semiconductor junctions form Schottky food and other contaminated sources. The operation of these logic gates relies on selective conjugation of polyaniline (PANI) nanowires with an antigen-antibody complex. from Troy . together with first author Yang Liu and Associate Professor Evangelyn C. Rectifying properties depend on the metal's work function.htm NASA Nano-Biosensor Helps Detect Biohazards NASA has developed a revolutionary nanotechnology-based biosensor that can detect trace amounts of specific bacteria.http://www.3. with the result that our multi-array biosensor not only can detect multiple pathogens simultaneously. and decreased (almost nonexistent) depletion width in the metal.Transparent & Flexible Electronics . viruses and parasites.nanowerk. suitable for use as a diode.http://en. Design of semiconductor devices requires familiarity with the Schottky effect to ensure Schottky barriers are not created accidentally where an ohmic connection is desired. 23rd May 2008 NASA . but also could correct for errors induced by artifacts in biosensors and environment. Schottky barrier A Schottky barrier. viruses and parasites.Visualization of the final multii-array biosensor prototype (Reprinted with permission from IOP Publishing) Chakrabartty. led the work that has been reported in a recent paper in Nanotechnology ("Fundamental building blocks for molecular biowire based forward error-correcting biosensors") where he. has now been tested and licensed for commercialization by biosensor technology company Early Warning Inc.0".. and other factors. \d. Schottky.patentstorm. By Michael Berger. "With embedded forward error-correction function in biosensors. .html Nano-chem-FET based biosensors 100 Massimo Marrazzo .nano.0". A metal—semiconductor junction that does not rectify current is called an ohmic contact. This biosensor will be used to help prevent the spread of potentially deadly biohazards in The largest differences between a Schottky barrier and a p—n junction are its typically lower junction voltage.©2008 Institute of Nanotechnology . the band gap of the intrinsic semiconductor. This NASA developed nanotechnology-based biosensor.Y. thus increasing the accuracy and reliability of biosensors" Shantanu Chakrabartty explains to Nanowerk. an Assistant Professor and Director of the Adaptive Integrated Microsystems Laboratory at Michigan State University.wikipedia. characterization and modeling of fundamental logic gates that can be used for designing biosensors with FEC. We have also developed corresponding electrical models for these logic gates which can be now be used in computer-aided design of biosensors. named after Walter Copyright 2008 Nanowerk LLC .php Reliably detecting foodborne pathogens with nanotechnology and encoding/decoding . Alocilja describes the fabrication.

The phone with either rollable display or keypad will have all it’s working electronics in a solid part. In inactive state the flexible part rests in an enclosure. is not such a good idea. press a button. Massimo Marrazzo . Whenever the call comes in. You can make the phone screen only that small. and the user will have a really hard time pressing the correct keys. Looks like an interesting. To take it even further. In a patent application “User Interface System” it describes a concept of mobile phone with rollable display and/or keyboard. Press the button again. The more small and portable the device becomes. Make the keyboard small By Staska on 25 Jan 08 Foldable/ rollable phone from Motorola The design of the mobile phones is always a fight between two opposite objectives . the idea of flexible/rollable screens and keyboards is nothing new. This way you could make matchbox sized mobile mobile phone. You just put all the necessary electronics into a solid container. with the enclosures for flexible display and keypad. The problem with these devices is that flexible/rollable is by definition not rigid. the less usable the user interface can be. and then reverts again to fluid state when the electric current disappears. both display and keypad can be made flexible. Electric current is applied. And using the phone with a keypad or display flapping in the wind. which will be as easy to use as any other clamshell.biodomotica.portability and usability. 101 . and display folds back-in. until the information displayed on it becomes unreadable. which probably won’t come to life anytime soon. and you use the device as any other mobile phone. The are quite a few of these gadgets on the market or at least in late prototype stage. But Motorola has found the way around this little problem. by using a reservoir with electrorheological fluid beneath the foldable display or keypad. Motorola has an interesting idea what to do about that. or you want to make one.unwiredview.Transparent & Flexible Electronics Virtual Muscles almost invisible muscles to animate new elecronic devices . Well. the display rolls out and springs into a solid state. if pretty far fetched idea. The same goes for the input devices. This fluid becomes a solid material when electric current is applied to it. with an enclosure for the flexible part located here as well. Of course.

a typical ER fluid can go from the consistency of a liquid to that of a gel.000 in response to an electric field. when the electric field is applied. an ER hydraulic valve is shut or the plates of an ER clutch are locked The apparent viscosity of these fluids changes reversibly by an order of up to 100. Their plan is to create handheld computers.newscientist. with response times on the order of milliseconds. 2006 Sony patents fold-up origami gadgetry At Sony Tokyo labs are working on a clever way to get bulky electronic devices into small Electrorheological (ER) fluids are suspensions of extremely fine non-conducting particles (up to 50 micrometres diameter) in an electrically insulating fluid.wikipedia. making the gadget solid enough to use. The effect is sometimes called the Winslow effect. When a current is passed through the struts. It suggests that the same technique could even be used in a video game controller to make it jolt or change shape in response to on-screen action. with the separation between plates being in the order of 1 mm and the applied potential being in the order of 1 kV. Other common applications are in ER brakes (think of a brake as a clutch with one side fixed) and shock absorbers (which can be thought of as closed hydraulic systems consisting of a valve with no external pump).http://www.biodomotica. □□□□□ Electrorheological (ER) fluids http://en. phones and portable games consoles that fold up for carrying and then become rigid for use.Transparent & Flexible Electronics . Sony has found that it would take very little power to make such a folding device harden. when the electric field is removed the ER hydraulic valve is open or the clutch plates are disengaged. For example. Other potential uses are in accurate abrasive polishing and as haptic controllers and tactile displays. 102 Massimo Marrazzo . In simple terms. including use in the US army's planned future force warrior project. There are many novel uses for these fluids. the particles clump together and harden the gel. The body and screen of folding gadgets would be made from a flexible polymer containing conductive rubber bracing struts filled with a gel of aluminosilicate particles suspended in silicone oil. The company's patent adds that the transition from soft to hard takes just milliseconds. so the drain on its battery should be . and back. They plan to create bulletproof vests using an ER fluid because the ability to soak the fluid into cloth creates the potential for a very light vest that can change from a normal cloth into a hard covering almost instantaneously.html June 06. after its discoverer the American inventor Willis Winslow. who obtained a US patent on the effect in 1947 and wrote an article published in 1949 Applications The normal application of ER fluids is in fast acting hydraulic valves and clutches.

php?option=com_content&task=view&id=88&Itemid=79 Electrorheological (ER) fluids denote a class of materials consisting of nanometer to micrometer sized solid particles dispersed in a liquid. Hence the resistance to motion of the fluid can be controlled by adjusting the applied electric field.. they can reversibly transform from a liquid to a solid within one hundredth of a second. the potential divided by the distance between the plates. i. The change is not a simple change in viscosity. deformation and flow) properties are controllable by an external electric 103 . the incremental shear stress is proportional to the rate of shear (in a Newtonian fluid there is no yield point and stress is directly proportional to shear).e.e. whose rheological (i.phys.ust.e. Motorola filed a patent application for mobile device applications in 2006 The change in apparent viscosity is dependent on the applied electric field. with the fluid incorporated in elements such as rollable screens and keypads. .hk/index. After the yield point is reached. The effect is better described as an electric field dependent shear yield stress.http://web. is the critical parameter that governs the application potential of the ER fluid. rather than by the older term Electro Viscous fluids.biodomotica. in which the viscosity-changing qualities of the fluid allowing the rollable elements to become rigid for use. the strength of that solid. the fluid shears as a fluid.Transparent & Flexible Electronics ER fluid has also been proposed to have potential applications in flexible electronics. When activated an ER fluid behaves as a Bingham plastic (a type of viscoelastic material). measured by the yield stress. hence these fluids are now known as ER fluids. with a yield point which is determined by the electric field strength. Composition of ER fluids Structural transition of ER fluid under electric field Massimo Marrazzo . and flexible to roll and retract for storing when not in use. In particular. While in the solid state (with the electric field applied). i.

1-10 µm range) align themselves along the lines of magnetic flux. Thus in designing a magnetorheological (or MR) device. These new fluids. as below. eight years of research work on ER fluids led to a breakthrough last year in the synthesis of a novel type of ER fluid that consists of 70-nanometer-sized coated nanoparticles dispersed in insulating oil. however. It is a suspension of micrometer-sized magnetic particles in a carrier fluid. reducing cost and increasing reliability and simplicity of controlled mechanical motion in the micro. the resulting chains of particles restrict the movement of the fluid. New Scientist. When subjected to a magnetic field. the yield stress of the fluid when in its active ("on") state can be controlled very accurately by varying the magnetic field intensity.biodomotica. Technology Review News (TRN). mechanical properties of the fluid in its _on" state are anisotropic. the microscopic particles (usually in the 0. After its publication in Nature Materials. and thirty other media outlets.http://en. effectively increasing its viscosity. usually a type of oil. thereby signifying a new mechanism. When the fluid is contained between two poles (typically of separation 0. see below. Nanotech. NanoToday. 104 Massimo Marrazzo . are suspended within the carrier oil are distributed randomly and in suspension under normal circumstances. exhibit yield stress one order of magnitude higher than the best commercially available ER particles. The significance of this breakthrough is that the yield stress has broken the theoretical upper bound predicted on the basis of linear response of the component materials. which harness the extremely high electric field that exists in Debye double layers. the fluid greatly increases its apparent viscosity. It is envisioned that HKUST's GER fluids can be used not only in those classical applications. How it works The magnetic particles. surpassing the threshold that the General Motors study has set for automotive applications.wikipedia. which are typically micrometer or nanometer scale spheres or ellipsoids. perpendicular to the direction of flux. this new breakthrough has been reported around the world in the Washington Post. □□□□□ Magnetorheological fluid .to nanoscale. Science News. Importantly. but also in micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) or nano-EMS as replacements for . Importantly.Transparent & Flexible Electronics At A magnetorheological fluid (MR fluid) is a type of smart fluid. This new class of ER fluids is thus denoted as having a 'Giant Electrorheological' (GER) Effect. When a magnetic field is applied. to the point of becoming a viscoelastic solid.5-2 mm in the majority of devices). it is crucial to ensure that the lines of flux are perpendicular to the direction of the motion to be restricted.

This is caused by the dc magnetic field. shows the liquid's ability to transform to solid in milliseconds. and the particles unlock immediately. by David Carlson. A simple demonstration by David Carlson. Inc.biodomotica. a physicist at the North Carolina lab. he holds the cup upside down. It's a gray. by David Carlson. making the particles lock into a uniform polarity.20 to 40 percent of the fluid is made of these soft iron particles that are just 3 to 5 micrometers in diameter.http://science. what is it that gives MR fluid its unique ability to transform from liquid to solid and from solid to liquid quicker than you can blink an eye? The carbonyl iron particles. Notice the shiny surface of the liquid in the top photo and the dull surface in the bottom photo. a physicist at the North Carolina lab Above. Water is often used in demonstrating the fluid. MR fluid prior to magnetization. usually hydrocarbon oil. Massimo Marrazzo .howstuffworks. So. the fluid turned into a solid after it was magnetized.Transparent & Flexible Electronics . MR fluid doesn't seem like such a revolutionary substance. Below. and none of the MR fluid drops but MR fluid is actually quite amazing to watch in action. He pours the liquid into the cup and stirs it around with a pencil to show it's liquid. these tiny particles line up to make the fluid stiffen into a solid. a physicist at the North Carolina lab Typical MR fluid consists of these three parts: · Carbonyl Iron Particles -. He then places a magnet to the bottom of the cup. enhance lubricity. oily liquid that's about three times denser than water. · Proprietary Additives -. Take away the magnet. but Lord says these additives are put in to inhibit gravitational settling of the iron particles. promote particle 105 . To further demonstrate that it's turned to a solid.The third component of MR fluid is a secret.htm What is MR Fluid Looking at it in a beaker. © 1998-2008 HowStuffWorks. It's not too exciting at first glance. · A Carrier Liquid -. How hard the substance becomes depends on the strength of the magnetic field. modify viscosity and inhibit wear. A package of dry carbonyl iron particles looks like black flour because the particles are so fine. When a magnet is applied to the liquid.The iron particles are suspended in a liquid. and the liquid instantly turns to a near-solid.

M. Meyyappan. the ability of geckos to climb any vertical surface or hang from ceilings with one toe has always generated considerable The dashed line represents the adhesion force for gecko feet d) a side-top view SEM image of the vertically aligned SWCNT film under a high magnification. A gecko is the heaviest animal that can 'stand' on a ceiling.200700023 By Michael Berger. Applications of such bio-inspired development of artificial dry adhesive systems with aligned carbon nanotubes could range from low-tech fridge magnets to holding together electronics or even airplane parts.biodomotica.Transparent & Flexible Electronics Geck o (new adhesive) . as well as the Max Planck Institute for Metals Research in Germany has indicated that aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) sticking out of substrate surfaces showed strong nanometer-scale adhesion forces. with its feet over its .http://dx. KGaA. and The highest adhesion forces are encountered in geckos. Dhinojwala. It was found that these elastic hairs induce strong van der Waals forces. M. Ajayan.http://www. Dai groups. This finding has prompted many researchers to use synthetic microarrays to mimic gecko feet. Reproduced with permission. Although carbon nanotubes are thousands of times thinner than a human hair.and nanoscale attachment elements. lighter than plastic. mainly from A. P.nanowerk. Recentwork.1002/adma. Copyright Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. they can be stronger than steel. On the sole of a gecko's toes there are some one billion tiny adhesive hairs called setae (3-130 micrometers in length). Copyright 2008 Nanowerk LLC 106 Massimo Marrazzo .doi. For centuries. . a) photo showing a stainless steel adapter of 473 g hanging on a SiO2/Si-wafer supported vertically aligned SWCNT dry adhesive film (4mm x 4mm) b) pre-pressed (2 kg) from the Si side onto a horizontally-placed glass surface c) a comparison of the maximum achievable adhesion forces for: (i) microfabricated polymer hairs (ii) vertically aligned MWCNT (iii) the as-grown aligned vertically aligned SWCNT. more conductive than copper for electricity and diamond for heat.php For super-strong nanotechnology dry adhesives look no further than the gecko Animals that cling to walls and walk on ceilings owe this ability to micro. splitting into even smaller spatulae (about 200 nanometers in both width and length) at the end. This is why scientists are intensely researching the adhesive system of the tiny hairs on its feet.

edu/~autumn/private/u38j47a0t/ Massimo Marrazzo How Geckos Stick to Walls Nature v. 405: 681-685. The dry adhesion force comes from surface contact forces such as van der Waals forces which act between all materials in contact. Copyright © 2008 Mike Murphy & Yigit Menguc.Transparent & Flexible Electronics . - 107 .lclark.cmu.berkeley. Nature can be an inspiration for innovations in science.http://polypedal. the gecko is able to stick to smooth surfaces through dry adhesion which requires no energy to hold it to the surface and leaves no residue.pdf ©Nature — from http://www. . One such inspiration is comes from the gecko lizard which can climb on walls and ceilings of almost any surface texture. Rather than using it's claws or sticky

they are held tightly to the surface the gecko is walking on by a molecular force called the Van der Waals force. at the University of The researchers constructed their adhesive out of two slightly different layers of multi-walled carbon nanotubes. NSF October 14. and then lift off easily to take the next step. In an unprecedented feat. Liming Dai.jsp?org=NSF&cntn_id=112445&preview=false As Sticky as a Gecko .Transparent & Flexible Electronics . the adhesive sticks best when it is pulled down parallel to the surface it is sticking to-this is called shear adhesion. the adhesive has strong shear adhesion for firm attachment and relatively weak adhesion for detachment perpendicularly to the substrate.jsp?org=OIG&cntn_id=116297&media_id=66263 Stickybot employs the same principles as a gecko through the use of dry adhesion to climb walls. This breakthrough. 108 Massimo Marrazzo . thereby maximizing the Van der Waals force. and colleagues report in the October 10th issue of Science successful construction of a gecko-inspired adhesive that is ten times stronger than a gecko. Because there are so many pillars so close together. Credit: Mark R. The lower layer is composed of vertically-aligned carbon nanotubes. Stanford University and Sangbae Kim. February 9. supported by the National Science Foundation. Just like a gecko.jsp?org=OIG&cntn_id=116297&preview=false Researchers move one step closer to nature with the development of polymers and directional adhesion that follow the workings of a gecko's foot. but Ten Times Stronger! By Zina Deretsky.http://www.nsf. like a mess of spaghetti. will have many technological applications. the adhesive can stick to a wall when needed. This action arranges the tips of the curly nanotubes so they have maximum contact with the . at about 100 newtons per square centimeter. Pulling the adhesive off in a motion perpendicular to the substrate is much easier--at this angle the sticking force is ten times Cutkosky. while the upper segment-which comes into contact with the surface it is sticking to--is curly. In this way. As shown in the figure.http://www. MIT .http://www. This relatively weak force causes uncharged molecules to attract each other. 2010 Video on Stickybot .biodomotica.nsf. 2008 The secret behind the gecko's ability to stick so well is a forest of pillars at the micro-/nano-scale on the underside of the gecko's foot.

by combining vertically aligned nanotubes with curly spaghetti-like nanotubes.Transparent & Flexible Electronics . National Science Foundation after Liangti Qu et 109 .biodomotica.http://www.jsp?cntn_id=112445&org=NSF Researchers have created a gecko-inspired adhesive with ten times the stickiness of a gecko's Credit: Zina Deretsky. Science 10/10/2008 □□□□□ Massimo Marrazzo .

High friction from a stiff polymer using micro-fiber arrays.html Biologically Inspired Synthetic Gecko Adhesives Langmuir. tire only works on smooth surfaces.berkeley. Oct 2009 Combined Lamellar Nanofibrillar Array Lamellar structures act as base support planes for high-aspect ratio HDPE fiber arrays.berkeley research . 2006 110 Massimo Marrazzo .Transparent & Flexible Electronics Eecs.eecs. Rev. 2008) Microfiber array wrapped on model car tire demonstates high friction. Phys. Nanofiber arrays on lamella can adhere to a smooth grating with 5 times greater shear strength than flat nanofiber array □□□□□ Gecko Tire for Model Car (Nov. .biodomotica. (Note: so far. .

Applied Physics Letters. cm. . 2008) Angled polypropylene microfibers show strong directional adhesion 111 . as the natural gecko does.biodomotica. After contamination by microspheres. and the fibers recover 30% of their original adhesion. which encourages particle removal during contact. Langmuir 2008 Massimo Marrazzo .Transparent & Flexible Electronics □□□□□ Directional Adhesion of Angled Microfibers (Nov. the microfiber array loses all adhesion strength.Contact Self-Cleaning of Synthetic Gecko Adhesive. The fibers have a non-adhesive default state. A 1 sq. □□□□□ Self Cleaning Gecko Adhesive (Sep. 2008) First synthetic gecko adhesive which cleans itself during use.Directional adhesion of gecko inspired angled microfiber arrays. the microspheres are shed. with shear strength in direction of fibers 45 times larger than sliding against fiber directions. 2008. patch supported a load of 450 grams in shear. After repeated contacts with clean glass. . .Transparent & Flexible Electronics □□□□□ .edu/~ronf/Gecko/ Gecko Adhesion Frequently Asked Questions .eecs.html Comparison of Fibrillar Adhesives (to glass) .http://robotics.html High Friction from a Stiff Polymer using Micro-Fiber Arrays 112 Massimo Marrazzo .berkeley.eecs.berkeley.eecs.

This device is an example of a MEMS-based 113 . actuators. or MEMS. The term used to define MEMS varies in different parts of the world.http://www. While the functional elements of MEMS are miniaturized structures. Massimo Marrazzo . is a technology that in its most general form can be defined as miniaturized mechanical and electro-mechanical elements (i.biodomotica. which are defined as devices that convert energy from one form to another. the device typically converts a measured mechanical signal into an electrical signal. In the case of microsensors. the most notable (and perhaps most interesting) elements are the microsensors and microactuators. The one main criterion of MEMS is that there are at least some elements having some sort of mechanical functionality whether or not these elements can move. In the United States they are predominantly called MEMS. devices and structures) that are made using the techniques of microfabrication.e. Microsensors and microactuators are appropriately categorized as “transducers”.Transparent & Flexible Electronics Me m s .html Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems. sensors. the types of MEMS devices can vary from relatively simple structures having no moving elements. and microelectronics.memsnet. to extremely complex electromechanical systems with multiple moving elements under the control of integrated microelectronics.. A surface micromachined electro-statically-actuated micromotor fabricated by the MNX. all the way to several while in some other parts of the world they are called “Microsystems Technology” or “micromachined devices”. The critical physical dimensions of MEMS devices can vary from well below one micron on the lower end of the dimensional spectrum. Likewise.

. This device can be used as both a microsensor as well as a microactuator.biodomotica. 114 Massimo Marrazzo .memx.Transparent & Flexible Electronics A surface micromachined resonator fabricated by the MNX. This site is dedicated to providing educational material on this fascinating new .

cordless phones and baby monitors. the usage of the ISM band in the 2. Wi-Fi Pollution Standardization is a process driven by market forces.aspx Carbon nanotubes: the new asbestos? Not if we act fast. all of which can cause significant additional interference.http://en.11n if it has 5 GHz support) as the 5 GHz band is relatively unused and there are many more channels available. can prevent access and interfere with the use of other access points by others. as well as with decreased signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) between access points. the environmental cost of production of the portrait mode display and the environmental costs of the premature obsolescence and disposal of the display I had before this one are also part of the equation. WPAN-CSS. to include the non-Wi-Fi or proprietary product. especially on the same or neighboring channel. I almost never print anything anymore. by Eli Blevis © 2008 ACM and/or the authors Massimo Marrazzo .http://www. Wi-Fi pollution. or other large entities such as universities. security cameras. Many people around me print things rather than read on screen. or an excessive number of access points in the area. Carbon nanotubes have great potential as a unique material that can be used in many unique and beneficial ways—from reducing our environmental impact to curing diseases. © 2009 Andrew Maynard . Additionally. As a result.4 GHz Wi-Fi. They like to hold paper in their hands and mark things up. assuming that I would actually power-off my display when I am reading what has been printed.safenano. other devices use the 2. or the newer 802. I have mostly stopped printing things personally. The environmental costs of the energy used to power my display must be weighed against the costs of printing the page when I am just reading. ZigBee and any new system will take its share. it was long ago claimed that computing technologies would create a paperless office—a claim which is not yet in sight. .safenano. I can now read and write a whole page of text on my 1200×1600 pixel screen at once at 140% of the size it would be if I printed it. Interoperability issues between non-Wi-Fi brands or proprietary deviations from the standard can still disrupt connections or lower throughput speeds on all user's devices that are within range.organicui.4 GHz band: microwave Sustainability Implications of Organic UI Technologies: An Inky Problem The moment you have decided that sustainability is an issue with respect to interaction design and the design of interactive devices is the moment you realize how complex the business of deciding what to actually do about it is. This can be a problem in high-density areas.wikipedia.Transparent & Flexible Electronics Ecology http://community. It is also an issue when 115 .11g/b spectrum.11a.biodomotica. General guidance to those who suffer these forms of interference or network crowding is to migrate to a Wi-Fi 5 GHz product. and prevent the material's potential from being . This openness is also important to the success and widespread use of 2. use. Ever since I acquired a portrait mode capable LCD monitor. (802. For example. and disposal of one technology over another. such as large apartment complexes or office buildings with many Wi-Fi access points.http://community.45 GHz range is also common to Bluetooth. caused by overlapping channels in the 802. Bluetooth devices and (in some countries) Amateur radio. Furthermore. Moreover. This also requires users to set up the 5 GHz band to be the preferred network in the client and to configure each network band to a different name (SSID). It is not just a simple matter of calculating the energy and environmental costs of manufacturing. But mis-steps now could easily undermine trust in this nascent industry. seek to provide large area coverage. video senders.

php http://dvice.php Transparent electronics Solar Cell Sheet That Collects Energy at Night Transparent acoustic transducer Transparent sound Witricity Transparent Ink Display Lens Oled Samsung Mobile Display's Memory Device Flexible see-through battery power 116 Massimo Marrazzo Gecko adhesive: Electrorheological fluid: Transparent solar cells http://www.hp.nikkeibp.freshpatents.nanowerk.biodomotica.php .php ent_memory_device_124145.php http://thefutureofthings.htm http://www.idtechex.html http://www.html & Flexible Electronics Links to transparent electronics Nanotechnology Printed electronics 117 .Transparent & Flexible Electronics applications of transparent or flexible electronics LG GD900 transparent keypad mobile .http://www.gadgetlite. Barcelona.4mm thick GD900 handset ahead of the upcoming CTIA Wireless Show 2009. the 7. GD900 features a vibrational haptic feedback and the transparent keypad seems to double as a touch-sensitive mouse pad.2 HSPDA slider with world's first transparent glass (not plastic folks!) keypad will be functional. running LG's new S-Class UI on the three inch display. The GD900 which you will recall was first shown at the MWC 2009. The GD900 will be available in Europe and Asia in May. LG-GD900 transparent mobile Massimo Marrazzo . Its been said that this More pictures of LG GD900 transparent keypad mobile ahead of CTIA 2009 March 2009 LG is increasing the buzz on its 13.

Transparent & Flexible Electronics 118 Massimo Marrazzo .com .biodomotica.

com/2010/01/07/samsungs-14-inch-transparent-oled-laptop-video/ Massimo Marrazzo .biodomotica. 119 .com/2009/mobiles/sony-ericsson/sony-ericsson-xperia-pureness-600-euro-november-uk-price Transparent OLED .engadget.http://techpatio.Transparent & Flexible Electronics Transparent TFT-LCD .

2009 Having a capacitance-based touchscreen and touch-sensitive keypad allows the LG Style to support multitouch features like pinch-to-zoom. April 2nd. □□□□□ TDK the transparent OLED . Trace an _M" and you get the music player. The LG GD900 Style allows the user to navigate through the UI using swiping motions on the transparent slide-out keypad. It makes sense.http://www. But. Simply trace a _W" (or whatever movement you choose to program) on the keypad and the LG Style will launch the web browser. .com/2009/04/02/lg-gd900-style-up-close-and-personal-with-the-transparent-phone/ LG GD900 Style — Up close and personal with the 'transparent' phone by Will Thursday. 2010 120 Massimo Marrazzo . The keypad also goes beyond simple multi-touch with its support for finger-gestures.Transparent & Flexible Electronics .biodomotica. the touch-interaction isn't just limited to the display — multi-touch gestures are supported on both the touchscreen display and the keypad.html TDK joins the transparent OLED fight Mircea / October

Apparently. What's cool is that both prototypes are showcased as black-and-white and color models. Be sure to keep your eye on these if you find yourself at CEATEC 2010. I want one. but TDK plans to take both technologies step by step into the realm of awesomeness. The flexible type is just 0.crunchgear. but there is still time for improvements. was really cool. □□□□□ .5 inches. You can see both displays in action in the videos I took at the exhibition below.Transparent & Flexible Electronics TDK makes its entrance on the transparent OLED market with 2-inch passive matrix screen with a humble QVGA (320 x 240) resolution.biodomotica. at a screen size of about 2 inches. Its picture quality wasn't really as high as you'd want it to be. knocks out both Samsung and LG. one of which is transparent and the other bendable (like the one Sony showed earlier this year). but a claimed 50 percent transmittance which means that half of what's behind the screen can be seen through it.5 inch flexible OLED screen which is as thin as 0. TDK also presented another 3.3 121 . the see-through type. and who TDK's two passive matrix mini OLED panels by Serkan Toto on October 2010 t this year's CEATEC: TDK's two passive matrix mini OLED panels. TDK plans to start mass-producing this panel as early next year. but I am not sure why exactly screens (of any size) would have to be transparent. It's made using a resin substrate and squeezes only 256 x 54 pixels at the moment. Sure. The panel with the bigger wow-factor. no eye-popping specs here.http://www. Video on TDK's displays Massimo Marrazzo . maybe we'll even hear about a flexible transparent OLED screen soon if these technologies will merge together.3mm thin and sized at 3. It has a transmittance of about 50% and features QVGA resolution — which is OK.

Transparent & Flexible Electronics

- TDK's see-through and curved OLED display eyes-on
By Chris Ziegler posted Oct 5th 2010 - By Chris Ziegler

Remember the Sony Ericsson Xperia Pureness? At a list price of $1,000, it'd be hard to forget -- but with a monochrome see-through display, the whole transparency thing was little more than a novelty on a phone that served little practical purpose. TDK might have the solution with its new transparent QVGA OLEDs, available now to manufacturers in monochrome and in a lovely color variant by the end of the year. At two inches, they offer 200ppi pixel density and are more secure than you might think: the light only shines in one direction, so you actually can't see any data from the back even though you can still see through the display. At a glance, the display's didn't seem as vibrant as the best AMOLEDs on the market, but then again, these are passive matrix -- and you can really tell in our videos after the break where the refresh scans stand out. Video

By Rick Martin October 5, 2010

TDK unveils flexible OLED display at CEATEC

- Toward roll-to-roll printed power sources and control electronics
Dr. Jukka Hast, Dr. Kimmo Solehmainen and Marja Vilkman, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland

To pave the way for commercialization of printed electronics and optics applications, two European Unionfunded projects are developing roll-to-roll-based fabrication technologies. In the first project, called FACESS (Flexible Autonomous Cost efficient Energy Source and Storage), roll-to-roll printed organic photovoltaics and energy storage devices are being developed. In the second one, Polaric (Printed, Organic and Large-Area Realisation of Integrated Circuits), the aim is to bring the performance of printed electronics to a new level by combining roll-to-roll compatible high-resolution steps in the transistor fabrication process, and to demonstrate the developed high-performance organic electronics in various consumer applications.

122 Massimo Marrazzo -

Transparent & Flexible Electronics Traditionally, the primary function of printing has been the delivery of data and information for visual inspection and further interpretation by humans or machines. Nowadays, printing and other large-area R2R (roll-to-roll)compatible processes enable cost-efficient mass manufacturing of electronics and other functionalities on large-area and flexible substrates such as plastic, paper and fabrics. New printable-functional materials, print-production processes and reading mechanisms are expanding the role and function of printing toward novel application fields. This is the opportunity gap between traditional paper, packaging and printing industry products, and ICT/ electronics industry products, and it can realize completely new types of applications and businesses; e.g., disposable sensors, simple “electronic” components and circuits, large-area functional paperlike intelligent products, smart packages, tag-and-code technology-based ICT and hybrid media services. In the FACESS project, energy harvesting and storage are being tackled. The goal of the project partners – VTT Technical Research Centre and Suntrica Oy, both of Finland; Interuniversity Micro-Electronics Centre of Belgium; Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique of France; Politechnika Warszawska of Poland; Umicore SA of Belgium; and Coatema Coating Machinery GmbH and Coatema Maschinenbau GmbH, both of Germany – is to develop cost-efficient R2R production techniques for organic solar cell modules and rechargeable lithium batteries. Also in development is an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) chip that would optimize and control the battery charge from the organic solar modules. To be flexible, the chip is thinned to 30 µm and interconnected on the flexible backplane. The plan is to use R2R-compatible production technologies to manufacture an energy storage foil of four printed organic solar cell modules comprising a 100-cm2 area, a printed battery and an interconnected ASIC to control the charge operation. Under AM1.5, a reference organic solar cell module can produce 250 mW of power to charge the battery. The battery size is approximately 30 cm2 and its capacity, between 1 and 3 mAh/cm2. In Figure, four gravure-printed organic solar cell modules operate at 2.3 percent photon-conversion efficiency 2 at air mass 1.5 illumination on a 15.5-cm area per module. The modules are manufactured using commercially available conductive – and photoactive – polymers. The rechargeable lithium battery has anode and cathode electrodes screen-printed on aluminum and copper foils, and an assembled commercial separator foil. The battery produces ~40-mAh capacity. The 30-µm-thick ASIC is flip-chip-bonded using anisotropically conducting adhesive on the backplane substrate.

This energy storage foil is from the FACESS project

Massimo Marrazzo - 123

Transparent & Flexible Electronics All other components of the energy source built for the FACESS project are printed, except for the electronic part. This is because the performance limitations of printed electronic circuits force the use of traditional, silicon-based microchips for the control electronics. To enable wholly printed devices, the printed circuits must be improved significantly. After the FACESS and POLARIC projects, high-performing organic electronic building blocks and manufacturing platforms can be used in all areas of printed electronics, including sensors, memory, batteries, photovoltaics, lighting and any combination of these devices. By combining different functionalities and blocks on the same flexible foil, and integrating the whole process in a cost-efficient way, the huge market potential for printed electronics and optics will turn into reality.
Meet the authors Dr. Jukka Hast is a senior research scientist; e-mail: Dr. Kimmo Solehmainen also is a senior research scientist; e-mail: Marja Vilkman is a research scientist; email: All three work at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Printed Functional Solutions.

Flexible Autonomous Cost Efficient Energy Source and Storage = FACESS -

- Flexible Autonomous Cost Efficient Energy Source and Storage Project overview The general objectives of this project are the following: to manufacture efficient organic solar cells (OSC) and a thin film battery (TFB) on flexible substrate using commercially available materials and cost efficient roll-toroll (R2R) mass production techniques, printing, as well as integrate a control transistor circuitry on a foil. The ultimate goal is to integrate these three structures to a single assembly resulting in a flexible, fully autonomous energy source. In this assembly organic solar cells harvest the solar energy and charge the thin film batteries which provide the electricity for an external load. The Si-based transistor circuitry integrated on the foil controls the charge operation.

124 Massimo Marrazzo -

We have come up with a new solution to the problem of invisibility based on the use of dielectric (nonconducting) materials. They constructed one material out of an elaborate fishnet of alternating layers of silver and magnesium 125 ." Zhang and his team have published a paper on this research in the journal Nature Materials entitled: An Optical Cloak Made of Dielectrics. has not been successful because the metal elements absorb too much light. meaning the object itself has essentially been rendered invisible. 2009 A team led by Xiang Zhang. Co-authoring the paper with Zhang were Jason Valentine. Jensen Li. With these metallic metamaterials. Shining a beam of light on the bulge shows a reflection identical to that of a beam reflected from a flat surface. a property unprecedented in nature. the bulge of the object underneath it disappears from view. Zhang and his group demonstrated that light can be bent backwards. These three images depict how light striking an object covered with the carpet cloak acts as if there were no object being concealed on the flat surface. a principal investigator with Berkeley Lab's Materials Sciences Division and director of UC Berkeley's Nano-scale Science and Engineering Center. Massimo Marrazzo . the object has become invisible. it also represents a major step towards transformation optics.lbl. (Image by Thomas Zentgraf) Previous work by Zhang and his group with invisibility devices involved complex metamaterials — composites of metals and dielectrics whose extraordinary optical properties arise from their unique structure rather than their composition. _Our optical cloak not only suggests that true invisibility materials are within reach. In essence.http://newscenter. and another out of silver nanowires grown inside porous aluminum Blurring the Line Between Magic and Science: Berkeley Researchers Create an _Invisibility Cloak" May 01. Thomas Zentgraf and Guy Bartal. While metallic metamaterials have been successfully used to achieve invisibility cloaking at microwave frequencies.biodomotica. has created a _carpet cloak" from nanostructured silicon that conceals the presence of objects placed under it from optical detection. opening the door to manipulating light at will for the creation of powerful new microscopes and faster computers.Transparent & Flexible Electronics It’s a kind of magic Invisibility Cloak . While the carpet itself can still be seen. until now cloaking at optical frequencies." says Zhang. all members of Zhang's research group. a key step towards achieving actual invisibility.

800 nanometers in wavelength.8 microns by 400 nanometers. the cloak was used to cover an area that measured about 3. Additional information: A copy of the Nature Materials paper _An Optical Cloak Made of Dielectrics" by It conducts unclassified scientific research and is managed by the University of California. extending the transformation optics into potential applications. A carefully designed pattern of holes — each 110 nanometers in diameter — perforates the Image (b) was taken with a scanning electron microscope image of the carpet coated bump. Right now the cloak operates for light between 1. The cloak was demonstrated in a rectangular slab of silicon (250 nanometers thick) that serves as an optical waveguide in which light is confined in the vertical dimension but free to propagate in the other two dimensions.lbl. He is also optimistic that with more precise fabrication this all dielectric approach to cloaking should yield a material that operates for visible light — in other words. Department of Energy national laboratory located in Berkeley.400 and 1." The new cloak created by Zhang and his team is made exclusively from dielectric materials.S. transforming the slab into a metamaterial that forces light to bend like water flowing around a rock. Visit website at http://www. just slightly longer than light that can be seen with the human eye. which are often transparent at optical frequencies. _Our next goal is to realize a cloak for all three 126 Massimo Marrazzo .edu/ To learn more about the earlier work by Zhang and his group on invisibility read a UC Berkeley press release at http://www.Transparent & Flexible Electronics Image (a) is a schematic diagram showing the cloaked region (marked with green) which resides below the reflecting bump (carpet) and can conceal any arbitrary object by transforming the shape of the bump back into a virtually flat object. true invisibility to the naked eye. _Even with the advances that have been made in optical .S..biodomotica." This research was funded in part by the U. et al. In this experiment. It demonstrated invisibility at variable angles of light incident. Says Zhang. Department of Energy's Office of Science through its Basic Energy Sciences program and by the U. scaling sub-wavelength metallic elements and placing them in an arbitrarily designed spatial manner remains a challenge at optical frequencies.berkeley. Army Research Office. Berkeley Lab is a U. visit his Website at http://xlab. In the experiments reported in Nature Materials.universityofcalifornia. California. because of its all dielectric composition and design. we have demonstrated a proof of concept for optical cloaking that works well in two dimensions" says Zhang. can be read here: http://www.S. which is the nearinfrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. However.html For more information about the research of Xiang Zhang. Zhang says the cloak is relatively easy to fabricate and should be upwardly scalable.

Multi-walled nanotubes Nanoelectromechanical systems Organic Electroluminescent (display technology) Organic Light-Emitting Diode User Interface Polyaniline Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diode Personal Digital Assistant (electronic handheld information device) Polydimethylsiloxane (organic polymer) Polyethylene Naphthalate (electrical insulation material) Plastic substrates: polyethylene teraphthalate Passive matrix Polymer light emitting diode Photovoltaic Radio Frequency Identification Resistive random access memory Roll-To-Roll (manufacturing) Scanning tunneling microscope Single-walled nanotubes Transparent Electronic Conductive Thermoelectric generators Thin Film Transistor (Liquid Crystal Display.2 Technology for E-books Readers (B/W & colors display) 127 .pdf AFM AMOLED CIGS CMOS CNT DEA DSSC EAP EW EMF ERF ESD ESNAM FFL FEC FET F-OLED GPS GUI IPMC ITO LAN LCD LCM LED LEP LOPE-C MEMS MR MRF MRAM MWNT NEMS OEL OLED Organic UI PANI PH OLED PDA PDMS PEN PET PM-OLED P-OLED PV RFID RRAM R2R STM SWNT TEC TEG TFT TiO2 Atomic Force Microscope Active Matrix Organic light emitting diode Copper Indium Gallium Selenide (semiconductor material) Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (transistor type) Carbon Nanotube Dielectric Elastomer Actuators Dye sensitized solar cell or Graetzel Cell Electroactive Polymers Electro-wetting Electromotive force Electrorheological fluid Electrostatic discharge European Scientific Network for Artificial Muscles Flat.A memory fabricated using nanotechnology which uses electron spin to store data.biodomotica.Transparent & Flexible Electronics Acronyms See also: Nanotechnology LCD technology) Titanium Dioxide (Photocatalyst coatings) Massimo Marrazzo . Organic and Printed Electronics Convention Micro Electronic Mechanical Systems Magneto-Resistive Magnetorheological fluid Magnetoresistive Random Access Memory . Flexible Loudspeakers Forward error-correction (biosensors) Field Effect Transistor Flexible Organic light emitting diode Global Position System Graphical User Interface Ionic polymer-metal-composite Indium Tin Oxide Local area networks Liquid Crystal Display Liquid crystal module Light-emitting diode Light emitting polymer Large-area.biodomotica.

com .Transparent & Flexible Electronics T-OLED TRRAM TUI WECA Wi-Fi WiMAX Transparent organic light-emitting device Transparent resistive random access memory Touch User Interface Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Alliance Wireless Fidelity (IEEE 802.11 wireless networking) Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ 128 Massimo Marrazzo .biodomotica.

materialsviews. and the new materials derived using new technologies. Third Edition by Gordon G 129 . thermal.Transparent & Flexible Electronics B o o ks http://www. and fashion and Transparent Electronics by Wager. methods applied to geometry and Ruth Nussinov (Editor) About this title: As one of the fastest growing fields of research in the 21st century. the direction of current research. Massimo Marrazzo .org/nano/Bookstore. and elastomers. and process-integration strategies discussed herein will be of great interest to researchers working in other emerging fields of optoelectronics and electronics involving printing.asp?cat=5 http://www. John F. Presley. many of the materials.foresight. nanotechnology.searchResults/topicID/6/CFID/5216341/CFTOKEN/ 29616759/index. identifying where the field is. Leon A P Kane-Maguire About this title: An in-depth look at intelligent polymer systems. Keszler. this third edition features new chapters on the synthesis and fabrication of nanocomponents and nanostructures for polypyrroles. devices. Although the central focus of this monograph involves transparent electronics. where it is going.biodomotica. mechanical. Investigation into their properties has become one of the most active fields of modern research. transport and storage properties are flexibility.. wearability. and what needs to happen to move it forward.nanolabweb.shtml http://www.html http://www.cfm/action/ polythiophenes. large areas.azonano. Nanostructure Design: Methods and Protocols by Ehud Gazit (Editor). Discussion includes new developments with rubber. Nanostructure Design: Methods and Protocols serves as a major reference for theoretical and experimental considerations in the design of biological and bioinspired building blocks.. and the development of their technical applications. This monograph provides the first roadmap for transparent http://www. nanotechnology is sure to have an enormous impact on many aspects of our lives. In particular. About this title: Transparent electronics is an emerging technology that employs wide band-gap semiconductors for the realization of invisible circuits. Current Topics in Elastomers Research by Bhowmick K Bhowmick.default. Rick E. circuits. This book presents the key computational modeling and numerical simulation tools to investigate carbon nanotube characteristics. Conductive Electroactive Polymers: Intelligent Polymer Systems.html http://www. the physical characterization of the formed structures. this concise and pioneering work explores the latest advances in elastomers research. Anil K Bhowmick (Editor) About this title: Written by a world-renowned expert. Douglas A. low cost.worldscibooks. and polyanilines. Computational Physics of Carbon Nanotubes by Hashem Rafii-Tabar About this title: Carbon nanotubes are the fabric of nanotechnology. Geoffrey M Spinks.

634. Chem. and electrically controllable intelligent polymeric network structures..Transparent & Flexible Electronics Nanostructures in Electronics and Photonics by Faiz Rahman (Editor) About this title: Nanotechnology is the buzzword these days. Mark J Jackson (Editor) About this title: Micro-nanotechnologies are already making a profound impact on our daily lives. along with public concerns. Anorg. Artificial Muscles: Applications of Advanced Polymeric Nanocomposites by Professor Mohsen Shahinpoor. Mohamed El-Nawawi (Editor). This book provides a broad overview of nanotechnology as applied to contemporary electronics and photonics. 1871-2100 P-Ink is made of a metallopolymer opal gel that reversibly swells and shrinks with application and removal of a voltage. Z. nanotransducers. Asia. Increasingly. Featuring an interdisciplinary approach to smart materials and structures. but their potential disruptive nature. but such change often comes at the price of unforeseen consequences. Nanotechnology: Ethics and Society by Deb Bennett-Woods About this title: Nanotechnology promises to be the next great human technological revolution. including ionic polymeric metal nanocomposites (IPMNCs) as biomimetic distributed nanosensors. but the rapid integration of nanomaterials into consumer products is not without concern. Commercializing Micro-Nanotechnology Products by David Tolfree (Editor). Nobel Prize Laureate in Chemistry The Encyclopedia of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology is the world's first single most comprehensive reference source ever published in the field of nanotechnology. Kwang J Kim.biodomotica. "Artificial Muscles: Applications of Advanced Polymeric Nanocomposites" thoroughly reviews the existing knowledge of ionic polymeric conductor nanocomposites (IPCNCs).com . 2008. safety. Mehran Mojarrad About this title: Smart materials are the way of the future in a variety of fields. "Nanotechnological Risks" presents various methods for evaluating health. Photonic Ink and Elastic Ink Lab-to-Market by Ozin. Elast-Ink is made of an elastomeric opal that undergoes reversible dimensional changes on applying and removing a mechanical force. Smalley. and robotics.and nanotechnologies and also in information and communication technologies have shaped the research environment in the last decade. Tarek Khalil (Editor) About this title: New developments in bio. artificial muscles. This book provides a framework for deciding how to best take advantage of nanotechnology opportunities while minimizing potential negative effects 130 Massimo Marrazzo . from biomedical engineering and chemistry to nanoscience. and environmental nanotechnology risks Encyclopedia of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology. nanoactuators. highly educated experts in R&D departments are collaborating with scientists and researchers at universities and research institutes to develop new technologies. Richard About this title: Professor Richard E. Nanotechnology: Health and Environmental Risks (Perspectives in Nanotechnology) by Shatkin. The areas of application described are typical of what originally set off the nanotechnology revolution. Jo Anne About this title: Nanotechnology promises to be the third wave of technological innovation. have produced challenges that must be overcome. Volumes 1-10 by Smalley. nanorobots. Challenges in the Management of New Technologies by Marianne Horlesberger (Editor). nanotechnology. and Europe. Allg. "Navigating the Boundaries" explores several of the practical and ethical dilemmas presented by this technological leap. New applications are well underway in the US.

with many other branches about to follow. nanoporosity and catalysis Nanotechnology for Dummies by Richard Booker.biodomotica. corrosion resistant paints. and anyone interested in how molecule-sized machines and processes can transform our lives. mini-portable power generators. displays. stainfree clothing. this monograph also treats other modern aspects. However. science educators and other leaders of the scientific community believe that it is essential that everyone understand the basic concepts of the most vital and far-reaching disciplines. photovoltaic cells. and the limitations it can overcome. This bottom-up approach to nanotechnology is already being pursued in information technology. but presents a realistic view of how this new field of technology will affect people in the near future. Steve Edwards concentrates on the reader's self interest: no military gadgets. solar cells. biomolecules as molecular machines. Earl Boysen About this title: This title demystifies the topic for investors.Transparent & Flexible Electronics Nanotechnology 101 by John Mongillo About this title: What should the average person know about science? Because science is so central to life in the 21st century. Massimo Marrazzo .com 131 . solar energy conversion. nanoscale machines with varied and novel characteristics may also result from the enlargement of extremely small building blocks. The second section deals with transparent electronic devices including thin-film transistors. and essential materials characteristics versus device architecture and practical applications. even longer-lasting tennis balls. such as rotaxanes. This handy book also presents numerous applications such as scratch-proof glass. business executives. integrated electronic circuits. "Nanotechnology 101" does exactly that. Molecular Devices and Machines: A Journey Into the Nanoworld by Vincenzo Balzani. Organic Nanostructures by Jerry L Atwood (Editor). Alberto Credi About this title: The miniaturization of bulky devices and machines is a process that confronts us on a daily basis. wild fantasies of horror nanobot predators and other sci-fi stuff. Margherita Venturi. sensors. transparent oxide semiconductors. how it will affect various industries. catenanes. this monograph juxtaposes fundamental science and technology / application issues. hope. and much more Transparent Electronics: From Synthesis to Applications Antonio Facchetti (Editor). including transparent conducting oxides. Along with dispelling common myths. one of the pioneers in the development of molecular machines Covers such diverse aspects as sensors. burn and wound dressings. The variety of new products and technologies that will spin out of nanoscience is limited only by the imagination of the scientists. and more. or horror? This work is a vivid look at nanotechnology. Tobin Marks (Editor) ISBN: 978-0-470-99077-3 Hardcover 470 pages April 2010 Structured to strike a balance between introductory and advanced topics. and single-wall carbon nanotubes. Jonathan W Steed (Editor) About this title: Filling the need for a volume on the organic side of nanotechnology. Written by a team of experienced authors headed by Vincenzo Balzani. and electro-optic devices. sugar-cube-sized computers. drug delivery systems. namely individual molecules. memory components. engineers and entrepreneurs drawn to this new field. medical diagnostic tools. The first section is devoted to fundamental materials compositions and their properties. glare-reducing eyeglass coatings. Alongside metal organic frameworks. it covers nanotechnology's origins. p-type wideband-gap semiconductors. this comprehensive overview covers all major nanostructured materials in one handy volume. written by an insider and experienced science writer. The Nanotech Pioneers: Where Are They Taking Us by Steven A Edwards About this title: Hype.

there is even a set of online leaflets about European Research in Action. http://ec. in business or in politics. Street ISBN: 978-1-4398-3402-2 . their practical applications and the future scope of developments.europa. Raychaudhuri. accessible primer on the world of nanotechnology — the revolutionary realm of seeing. We also demonstrate the use of dielectrophoresis and inkjet printing to pattern and assemble active matrix display backplane arrays of Si NW FETs from a liquid suspension. some thrilling. Slovenian. Swedish. Toby Shelley's book Nanotechnology provides a short.Transparent & Flexible Electronics Nanotechnology: New Promises. You can read about the latest political decisions. New Dangers by Toby Shelley Zed Books: 2006. Chapters 1-4 Presentation Slides for Science at the Nanoscale: An Introductory Textbook by Chin Wee Shong. Also included are antennas using metamaterials and defected ground structures (DGSs).November 2010 504 Pages. Spanish. Polish.panstanford. written for the non-specialist and available in 11 or more languages. 208 pp. Russian . English.htm Jet-printed Si nanowires for flexible backplane applications W. We report the properties of Si NW field-effect transistors (FETs) fabricated with various contact metals and passivation layers. Microstrip and Printed Antennas New Trends. applications and future trends of microstrip and printed antenna Sambandan. S. reflectarrays. It raises key questions about how this disruptive technology will affect human health. professors. . analysis. antennas for RFID systems and also those for body area networks. Probably none represent exactly what will happen. Finnish. with Gayle Pergamit William Morrow and Company.S. Chinese. http://cordis. That now includes you. with particular emphasis to recent advances from the last decade. civil liberties.htm This site is designed to help you find out about European Research. French. ultra-wideband (UWB) antenna. Whether you are a researcher or a teacher. German. Strategies of how to stay ahead of the process are proposed. weaponry. and scientists working in these fields. controlling and making things on the scale of atoms and Edition . and people in developing countries. Brochure: " Nanotechnology: Innovation for tomorrow's world " Brochure of the European Commission to illustrate to the public what nanotechnology is Brochure is available as pdf in Danish. Sow Chorng Haur & Andrew T. but in aggregate they give a deep sense of the kind of thing that will happen. R. the environment.cfm?lg=en&pg=about 132 Massimo Marrazzo .Pages: 862 The integration of Si nanowire (Si NW) materials with low-temperature plastic substrates can enhance the performance of low-cost flexible electronics. or the latest advances in research. essayed as individual chapters include reconfigurable antenna. Wong. measuring.New York This book delivers a rich array of micro-scenarios of nanotechnology at work. Inc. Dutch. Portuguese. This book provides a reference for R&D researchers.biodomotica. Italian. all compelling. there is something for you here.html Unbounding the Future: the Nanotechnology Revolution By Eric Drexler and Chris Peterson. Techniques and Applications 1. Hardcover ISBN-10: 0-470-68192-6 ISBN-13: 978-0-470-68192-3 .http://www. Lujan. Czech.A. Slovak and in Estonian.John Wiley & Sons This book focuses on new techniques. Attention is given to fundamental concepts and techniques. R. Greek. — Stewart Brand http://crnano. Wee National University of Singapore ISBN: 9789814241038 August 2009 228 pages . Several topics. practicing engineers. S. some but the ultimate responsibility for the wholesome use and development of nanotechnology falls on every person aware of it.

Rockett and J. Huang. T.F. Sorprese e speranze dalle nanotecnologie Pacchioni Gianfranco." Optics Express 15(10).G.H. Rogers. P.J.htm Journal Papers http://rogers. L.htm For Italian readers: Quanto è piccolo il mondo." Applied Physics Letters 88.merlinq. Shim and J. Highland. J.J. M. Sironi (collana Galápagos) Brochure: " La Nanotecnologia: Innovazione per il mondo di domani " http://cordis. E.interscience.html Journal Papers on Transparent Electronics Disclaimer: The PDF documents on this WebPages are provided for educational and personal purposes alone and are subject to their respective publisher's copyrights. Xia. J.wiley. Geddes.wiley.B.G. Elvikis.F.J. Advanced Functional Materials http://www3. 6358-6366 (2007).-I. C. Cao. I. Senior Director The Nanotech 133 . S. 907-915 (2008).uk/finalReport. "Transparent Flexible Organic Thin-Film Transistors That Use Printed Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Electrodes.interscience. Nidetz. _Molded Transparent Photopolymers and Phase Shift Optics for Fabricating Three Dimensional Nanostructures. Mechanically Flexible and Microconcentrator Module Designs. Park. J. Ahn. Y. http://www. M.G.B. M.europa.T.M.wiley. Advanced Engineering Materials Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology Massimo Marrazzo .eu/nanotechnology/src/ Advanced Materials http://www3.S.H. A. Wang.A. Managing Director http://www.interscience.interscience. http://www3. Motala.uiuc. Kim. Su. Christodoulou and G. Lemaitre. J. D. Nuzzo.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=280&Itemid=74 What are nanoscience and nanotechnologies? http://www. J. Zanichelli Cosa sono le nanotecnologie. Cahill. Bogart.wiley. Rogers. Wiley InterScience® is a leading international resource for scientific. Y. S. technical. 2007.A." Nature Materials 7.G. Q.interscience.2008.R.nanotec. Jeon. M. R.Y. Nam. Ferreira. PhD. 113511 (2006). with Darrell Brookstein. _Ultrathin Silicon Solar Microcells for Semitransparent. Yoon.wiley.Transparent & Flexible Electronics 7 things every reporter should know before writing about nanotechnology and 7 questions to ask every _nano" company by Nathan Tinker. R. A. P. Li. S. Xiao.biodomotica. medical and scholarly content.A. D. Baca. Z. El-Kady.A. B. Rogers. Istruzioni per l'uso della prossima rivoluzione scientifica Narducci Dario. Zhu. M.

end-users and research Nanowerk is committed to http://www.citala. The Institute was one of the world's first nanotechnology information providers and is now a global leader.php A leader in flexible http://www. plastic chips.html Thick-Film Materials and Ceramic Tapes The Institute of Nanotechnology (IoN) is a registered Cambridge Display Technology. Our members are international leading companies and institutions and include component and material suppliers. inform and inspire about nanosciences and nanotechnologies. The Future of Things (TFOT) is an online magazine dedicated to bringing original content on science. http://www. 134 Massimo Marrazzo .org/cws/home Nanotechnology journal whose core activities are focused on education and training in nanotechnology.nanowerk. Citala is the pioneer of the Active Pixel Display (APD_)—a flexible reflective display that represents a paradigm shift in the display arena.Transparent & Flexible Electronics Links http://www. http://nanotechweb. and medicine from around the world. in the widest The Organic Electronics Association is a working group within VDMA.htm The Center for Responsible Nanotechnology (CRN) is a non-profit research and advocacy think tank concerned with the major societal and environmental implications of advanced nanotechnology. sensors and photovoltaics. organic . http://www.nano. equipment and tool suppliers. leads the development of display technology based on polymer organic light emitting diodes (P-OLEDs). http://www. representing the whole process chain in organic electronics like e. a subsidiary of Sumitomo Chemical.electroscience. producers and system

net This site informs about OLED . http://printedelectronics. Launched in May Nanotechnology Homepage of the European Commission We started Zyvex to develop practical uses for molecular nanotechnology to transform how we make physical goods — creating clean. displays.sciencedaily. http://www." Internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics. Web-based. sensors. and academics.nanotech-now.futuretechnologycenter. and The UK's premier source of information on nanoparticle hazard.nano. general business persons.nanotechobserver. Nanotech Observer's articles provide links to guide the user to related pages with additional information. The National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) is the program established in fiscal year 2001 to coordinate Federal nanotechnology research and development. and powerful manufacturing for the 21st RMNanotech. http://www. the Nanotech Observer is a multilingual. energy.sciencemuseum.zyvex.cordis. to laymen. materials and An inventory of nanotechnology-based consumer products currently on the The Future Technology Center offers forecasting services on new technologies based on continuous tracking and trend analysis of global technological developments. non-specialists. contains links to sites where you can purchase Nanotechnology products and Nanotechnology books. then a little known science and technology.Organic light emitting diodes Massimo Marrazzo . electronics and modern life http://www. Health and Medicine http://community. this free portal covers the progress to printed electronics in all its forms . At that time our focus was on preparing society for The Science Museum provides an educational and interactive overview of nanotechnology http://www.physorg. flexible. http://www. free-content encyclopedia project based mostly on anonymous Printed Electronics World provides you with a daily update of the latest industry 135 . we were the first organization to educate society about the benefits and risks of Founded in 1986. http://www.Transparent & Flexible Electronics http://www. Space IBM Research at Almaden participates in a wide variety of activities that fall under the broad scope of nanoscale science and technology. and developing novel methods to probe and manipulate European Nanotechnology Community Nanoforum has produced Nanotechnology Education Tree which is designed to give an introduction to nanotechnology applications in health. nanoscale fabrication for creating nanoscale structures and devices. http://www.nanotechproject. Very much like a White Paper.rmnanotech. http://www. and nanotoxicology transistor circuits to power. technology. The activities span synthesizing nanoscale materials. Earth Science. highly skilled ScienceDaily is one of the Internet's leading online magazines and Web portals devoted to science. http://www. we seek to provide a forum and format that helps clarify nanotechnology and nanoscale science. provides a bridge between the nanotechnology activities that are taking place in China and the rest of the Italian Italian Blogs http://www. with the aim of disseminating information and setting up nano-business and networking opportunities. 2010 .html http://www. video — Spanish Spanish French French http://us.bvents.Transparent & Flexible Electronics http://www.wikipedia. The primary aim of the Project is to provide nanotechnology researchers with access to advanced research facilities of the participating 50 Forward Thinking Nanotech Blogs http://becomingacomputertechnician. corporate events and exhibitions B l og s Top 50 Nanotech & Biomaterial Blogs by Miranda on January German Japanese/English NanotechJapan is the official web site for the Nanotechnology Network Project (2007-2012) funded by the Japanese Ministry of http://nanonet. 136 Massimo Marrazzo . Japanese/English National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) Chinese/English NanoChina. http://www.nanovip.gizmag.mext. Science and Technology (MEXT). http://chiacchieresulnano. Show/Convention/Exposition Bvents is the largest source of information on conferences. Italian http://www.

providing advanced search capabilities and full image retrieval in handy PDF 137 . is the award-winning source of credible.NetProspector Plastic Properties http://www. HowStuffWorks. is a developer of open-source computational modeling tools for the design and analysis of atomically precise Free Online Encyclopedia http://www. Free Online Dictionary.en Patents and patent applications http://translate. a wholly owned subsidiary of Discovery Communications. Nanorex Internet search engine http://www. http://www. is an online nanotechnology resource focusing on education of the general public and distribution of nanotech o Products o Display Drivers o E Ink and ePaper http://www.dynalabcorp. Encyclopedia.howstuffworks.Transparent & Flexible Electronics T o ol box Plastic Properties Founded in http://www.claremicronix.S. Patent Office.html.wikipedia. Acronyms patents and patent applications from the U.nanoword.ides.asp Plastic Properties Online translator Online translator Online / Offline translator Massimo Marrazzo . and easy-to-understand explanations of how the world actually PatentStorm offers full-text U.

PhysOrg.PhysOrg. Using the built-in Italian Apps iPad . The AZoNanotechnology App from Italian Apps 138 Massimo Marrazzo .biodomotica.Tiscali per iPad http://itunes. robotic technology and so on .com — The A to Z of Nanotechnology.nanotechproject. Updated in real time .com/help/ipad/ .findNano . .con News Lite HD http://www. from sporting goods to food products and electronics to toys. represents the world of Nanotechnology in the palm of your .physorg. iPhone users can even submit new nanotech products to be included in future inventory updates. communication. computing.AzoNano http://www.000 nanotechnology-enabled consumer products.Transparent & Flexible Electronics iPad & iPhone applications for Nanotech iPhone .com/help/iphone/ .physorg. Auto technology.Tiscali http://itunes.con News Lite http://www. using the iPhone and iPod Like biotechnology. Information technology.Technology News This news application will provide you the relevant information of all type of academic and research technologies.azonano.azonano.Nanovip findNano allows users to browse an inventory of more than 1. Nanovip is an online Nanotechnology Portal bringing you the latest nanotech news. jobs and more.

But if you have a bunch of news from a bunch of places. Instead of giving you a boring list of your 139 . NewsRob NewsRob is a very sleek app that gets you your news from your Google Reader account. FeedSquares gives you colorful boxes that represent each gReader gReader is an RSS feed client that allows you to view your feeds by site. FastReader FastReader is an RSS feed client that gets you your news in a time efficient manner. FeedSquares FeedSquares is not your ordinary RSS reader.talkandroid. you can color code your categories so that you can find the news that you want to read fast. Comparison Massimo Marrazzo . then look no further. The app has 2 tabs. or view all at the same time FeedR FeedR allows you to view you feeds by category. one that shows you each feed. If you only have one or two feeds that you get news from. Even better. then this app is not for you. and another that lets you view all of the feeds at once. there are no apps like it. In fact.Transparent & Flexible Electronics Android applications to read RSS Nanotech http://www.

biodomotica.Transparent & Flexible Electronics 2 0 1 1 Up d a t e ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 140 Massimo Marrazzo .com .

Transparent & Flexible Electronics BIODOMOTICA® Massimo Marrazzo www.Biodomotica This document may be used and distributed provided that this copyright statement is not removed from the file and that any derivative work contains the original copyright notice. Massimo Marrazzo .com) and I’ll delete any reference of you from this e-book. collective marks. 141 . Every info in this document is available free on Internet. design rights or similar rights that are mentioned. I’m not responsible for errors. not me. distribute. If you don’t want be mentioned here just write me an email to ( Disclaimer No one can sell or ask money for this info@biodomotica.biodomotica. like this e-book. used or cited in “A foldable World” are the property of their respective owners. service marks. I don’t receive money or any other benefits by the companies cited. Copyright © 2011 Massimo Marrazzo . print articles mentioned in this e-book you must contact owners of copyright. Any of the trademarks. If you want reproduce. mistakes o any fraud by websites listed in this e-book.biodomotica.

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