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The vowels are "a, e, i, o, u"; also sometimes "y", "w". This also includes the diphthongs "oi, oy, ou, ow, au, aw, oo" and many others. The consonants are all the other letters which stop or limit the flow of air from the throat in speech:
b, c, d, f, g, h, j, k, l, m, n, p, qu, r, s, t, v, w, x, y, z, ch, sh, th, ph, wh, ng, gh 1. Sometimes the rules don't work
There are many exceptions in English because of the vastness of the language and the many languages from which it has borrowed. The rules do work however, in the majority of the words.
2. Every syllable in every word must have a vowel
English is a "vocal" language; Every word must have a vowel.
Followed by "e, i, y" usually has the soft sound of "s". cyst, central, city. Followed by “a, u, o” usually has the hard sound of “k”. catch, cotton, cute.
Followed by "e, i, y" usually has the soft sound of "j". gem, gym, gist. Followed by “a, u, o” usually has the hard sound of “g”. golf, gate, gun.
5. When 2 consonants are joined together and form one new sound, they are a consonant digraph. They
count as one sound and one letter and are never separated. A consonant digraph is two or more consonants that are grouped together and represent a single sound. Here are consonant digraphs you should know: wh sh wr kn th ch ph what shout write know that watch graph
sh. luck 7. pa/per. ir. add an extra syllable. term. and the /3/ sound. /der 11. aw. that vowel is usually long. /d/ after voiced sounds (except /d/). z. the silent "e" is a signal that the vowel in front of it is long. ur" often sound the same (like "er"). kite. use 8. When a syllable ends in any vowel and is the only vowel. eat. When a vowel is followed by an "r" in the same syllable. su/gar. my 10. far. bed. "R-controlled "er. in words like: measure. In a diphthong. pain. boat.tch gh ng watch laugh ring 6. a voiced consonant. for. ow. If the word ends in a sibilant (hissing sound: s. fur. It is not long nor short. u/nit. au. z. j. o/pen. x. ch. Ross’s Rose’s sentences noses misses muses rushes catches rages fixes Trish’s brushes Mitch’s watches Hodge’s pages Fox’s boxes 12. that vowel is short. the vowels blend together to create a single new sound: "oi. x). spot. NOTE: Diphthongs don't follow this rule. res/cue. When a syllable has 2 vowels together. ou. that vowel is "r-controlled". When a syllable ends in a silent "e". ch. When a syllable ends in a consonant and has only one vowel. make. oo" and many others. or another S [iz] after sh. s. oy. rope. fir. j. [p] [t] [k] [f]  [tr] [z] when follows a vowel. /d/. the first vowel is usually long and the second is silent. “S” [s] only if it follows an unvoiced consonant. sir. . /id/. gene. say. /t/ after unvoiced sounds (except /t/). me. grow. fish. “ed” The past tense ending “ed” has three pronunciations: /t/. I. fat. 9.
ooh.o and u. phoned. judged. wood oof. stadium. trusted 13. or in the stressed syllable. room. If y is anywhere else in the syllable. called. oomph. [k]. it will sound like d—and the vowel before the voiced consonant will sound l-o-n-g-e-r. (cat. [t] after “s” is pronounced as [b]. ski. moon. oo • • • • 在字母 k 和 d 前发[U]，在其他辅音字母前发[u]。foot 和 food 是特例。而 blood 和 flood 发。 oodles. stub 14. if the simple verb form ends with a voiced sound. tested. it will sound like t. speak. the “or” says “er”. oops. woo foot. /id/ after the sounds /t/ and /d/. word) . cut) K comes before the other two-i and e. skew. space. boot. 16. watched With the exception of the “d” sound. “t” At the top of a staircase is pronounced as [t]. spark. seemed. star. stainless. standard Spa. football. brook. stack. played. wool. With the exception of the “t” sound. shoot. the –ed ending will be an extra syllable. [p]. robbed. it is a vowel. if the simple verb form ends with a voiceless sound. nagged When the simple form of the verb ends with a d or t. ir. boom. ended. hood. spare. sky Stab. skeptical. (kite. skeleton. At the botton is not pronounced at all. ooze. 15. key) er. special Skate. skill. In the single syllable words. [d]. flood c or k rule • • C comes before a. needed. book. stage. cot. “y “ Letter y is a consonant when it is the first letter of a syllable that has more than one letter. In the middle is [d]. skirt. fern w before or When w is before “or”. ur • • make the same sound of “er” bird. stable. Spain. staff. spade. tattoo. snoozed. But the vowel in that syllable will not be pronounced clearly. loose. liked. laughed. stood. oozy. [g]. added. nurse. missed. the “ed” ending will also be voiceless. the “ed” ending will also be voiced. spider. jumped. (work. food blood. spank.
knob. able. E final is usually silent silent at the end of a word brave. hazel. crack. scythe. lighten. muscle C is silent before k. dodge E is often silent before d bribed. weevil B is silent after m and before t comb. oh. known. deacon. drone. knew . Bible E is often silent before n garden. honest H is silent fter g or r ghastly. fadge. shovel. gherkin. cousin. abide. swivel. handled. reason. hidden. lamb. grovel. hedged. s back. climb. diaphragm gnat. seraglio I is sometimes silent before n basin. spoken. crime. halleluiah K is always silent before n knave. changed. scene. lock. weasel I is sometimes silent before l evil. taken O is sometimes silent before n bacon. mason. dumb. herb. pardon. victuals. become. and they must not be sounded in the pronounciation of the words in which they occur. kitten. indict. doubt. improve. rheum. jamb. feign. rhyme. knee. scepter H is silent in heir. standtholder D is silent before g in the same syllable badge. tomb debt. knife. consign intaglio. t. subtle G is silent before m and n sometimes before l phlegm. ghostly. struggled E is often silent before l drivel.Silent Letters Silent letters are those which do not represent any element. weapon D is silent in Wednesday. reisin C is silent in czar. cradled. myrrh H is silent at the end of a word and preceded by a vocal ah. marble.
Voiceless Consonants [p] [t] [k] [t5] [f]  [s]  [ts] [tr] [t5] [h] Voiced Consonants [b] [d] [g] [d9] [v]  [z]  [dz] [dr] [d] [m] [n]  [l] [r] [w] [j] Each vowel has two sounds: a long sound and a short sound. Every vowel also makes a third sound: the schwa. The letters e. Long Vowels [i:] [4:] [2:] [3:] [u:] Short Vowels [i] [e]     [u] An open. This is the sound of a vowel that is unstressed in an unstressed syllable. unaccented vowel can make a schwa sound. ll. ss after a short vowel puff doll pass boss ice ce after a long vowel [3:]  [u:] [u] Unrounded Vowels: [i:] [i] Neutral Vowels: [e]    Monophthongs: [i:] [i] [e]   [2:]  [3:] [u] [u:] [4:]  Diphthongs: [ei] [2i] [3i] [4u] [2u] [i4] [e4] [u4] American English: [ei] [4u] [2i] [2u] [3i] Back Vowels:   [U] [u] Central Vowels: 没有[4:]，多为[4r]；与相同。 Front Vowels: [i] [I] [A]  Rounded Vowels: . tch after a short vowel match edge lock dge after a short vowel ck after a short vowel ff. The long sound is the same as its name. u can also make a long sound. accented vowel is long no me I go AA\|cor™n OA\p≫n EA\v≫n A vowel followed by a consonant is short log cat sit A vowel followed by a consonant and a silent e is long An open. The letter i can also make a short sound. o.
辅音分类B 根据气流通过口腔时产生的不同效果，可将辅音分为： 摩擦音：口腔通道较窄，气流通过时产生摩擦。 爆破音：气流在口腔中完全封闭，然后再突然释放，在释放时不产生任何阻碍和摩擦。 塞擦音：气流通过口腔时被闭住，释放时气流通道又不完全敞开。 鼻音： 发音时需要鼻腔共鸣。 舌边音：发音时气流从舌的两侧同过。 半元音：[w] [j] 塞擦音(affricate) 其形成如爆破音，但发音器官放开阻塞较慢，因而在放开阻塞时可以听得出相应的摩擦。 英语中塞擦音有六个： [t5] [d9] [ts] [dz] [tr] [dr] 牙齿处闭气： [ts] [dz] 硬腭前端摩擦： [t5] [d9] 舌头在硬腭处闭气： [tr] [dr] 鼻音(nasal) 口腔通道完全阻塞，但软颚下垂，气流自由通过鼻腔发出的音。 英语中鼻音有三个：[m] [n]  嘴唇处闭气： [m] 舌前端在硬腭处闭气： [n] 舌后部抬高，软腭下垂闭气： 舌边音(lateral) 气流通道中央阻塞，在阻塞处的两边或一边留下通道让气流自由通过时发出的音。 英语中舌边音只有一个：[l] 半元音(semi-vowel) 即有声滑音。发这个音时，发音器官开始时轻微地发出一个本身响度较弱的音，然后立即过渡到一个响度相 同或更加显著的音。 英语中半元音有两个：[w] [j] 摩擦音(fricative) 气流通道收窄，气流通过时发出可听擦音。 英语中摩擦音有十个，其中清浊相对的有八个：[f] [v]   [s] [z]   上齿接触下唇： [f] [v] 上齿与舌面摩擦：   上齿齿龈产生摩擦：[s] [z] 声带摩擦： [h] 硬腭摩擦： [r]   爆破音(plosive) 在相当时间内，气流通道完全阻塞，气流（一般由于肺部的动作）受压，然后突然放开阻塞，发出爆破的声 音。 英语中的爆破音有六个: [p] [b] [t] [d] [k] [g] 嘴唇闭气：[p] [b] 舌前端在上齿齿龈和硬腭前端闭气：[t] [d] 舌后端抬高，软腭下垂进行闭气：[k] [g] .
Stress & Accent Rules When a word has more than one syllable. –ual In words of more than two syllables. com/plain'. 4.) It is very important not to stress or pronounce too clearly the vowels in unstressed words or syllables. be/gin'/ner. The syllable with the louder stress is the accented syllable. 3. 5. ac'/ci/dent. af/fec/ta'/tion. general visual medial cultural genial material radical international usual exceptional economical . pro'/gram. but these are some rules that usually work. one of the syllables is always a little louder than the others. the accent is usually on the main root word. unstressed vowel sound: schwa This is often some kind of variation of vowel sound 11. po-. 2. We do it by pronouncing the vowels of the most stressed syllables with more force and clarity. suffixes -ion. it is usually not accented. 6. -ial. one of the first two syllables is usually accented. We normally don’t stress the less important words: the function words in a phrase or sentence: articles. de/ter'/mine. and for a l-o-n-g-e-r time. and helping verbs. let'/ter. (In this book we’ll use the symbol * to signify that the vowel is not clear there. pronouns. re-. because it’s not high. ex/plore'. ity. con/ceal'. -ial.is the first syllable in a word. and often with a change of pitch. box'/es. When there are two like consonant letters within a word. a. in-. not back. Two vowel letters together in the last syllable of a word often indicates an accented last syllable. 1.\Accnts are often on the first syllable. otherwise you’ll confuse native speakers! –al. the greatest stress is usually two syllables before –al. It’s a neutral sound—an unclear sound. and adverbs. not front. ex-. the syllable before the double consonants is usually accented. -ious The accent is usually on the syllable before it. de/lay'. dif/fer/en'/ti/ate. suffix -ate The accent is usually on the second syllable before it. -ic. In words that have suffixes or prefixes. pro-. un/tie'. -ian. not low. noun + noun phrases In compound nouns (nouns made up of two or more nouns) or noun + noun phrases. We do that by pronouncing the vowels of those less stressed syllables with less force and less clarity. -ical. we almost always put the stress on the first noun. It may seem that the placement of accents in words is often random or accidental. In words of three or more syllables. adjectives. prepositions. truck driver efficiency report hospitality room business letter police officer water glass birthday party CD player baby sitter button hole wristwatch schwa We normally stress the most important words—the content words in a phrase or sentence: nouns. If de-. ba'/sic. main verbs.
That vowel is pronounced the most clearly. fusion faction addition distribution invasion fiction edition elimination nation satisfaction privatization .–ity the greatest stress will be on the one just before this suffix: reality morality humanity objectivity electricity necessity –ion. -sion. The vowels in the less stressed syllables are pronounced less clearly or sometimes not at all. -tion the most stress is the one just before the suffix.
you double the last consonant and add the "-ing". (diphthongs only count as one vowel sound. you usually divide in front of it. leaving one vowel sound and one syllable. "hope/less" and "care/ful". ---subtract any silent vowels. . "sh". 2. When you have a word that has the old-style spelling in which the "-le" sounds like "-el". 4. The number of syllables that you hear when you pronounce a word is the same as the number of vowels sounds heard. Never split up consonant digraphs as they really represent only one sound. Divide off prefixes such at "un/happy". two syllables. "th". Split up words that have two middle consonants. For example: hap/pen. Split off the parts of compound words like "sports/car" and "house/boat". but the "e" is silent. "e/vil". 3. "fum/ble". "teach/er". and Den/nis. The only exceptions are those times when the first syllable has an obvious short sound. Divide between two middle consonants. let/ter. Also divide off suffixes as in the words "farm/er". bas/ket. "pre/paid". din/ner. "i/tem". divide before the consonant before the "-le". prefixes. To find the number of syllables: ---count the vowels in the word. Divide before the consonant before an "-le" syllable. as in: "o/pen". and "re/port". When there is only one syllable. In the word "stop/ping".) ---the number of vowels sounds left is the same as the number of syllables. For example: "a/ble". but the "e" is silent and the "ou" is a diphthong which counts as only one sound. 5.Basic Syllable Rules 1. The word "outside" has 4 vowels. or "re/write". suffixes and roots which have vowel sounds. "rub/ble" "mum/ble" and "this/tle". (like the silent "e" at the end of a word or the second vowel when two vowels a together in a syllable) ---subtract one vowel from every diphthong. and "wh". "ph". the suffix is actually "-ping" because this word follows the rule that when you add "-ing" to a word with one syllable. Usually divide before a single middle consonant. The exceptions are "th". so this word has only two vowels sounds and therefore. The only exception to this are "ckle" words like "tick/le". For example: The word "came" has 2 vowels. "ch". sup/per. Divide off any compound words. as in "cab/in". The only exceptions are the consonant digraphs.
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