THE

PHILOSOPHY OF LANGUAGE.

^iterartt mifr |pIjLlos0}}J)t,caI Utamtals.

i.

MENTAL

SCI ENCE;
Coleridge,
AID

COMPBIS!XO

METHOD, by Samcel Taylor

LOGIC and RHETORIC, by Archbishop Whately.
Croion Svo,
5s. cloth.

II.

THE VOCABULARY OF PHILOSOPHY,
MORAL, MENTAL, AND METAPHYSICAL.
ISy

William Klkmiso, D.D., Professor of Moral Philosophy
Second
/Cdilion, enlarged.

in the University of Glasgow.
Gd. cloth.

Foolscap Sro,

7.».

111.

MORAL AND METAPHYSICAL PHILOSOPHY.
ANCI1.NT.
r.\

MIDI!

V

\I.,

AND MODr.KV
Inn.

i:i:\.

I'.

I).

Maurice, M.A., Chaplain of Lincoln's

Crown 6vo.—Jn

t/ie

Press.

IV.

THE OCCULT SCIENCES:
iiii:
i

i:\i.ii

ins

,

am.
i'l
1

.1

in: ,n
IKI
SI

i

ION
I

OF ianT mils AND
I

Till

M

\lt\ l.l.s

HI.

A

ll.\Y.

D
ClVlln
Hi'..,
C.3.

.

Eta

ii,

ud

Other

rl„tll.

THE

PHILOSOPHY OF LANGUAGE;
COMl'BISING

UNIVERSAL GRAMMAR,
THE PURE SCIENCE OF LANGUAGE;

GLOSSOLOGY,
THE HISTORICAL RELATIONS OF LANGUAGES.

SIR

JOHN STODDAET,

Knt., LL.D.

THIKl) KD1TION, MtVllBD

AND

ENLAltCiKH.

LONDON AND GLASGOW. RICHARD GRIFFIN AND COMPANY. %
publishers to
Slnibersitg of (Shsgofco.

1861.

p

S3
18GI

PREFACE.

The

present

work was originally composed

for the

Encyclopaedia

Metropolitana, a publication which was designed to have been

produced under the editorial care
Coleridge.

of*

the late Samuel Taylor

That accomplished

scholar, distinguished poet,

and
ill

profound metaphysician, was unfortunately prevented by
health,

and other adverse circumstances, from carrying the
effect.

intended editorship into

He, however, not only devised

the comprehensive plan which was described in the Prospectus
of
tlu:

Encyclopaedia, but furnished the original materials fcr a

general introduction, which his friend,

my

uncle,

Sir

John

Stoddart, undertook, at the desire of the proprietors, to arrange
for publication, in the

form in which

it

eventually appeared.

My
article

uncle was led, from this circumstance, to draw

up an

on Grammar, which, though hastily executed, in the

intervals of a laborious profession,

was deemed by Mr. Cole-

ridge not

unworthy

to

occupy a place in the Encyclopaedia.
atten-

The

subject

was one which had attracted the author's

tion at a

very early period.

He was

educated at the school in

the Close of Salisbury, an institution attached to the Cathedral,

and of which a Minor Canon, Dr. Skinner, was Master, and the
Rev. E. Coleridge (an elder brother of the poet), Under Master.

Grammar was

then taught on the ancient plan of the once

VI

PREFACE.

famous WILLIAM Lilly, whose Propria quce martinis and

As

in prossenti English boys were, for centuries, compelled to
repeat

by

rote,

without the
like

slightest

suspicion that

they

involved anything

a rational

principle.

Fortunately,
Earle,

however, for

my

uncle, his godfather,

Mr. Benson

was a

sound

classical scholar,

and had been a ward of the celebrated
Hermes.
Tliis

James

Harris, the author of

book Mr. Earle put

into the hands of

Ms

godson, then about fourteen years of aye.
it,

and the young student, on opening

felt as if his

mental eye
lessons

had been couched, discovering with surprise that the

which had appeared

to him, of all his scholastic tasks, the driest

and most un meaning, involved many profound speculations of
intellectual philosophy.

Of course he was not yet
all

in a capacity

to

judge of the correctness of

Mr. Harris's theories; but

he saw enough to convince him that Hermes contained much
of that acute investigation, perspicuous explication, and
ele-

gance of method

for

which

it

had been celebrated by Dr. Lowtli.

His classical pursuits at Christchurch, Oxford, of which oollege

he was elected a Student, somewhat moderated, though they
did

not wholly extinguish,

his

estimation

of

Air.

Harris's

work; and the perusal of Hickcs's Thesaurus, in the Bodleian
Library,

showed him

that the northern

languages aflbrded a
his

new
in

field lor

grammatical research.

On

subsequent arrival
literal v
fh'r, r-

London, to follow the study of the law. he found the
day much occupied with

circles of the

M

r.

1

lorne Tooke's
results

Kunix

i'f

rurl./i,

* WOrk which promised great
<

from the

cultivation of Gothic, Anglo-Saxon, and
hilling into

lid

Knglish etymolo

company with Mr.

I'orson.

he consulted him
first

on
oj
tl

ii> n&erita.

The

Professor said, that, on the

appearance

Mi
iginality

Litt.r to I>unuit);i, he had

been struck with

of

ita

\iews; but though the
first

Divtrwms

of

1'nrl.ii o,|

which only the

volume hud then appeared)

PREFACE.
certainly contained

vii

some new and curious matter, he did not

perceive that

it

effected

much toward

the development of the

principle set forth in the early pamphlet.

This opinion con-

firmed li:
himself.

my

uncle in his resolution to investigate the subject for
the Ecclesiastical

Having chosen

and Admiralty
he bad

Sourts

for the future scene of his professional exertions, for miscellaneous study
;

some time before him sc

and

as

he had

devoted part of his leisure at Oxford to the Bodleian Library,

he employed much more in London among the Anglo-Saxon

and Old English manuscripts of the British

Museum
first

;

until

he

was called to the Bar in Doctors' Commons, from which period
he was for several years too
fessional duties

much

occupied,

with his pro-

and subsequently with

political discussions, to

do more towards Philology than add an occasional
large mass of notes

article to the

which he had previously

collected.

Several

of these articles, however, threw no small light on the legal
institutions,

as well of

England

as of other countries.
its

For

instance,

he traced the word cavere from

use in the

Twelve

Tables, the earliest

monument of Eoman

Legislation, to the

Mediaeval cautio, the Italian cauzione, the Spanish caugion, the

French cautionnement, the Scotch cautioner, the English
veat,

ca-

and writ cautione admittenda, and numerous other

legal

terms, ancient and modern, derived from the

same

source.

So

he found the vades publicus
Livy,

(a security first

given at Rome, as

Book

iii.

cap. 13, tells us,

460 years before the Christian
vas, vadari,

era) to agree in origin

with the Latin

vadimo-

niurn

;

the Mediaeval vadium-mortuum, gadiator, contragagia-

mentum;
setter

the Italian gaggio, gaggio-morto,

ingaggiare

;

the

French gage, gages, engager ; the Scotch wad, wadset, wad;

the English wed, wedding,

wedlock, gage,

mortgage,
battle,

engagement, wages, wager, wager of law, wager of
&c. &c.

Again, in the Italian subastatore (an auctioneer), he

;

viii

PREFACE.

" most bitter voice " (as Cicero recognized the Prseco, to whose sub hasta. the goods of the great Pompey were subjected
says)

Many
serious

more other such investigations kept alive, amidst the regard for the study of occupations of the Law, Ms
;

language

and

applied to for

was under these circumstances that he was that treatise on Grammar which appeared in the
it

Encyclopedia Metropolitana.
raised to the high station

A few years afterwards he was
the

of Chief Justice of Malta;

arduous duties of which
the whole of his time.

office absorbed, for

many

years, nearly

At

length, in 1839, he

was relieved
life

from that important charge, and left otium cum dignitate which he still enjoys.

to close a long

in the

For the
*/

last

observer of the very

ten years he has not been an inattentive valuable accessions which this branch of

literature has received, not only

own

country.

Many

on the Continent but in our ages elapsed before Philology ventured
of the Greek and

beyond the

classic circle

Roman

tongues.

The languages of modern Europe were long thought unworthy they were firsts^ the grammarian^ attention; and when
of
j.rtod to rules,
I1K11

it

was

in

the vain endeavour to
step.

make them
zealous
wlueli

vh only

in

the

fuvek or Roman

Some

Divines put in a claim for

the supremacy of Hebrew,

first parents they essayed to prove was the language of our impression on the scholastic systems hut this theory made little

thm OriinOe
judaioal
treati.-e

in U8e.

CONKAD

tiKSNKI!

had the merit of
Sue

first

extending philological -peculation very
bounda.
Latin.

beyond the

olassioal

In 1555 appeared
I

his Mithridatot,

a

in

"

>e

dilleicntiis

linguarum turn veterum

turn

(|ii:i-

hodie apud diverts nationes in toto orhe terrariim

m

ubu Mint."
as

His notices of various Languages, however, were,

might Ixm -xpert,,! from the then limited knowledge of the
ooumrilight,

lilli-iviit

and

led to little

that

was con-

PREFACE.
elusive in point of principle.

IX
grati-

Nor can anything be more

fying, in this branch of study, than to observe the vast progress

which had been made between the Mithridates of Gesner,

in

the ICth century, and the Mithridatea of Adelung, in the
19th.

In the 16th century,

too,

Goropius Becanus perbetween the Indian

ceived, though

indistinctly, that affinity

and Teutonic languages, which

has, in

our day, been so clearly

made out by Grimm, Bopp, Schlegel, Eichhoff, &c, and
recently in our
in his

own country by the very learned

Dr.

Bosworth,

Origin of the English,

German, and Scandi?iavian

Languages and Nations.

To

these,

as

well

as

to

the

ingenious

speculations of

Drs. Jamiesox,

Latham, and
others,
to

Prichard, Messrs. Johnes,

Welsford, and

my

uncle has paid

much

attention,

and has from time
labours, in correcting

time availed himself of their learned
his

and extending

own

views, as well of

the philosophy as of the history of language.

When,

therefore,

Messrs. Griffin, in the prosecution of their energetic purpose to

reproduce,
form,

in

an improved shape, both as to matter and
Metropolitana,
of which they had

the Encyclopcedia

jcome the proprietors, invited

my

uncle to revise his Treatise
the subject, he

Grammar, desirous of doing

full justice to

solved not simply on correcting the Treatise as originally
rinted,
it

and inserting such notes

as

had since occurred

to him,

on entirely reconstructing the work, and dividing the
This, therefore, he
of

purely Scientific part from the Historical.
lid
;

but as he

felt that,

at his

advanced age, the labour

iting the

whole would be more than he could prudently

ndertake, he devolved that task on

me;

placing at

my

dis-

mal

all

the materials which, in a long course of years, he had

^llected,

and giving

me

every

facility for the fulfilment

of my

nimble share in the work.

X

PREFACE.

From what
Philosophy
amounts,
in

has been said,

it is

seen that the Treatise on

tlie

of

Language, now
certainly,

presented
and,
to a

to

the

public,

manner,

large

extent,

in

matter, to a

new work,

bringing

up our knowledge on

this

most important subject

to the present day.

WILLIAM HAZL1TT.
Chelsea, Nov., 1849.

CONTENTS.
PHILOSOPHY OF LANGUAGE.
PAGE
Introduction
1

PART
Chap.
I.

I.

UNIVERSAL GRAMMAR.
Intellect

—Preliminary View of those Faculties of the
depends
.

and Will on which the Science of Language
.
.
. .

5

Chap.

II.— Of Sentences
III.— Of Words, as Parts of Speech

Chap.
Chap. Chap. Chap.

....

24
30

IV.— Of Nouns
V.
VI.

47
53

—Of Nouns Substantive —Of Nouns Adjective
Participles

93

Chap. VII.— Of

103
108 119
157

Chap. VIII.— Of Pronouns Chap.
Chap. Chap.

IX.— Of Verbs

X.— Of Articles

Chap.

—Of Prepositions XII. — Of Conjunctions
XI.

168
. . . . .

.196
221

Chap. XIII.—Of Adverbs Chap. Chap.

XIV.— Of Interjections

266 278
.

XV.—Of Particles
.
.

Chap. XVI.— Of the Mechanism of Speech

.287

PHILOSOPHY OF LANGUAGE.

INTRODUCTION.
In attempting to treat of any subject philosophically, it is advisable to define the term or terms employed to designate that subject, and then to explain the philosophical method of treating it which the
1
.

Method,

first

author intends to pursue.

The word " Language," which comes immediately to us from French word langage, originates in the Latin lingua, " the tongue ;" and therefore anciently signified only the use of the tongue A just analogy, however, has extended its meaning to all in speech. intentional modes of communicating the movements of the mind thus we use the expressions, " articulate language," " written lanfor man is formed as well guage," " the language of gesture," &c.
2.

Langi^s*.

the

:

;

internally,
feelings.

as

externally,
is

for
it

the communication of thoughts and
necessity of receiving,
is

He

urged to

by the

desire of imparting,

whatever

useful or pleasant.
:

wishes cannot be satisfied by individual power his cannot be limited to individual emotion. The fountains of his wis-

and by the His wants and joys and sorrows

dom and
soil,

of his love spontaneously flow to fertilize the neighbouring and to augment the distant ocean. 3. But the thoughts and feelings of man, which belong to his mental and spiritual nature, can only be communicated by means of corporeal acts and objects by gestures, sounds, characters more or less expressive and permanent, instruments not merely useful, as signs, for this particular purpose, but many times pleasing in them-

selves,

or rendered so,

by the long-continued operation of

habit.

of his Creator, enables him to select, to combine, to arrange and the result is a language. 4. Speech, the language of articulate sounds, is the most wonderful, Speeeh. the most delightful of the arts which adorn and elevate our being. It is also the most perfect. It enables us, as it were, to express things beyond the reach of expression, the infinite range of existence, the exquisite fineness of emotion, the intricate subtleties of thought. Of such effect are those shadows of the soul, those living sounds, which
These, reason, the peculiar gift to
;

man

2.

B

!

2

INTRODUCTION.

call words ! Compared with them, how poor are all other mom ments of human power, or perseverance, or skill, or genius The render the mere clown an artist ; nations immortal ; orators, poet;

we

!

philosophers, divine
Words, how
5. Yet it is not to be supposed that spoken language, " with a appliances and means to boot," can always fully convey to others th conceptions or emotions of the speaker ; and much less that it ahvav

sp«vii, it» divM«tio*.

does so. Joys beyond expression, and griefs too sad to vent themselvt words, are of every day's occurrence. On the other hand, there ai persons, who habitually wrap up their thoughts in the language c mystery, equivocation, or falsehood, for the very purpose, or at lea; with the constant result, of misleading their hearers and there ai words and phrases susceptible of so many different interpretation: that nothing but an attentive comparison of them with the who! context, or with all the concomitant circumstances, can enable any on Dugald Stewart has wo to comprehend their full force and effect. observed that, in consulting Johnson's Dictionary, the reader ma meet with a multitude of words with five, six, or more signification attached to each of them, and after all the pains that the lexicograplu has taken, may perhaps find no one of the definitions applicable to th passage which he has in view ; and yet when he considers the who] passage together he may have no difficulty whatever in comprehendin This proves that the pow the intended sense of the particular word. erful effects of speech are not owing to the mere signification of sep; rate Words, but to the activity of the Mind in Belling on the relation which they bear to each other, and in giving scope to the thoughts an feelings they are meant to excite. 6. Again, the dialects, or systems of speech adopted by varioi; races f m( M( M |jj|;. n Ilt ggoj ;llH ootmtries, have been, in man may remark the oopioi respects, striatoglj distinguishable. Arabic, the high-sounding Spanish, tho broad Dutch, the voJub] French, the son Italian: we may trace minute gradations from th
in
:
,
,

j

(

i

We

Sanscrit; or
.

monosyllables of the Chinese, to the long paragraph words of tl] we may rise, still more gradually, io the scale of espm from the barbarous muttering of a poor Esquimaux in his solitar

canoe, tn tin thanders of Athenian eloquence, and those d strains of our own Shakspeare, which are "musical as is Apollo Nor is this all lut<-," lad " I |»i|>ctu;il .i-t of DJ tS."
I',

:

circumstanoss tend still further to diversify tl Not onlj does time produi numerous spoken languages of the world. gradual progress, or sudden change in their forms; but their effect endlessly modified by combination with other arts of expression, \\ it
th-iusiind collateral
I

in

I

actions, w i*h

;

sounds.
observations,
shall

io f

7.

in this labyrinth ol

what objects ha\
content to
this*
leai

weto

pui He.

ui,.it

due to guide us ?
rott)
ko
if

we be

one of tv
understanding?

burthen the memory without ess

Or,

we would riseabova

boaknoi

INTRODUCTION.

6

ledge of their construction, must we draw our general principles from the minute comparison of those numberless particulars, which the longest life would be too short even to contemplate, and which the

The veryunited wisdom of ages has never attempted to arrange ? They statement of these questions is a sufficient solution of them. indicate at once the necessity of assuming some comprehensive princiThese first elements of our reasoning must afterwards be followed out into all their concrete The history of language must verify the science; but the forms.
ples as the rule and basis of our further inquiries.
Science
8.

must precede.

is the distinction between science and history, be- The sck-m e tween a principle and an event; yet several writers on language, SStwrof Un« ua«e especially within the last seventy or eighty years, and particularly in England, have strangely confounded these two modes of knowledge. Whether there be two parts of speech, or twenty, or any other number, am how they are to be distinguished from each other, are questions of science whether a given word in one language be derived from another given word in the same or a different language, or whether both be derived from a common source, and through what transitions and changes of sound or meaning they have respectively The method which I propose to passed, are questions of history. pursue, is to treat of the former topics first, and afterwards of the latter; but in like manner as it would not be easy to acquire a knowledge of Geometry (at least in its early stages) without the aid of diagrams, so there might be some difficulty in making the first principles of the science of Language intelligible, without occasional reference to examples drawn from particular languages. 9. The science of Language has for some centuries been usually Grammar, known by the name of Grammar, a word which, like the word Language, we have borrowed from the French but which (like the word Language also) is far removed from its original source. The Greek word ypafw, " I write," is connected with many Teutonic

Obvious as

-

I

:

;

applied to engraving on stone.
bolical, or alphabetical, so

words, signifying to cut into, or engrave; and was, no doubt, first Signs or letters, hieroglyphical, sym-

engraved, were, according to a common analogy in the Greek tongue, called ypa^ifiara, " things engraved," and that term being afterwards extended to letters written, as well as engraved, a knowledge of reading and writing letters in general was called ypafXfxuTi^ri, " the grammatical art." In the course of time,
|

.teachers of reading

Bary to lay

any one language, found it necesand writing it well, which rules were deemed the Grammatice, or Grammar, of that Language; and these again were found to result from certain common principles, ivhich constitute the science of Universal Grammar, and of which I ntend to speak in the first part of the following treatise. The rules which form the Grammar of a particular language, in so far as they liffer from those of any other, are owing to accidental and temporary
in

and writing,

down

rules for reading

b2


4
INTRODUCTION.
circumstances, the investigation of which belongs rather to the histo Universal Grammar, on the cc than to the science of Language.
trary, disregarding that

which

is

peculiar to the speech of this or

tli

individual, tribe, nation, or race, considers only

what

is

common

Glossology.

in all ages and countries, both as to the arrangement of 1 thoughts and feelings, with a view to their communication to othej and also as to the bodily organs, or instruments, with which t Almighty has furnished him, for the purpose of such communicatioi 10. The History of Language, in all its various bearings, may not improperly designated by the term Glossology, which I prefer

man

Glottology, a word recently employed by some continental writers; firi because the former sounds to English ears less harsh ; and, secondl because it suits better with several words which we already posses such as Gloss, Glosser, Glossator, Glossographer, Glossography, derived from the common Greek word yXwacra (Attice, yXwrra), t Tongue. Glossology, then, will form the subject of my secoi treatise, comprehending,
j

1.

2.

The Etymology, or derivation, of particular words. The different modes of their Construction in different
guages.

la

3.

The comparative The The

similarities

and

dissimilarities of

words

ai

construction in those languages.
4.
5.

theoretical origin of languages in
possibility

one or more sources. and probability of forming from the existil

languages, or otherwise, an Universal Language,

;

UNIVERSAL GRAMMAR.
CHAPTER
I.

PRELIMINARY VIEW OF THOSE FACULTIES OF THE INTELLECT AND WILL ON WHICH THE SCIENCE OF LANGUAGE DEPENDS.
In order to study Universal Grammar with effect, it is necessary view of those faculties of the intellect and will on which the science of language depends.
.
,

to take a preliminary

12. In the mind of man the consciousness of simple existence is the consdousne88source and necessary condition of all other powers ; as in language, verb to be, is at the root of the expression of that consciousness by the
all

connected expression.
13.
:

But we are conscious of different states of existence, in some and thus in lanof which we act, and in others we are acted upon guage, a verb is a word which signifies to do, or to suffer, as well as to be. No language, indeed, ever was, or ever could be, formed without such verbs ; but the case is different with regard to theories of lanThese may be, and have been conguage, and systems of Grammar. structed, on the hypothesis, that the mind of man is a mere passive a something which may be imrecipient of mechanical impressions pelled like a foot-ball, but which cannot give to itself, or to anything
;

the slightest impulse beyond that which it has first received. such a question as this, the only appeal lies to the common sense and daily experience of mankind ; and the result of that experience is clearly attested by all languages, living and dead a species of evidence which is the less to be resisted, because it is not the result of any common agreement. Every language in the world has grown up from ithe necessities of those who have used it, and not from intention
else,

On

from accident, and not from theory and yet there is among them an universal acquiescence in certain fundamental principles these principles, then, are indisputably founded on the common constitution
;
:

of the
14.

human mind. The mind is, no doubt,

passive in

some

respects.

If I open

sensations

my

eye to the light, I cannot choose but see ; if a sound strikes my ear, I cannot help hearing. These, and many like states of existence, derived from the bodily organs, are called sensations ; there are other
states, in

emotions.

which we are more or

less passive, derived

from the mind,

and commonly called emotions.
latter,

When we come
we
:

to analyse these

we
"

shall easily discover that
is

are not so entirely passive in

their reception, as

often supposed

nevertheless, as

we

in

both

;ases

suffer," that is to say, are acted

upon by external

causes,

we

!

6
Feeling,

FACULTIES OF THE MIND

[CHAP.

not improperly include sensation and emotion' as modes of tr common name of feeling. The states sensation, which are agreeable to our nature, we properly call plei
passive principle, under the
<

may

sure, those of

an opposite kind

naturally transferred to those emotions of the

gous to the respective
guilt is

called painful,

and the same names ai mind which seem anak sensations of the body. Thus the feeling and that of joy pleasant. The pleasurab
call

we

pain

;

<

sensations and emotions, and their real or supposed causes, are a
called
evil.

The

by the common name of good, and their opposites by that expression of feeling is what constitutes in language tr

(

passive verb.
Wil1
-

have called the passive principle, feeling; so I call tli will, or volition. It is this principle, which may trul be called the life of the human mind it is this, which forms an fashions the mind it is this, which impels and governs the man. Th conscious being, in his active state, has a power he says, I do this c that and hence arises the active verb. Hence also arises the pronoun for the very idea of an act involves the idea of a cause ; and it has bee clearly enough shown by different writers, that if the idea of a cause di not exist within the mind, it could never be suggested from without 16. The will, in its growth, becomes a moral energy that is, impels us to good, as good, and consequently to the greater goo To choose the greater good is to do right, t rather than to the less. Let philosophers argue, as the choose the less good is to do wrong. please, on liberty and necessity ; let them reconcile, as they can, tho*
15.
I

As

active principle

;

;

:

:

;

high doctrines

Of Providence,

foreknowledge, will, and fate, Fix'd fate, free will, foreknowledge absolute;
still

the individual, from the

right from wrong,

other; ;ind feels
t;il.

first dawnings of reason, distinguish and knows that he is a cause of the one, or of th that the power which lie exercises as a cause, is

Thus is formed Conscience, th lor which he is responsible. and guide of life. I have not now to discuss at length the natui and clli-cts of this prottom faculty: other and fitter occasions may
nt
li^lit
I

fimnd

cannot avoid noticing, that as tli .tii-lit and wnui;/ arc seated nut merely in the mind, hut in th leinetitary rudiments <A' the mind, it is a dangerous and tilt;
fix that Investigation
;

hut

I

error

to

represent

them as oontrivanoM of language, to no other than the past participle of the Latin verb r.ynr,

and
M.
..».,.

that

"
it

Wron^

is

rely

die past
it

tense of the
is

of the histon of words:
Inine;
in

verb to wring. no part of their philosophy
an}
limit.

17.

Neither will nor feeling has
us
:,d
is
s.,lt

in
it

itself

The

slivai
i

continuous;

exists

alike

amid the mar
in

the

bfMthing

"I

the venial air:

the deep, DTI
i

••d meditation of a

NlWTOVi
111
it
I.

md
1 1

In

the briei

glimpet that

caught

ot
TllP »I1"U
ill
J •<
.

1 1

till'

I

IV

I

I'.

A

II

nut

wlilti

.

lur

ml

;

CHAP.

I.]
is it,

ON WHICH LANGUAGE DEPENDS.
then, that reduces the chaos of will

7
first

Whit

distinguishable elements,

and feeling and then into individual masses ?

into

It is the

It is the divine faculty, forming and shaping power within us. " looking before and after," to which in its perfection we give the name of reason. Reason holds, as it were, the balance between the passive and active powers of the mind. It is fed and nourished by the it grows and moves by the energy of the impressions of the one
:

has several stages or degrees, of which the first is Conception. 18. By conception, I mean that faculty which enables the mind to apprehend one portion of existence, separately from all others. In other
other.
It

Conception

words, the first act, or exercise of the reasoning power is to conceive Hence arises in language the noun ; for one object, or thing, as one. " the noun is the name of a thing." Here it is that many modern They seem to have considered no writers on Grammar have erred. such power in the mind to be necessary, and no such act to be performed.
the

They seem mind as such, by

to

their

passive in this respect.

have supposed that things, or objects, ailected own power and that the mind was quite When we come to examine this fundamental
;

part of their system,

we

find the greatest possible confusion of terms.

According to one, the first elements of thought are ideas, another calls them objects, a third sensations, and so forth. If you ask what is meant by these respective terms, you are still more bewildered. " An idea," says one, " is that which the mind is employed about whilst thinking." most vague and insignificant expression, then, it must surely be; and yet it has been justly observed, that " vague and insignificant forms of speech and abuse of language have so long passed for mysteries of science; and hard and misapplied words, with little or no meaning, have by prescription such a right to be mistaken for deep learning and height of speculation, that it will not be easy to persuade either those who speak or those who hear them, that they are but the covers of ignorance and hinderance of true knowledge." All this is eminently true of the abuse and misapplication of the word idea, which had a perfectly distinct and specific meaning, until it was in an evil hour made " to stand for whatsoever is the object of the understanding when a man thinks," or " whatever is meant by phantasm, notion, species, or whatever it is which the mind can be employed about in thinking." 19. Some of these ideas, it has been said, are simple, and some complex. In the former the mind is passive, in the latter there is an act of the mind combining several simple ideas into one complex one but this distinction has been altogether denied, in more recent times and we have been told, that " it is as improper to speak of a complex idea, as it would be to call a constellation a complex star." Be these ideas, however, simple or complex ; be they ideas of sensation, or ideas of reflection ideas of mode, of substance, or of relation, the great difficulty is to understand in every case how each idea exists as one; how it is bounded, limited, and set out in the mind; and this, I say,

A

;

8

FACULTIES OF THE MIND

[CHAP.

I.

cannot be done, in any case, without an act of the mind, an exercise of
the peculiar faculty which I call conception.
objects.

20.
objects.

What
"

one set of writers say of

ideas,

another set say of

An

object, in general," says Condillac,

"

is

whatever

is

presented to the senses, or to the mind."
returns:

But
is

still

the question
one pre-

What
Is

constitutes one object ?
it

What

meant by

sentation?

the sensation, or thought, which takes place in a Is it the minute, in a second, or in any other portion of time ? impression made on one sense, or on one part of the organ of that Is it the sensation of warmth, for instance, experienced by sense ?
the whole
Is it

body

;

or that of light experienced

the impression

made on

the retina

by the whole eye ? by a house, by the door of the

house, by the panel of the door, or the pane of the

window ?

Is

it

the

Attention.

These questions are endless, and perfectly insoluble, if that which makes an object one thing to the mind be not an act of the mind itself; but if it be an act of the mind, then it follows, that with regard to the very first materials of our knowledge, the mind is not wholly passive, but exorwhich faculty I call conception. cises some peculiar faculty 21. Mons. Condillac, indeed, admits that objects are #nly distinguished by remarking someone or other of them particularly; and this particular remarking he calls attention ; and attention, according to him, is a simple faculty, acting only in one mode, and acting Thus he states that the cause necessarily from an external cause. of attention to sensible objects is an accidental direction of the organs; manifestly, therefore, according to him, the mind is no less passive
altitude of the building, or the colour of the brick?
;

in attention
Conception.

than

in

sensation.
in

The conception the mind acts. an easy explanation of the mode of action. This word, which is derived from oon and oapio, expresses the action by which I take up together a portion of my sensations, as it were water, in BOOM vessel adapted bo contain a cer22. I say, on the contrary, that
to conceive,"
in its origin,

word "

ullbrds

tain quantity; for I have before observed that sensation is in itself continuous, as an ocean, without shore or soundings: it does not divide if into separate portions, but is divided by the proper faculty of thi mind. The faculty of conception, like all other faculties, opa
rtain

laws, in

a

certain direction,
It

and

In

a

certain

manner

j

tor

Oob

is

its

constitution.

cannot enable us to view things temporal

under the farm of
j..i.

.•

et.'inity, to conce ve that a certain time occupies a i miis; Of thai iin emotioi Jealousy, for instance, is red, or I'lvm, or blue, or smooth, or which regulate the Th or square, or triangular. a
;

;

r

of Conceiving thought
I

<,

it

w

ill

1»-

ne.v.-, .ary

lor a

\\

lule to

eon-

WHr%

are shaD notice, is that, of extension. Ian th.it so constituted, that ue cannot oonosiTt osrtaln objects otherwise than isoocopyJng tpcu$% The hcnltjj of ooooarring them, tharafbre, p*a>

We

:

CHAP.

I.]

ON WHICn LANGUAGE DEPENDS.
in

9

this sense has again its In other words, we cannot conceive space but as extending in length, and breadth, and thickness, and bounded by points, and lines, and surfaces. It is by applying these laws to certain objects, that we conceive them to be more or To say that less extended, and to possess different shapes and forms. we get the idea of space by the sense of sight or touch, is to con-

supposes

the

necessary laws or

mind a sense of space modes of operation.

;

but

found our notions of sense, which imply an existence
to reverse the order of

in

space

;

it is

knowledge

;

for if the

mind were

originally

unfurnished with a peculiar faculty, enabling, and indeed compelling to refer the sensations of sight and touch to some part of space, it could no more acquire an idea of space from those sensations, than
it

from the emotions of gratitude or fear. This peculiar faculty, applied to the sensations of sight and touch, of hearing, taste, and smell, enables us to conceive our own bodily existence, and that of
the external world.
hensively,

According as

we

apply

it

we

conceive the existence of objects larger or

more or less compremore minute

and according as we exercise it with more or less care and attention, the external forms and disposition of objects appear to us more or It is not, therefore, the external object which lass accurately denned. necessarily gives shape and form to the conception ; but the conception, which by its own act embraces a given portion of space, and thus gives shape and form to the external object. 24. Similar observations may be made on the law of duration, or Tiiae. time. To say that time is a complex idea gathered from reflection on the train of other ideas, is to forget that the very notion of a train is that of a succession in time, and therefore presupposes what it is adduced to prove. There is nothing complex in the nature of time or duration, but it is a form under which we are necessarily forced to contemplate all things external to us, and some things within ourselves. It is a law of our nature, and so far as regards its peculiar objects, is inseparable from the human mind. But again, it is not the lapse of any particular portion of time which necessarily limits the duration of any object of our thoughts, for we can as easily think and speak of a century as of a second it is the mind which conceives, as one object, the life of a man, or the gleam of the lightning, a long year of toil, or a brief moment of delight. 25. By these laws of simple conception, whatever occupies a certain Number, portion of time, or of space, or of both, may be considered as one thing, or one thought but things or thoughts succeed each other incessantly, and by dividing sensation into units, we have done no more than we should do by dividing the ocean into drops, or the sand into grains. A further law of conception succeeds. This faculty takes a more com: ;

plex form.

|

conceptions by their number ; and hence, noun has a plural number as well as a singular, in signification, and generally in form. But as the plural is derived from the singular, so the power of conceiving many depends on the
in all languages, the

We distinguish


'

10

FACULTIES OF THE MIND

[CHAP.

I

power of conceiving
that " there
is

Identity.

one. It has been justly observed bv Mr. Locke, no idea more simple than that of unity, or one." " Every object our senses are employed about," says he, " ever) idea in our understandings, every thought in our minds brings this idea along with it." Now since this is the case, since no object, nc idea, no thought, ever is conceived in our minds without this impres sion of unity, why should we imagine that any can be so conceived And if it cannot be conceived without such impression, then must w< consider the power by which that impression is produced as essentia Before we can speak or think of anything, w( to the conception. must first conceive it to be one. This one may be finite or infinite that is, our conception may be perfect or imperfect but still, ir order to become an element of reason, it must exist, as one, in th< mind. Even the conception of many exists in the mind as that of om multitude ; and if that multitude be divided into distinct parts, so ai to be numerically reckoned, the number, whatever it may be, is stil contemplated as one number. Simple conception, indeed, could nevei have advanced us beyond the notion of an unit or integer it is b) the aid of the other reasoning faculties, which I shall hereaftei notice, that we are enabled to form the complex conceptions o: number, and so to build up the whole science of Arithmetic. 26. Conceptions succeed each other indifferently, whether they an like or unlike; but the mind can only number them by classing them, and can only class them by their similarity which similarity

;

;

when

complete,

is in

the contemplation of the

mind

Identity.

Mod

has been said of the source from whence we derive the notion of oui own personal identity. Surely if anything is essential, not only t< reason, but to feeling, to will, and even to consciousness, it is thi; notion. When Descait66 invented his famous reasoning, Cogito, erg<

sum, he clearly assumed his personal identity and it is utterly impossible for a human being to reason or think at all, without such BJ Kveii in madness, though the actual identity is oftei assumption. (out. miided, though a man may fancy himself to he Alexander tin (beat, or even to he the Almighty, he has before his mind an imaginary identity: he thinks and acts as one bring, and not as two: and again, in dreams, when we sometimes see ourselves dead, oi ifo, vet tlie self which we conteiii| ilate is a mere ima • man personage, with whom \\e h.ive a strong sympathy, as we have with tin romance. The contemplator always seems to think and act Of as a separati- indh idual. and twrar loses the deep sense of identity.
:

SiiW«n»ivn

'J7.
I,

It

W'- next

in<|tiiit*

into the different kinds of conception then

we
ii

shall
!'•

find
.

that

the ancients were

right

in

dividing then
in
I.

into

two,

iihltanaS
'i'l;<

and
It

<tttnl<iite

;

t\w substantive

ni>'\

rtn

..

must

In-

whence arise remembered

m

mi. I'm

that

wi

first

Conceive, as one thin/

or on<> thought,

a

given portion of sensation,

and that thoft WiutMtioiM laws of time an*

m

their simplest

form are limited by tlif on tin

CHAP.

I.J

ON WHICH LANGUAGE DEPENDS.

11
Sut*t»nc«,

mind together, though not always with equal force. Sensations which spread over a large extent of space may occupy a short time,
and those which continue for a long time may lie within very narrow bounds of space. Many parts of space too may be contemplated in one moment of time, and many portions of time may refer to the

same point of space.

Our first notion of substance is personal, unless should prefer saying that the notion of substance is derived from that of person ; which might perhaps be a more philosophical mode though the former more immediately applies to the of speaking refer all our states of common arrangements of grammarians. being to a substance called self, to which each man gives the name of /: and thus I feel and know that I am the cause of all the active states of my being. By an inevitable necessity of my nature I am

we

;

We

led to believe that there
all

must be a cause or causes
act.

foreign to

me

of

the impressions

made on me without my own

With
;

respect

to myself, the conceptions

me

the notions of matter and motion as belonging to

which are limited by time and space give me those which
the notion of mind.
is

are not so limited give

me

To

external causes,

therefore, I attribute the

same

distinctions of character:

and hence

the most general notion of external substance

that of a cause of the

impressions formed in me.

But one cause

often appears to be

comit

mon
one

to several different sensations.
thing.
I

I therefore

conclude that

is

have, for instance, the sensations of heat, and light, and colour, cotemporaneously, and this not once, but often and I conclude, that there is some common cause of all these sensations, to
:

which cause
28.

I give the

name of

Fire.

it is said is obscure ; it is no M»temi su tanc** otherwise obscure, than as a thinking and sentient being cannot sympathise with an unthinking and insentient one. Obscure as it is said

The

notion of material substance

is what the common bulk of mankind conand clearest of all their notions. A common man is never troubled with any doubts of the existence of the table or chair that he sees before him, any more than he is of his own per-

to be

by philosophers,

it

sider as the very plainest

sonal identity.

29. Others again think, that they have a very clear notion of the Attract
existence of these external objects or substances.

They

think that

eas*
'

they can easily understand how the mind conceives the cause of a particular sensation of heat, and a particular sensation of light, to be one object, called fire, and contemplates that object as separate

from the sensations produced by it; but they cannot understand how the mind should conceive as one thing, or thought, or one object
of contemplation, a notion common to all similar sensations. Yet it is certain that men frequently use words expressive of such notions, e. g. Gr. auxppoavyrj, Lat. temperantia, Eng. temperance so, Gr. Xevtcornc, Lat. albitudo, Eng. whiteness, &c. These notions are by some writers called " abstract ideas," and supposed to be formed by a

process of generalisation, in which the mind, after contemplating several

;

12
AN-tr.ict

FACULTIES OF THE MJXD

[CHAP.

I.

particular objects, abstracts from each
all

agree,

and regards

it

some one quality, in which they as " a sort of Universal, or One Being

m

Many," " ut universale quiddam,
from concrete
;

sive

Ens unum

in multis."

But

this

neither accords with the old signification of abstract, as distinguished

nor with the proper meaning of Idea

:

and the greater

may be shown a totally different manner. Thus the conception ot a straight line, and the consequent conception of straightness in general, is certainly not formed by abstracting it from various lines of various inequality; for if it were so, every man would have a different notion of a straight line from every other man, and every man would go on abstracting, and consequently improving his conception of straightness as long as he lived. Whereas, in truth, the idea of a straight line, as soon as it is once steadily contemplated in the mind, is perfect, and is equally so in all minds. This could not be the case if all minds did not act by some general laws and since we are so constituted as to be able to reflect on such laws, we may separate those reflections from the general mass of consciousness, as easily as we can separate a particular sensation from the same mass we may form of each, a conception, a thought, as distinct from all other thoughts as one external object is conceived to be separate from all other external
part of the conceptions represented to be so formed,
to be produced in
;
;

objects.

indeed objected, that them laws have no real existence; no truth but that of opinion, and consequently, that " two persons may contradict each other, and yet both speak truth ;" (Vol. ii. p. for such are the precise words of Mr. Home Tooke.
30. It
is

that there

is

404.)

The same

objection

may be made with much more
;

force

against the existence of the external world
reality

for the learned

and pious

Bishop Berkeley has rally shown, that *-e have no assurance or the of matter or motion, but that which depends on our intuiinception ofthefar existence, as causes of the charges which we
in
is

experience

ourselves.

lint

M

we

are

utterly unable to believe,

then

no truth
air,"

in

our

own

existence; and, as

we

find

it

hard

b> imagine, that this

"goodly frame,

the earth, " this most "excellent

oiaopy, the
tie.il

this

" bra vo

o'erhangirjg

firmament," this "majeS"

so

it

roof firetted with golden lires," are all fictions and nonentities is dillicult for us to imagine, that, truth and virtue, beauty and

Wisdom, glory and happiness, are all empty names: we cannot well believe that turn- and space are mere fictions of our own minds; and
;

is

easier so

believe this, then

to conceive

their existence ac-

cording to laws
Mier, for space, than that
lli.it

from those which we actually experience; instance, to conceive that there is no real existence in
dillerent.

it it exists, a straight line in space is ool the shortest can lie Itwecn two given points, Of that B figure may be OOffilines, or that the radii of a circle are plcU'lv Ixainded by
I

it

mie.jual, or
oi

that the

1

1n.

.

.:

lim d

triangle an

|ej|

than two n^ht angles.

CHAP.
81.

I.]

OX WHICH LANGUAGE DEPENDS.
arises the

13

Hence

distinction

of subjective and objective truth.
is

MMn
'**
truth.

The former we
in objects

consider as existing in ourselves, the latter as existing
;

out of ourselves

the truth of a mere opinion
is

subjective,
;

the truth of the fact to which that opinion relates
all

objective

but

if

truth were merely subjective, each man's

mind would be the onlv

universe, and it would be a solitary universe, without a creator, without time, or space, or matter, or motion, or men, or angels, or heaven, or earth, or virtue, or vice, or beginning, or ending one wild delusion without even a framer of the monstrous spell Now, since it is utterly impossible to believe this, either deliberately or in-

!

stinctively,

it

follows that there

is

some

objective truth,

what a man

tryeth, troweth, or trusteth to (for these are all said to

and that be

of the etymological family of the icord truth) is in itself, more or less, substantial and permanent. But if this be the case with our conception of a stone, why not of a man ? And if of the motion of a stone, why not of the thoughts of a man ? And if of thoughts bounded by the laws of time and space, of number and identity, of good and evil, why not of those laws themselves ? For the purposes of Grammar, it is hardly necessary to press this argument ; for language has been made by men, according to their instinctive opinions and certainly the prevalent opinion has always been, that there is something which the mind contemplates, when it reasons on man in general, as well as when it reasons on Peter or John. It is probable that Sir Isaac Newton had some object before his mind when he argued on light and colours, as well as a lamp-lighter has, when he lights a lamp or as a country lass has, when she buys a yard of blue or red ribbon at a fair. 32. Conceptions are either particular, general, or universal. In Particular """^p 110 "* strictness of speech nothing is particular, but that which occupies only one given portion of time, or of space, or of both. Thus the emotion of fear at a certain moment of time the sensation of warmth at a given moment, and in a certain part of the body ; or the sensation of
; ; ;

brightness in a particular part of the retina, are
tions
;

all

particular concep-

and it is somewhat remarkable in language, that men (in early ages, Mid before they had much turned their thoughts to reflection), so entirely confounded the subjective and objective truth, both of sensations and emotions, that they used the same word to denote both. A man, for instance, would say indillerently, " I am hot," or " the fire is Aoi." So, in common parlance, we say " the bird fears the
scarecrow
lent in
;

some

" but Shakspeare uses the verb fears in a sense parts of the country,

still

preva-

We

Setting

must not make a scarecrow of the law, it up to fear the birds of prey.

33. Nor is it only a single sensation or emotion, of which we may form a particular conception. may certainly conceive as one thmg, a substance ; that is, many sensations or emotions united in

We

: ;

14
one

FACULTIES OF THE MIND

[CHAP.

I.

whether that substratum be active as a person, or passive as a thing for the notion of a person is founded on self, as an active being, and that of a thing on the same self, as
substratum
; ;

common

passive.
Particular eunceptions.

34. These, I say, are the only conceptions which, in strictness ot

but almost all writers call those persons or things particular, which they consider to be identical thus Peter or John is said, perhaps, to be a particular individual, though the name Peter, or John, may be given to an object which I have only seen on some particular occasions, and only known to be identical by reflection and comparison. In like manner, Pall Mall is the name of a particular street, though consisting of many houses and the Thames is a particular river, though flowing through several
speech, are absolutely particular
;

dwell the more on this observation, because it shows strongly contend for the existence of nothing but particular objects, overlook the fact, that what they call particulars are not such in strictness of speech ; and that, if the only business of the mind were to receive impressions, we could never acquire even wliat they call a particular idea or conception we could never know that the John of to-day was the same person as the Jolin of
counties.
I

that those

who

;

yesterday.

35. This latter species of particulars, however,

is

the

first

element

of language. employ signs, not to indicate a single impression, but the same impression often repeated ; and these are of three kinds, the simple sensation or simple quality producing it, which we call an
adjective; the simple action,

We

which we call a participle; and the person or substance in which the cause of sensation or of action resides, which we call a substantive, or personal pronoun.
36.

To

these particulars
;

distinct or confused

for the notion of

we may add the many

notion of numbers, either
objects or

many

qualities

may

MMfUMi

be viewed as a particular notion: and hence arise, not only the plural of nouns, but the singulars which imply plurality, and are commonly called nouns of multitude, as a troop, an army, a crowd. 117. 1 have shown that, a particular conception is formed by the mind and sorting its sensations and emotions according to
still

certain

necessary laws,

and
form

ig
is

them
that

in certain
ot"

le8B distinct.
*

Thus

a certain

.iiii

applies nearly to John, the
to

same

nearly,

forms more Of but the same though with some other
l'eter
;

difference,

William

;

and so on.

Now, when we contemplate
particulars,
;

thu form ai possibly applicable bo a jariet] of what may be called a gewrul ((inception
ptions,
'

it

oontti

and these

within the other, form duly ordered and arranged and species; and ot these, more or less distinct, opinion is
(

chief!
I'nlvi-rwl

But
iiam.-h.
in
,

then-

is

vet

one higher step

the 1'niver.sal.
!(.••

This

is

in the power of conception, .elf when we OOOtemplate the f>nu
it.

which our

Horn

wow east,

the /""• which governs them.

CHAP.

I.]

OX WHICH LANGUAGE DEPENDS.

15

Thus, there is a certain law by which the mind can only conceive a straight line in a certain manner, namely, as length, and as partaking in no degree of curvature, nor interrupted, nor distorted in any manNow, the first line that we actually conceive to be ner whatsoever.
sufficiently to

approaches to the form in the mind name of straight. The second, the third, the fourth, and all successive lines, are perhaps equally deficient and, by comparing them with each other, were there no common standard to refer them to, we should never attain the knowstraight, is not exactly so, yet
it

make us

give

it

the

;

All the lines which we actually see, have breadth together with their length, all have some curvature or irregularity but reflection shows us in the mind, a line, which is merely length without breadth, and which lies evenly between its
ledge of a simple straight line.
;

Of this we when we have once
points.

are able to

attained to,

make a we find

distinct conception, which,
it

entirely independent of

time or space, always the same, necessarily true in all its relations, equally applicable to all the particulars which fall under it— a law of the mind in short, what was alone and properly called by the an idea. The higher, the ancients, and ought still to be called in tier, the purer these ideas are, the more difficult is it for man to conceive them. They are never conceived without meditation and effort ; and the deepest meditation, the highest stretch of our faculties, leaves us lost in admiration and awe at the great overpowering idea of our Almighty Father. 39. Conceptions present themselves to our minds, either as accom- Conception* Tf panied, or not accompanied, with a sense of objective reality. 111 inriitt the mlnd they are not so accompanied, they are mere creatures of the imagination : if they are so accompanied, then, if the object producing them is past, they are conceptions of memory, and if yet to come, of expectation ; but, when the object is present, the conception becomes a perception, whether it be of an external thing, or of a general notion, or of an idea. 40. I have hitherto spoken only of the faculty of conception, by A-wrfon: which the mind gives its thoughts their separate forms but we have next to see these forms put into action, and rendered, as it were, living

»1

"

;

and operative. Thoughts and opinions come to us in the mass and it is by resolving them into their constituent parts that we ourselves understand them but in order to communicate them to others, we must pursue the contrary process we must state the parts, and assert their union. Assertion, then, is the faculty which we have next to consider it is, as it were, the uniting and marrying together of two thoughts, and pronouncing them to be one. Hence the word, which expresses that function of the mind, is called, by some writers, the copula, or bond but in common Grammars, the verb : and I rather adopt the latter term, because the former may be apt to lead to the erroneous conclusion, that the mind in assertion, passively contem; ; ;
:

;

plates

two thoughts as

united, whereas,

it is

active in declaring that

16
union, as
it

FACULTIES OF THE MIXD
were, by
its

[CHAP.

AflimmtiTe and u-^dtive.

proper authority ; an authority, indeed, ofte still the proper act of the mind itsel Conception, then, forms nouns, including under that term substantive; adjectives, and even pronouns and participles but these nouns lie dea and inoperative to any purpose of reasoning, till they are vivified b Thus Johr the verb, which pronounces their existence to lx> a truth. existing, good, loving, are all perfectly intelligible as conceptions of th mind yet so long as they stand alone, we see not what use is to b made of them in reasoning but let us introduce the verb, and a trut immediately flows from the mind, whence possibly some etymologist might derive firjfia, a verb, and reor, to think, from pito, to tlow Thus we say, John exists, John is good, John loves, and each of thes assertions at once takes the form of a truth, and becomes, as will b hereafter shown, the germ and seed of other truths in the mind. assort, tha 41. To assertion belong affirmation and negation. / conceptions exist, or that they do not exist and the one of thes thing cannot be, and not be at the same time excludes the other.
exercised hastily and amiss, but
; ; ;
.

.

111

.11 We
;

1

A

" such is the 7rpoe a\\»j\o avTiKtiuivuv avriStoiQ, which the Kleati Philosopher, in Plato's * Sophist, applies to the ideas of existe&C and non-existence, and which accompanies every other idea as it
shadow, whether in physics, is necessarily opposed to the
the good," &c.
white,
is

in intellect,
infinite,

or in morals; for the

l'mit
t

the false to the true, the evil

And

as these conceptions are the opposites
is

of eac
i

other, so affirming the one
therefore, in

denying the other.
parlance, to utter

To

say that black

common

a gross and palpabl
is

untruth.

MN*t

42. Neither affirmation nor negation, however,

always positta
is

The mind contemplates some
ceives the subjective truth

truths as actual, that
itself to

to say,

it

con

the ob jective truth in unhesitatingly and distinctly upon
j'vtive truths
it

be certainly agreeing witl the nature of things, and therefore pronounce
its

within

existence

;

but of other suli

sees no objective counterpart, and therefore pronounce
is

them

not actual, but hypothetical, that

On
Vbhi

this distinction
.

depend

certain differences

probable, or merely possibk in the mOOCk ot' verbs.
tin

Again,
in

we

assert truths either

with or without reference to

which we speak. When we speak with such reference, a we BOOSt frequently do when we speak of particulars, \\e are neces sarily coiiipeiied bo distinguish the present from the pasf snd future
time
mill
assert anything o and therefore we use tin present tense in itu inost comprehensive Import Thus, when we isj 'he John i, I, we imply a possibility that he mighl :it BO •' rt:iin«; time I'e bad; and when We a\ John is writing, we implj

hence

the origin

of

tenses;

but

when we

ideas,

we speak
J

Of a truth e\ei

prCSflt.

:i

MM
only a
ilh
1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

writing at soma previous time, and will not bewritinj tune bttt Whtfl WS n two and two are four, we no
;

it

a truth

of to-day, or of
lie

tin

,

\ear, or of tbil ceiitun

,

bu
r

which

inii.,1

e\er present;

since

we

cannot

conceive


CHAP,
I.]

:

ON WHICH LANGUAGE DEPENDS.
This remark
is

17
sufficient to

ever to have beginning or ending.

show

that those grammarians are in error,

who make

the signification of

time a necessary characteristic of the verb. 44. In whatever way we assert anything, the assertion is a de- ™j" ™md daring of some truth, real or supposed ; it is a propounding of that assertion, truth, or, in the language of logicians, it is the enunciating of a proposition. This is not done by a peculiar word, as for instance the word be ; but by the force and effect of the word in construction for the word be, in some of its forms, as, to be, and being, is the mere name of a conception ; and so are the words love, hate, icalk, and inEvery verb, therefore, deed all others which may be used as verbs. includes a noun ; or, as has been truly said, it is " a noun, and something more." What that "something more" is, has been much disputed but it is clearly something which shows the mind of man
;

to be active, not only in forming conceptions, but in uttering, pro-

pounding, predicating, declaring, asserting them to be truths. 45. The truth declared or asserted, regards either existence or KxU'en.* ami Aft »a .i action. It the former, we either assert it simply ot a conception, as, " God exists ;" or we assert it conjointly of two conceptions, which are of a nature to exist together, as the substance with its attribute, or the whole with all its parts, or the universal with the particular.

Tci^

••!/•

Thus we say " God
is

is

good," " two and two are four," " gratitude

a virtue."

If

we
its

assert an action,

we must
by
its

consider

it

either as
is

proceeding from
to say,

cause, or as received

passive object, that
;

and (if such be the nature of the action) add the other secondarily. There are, indeed, actions which rest in their causes and the verbs expressing these, whether
or the passive verb
;

we must employ either the active whichever we employ primarily, we may

active or passive, in construction, are really of the kind called neuter,

or intransitive, such as,

"

to rejoice,"

"

to sing,"

and the

like.
Conclusion.

40.

A

truth asserted leads to a further truth,
calls

by

that faculty,

which Shakspeare and accurate term
passage

" discourse," from the ancient scholastic discursus. Hence that beautiful and philosophic

He

that made us with such large discourse, Looking before and after, gave us not That capability and godlike reason

To

rust in us unused.

The power of forming conceptions, and that of giving life and animation to them by assertions, would leave human reason barren and useless for the purposes for which it was conferred on mankind, without the additional power of drawing from them conclusions. All
;

human
tinctly
;

beings exercise this last-mentioned power more or less disbut it is still matter of dispute among very able writers on
to be explained. Without enterassume that the most perfect form that known by the name of Svllogism,
is

what
;

principle its correct exercise

ing into this discussion, I shall here

1

of reasoning or argument

is

2

c

18

FACULTIES OF THE MIND

[chap.

I.

as the which may be shortly described

inferring of a particular con-

Keview.

TTrt because the premises themselves are not necessarily *"# ^J^ have^1 enumerated the three faculties which go

so.

to the

2

which are conception, ass,rI „ \n of the reasoning power, and judk***, to the ft**** apf»*hmsk>, ^^nnclu^nTswennl toon, and condusion, ]nued exercise tf lvasou r« R only of these faculties; and the tc produced by one conclusion serve enfferencf s that the truths are employed in ir.un.ng Improve the conceptions which

SLS^£2d^
"t;:ror
Secondary
speech.

«^f^

°^

to notice only those operatic*** a,u primary parts of speech, the noun the mind and the p. and the active, the pronoun SevZ't substantive to, ml, cultivated languages istogmshed dole which arc in most preposition, by hem,: sub, t h

^S
'

itv^'had oeSsion

^ivin, birth to the

«

;.,rl

conjunction,

and the

'

£fe

,

,l,,t.

1,,

Bind Motemplatt. truth,

at tol „. the
Into

,„,;'],,,!„„

bmb

down

that

««i

M

porto.

' i

,,.,,-,.
l

,,(•

ti„.

;
1

;;;;: M ;;:::
1
.

'.,..,!,
,

—'
l
.

composition,
as ,„

wo

find in

tnem
of

tn<

,i, general
parts
1

a^.

ho d

.i

V -'"•"""'•,

,,;k 1II

,

[g

with the subordinate
th „

a Bentend

M)1

vssiou,tn

l

.hsw

.!umn,.l.

;s Pr^areeaehn,h,e,b!,
' ,
,

althar

1

ertlon,

that u'rM^eir.n.un.i-w,,,!.: buf upon tl n«, which are aasumed, I,;

or atjnost gTOUnd-WOrici
:

".-^

1

Each adverb,

each con unction,

each preposltf
Ire.

ertion.tndofco™

v

CIIAI'. I.J
is

ON WHICH LANGUAGE DEPENDS.
therefore true,

19

Ception; it resolve themselves into nouns and verbs
the
first

that these parts of speech ultimate]

ultimately,

I say,

but

in

glance and motion of the mind, as it were, they only appear in their secondary character, as helps and expletives to the principal words in the sentence.

49.

The

passions

must not be overlooked,
It

in considering the

mind

operation of

in its relation to language.

often happens that an abruptness, a
called an irregularity, if

transposition,

and that which might be

we

become appropriate, and even necessary forms of speech, when the mind is under the influence The reasoning powers are then disturbed and imperfect: of passion. the emotions become inordinate, the will obtains a preternatural force. Hence arises the interjection, which some grammarians have refused to reckon among the parts of speech but their refusal is vain: so long as there are men with human passions and affections, there will be interji ctions in their speech, words which stand out from the rest,
referred only to the

operations of reason,

;

very significant of emotion though not of conception, defying the ordinary rules of construction and arrangement, because such rides bear reference principally to the power of reason, wdiich is suspended
or superseded,
sive interjection.

whenever passion produces the animated and expr Passion, too, has given birth to what we commonlv (though not always very appropriately) call the imperative mood. When Esau says, " Bless me, even me also, " O my father !" we feel the earnestness of the prayer, widely different as it is from a command. Again, this same example shows us, that the vocative case " O my father," is a strong exof the noun is of similar origin.
but it is totally dissevered in construction from any truth, and has no immediate relation to anv Many other forms and modes of speech take operation of reason. their character from passion as may be particularly observed of the interrogative, so often the result of an eager desire to know the very fact, which, it may be, we fear and tremble to assert. 50. It is to be observed, that all the exercises of all the human faculties may be clear or obscure, distinct or confused. Our vcrv consciousness may be that of mere dotage, our feelings may be blunted, our will wavering and undetermined, our conceptions vague, our assertions doubtful, our conclusions uncertain, our passions a chaos. It has been elsewhere said, that " the thousand nameless affections, and vague opinions, and slight accidents which pass by us like the idle wind,' are gradations in the ascent from nothingness to infinity these dreams and shadows, anil bubbles of our nature, are a great part of its essence, and the chief portion of its harmony, and gradually acquire strength and firmness and pass, by no perceptible steps, into rooted habits and distinctive characteristics." Still the channels in which the stream of mind flows, so long as it has any current, remain always the same the mental faculties which we
pression of passion
the enunciation of
;
;

Conclusion.

'

;

;

:

exercise, so long as

we

can exercise anv, are subordinated to the same

c2

20

FACULTIES OF THE MIXD

[CHAP.

I.

the laws, and display themselves in
in all nations, necessarily

same manner. Hence speech is formed on the same principles and though
;

no one language was ever constructed

artificially,

yet

it is

astonishing

how

of the distinctly all present the traces

same mental powers,

Gr.da.ion,

w «e*aa,

materials so exceedingly different. operating in the same manner, on to view thus taken of the human mind, appeared 51 The general of the science of me to' be indispensable toward a right understanding to be a signifying or showing language; for as I consider language would have been impossible for me to have renforth of the mind, it the laws or modes of significadered mvself intelligible, in explaining be the nature ol not first stated what I understood to tion, had I „ ,.the thing signified. are some things accidentally d.f52. In different languages there It has been owing to things essentially the same.
.

f

of mankind, for instance, that accidental circumstances in the history Jews, was Jehovah; name of the Universal Creator, among the the Dieu, and in English God; and that the Latin that it is in France into the Italian word luogowords locum tenens came to be changed the Fnghsh word which we the French word lieutenant, and temnte, pronounce kftemnt. It is also by accident spell like the French, but in some parte of Italy, the ny.l that the word luogotenente signifies, trance and England the of a -small community; that in magistrate a rank in the military and marine services; word lieutenant expresses viceroy, or chiei representative and that in Ireland it is applied to the On the other hand it is owing to causes which sovereign. of the in human nature, that in the sounds exist more or less permanently Hottentot, or a Chinese, as language by an Esquimaux, a uttered eloquenl voieesol qualities common to them with the there arecertS Though their articulations vary in man? a Cicero or a Demosthenes. nations that whistled like birds, they all articulate ; and the existed but in the inventionsd the ssnu ,„ hissed like serpen*, who toM of CynocephalJ and < yctops , a* .,„, of travellers, as th the ana* who sheltered the,.- whole body while they slept, by of men Newton Cicero or Demosthenes, Plato or foot.

md

some

unr

„,

.lean,-, lovelie n.i-.l.t express sublimer, bolder, only exprea than men of i common stamp, but they could thouffhts must nsces the laws by which every human mind according to Here thm we arrive s „., .„„i llt ten..gtli..ugl.t.
i

one enormous IHmte ,„ Shakspeare,

Grammar,
knowl-d

ai

n

an immoveable
-rts
!

the purr srinur, which places this pari basis, renders .1 demonstrable an.
that

andr

it

with

TBUTH, which

is

one and umiorn

irbiefa

ttshossi sod Ignorance perpetuallj

bm
It

''"'•

ii

necessary to
different

keep

in

view

,

,.

.

the

distinction

betweei

i

,

rtalGrav,

uVd, and the Varticula
nations,

Grammars of

snetent

and

modern.

The

won;

omprshsxi

may be

briefly 04

;

CHAP.

I.]

OX WHICH LANGUAGE DEPENDS.
of
the relations

21
significant
;

fined, the science

of language considered as

accurately, the science of tlie relations, which the constituent parts Now, of those of speech bear to each other in significant combination. relations in any particular language, for instance the English, some are peculiar to that language, some are common to it with certain

or

more

other languages, but not with
guages.

all, and some are common to all lanEvery particular Grammar then has to do with all these but Universal Grammar with the last only. three classes of relations It has been disputed whether Grammar be a science or an art. Universal Grammar is a science, Particular Grammar is an art though like all other arts its foundations must be laid in science and the science on which it rests is Universal Grammar. 54. I am far from asserting that Universal Grammar has been
; ;

\y r

hitherto so successfully cultivated, as to leave to future investigators no hope of improving this science. Its principles have certainly been
laid down with that happy and lucid order, which has rendered Euclid's Elements, for above two thousand years, a text-book Much, however, has been done. The ancient Greek in geometry. and Latin writers have traced all the principal paths of the labyrinth, and elegant edifices of science have been raised in modern times by such writers as Sanctius, Vossius, the writers of Port Royal, and These grammarians, as well as the learned and amiable Harris. those who in the middle ages cultivated the Arabic and its kindred dialects, and those whose disquisitions on Indian Philology have been laid open to us by recent discoveries, all agree in founding the science of Grammar on that of the mental operations. 55. Recent authors have rashly called in question the utility of these It is not to be denied, that the many new sources learned labours.

(jri'mmar.

nowhere

Fallacies of
writers,

of information opened to us in modern times, the numerous dialects, barbarous and polished, which we have the means of studying, the progress of the same language through many successive ages, which we are enabled historically to trace, and, in short, the extended sphere of our experimental investigations in language, may have served to correct some errors and oversights even in our scientific views of Universal Grammar. But if the ancients failed (as they generally did fail)

much more lamentably

some modern writers have what regards its science. Instead of founding language on the mind, they most preposterously found the mind on language. " The business of the mind (says one) as far
in

what regards the

history of language,
failed in

as

it

concerns language,
its

is

very simple
is,

:

it

extends no further than to

receive impressions, that

to have sensations, or feelings.

What

are called

operations, are merely the operations of language." *

Another says: "
taching to
is

We
I

cannot distinguish our sensations, but by at-

them signs which represent and characterise them. This what made Condillac say, that we cannot think at all without the
repeat
it,

help of language.

without signs there exists neither
i.

* Diversions of Purley, vol.

p. 70.


22


FACULTIES OF THE MJKD
[CHAP.

;

L

thought, nor perhaps even, to speak properly, any true sensation. In order to distinguish a sensation, we must compare it with a different now their relation cannot be expressed in our mind, unless sensation by an artificial sign, since it is not a direct sensation." *
:

0f

\v'rds

sornewn£rt difficult to deal seriously with phrases so incolet us ask, what can be meant by " the operations of language ? " Every operation must have an operator and it is the It is not operator that causes the operation, and not the contrarv. the amputation that causes the surgeon, but the surgeon that performs It is not the furrow that directs the ploughman the amputation. but the ploughman who guiding his plough gives shape to the furrow. True it is, that eveiy person who uses a word is not its inventor True also it is, that an indibut somebody must have invented it. vidual may have many thoughts which never would have entered his mind, had they not been first excited in it by words he might never have thought of such a place as Timbuctoo, or such an animal as the Ornithorhynchus, had he not read or heard of them ; but the name It of the place or of the animal did not start into existence of itself.
*

^' ^

s

herent.

But

;

:

was imposed by some
person's mind.
lieiwatimw.
1

person,

and

for

some reason

existing in that

IruuWi!"

57. Again, it sounds absurd to say that we cannot distinguish our sensations otherwise than by attaching signs to them. A burnt child dreads the lire because he has felt the sensation of burning, and not because somebody may have spoken of it in his hearing by the Wold burnt, or brule, or hrmjiato. Still more absurd is it to say that Ami as to without a sign there exists neither sensation nor thought. the concluding assertion, that the relation between two sensations IBOl lie expressed in the mind except by an artificial sign, it seems
to
!,.•

altogether unintelligible!
.

The chief around of these inconsistencies is an incapacity or unwillingness on the pari 01 their authors to view the human mind as anything more than an inert mass, receiving impressions from external
and returning them back, with some modification, perhaps, from the Structure OX the mental machine, but purely mechanical; <.t' Mi.h, for the candle might undergo, If thrown
.

ii

i

i

1 1

1

;i

lor of

main

facets.
:i'l

I'.ut

Ota

vciitmn

vctuiii
all

Mt,MBfttt| BMHPMqiM

iv|Hi^ii:iut.

The The

practical testimony of
i.

human conduct

is

against this theory.

human
fin if
<n» In nfcourt

being has within him an active energy,
[xx'tn

"

lew

ettachanl dei signal, qui

lei

repre*
/>«-nsci

qui fait
det laiyptet.
o

din

i

Condillm

,

(/«'»>•

m-

Jo

)•

itgni

U n'exilte ni
i

|

p

"•pratnent parlor, do vo'riial.lr M-usaiinn.

I'mir ilistin^ucr tine

une actuation diffen nto
.niih,
i,

or, Itor rtpport

m
|m
.

1,

).m

,|H,

<•«•

n'r

i

prat ime

t"
Vol.
|.
j

Oasj

Phjstqnett da Morale de l'Homme,


CHAP.
;i

;

I.

ON WHICH LANGUAGE DEPENDS.

23

.sell-moving power, in short a mind governed by its own laws, and burthened with its own responsibilities, is a simple truth, obvious alike to every unprejudiced individual, high and low, learned and

unlearned.

The
Treads on
it
it

dull swain

daily with his clouted shoon

was

the chosen

theme of Socrates
well-inspired, the Oracle pronounc'd

Whom,

Wisest of men.

59. Tt is this active energy, this mind or spirit of man, which gives Forms of to speech its farms; that is to say, the characteristics of noun, of verb, SSdbjrtha

and of those other constituent parts of speech which I have noticed as The essential to a combined signification of any thought or feeling. matter of speech consists in the articulate sounds which serve to These sounds have certain properties express the different forms. common to the bodily organization of man in general, and others which have been differently employed by different nations and communities.

Ml " a

'

The

consideration of the former

is

necessary as a subordi-

nate part of Universal

Grammar

;

the latter belongs to particular

grammars, and consequently to the History of Language.

;

24

)

CHAPTER
OF SENTENCES.
Forms of

II.

n«SecU>ytiie
kind.

60. Ike forms of speech to which I have above adverted, thougn we employ them, with more or less accuracy, from the very dawn of our man reason, are far from being obvious to the great mass of mankind. It
is

a remarkable circumstance

in

the constitution of our nature, that

the most complex things are most familiar to us, that the most general laws, by the very reason that they are most general, and most constantly in action, become habitual to us without our reflecting upon,

and consequently without our understanding them. We conform to the complex and intricate laws of sight, we judge of distances and magnitudes by the angles which objects subtend, and yet during a great part of our lives we have not the most distant suspicion that any
such things as angles exist, or that they are subtended on the retina nay, ninety-nine men out of a hundred, and probably a much greater proportion of mankind, exercise the power of vision throughout their whole lives, without so much as wasting a thought on its laws. So All men, even the lowest, can speak their it is in regard to speech.
mother-tongue; yet how many of this multitude can neither writ*' how many of those who read know nothing even of the nor read grammar of their own language; and how many who have been The fact instructed so f;u\ have never studied Universal Grammar! is, that men at first regard the practice of speech, as the exercise of some natural faculty, which proceeds spontaneously from the wish By and by they of communicating their thoughts and feelings. observe, that this faculty operates partly from sudden impulses, and gives birth to expressions not easily to be analysed into any component parts, as in the ejaculations of Philoctetes, which till an many lines of the (ireek tragedy, represent ine; his Sufferings J and that, on the other hand, it is in HOT greater part the result of thought, and
;

.liable

into
pi

portions separate!)

intelligible.
e,

In

tbste,
<

m
it
I'

anal]

si
;

once

raetvc thai everj dl oour

however

long, consists

\

sentence*

and
l>e

thtrtfora,

before

I

further,

may
el,

u ;eful to notice the different kinds

proceed to analyse speech any of sentences.
in
Icj.mI

mm

81.

"ni"

word

sentence

is
ji

from the Latin mntantia, and that from
;

Stn/i" to

to think, |o

idee

whence
I

language a sentence

signified priuiaril)

the judgment fen

In

the

MOM

to the
atin'n

m

judgment pronounced by him. Greek term \i'jyoc, um defined by Aristotle, ^i.ir,) (tviOiti) •' a complex significant <" ftfpm ""' n| n,i)i,iini rt -/, >V
<
I
' >

the judge's id, and then iranimaticallv, it answers

.<


CHAP.
II.]


25

OF SENTENCES.

themselves ; "* which sound, of which certain parts are significant by understandgoes, is correct; but for the fuller definition, so far as it " sentence is a the following iiig of the subject, I would suggest combination, number of words put together, and obtaining from their enunciating some truth, real or supposed, absoa particular power of distinct passion, together lute or conditional, or else of expressing some this definition, it would follow, that the
:

A

with

its

object."

From

main distinction in classifying sentences should be into the of assertion, and the passionate ; or, as Harris calls them, sentences Other writers have classed them somewhat sentences of volition. and
differently,

enunciatwe,

but yet with reference to similar principles.
that

Thus

Am-

there are four kinds of sentences besides the namely, the interrogative, the optative, the deprecatory, enunciative, contained and the imperative ; but that in the enunciative alone is

monius

states

truth or falsehood.

,

62.

The

enunciative sentence, like all others, obtains its

power

ot tiveseuU nce>
.

^^ emincia

.

of which expressing fact or opinion, by the connection of the words (what indeed is self-evident), it is composed ; for Aristotle observes " of those words which are spoken without connection, there is
that
'

no one

either

runneth

'—

'

true or false conquereth.' "

;

But

white ' as for instance, ' man let us put together only these two
'

'

words
Jesus wept,

and we have recorded an historical fact most affecting in itself, and furnishing abundant food for deep and interesting meditation.

When we

read in Shakspeare

The

quality of mercy

is

not strained,

we immediately
is

perceive the enunciation of a beautiful truth, which presented under an expressive form to the imagination by the again
droppeth as the gentle rain from heaven
the place beneath.

following lines
It

Upon

So when Milton says
in the soul

Are many

lesser faculties,

which serve

Reason, as chief,

a truth respecting our intellectual (as the former did our moral) nature is distinctly asserted. 63. This kind of sentence may enumerate many particulars, all bearing on one point of time, or referring to one general idea such is the following picturesque delineation of what presented itself to young Orlando, when in pacing through the forest, chewing the cud of sweet
:

and

bitter fancy,

he threw his eye aside
* Poetic,
s.

34.


26


OF SENTENCES.


[CHAP.
age,
II.

Under an oak. whose boughs were moss'd with And high top bald, of dry antiquity, A wretched ragged man, o'ergrown with hair,

; about his neck snake had wreath'd itself, Who, with her head, nimble in threats, approach'd The opening of his mouth but suddenly Seeing Orlando, it unlink'd itself, And with indented glides, did slip away Into a bush ; under which bush's shade lioness, with udders all drawn dry, Lay couching, head on ground with cat-like watch, When that the sleeping man should stir.

Lay

sleeping on his back

A green and gilded

;

A

Such
Taylor's
office

also

is

the

following

Sermon on the Duties of

argumentative sentence in Bishop the Tongue, urging the Christian
:

of administering consolation to the afflicted

speech, and the endearments of society, and pleasantness of conversation, and powers of seasonable discourse, arguments to allay the sorrow by abating our apprehensions, and taking out the sting; or telling the periods of

God hath given us

comfort; or exciting hope; or urging a precept, and reconciling our affections, and reciting promises or telling stories of the Divine mercy or changing it into duty; or making the burden less by comparing it with greater, or by proving it to be less than we deserve, and that it is so intended and may become the instrument
;
;

of virtue.
Thetetrrro'

G4.
gative
;

t.-'iR,-.

Under the head of enunciative sentences I include the intcrrofor the same fact which is simply asserted may be Stated 88

beyond the sphere of the speaker's knowledge, or as being doubted by This is commonly effected in him, and desirable to be known. language by a slight transposition of the words, sometimes by a mere As in Sterne's celebrated sermon, " We trust change of accentuation. "Trust that we have a good eonthat we have a good conscience." Again, by transposing the lines above quoted, we make science?" them interrogations

Is not the quality of

Droppttfa

it

as

tin-

mercy strained ? gentle rain bom heaven?

to be observed, that as some degree of emotion is implied verv nature of an Interrogation, so it is often used by the poets, OfatOrS, and Others, to give life and animation tO their style, although

But

it is

in the

ueir mind or that of their hearers, and the matter do doubt whieh is questioned In point, of form, is meant to be averted In point
of
laet.

Thus whan
Tin
.

—^—

the poet says

who

to

dumb

forgotfulneu n prey,
rasjj

pleasing, anxious being e'er

be

means
,

positively to assort

that no

m

ver <|uitte<i

life

with

iu-

difTen.-nci'.

The
!

h umorous

s]

illu itrates
tin'
..t
.'lull

our observation
Shall tie

bof
i

Falstaff,

when

personating the

.shall

mlohtr, and eat

tO 1)0 itxkiM.
Ih-

w "I

l.n.-.land p|..\e a thief

blaokberriM? and t.d.e pn.

A

In

|

— —
CHAP.
II.]


OF SENTENCES.

!

!

——

;

27

05. Again,
thi'jont;

the enunciative sentence
is,

may be

conditional or

eoaar

gtgwwMtence.

be placed in dependence on, or in counterbalance against, some other troth; as in Macbeth
that
it

may

If
It

it were done, when were done quickly.

'tis

done, then t'were well

Or

in

Hamlet
Duller should'st thou he than the
fat

weed

That rots itself at ease by Lethe's stream, Wouldst thou not stir In this.

Or again
obstacles

in

Macbeth, where the contingency takes place which might be supposed capable of preventing
Though Birnam wood be come
to Dunsinane,

in
it

spite of

And

thou oppos'd being of no
I

woman

born,

Yet will

try the last.

is

66. In all these and similar instances, the enunciation of a truth The passionate 8euteutebut another class of sentences owe the immediate object in view of which they their form and construction solely to some passion,
:

Indicate the object.

And
is

it

is

to

be observed, that the indication of

an

object

of passion

essential to the constituting such sentences as

young lady dead,

Thus, when the Nurse, in Romeo and Juliet, on finding her cries and laments vociferously, and the parents What is the matter?" her enter, asking, "What noise is here? answers, " O lamentable day " " O heavy day," are not sentences for, though they plainly show the grief with which she is agitated, But they do not at all express the cause or object of that grief.
these.
!

when Hamlet

cries

O
we
as

!

that this too, too solid flesh
resolve itself into a

Thaw and

would dew
!

melt,

perceive a distinct expression of the wish to be delivered of life, burthensome to him. The sentence is as complete and grammatical, and much more poetic, than if the place of the interjection O had been supplied by a verb for instead of an impassioned and beautiful line, it would have been perfectly absurd, if the poet had said
!

;

/ wish
67. quite

that this too solid flesh would melt

We
as
rest
;

may

observe,

readily as
"

that these passionate sentences combine the enunciative with dependent sentences, as,
!

Then would I flee away and wings like a dove which implies (but more forcibly) the same fact as the sentence, " If I had wings like a dove, I would flee away," &c. 68. Sentences of the passionate kind either express a passive feeling, as admiration and its contrary, or an active volition, as desire and its contrary. Of the former kind, is that passage of the apostle, " O the depth of the riches both of the wisdom and knowledge of God " and the line of Milton, comparing the receptacle of the fallen Spirits with their former happy seat
!

"

O

that I had

be at

!

!

!

how

unlike the place from whence they

fell


28

!!

I

,

0F SENTENCES.
desire

fCHAP.

I

STsKS:

Those sentences which express
expressed by the

imperative; but they as often imp humble supplication or mild intreaty, as authoritative command and in such cases are called by some precative. Thus the poet describe Adam gently calling on Eve to awake—
'

mood

and aversion are coramonl

called

My fairest, my espous'd, my latest found,
Heav'n's
last, best gift,

He, with voice Mild as when Zephyrus on Flora breathes, Her hand soft touching whisper'd thus Awake.
:

my

ever

Awake!

new delight,
°
'

And
morning

again,

when our

first

parents offer

up

in

orisons, they

say—

lowly adoration thei J

Hail, universal Lord, be bounteous

still

To give us only good

th^m^ enof same form f
the

i01 arG Wklel different from others > f r sentence: as when King Henry says to

jessed

ir

Hotspur-

Send us your prisoners by the

Or you shall hear from As may displease you.

speediest means,

us in such a sort

Or when

Juliet exclaims
Gallop apace, ye fi'ry-footed steeds,

To

Phoebus' mansion

Or when Macbeth

cries to the

ghost of
!

Banquo—
!

Avaunt I and quit

my

sight

Let the earth hide thee

onSnm'i^T"

69. Passionate sentences are generally short ; but their repetition in continuous succession is often a beauty of the highest kind especiaUy in poetry. The mighty Master of Poetry, instable in '.his, .u, nail th.vast variety of styles which he adopt* has given ;1I instance of the passmnate iteration of feeling, in one of his earliest products the « Rape of Lucrece." Altera beautiful ,nun ^.powerful eflects of time-(« Time's glory is to calm contending UCret,aCalls ° nTime t0hca evils ^theheaS ''
,

;

Disturb his hours otrc.it with
Atih.-t

him

in

U*M with MHtfgroaot
h.udrnM
t

restless trances

!

«MM
And

1,-t

Let there bechance him, pitiful wis, To mukohim moan, but pity not hit monns!

him

u,tl,

m,t,l u

l,,.„ 1, ,,,!„,• ti,.m „ t„ |,i,„ |,,„. tlu-ir mil.iness.
i^.-r.s

U
<i

stOMtt

t>r to Inn, tl,:„,
'•'•'

in th.

it-

,rit,lncss I

,li

'" ||iv "

'i
1
1

,

lo
i

mm

ha

:

1

1.

.

i

l.-t

In,,,

h a rt

in.-,

|„

hairl ,, U|

.

Let

hi, ,, !,;„,• (,,,„, ,,1'T,

Lot him htrl timo, a beggar's oris to n»rt| And Urns toM*onn that \>\ ..h,,. ,i,,n, IVI
| .

\ halptocUntirl
'

i'lvliin tuliiiii

,1, (d

,.;


CIIAP. II.]


OF SENTENCES.

29
foes,

Let him have time, to see his friends his

And merry

fools to

mock

at

him

resort

!

Let him have time, to mark how slow time goes In time of sorrow ; and how swift and short, His time of folly, and his time of sport ! And ever let his unrecalling crime Have time to wail th' abusing of his time !

The
was)
70.

passjon,

in its maledictions,

which would dictate this terrific variety of imagery might well arm the injured woman (Roman as she
hitherto given are of perfect sentences
;

to the act of self-sacrifice so celebrated in history.

The examples

but

imperfwt

which a sentence is manifestly left imperfect, and that with great beauty, as in the well-known line of Virgil
instances often occur in
Quos ego

sed motos pncstat componere fluctus.

And

so Satan

first

addresses Beelzebub, in the opening of the

Paradise Lost
If thou
Iii

be'st

he

—but oh

!

how

chang'd,

how

fallen

!

both these cases, the words, though not in themselves fully and clearly expressive of the thought which we may suppose to be in the speaker's mind, are yet not wholly unconnected, and, therefore, show at once that they are parts of sentences which, indeed, it would be
easy for the reader to
fill

up

in Ins

own

imagination.


(


)

;

30

CHAPTER

III.

OF WORDS, AS PARTS OF SPEECH.
Wortu.

71. The next step in the grammatical analysis of Speech is to resolvi Sentences into their significant parts, namely Words ; for most per sons will readily grant that a sentence consists of words ; and tha every word has some separate force or meaning, as so used. Th< origin of our term " Word" is lost in the obscurity of ages. It come: to us from a Teutonic source, and appears in many dialects, at in Moeso-Gothic, Waurd ; Anglo-Saxon, Word; Dutch, Woord Frankish and Alamannic, Wort; Danish, Swedish, and let lam tic Ord, whence it would seem not improbably to be allied to Oro,

which in old Latin was to speak. Be this as it may, in its grammatical import, as it will here be used, Word answers to the Lath Dictio, which that admirable grammarian Prisciah defines " the
least part of a constructed (that is, orderly-composed) sentence understanding a part to be such in relation to the meaning of tlie wholt

sentence."
ComTwition
or word*.

72.

Words

themselves may, indeed, generally be subdivided as

fcc

l'.ut where 8 gounci into syllables, and these syllables into letters, word is capable of such subdivision, the syllables or letters, though they may signify something separately in other sentences, are not separately significant with relation to the sentence in which the word i&

Used.

Thus, to take Priseian's instance,

in VirgU'fl
it

sentence,

Fama

vires no|uii

cundo

;

the two syllables r/ and res- form parts of tin- word vires but they are only parts of its sound; they have no separate signification with relation to the sentence here quoted. Yet, in other sentences, each of
;

thatl

\l!aU. 1

may form
it

a word,
:

it'

it

be significant,

in relation

to the

006

in

which

is

oied

as
volnt vi fcrvirius axis.

i

els.'

when.

1

Ret dure
M.-liri.

ct rogni novitai

me
|>.-

talia

cogunt

So

(fat

'

nn hamlsom
which
in
it

is

to

taken as one word
:il
i<

re, in relation to
tiful,

has one

si-nili.

.n,

.•.</.,

in a Sencomely, beau-

or

hlier.il

;

but

another .sentence,

where hand
n
:

signifies

a

DOCtion of the
ber,
it
I

human
i

IhmIv,

and soma an
i

indelinite quantity or
s

num-

words.

The same

a

nit

WMi-.is,

be said even of ha no &epo"
i


CHAP.
III.]

;

OF WORDS, AS TARTS OF SPEECH.
;

31

rate signification

sentence,

it is

but when it stands alone, as a significant part of a then a word, as in the Latin
Zdecus,
i,

nostrum, melioribus utere

fatis

!

And

so in the English
always

/ am

Ca;sar.

73. "

If,

therefore, all speech," says Han-is,
,

" whether
i

in prose or Words, the
smallr-t par

,

verse, every whole, every section, every paragraph, every sentence,

,

UmA.

imply a certain meaning, divisible into other meanings, but words imply a meaning which is not so divisible, it follows that words will be the smallest parts of speech ; inasmuch as nothing less has any meaning at all." This argument would have been more accurately stated had the accomplished author inserted, after " a meaning not so divisible," the clause above employed, viz., " with relation to the sentences in which they are used." The want of some such explanatory clause has led to much misapprehension of Mr. Harris's whole doctrine. It has been assumed that he meant by signification something positive that a certain sound must be under all circumstances significant, or under all circumstances destitute of signification whereas the science of Grammar is relative the signification of a sentence, be it a simple or a complex, a long or a short one, depends on the mutual relation of all its parts and the signification of one word in a sentence depends on its relation to another in the same sentence. In this sense, we must understand the proposition that words are the least parts of sjyeech capable of grammatical classification how they are to be classed remains to be considered, for some principles of classification are better than others. It is not sufficient that we comprehend all our notions on a given subject under certain heads but we must be prepared to show why we choose those heads rather than others. 74. Take, for instance, Shakspearc's well-known lines
; ;
;

;

;

The man that hath no music in himself, Nor is not mov'd with concord of sweet sounds,
Is
fit

for treasons
Parts of

Here we know that various grammatical writers call the word the article man, music, concord, and sounds, substantives, or nouns substantive no, sweet, and fit, adjectives, or nouns adjective that, and himself, pronouns hath and is, verbs moved, a participle ; not, an adverb; and, a conjunction; in, vtith, and for, prepositions. 75. The first question that occurs to us is, whether these classes themselves are all recognised in all languages, and by all grammarians ? And a very little experience will show that they are not. The same thing has happened in Grammar, which has happened in all other Some authors have divided speech into two parts, some sciences. into three, four, and so on to ten or twelve. Others again have made their division depend on the supposed utility of words; others on
an
;

;

;

;

;

32
fpeech/

OF WORDS, AS PARTS OF SPEECH.
'

[CHAP.

I]

^ie

r

and

others on the external objects to which they refe ; others on the mental operations which they express. On th
variation
it is

worth while to hear what Quintilian says, in the fourt "On the number of the parts of speed first book For the ancients, amongst whom wei there is but little agreement. Aristotle and Theodectes, laid it down, that there were only verl and nouns, and combinatives (convinctiones) intimating that there wt in verbs the force of speech, in nouns the matter (because what w speak is one thing, and what we speak about is another), and thi the union of these was effected by the comlnnatives, which I knoi most persons call conjunctions ; but I think the former word answei By degrees the philosopher; better to the original Greek avvletrp.oQ. and particularly the Stoics, augmented the number and first, the added to the combinative the article, then the preposition. To th noun they added the appellative, then the pronoun, and then the part and finally to the ver ciple, being of a mixed nature with the verb
point,

chapter of his

;

;

;

Our (Latin) language does nc they subjoined the adverb. require articles, and therefore they are scattered among the other part of speech ; but we have added to the others the interjection. Sum writers of good repute, however, follow the doctrine of the eight pari of speech, as Aristarchus, and in our own day Paljkmon, who hav ranked the vocable, or appellative under the noun, as one of its species A ,i: whilst those who divide it from the noun, make nine parts. there are others who divide the vocable from the appellative, callin by the former name all bodies distinguishable by sight and touch, a
itself,

a

bed, or a house, and by the latter what is not distinguishable by on These last or both these means, as the wind, Iieaven, virtue, God.

mentioned authors, too, add what they

call asseverations,
:

as

(th

hut thes Latin) lieu! and attractations, as (the Latin) /ascent im distinctions I cannot approve. As to the question whether or not th vocable or appellative should be called irpoa^yopUt, and ranked unde
th" noun, as it is a matter of little moment, 1 leave it to the fro judgment of my readers." 78, Although Quintilian, who only touches on Grammar incident ally, speaks of is maintaining that there were three parts \.t Vaibo sayi truly that Aristotle asserted then' were tie :., In tact, Aristotle, in hi parts of Speech, the Veil) and the noun. Trip) ipfinrt (•<'.. treats of these two alone; considering that, o them is made a perfect sentence, ai "Socrates philosophises:" am theiet,,!,- PHKBAI says "the parts of i| h are, according bo thi the \erl>, Pecause these alone, eon .tli.S, two, vi/., the noun and l>u Joined by their own force, make up u full speech, or sentence
<

;

called
in,
;

the

other

parts

si/ncatct/orematics,

or consignificants,

Speech

however, maintained thai there were eight parts o « m to have Keen implicitly followed In main lilt le consequence U hether we in culmies; Iml, thoc
him.seli',

and

he

.

.,

;

name

,.l

pai

t

.

to particular divisions or subdivisions ,

it

is

of great

ini


CHAP.
III.J

OF WORDS, AS PARTS OF SPEECH.

portance to determine on
subdivided.

what

principle speech should be divided

and

77. Recurring, therefore, to the sentence above quoted from Shak-

how the words can be grammatically distinand many various modes will readily present themselves 78. It may be observed that some of the words admit of varia- Varabtoaid Thus man may be varied into mans and rod? tion, and others do not. men hath into have, hast, had, and haviit*/ si /ret into sweeter, and sweetest, &c, and, on the contrary, the words the, in, and, not, &c, cannot be altered. But this is manifestly not an essential distinction, since it does not take place in the same manner in all languages but, on the contrary, ever}' language is distinguished, more or less, from every other, by peculiar modes of varying its words. Thus the Gothic, Greek, Hebrew, Sanscrit, and Arabic languages, and it is said, those of Patagonia, Lapland, and Greenland, have a variation in some or all of their nouns to mark the dual number, which is unknown to our own and many other tongues. So the Greeks and Romans varied their adjectives by the triple change of gender, number, and whereas the English never vary them in any of those ways. If then the distinction of variable and invariable will not answer our purpose, let us look for one that is more essential. 79. Having considered in the former instance the sound of the Afcctfrmid word, I shall now take a distinction which arises from its significaspeare, let us inquire

guished

:

:

:

:

;

;

i

.

tion.

of

Thus M. Beauzee divides the parts of speech into two classes, which he says " the first includes the natural signs of sentiment, the
:

speech

-

other the arbitrary signs of ideas

the former constitute the language
;

of the heart, and

may be

called affective

the latter belong to the lanIt
is

guage of the understanding, and are discursive."
the principle of this distinction
is

manifest that

universal

;

for

though M. Beauzee

docs not use the word " Ideas" in the senseless manner introduced by Descartes and followed by Locke, "pro omni re cogitata," but for
acts of the understanding or reason alone, as distinguished from senti-

ment or
language

feeling, yet the
in

two

classes taken together are applicable to

influenced by sentiment and understanding, and all languages must possess some means of distinguishing these different faculties. But the question is, whether this

general

;

for all

men must be

distinction

is sufficient
it is

to account for the different classes of words:
;

not for though there are some words which express only the objects of sentiment, and others which express onlv the objects of knowledge, yet there are many which express both together,

and most assuredly

and many which directly express neither. Nor is it alwavs a word of one class in order to convey either an emotion or a truth. These circumstances more frequently depend upon the combination, than upon the distinction of words. 80. Let us now come to a third distinction, that of the Port Royal 0*** and maniH r Grammarians, who say " the greatest distinction of what passes in
suiiicient to use
'

our minds,
2.

is

to consider in

it

the objects of our thoughts, and the

D

34

OF WORDS, AS TARTS OF SPEECH.

[CHAI\

II:

form or manner of our thoughts, of which latter the principal is res soning or judging but to this must be added the other movements c
;

the soul, as desire,

command,
to apply
it

interrogation,

&c."

This, again,
will be

is

distinction universally applicable to language in point of signification

and when we come
sufficiently accurate.

to existing languages,

it

foun

wo^dHmi
alluvia-

nas ^ een observed, that this may be done with mor and despatch; and that some words are absolutel; necessary for the communication of thought, whilst others may b considered as abbreviations, in order to make the communication mor rapid and easy; as a sledge may have been first constructed t draw along heavy goods, and may have been afterwards placed o: Such is the theory of Mi wheels to add celerity to the motion.
^1*

^u*

'*

r less facility

Horxk Tooke, and
is
i

so far as

we

are here considering

it,

that

tlieor;

perfectly just,

rincipai

and

ry
•A
:

ordT

The words which are necessary for communicating the though any given sentence with the utmost simplicity, may well be callei principals, and those which only help to make out the though more fully and distinctly may be called accessories. These are th terms employed by Mr. Harris, and consequently his theory s Mr. Harris, however, adds far coincides with that of Mr. Tooke. that the principals are significant by themselves, and the accessorie significant by relation: whereas, Mr. Tooke says that the necessar words are signs of things, and the abbreviations are signs of necessar words. I shall hereafter have occasion to enter more ;it large inn
82.
in

It is sufficient at present to observe, tha this part of his doctrine. the doctrine does not interfere with the fundamental principle o tli.it is u classification in all Grammars which deserve the name
;

say, of all

igd "
'

_

H

oftnlon.

which have proceeded on the signification of words, am not merely on their sound. 83. Now, this principle, in whatever terms it is clothed, is, tha and that with the noun and the verb are the primary parts of speech
;

out them, neither ran a truth be enunciated, nor a passion expressed This principle is the most ancient ta' combination with its object. It boasts the support of the greatest of philosophers, of him, whon t'.>r many ages, even Christianity recognised by the title of "th divine," ai approaching the nearest of all heathens to the divine ligh l'l.Alo, in his Dialogue! called The Sophist, liavinj of the (iospel. profoundly and onanswerabl] argued on the nature of truth " We have in language two kinds of man]
1

.'i.

in

We

call
is

te called nouns, the other wrfa respecting existence, th the manifestation of action a verb; but that sign of speed

imposed on the agent himself a noun. Therefore, of noun in anv order, no sentence (or rational s] ih can b thu OOinpOSSd, neither ran it lie composed of verbs without nouns sleeps,' and such other words as signify action 'runs,' 'goes,' thou -ii the] should all be repeated in succession, would no

which

alone, uttered

)

;

'

;

CHAP.

III.]

OF WORDS, AS PARTS OF SPEECH.
sentence.

35
'

any one should say lion,' names of all the things which do the actions before-mentioned, still no sentence would be made up by all this enumeration for, neither in the one way, nor in the other, do the words spoken manifest any real action, or inaction, or declare that anything exists, or does not exist, until the verbs are mixed with Then, at length, the very first interweaving of them tothe nouns. gether, makes a sentence, however short; thus, if any one should say, 'man learns,' you would pronounce at once that it was a senagain, if
'

make up a
stag,'
'

And

horse,' or should repeat the

;

Noun and

tence,
is

though as short a one as possible

;

for then, at last,
is

something

declared which either exists, or has been done, or
;

doing, or will

be done and the speaker does not merely name things, but limits and marks out their existence, by interweaving verbs with nouns, and then, at last, we say he discourses, and does not merely recite
'

words.' "

The only

great

name

that for nearly

2000 years was ever

brought into competition with Plato's, was that of his scholar Aris- Ar totle but Aristotle also, as has been seen, agreed with Plato, in stating the noun and the verb as the two primary parts of speech, and indeed the only parts necessary to be considered in the formation of a simple sentence. In other portions of his works, looking at the composition of language in a more general point of view, he enumerated three parts, viz., the noun, the verb, and the connective and, finally, in his treatise on Poetry, s. 34, he enumerated two parts of speech as significant, viz., the noun and the verb ; and two as non-significant,
;

;

viz.,

the article and conjunction.

84.

speech,

The doctrine that parts of ...incontestable. the noun and verb are the primarv f them Apollonius, the grammarian, calls
.

General We*
ol spevWi.

'

J

is

grammarians concede to them, at least, the superiority over all the other parts of speech, in whatever manner they choose to account for their preference. I am not, however, inclined to adopt this, as the first step in a methodical arrangement because I conceive that by approaching to the most general idea of speech, it will be easier to reconcile the apparent differences, and to correct the real errors of the different grammatical systems. I have already defined speech to be the language of articulate sounds and language to be any intentional mode of communicating the mind. The most general idea of speech, therefore, is, that it is any intentional mode of communicating the mind by articulate so'unds. Now, keeping in view this idea, let us see how it will apply to the doctrines of those grammarians whom I have already mentioned, in respect to
;

the most animated

and

all

;

of distributing speech into its parts. writers of any eminence advance a particular doctrine, we may generally be persuaded, that it is not wholly destitute of foundation ; although, from the natural partiality that men have for their own thoughts, they may probably rank such doctrines higher
the 85.

mode

When

Comt.ination
'

ol tl,t

'

om

'

s-

than they deserve.

All the different theories that I have here noticed

i)2

3f>

OF WORDS, AS PARTS OF SPEECH.

[CHAP.

Ill

are true, to a certain degree, and,

by combining them

together, tb

best and clearest view of our subject
Combination

may

perhaps be attained.

86. In the

method which
first

I

am

disposed to pursue, the principl

namely, interjections; all other words are discursive inasmuch as they may be employed in expressing the operations c Again, all words which are employed in reasoning must b reason. considered either as principals, or as accessoiies, and thus the commo principle of Harris and Tookb may be combined with that c Beauzee; but with this caution, that the question whether a part: cular word be a principal or an accessory, depends on the relatiu
affective,

of M. simply

Beauzke

merits attention.

There are words which ar

ichich that

ward bears

to the sentence in tchich it is employed.

I

repel

because it has been often overlooked by grammarians, manv c whom seem not to have adverted to the circumstance that speech an expression of the mind, when actually engaged in some operative They treat words as if they were corporeal substances, cast in mould, for use. Now, the very same words, that arc principals i
this
;
i

one sentence,

words

may become accessories in the next. The princip? a sentence are of course necessary for the communication c thought; but we cannot communicate what we do not comprehend and as we cannot comprehend any thought without first conceivi'iiy as an object, so we cannot communicate it to others, unless we (it In assert something concerning it, or express some emotion in connexio Here, therefore, the theory of the Port ROYAL pan with it. marians properly iinds its place; for they include the assertion of truth and the expression of an emotion under the words, " tli manner of thinking." With respect, to the writers who divide word> according as they are suscept.il >le of variation, or the contrary, althoug e\ sts in the words of most lat it is true that such a quality
in
;

H

ltd*

cannot be taken into consideration in treating of (JniveHJI miar, being a circumstance merely contingent and accidental. The result, therefore, Of the preceding remarks, is, that speec
.

huiild

n

:

be Considered as intended to communicate either passion passion, without an\ precis when it communicate., ll
(

it supplies the part of speech called the interjection; when communicates- passion, and at the same time indicates an object, Indirectly ret one, and therefore employs some at least of the parts Now, the parts of speec Speech, which are required in reasoning. required in rea oningare either such as a.v neces ary to form a simp] nee, or hiii lor accessories, in order to ••i\e complexit :mp|e sentence cannot lie Conned without a iiou and a \'il', and || immediately formed by putting a IS and a ver

Object,

(

it

.1

thor.

'I'h.>

noun and the
bO

verli

form

name
or

then are the necessary parts the conception, the latter
in

<

t

supply in reasoning the
in,

nss.it ion,

pa ..ion the emotion.
t" be

Thei
re pen

bo

H

"i

wrj Important

made with

CHAP.

111.1

OF WORDS, AS PASTS OF SPEECH.

C7

to the verb, namely, that it involves a noun ; that is to say, we cannot assert a truth, or express an emotion, which truth or emotion may not be considered by the mind as a conception. Thus, if we

Bay " God exists," we excite in the mind the two distinct conceptions of " God" and " Existence," as much as if we said, " God is m existence :" and so if we say " Come, Antony," we excite the conbut the difference is, that ception of coming, as well as of Antony the words " come" and " exists" are not presented to the hearer as mere objects of thought, but as modes of thinking about other objects,
;

viz.,

"Antony" and " God."
us to clear

the verb are to be reckoned
fixed, will enable

The principle, on which the noun and among the parts of speech, being thus up several diliiculties which occur in the

subdivision of these classes.
old grammarians in general divided nouns into nouns sub- Sui a" and nouns adjective but R. Johnson, Harris, Lowth, and and Harris ranks others, consider the substantive alone as a noun the adjective with the verb, under the common name of attributive. Tooke asserts that the adjective is truly and simply a substantive: whilst a recent writer contends that primitive nouns are not names of

88.

The

stantive

;

;

things,

qualities or attributes.

at least not of substances or material objects, but of their The latter theory is so far plausible, that the

Dames of many substances are derived from their qualities, as the words denoting a Fox, in English, German, and Sanscrit, signify a hairy animal, while those in Persian and Icelandic denote a thievish animal but this is a mere fact in the history of language, and involves
;

in the constitution of the human mind, as to render The question is, whether a principle in the science of language. we cannot as readily form a conception of an attribute or quality, as Now, if we of the substance to which it belongs, and vice versd. appeal to common experience, we shall find that men of the most untutored or most uncultivated minds have as clear a conception ot

no such necessity
it

distinguish

" blue," as they have of a garment, and can as readily " blue" from " red," as they can a " coat" from a " cloak." To every ordinary understanding, the "Sun," a " Hoi or a " Man," is an object of thought, and therefore may have a name, which name is a noun; but "bright," "swift," " wise," are also objects of thought, and therefore have names, which names should in Mke manner be deemed nouns.
the colour

noun is considered substantively, when in asserting anything Noun Mb89. st " concerning it, we make it the subject of the assertion, and regard it as that to which some other noun relates, expressing a quality belonging to
belongs.

A

by it, or a class to which it Thus, when we say, " Socrates was wise," " the Horse is running," " Prudence is a virtue," the words " Socrates," " Horse," and " Prudence," are nouns substantive. noun is considered adjectively, when in asserting anything Noun 90. concerning it, we refer it to some other noun, as that of which it
it,

or an action done or suffered

A

ad.:w-

38

OF WORDS, AS PARTS OF SPEECH.
Thus, when
is

[CHAP.

III.

expresses a quality.

we

say,

" Socrates was wise,"
;

we
and

contemplate wisdom only so
the noun " wise"
assertion
is

far as it

was

a quality of Socrates

lies.

therefore a noun adjective. In this case, the but the same consequence results where the assertion is merely implied; for, if we say " wise Socrates dwelt at Athens," we impliedly assert that he icas wise, though the direct " wise," therefore, in this assertion is only that he dwelt at Athens instance also, is a noun adjective. As to the above-mentioned sentences, " the Horse is running," and " Prudence is a virtue," they will hereafter demand consideration, in a different point of view. 91. When we speak of Socrates as wise, we speak of him as possessing a quality fixed and permanent but if, instead of saving Socrates is wise, we say " Socrates is speaking," or " is walking," or " was speaking " or " was walking," or " will be speaking " or " will
direct;
; ;

speak of a quality in action at a given time and of meaning has led grammarians to distinguish words of the latter class from nouns, and to call them participles ; because they participate of the nature of a noun, and also of the nature of a verb, as it will presently be explained. Since the word participle has been so long in use among grammarians as designating a separate part of
be walking,"
:

we

this difference

not hesitate so to use it; for although in some lansaid, in the Ethiopic) there is no peculiar form corresponding to this distinction, there must always exist in the human mind a difference between the operations which answer to our word adjective, and those which .answer to our went participle. It must he
speech,
I shall

guages (as

it is

,rw.

fall under the definition of a noun, as of a conception in the mind, without asserting that it does exist or does not; for " Socrates walking" is no more an assertion than " Socrates wise," without the interposition of a verb, such as " is," or "lias been," or M will be." Of the Latin gerunds and supines, which some reckon among participles, l shall speak hereafter. haw spokea of nouns substantive and adjective in 92. Hitherto

remembered, however, that both
tlir

men name

1

is a secondary operation of the mind, which makes certain doom art as mere representatives (so to of whole ciaases of othet nouns. These representative, 01 secondary nouns, are called by grammarians pwnouns, and form in all They are divided, like peech. languages very conspicuous tln> primary nouns which they represent, into substantive and adns representing ave; thus, " /," " taw," and "Ac," are proi K, "I," the peaker, when speaking of hin> substantive nouns, n:i thou," the |„i ,,|, i,, whom he directs his discourse; and " he«" SOIXM Other person. <>n the other hand, when we say "this man and that man," this and that are pronoun the former represent h as "near," or " present," or "first," IpgaoOM noun adj " nt noun adjective, such as " distant, lattei rep

their

primary mod.' of use; but there

-

:

.

1

1

1

i

-i

"
the pronoun
!

...

ond."
••

Hut
1

these

and

other

di

it

i

notions

of

shall

pr<

n

1

\

consider more

in detail.

The

Artiile,

CHAP.

III.]

OF WORDS, AS PARTS OF SPEECH.

39
Ankle,

which has frequently been treated as a pronoun, and which, in those The languages in which it exists, was originally a pronoun, represents the exercise of that faculty of the mind by which we limit an universal

In this to a particular conception. from the pronoun, as well as from the adjective and substantive nouns, and may therefore properly be considered as a but inasmuch as it neither expresses an separate part of speech emotion, nor is necessary to form a simple sentence, I shall notice it
or

general conception

respect

it differs

;

among
is

the accessories. 93. Besides the noun, the only principal necessary part of speech, The the Verb. Of this I shall hereafter speak at large. For the present,
is

Verb,

it

only material to remark that they who confound it with the and the participle, overlook its peculiar function, which is as the function of the noun, is that of naming. As that of asserting to the separate classes of verbs, the verb substantive, the transitive,
adjective
;

the active, the passive, &c, since these have not been treated of by any grammarians as separate parts of speech, it will not be necessary
to notice

94.

them in The great

this chapter.

dispute, especially in

modem

times, has been with

Axm
speech.

respect to the accessory parts of speech, the nature of which has been They have been said to be like illustrated by a variety of similes.

stones in the

summit

or curve of an arch, or like the springs of a

vehicle, or like the flag of

a ship, or

like the hair of

a man, or
;

like

the nails and cement uniting the

wood and

stones of an edifice

and

hence some persons have contended that they are only significant by and some that they relation ; some that they are not parts of speech Thus Apuleius says, " they are are not even words but particles. no more to be considered as parts of speech than the flag is to be considered a part of the ship, or the hair a part of the man ; or, at least, in the compacting and fitting together of a sentence, they only perform the office of nails, or pitch, or mortar." 1'iusoian, however, one of the most acute and intelligent of grammarians, observes, that if these words are not to be considered as parts of speech because they serve to connect together others which are parts, we must sav that the muscles and sinews of a man are no parts of a man and he, therefore, concludes by declaring his opinion, that the noun and verb are the principal and chief parts of speech, but that these others are the subordinate and appendant parts. 95. The decision of this and similar questions will be easilv made, B™g|* if we only advert to the mental operations which these accessory words express and in order to explain this, we must first ask, what words in a sentence are accessories? This question again is answered by referring to what has been said of sentences. In a simple sentence,

;

;

;

Thus " Man is fit," contains two the words are principals. nouns, which are the names of two conceptions, viz., "man" and " fitness," and the assertion of their coincidence by the verb " is ;" and moreover, since the conception of fitness is regarded as existing
all

40

OF WORDS, AS PARTS OF SPEECH.

[CHAP.

III.

word " fit" is an a substantive. The same would be the case if the place of the noun " man" were supplied by the pronoun " he" and that of the adjective " fit," by the participle suited.
not separately but in the other conception, man, the
adjective

and "

man"

is

Compl icated

to consider

when the sentence is simple but we are next a simple sentence is rendered complex ; and this is no otherwise done than by engrafting on it other sentences ; but in these
9g
#

Such

is

the case

;

how

latter the conceptions only are expressed,

assumed or understood.

and the assertive part is Thus, if referring to the passage before quoted from Shakspeare, we say " Man is fit," we may be asked, of what kind is the aptitude of which you are speaking ? The answer must be " it is treasonable." And again if we are asked, of what
disposition
is

may the man of whom you make this assertion ? unmusical-" and suppressing the assertions in the two secondary sentences, we may form of the whole one complex sentence, thus, " unmusical men possess treasonable aptitudes." 97. In this first process of complication we find only words capable ratbff com" "' of being used as principals, viz., nouns, substantive or adjective; pronouns, participles, and verbs but suppose we again resolve these
say

We

"he

is

r

J

;

and assertions; suppose we ask what do you mean when you speak of a treasonable fitness, or
into their constitutent conceptions

aptitude?
treason
is
;

We
treason

may
is

answer,

we mean

that the fitness looks to

before the fitness (as its

for treason. Here it is plain that the conception of foreness (or objectiveness), and applies that conception to the other conception of treason: but it does so still more rapidly
and obscurely than
in this

mark or object), the fitness word "for" involves tin

in the cases before supposed ; and hence it is that second process of complication we meet with words which art

and therefore no longer called nouns 01 and prepositions; and thes< words are the more numerous and frequent of occurrence, in proportion as nun become more civilised, and more frequently render theii sentences complex by subdividing the primary truth into many others. the word "treasonable" may be supplied by the word* Thus,
no longer thought,
significant,

verbs, but articles, adverbs, conjunctions,

M

•'

for treasons," so the

word "unmusical" may be Supplied
in

first

bj

the

words " hath DO music
not

himself," and secondly, by the words
1"

moved nritfa concord of sweet sounds;" both which, and \arioiis aggregations of senmodes of speech, consist in which the .subordinate assertions are assumed l>\ the mind the manner ahead}) shown. 98. The words, which, by use, come to be must frequently em

many
]•
ii.

similar

.

-.,

ii

ployed
loee

in

any (.articular langtm/e

l,,r

these secondary purposes,

oftei:

tlieir

prmiar\
;

iud
.in
ili...'

mlii at ion, and perhaps in. little clmngi from which circumstances a great di pule has arisen of lal<
:

grammarians whether
,

the]

preposition fur, which, us u
,.7i.
is

.n.- ugnifloant words or not. Thus have shown, conveys the Conception

nothing more than the

word fun:

in

foremost, hrfore,

J


OF WORDS, AS PARTS OF SPEECH.
;

CHAP.

III.

41

fore and aft, and the like words and phrases but by use, and by the slight change which it has undergone, it has come to lose the property of forming a principal part in a sentence. These circumstances, howthey may happen ever, it must be observed, are merely accidental and, to the same conception in one language and not in another therefore, they cannot form a just scientific criterion between the parts of speech but on the other hand, those parts may, and must, be distinguished by the different operations of mind which thev
; ; ;

express
articles,

;

and as

we

have seen that the operations, expressed by the

adverbs, conjunctions, and prepositions, are clearly distin-

guishable from those expressed by the nouns, pronouns, verbs, and participles, inasmuch as they relate to a subordinate step in the
so there can be no impropriety in calling them with reference to the others, which we call principals. 99. From what I have said, it will not appear strange, that the Et>moio*v accessory words should be for the most part traceable to their origin w OI as principals that is to say, that the parts of speech last mentioned should in general be found to have been once used (with little or no dillerence of sound) as nouns and verbs. It has been supposed that this was a new discovery of Mr. Horne Tooke's, and in many parts of his work he seems to have entertained that notion himself; how justly, may be seen from the following, among other authorities to the
anal) sis of thought
;

accessories,

;

like effect.

his

100. B. de Spinoza composed a Hebrew Grammar, published with posthumous works in 1677. In this, he says, " Omnes Hebrcece

Spinoza,

tantum Interjectionibus et Conjunctionibus, et una a tit vim et proprietates Nominis habent." (p. 17.) 101. The same doctrine is laid down in a treatise by C. Koerber, printed at Jena, in 1712, entitled " Lexicon Particularum Ebrsearum, vel potius Nominum et Verborum, vulgo pro particulis habitorum." This writer says, in his preface, that his tutor Danzius taught that " most, if not all the separate particles, were in their own nature nouns ;" that this was indeed a " new and unheard of hypothesis ;" but that on investigation the reader would find reason to conclude universally (in respect to the Hebrew language at least) that " all the separate particles are either nouns or verbs." His words are these " Particular separata; si non omnes certe pleraque sua naturd sunt Nomina" " hanc thesin hactenus novam et inauditam;" and again, " Omnes omnino Ebrceorumparticulas separatas aut nomina esse aut verba." Koerber illustrates his position by comparing the Hebrew particles with radical words, both in that and the cognate languages, particularly in the Arabic. Among the instances which he gives, are the
voces, exceptis

altera particula,

KoerUr.

:

following, viz.

:

Juxta, near, being the same as Lotus, side.
Prater, beside or beyond •
Inter,

W«*™,

deficiency.

[lerminus, boundary.
Distinctus, divided.

between

42
Post, after

OF WORDS, AS PARTS OF SPEECH. Tergum, the back. Adde, add.
Elige, choose.

[CHAP.

II]

Qiioque, also
Vel,

or

Buyer.

even explains the interjection Lo! as being identical with tb pronoun of the third person and suggests that the termination of th accusative case is a noun, signifying object. 102. T. S. Bayer, in 1730, published his Museum Siuicum, ii which he says the same of the Chinese Language " Eadem vox e substanticum et adjectivum et verbum, et qualiscumque pars Orationi fieri potest, si id natura rei fert ; v. g. : Siex Sacrijicium, sacrifico
;

He

Hin Icetari, latitia, Ca misceo, mixtura,
u-niwp.

lo?tus,

hilariter

;

Xo
i.

mollifies,

emollesco, molliter

mixte, confuse" (v.

p. 17.)

103^ j n t jie posthumous work of J. D. van LeNNEP, who died b 1771, on the Analogies of the Greek Language, is this passage :— " Ex octo igitur partibus orationis quas vulgo statuunt Gramniatici Verbum et Nomen principem locum obtinent, cum relique omne facile ad harum alterutram referri queant, quare etiam Aristoteles aliique e veteribus duas tantum partes orationis statuerunt. Addon

quidem nonnulli tertiam, utriusque nempe turn, quod nempe particular aliseque ea
omnia
i,i

et verbi et nominis, lit/amen

pertinentia orationem

velut

connectunt, sed qui attentius eas res consideraverit, facile animadverts!
fere*, saltern

quod ad exteriorem formam, referenda

esse vel a<

/milium vel ad verborum classern.

participium
tut,

est

Ita v. g. particula to ovv, ' igitur, contract uni ex toy, quod a participio tioy, verb
pertinet.

undo

tip),

adebquead nominum elassem proprie

Eadea

ratio manifesta est in vocal uilis toi, nrj, ttov," &c.

Tooke.

This treatise was probably written some years previously to th 1752 he delivered an academic discourse com paring tlie analogies of language with those of the mental operations. 104. Whether or not Mr. Tooke ever saw any ol' these treatises immaterial. His discovery may, probably, have been a bond fide one so far as regarded his own relleetions, though not one that was nev to the world. Bat be seems to have connected with it a very mate rial error in Grammar, namely, that because a word was onee a noim so, and consequently that adverbs, conjunctions it alwavs remained Aprested no new or dilleivnt operation Of the mind, and wen
author's death; for in
il

not to

l.e

considered as separate parts
cation.
a

ol'

speech, so far

at

least as re

lated to b

Had Mr. Tooke been
fallen

with the writings of Plato,
.

as well acquaint* with some old Kngliab am
into this error;
for
In

he

would haidh base
t

would ha\e p.i(.'i\ed li.it speech receives Ita forms from the mind and would have acknowledged with that greaj philosopher tha " thought and speeeh are the same; only the internal and silent dis of the mind, with herself, is called by us ^ninmi, thought, O)
i'

itioii
la-,,.

:

but the effusion of the mind, through

the
It

lips,
Is,

is

articv

linn I,

mind

that

Aoy«. ha pus the somen.
i

.

called

,

oi

rational speech.

therefore,

tb

mto

it.,

principal parts

and acce

CHAP.
it is

III.]

OF WORDS, AS PARTS OF SPEECH.

43

the mind which distributes alike the principal and the accessory
its

parts into subdivisions, according as they are necessary to

own
Ancient

distinguishable operations.

parts of speech,

105. Those ancient grammarians who acknowledged onlv three viz., the noun, verb, and conjunction, ranked some of the parts which we here call accessories under the principal parts. Thus Apollonius of Alexandria, and Priscian, rank the adverb under

the verb, and with them agrees Harris, who calls the adverb a secondary attribute but Alexander Aphrodisiensis, who is followed by
;

it is sometimes more properly referred to the Tooke asserts some adverbs to be nouns and some verbs. The preposition which was referred by Dionysius and Priscian to the conjunctions, is on a similar principle included by Harris with the common conjunction in the class of connectives and Tooke distributes both prepositions and conjunctions (in many instances rightly, as far as their etymology is concerned) among the verbs and Lastly, the article appears to have most disturbed the gramnouns. marians in their arrangements for Fabius says it was first reckoned

Boethius, observes, that and so class of nouns
;

;

:

among

have seen that, when Aristotle divided speech into lour parts, he separated the article from the conjunction, making of it a class apart from the three other parts of speech. Vossius inclines to rank it among nouns, like a pronoun ; but Harris having divided the accessory parts of speech into definitives and conTooke says that nectives, makes the article a branch of the former.
conjunctions
;

and

we

our

article the is the
!

imperative
is,

mood

of the Anglo-Saxon verb thean,
is

to take

Lastly, Scaliger says, the article does not exist in Latin,
in

superfluous in Greek, and
tering people.

French, the idle instrument of a chat-

106. Since in this diversity of opinions, I can perceive no common New rnndpit proposed view of any principle which connects itself with the idea of language I before laid down, I find myself compelled to seek a new division. Bay, therefore, that the accessory parts of speech represent operations of the mind, which from their frequent recurrence have become habitual, and from their absolute necessity in modifying other thoughts, must be It is true, that these found more or less in all cultivated languages. operations are not performed by all men with the same distinctness, and therefore do not exist among all nations in the same degree of and lastly, it is true, that in some languages they are experfection pressed by separate words, and in other languages by different inHence a close connection is found between flections of the same word. the prepositions of one language, and the cases of another and between the auxiliary verbs of one language, and the tenses of another. Hence, too, the comparison of adjectives, usually effected in Latin by dif-

;

;

ferent terminations,

is often effected in English by adverbs prefixed to In short, numberless illustrations of this remark will easily occur to the recollection of any person at all acquainted with different languages, ancient or modern, barbarous or refined.

the adjectives.

44
107.

0? WORDS, AS PARTS OF SPEECH.

[CHAP.

Ill

Of

the mental operations above described, one, and that no

the least essential, consists in determining whether

we view any
;

givei
•<

and if as conception as an universal, a general, or a particular particular, whether as a certain, or an uncertain one ; and if certain whether of one known class, or another known class ; and so forth Thus there is a certain conception of the mind expressed by the wore " man ;" but if we employ that expression for the purpose of commu
it is necessary that those who hear us shouk degree of particularity it is to be applied ; for it wouh be one thing to say, that, according to our idea of human nature, mai and another to say, that men in general Bit is universally benevolent so ; and a third to say that any man, under given circumstances, ma; be so ; and a fourth to say, that this or that man is so. Of these dif

nicating the conception,

know with what

;

ferent degrees of limitation

some may be marked by separate words and of those words, some may express a conception so distinct aiu self-evident, as to be capable of forming a simple sentence, in whicl case we should reckon them as pronominal adjectives, among tin principal parts of speech as when we say, " this man is good,' " that man is bad," the words this and that, are pronominal adjectives But since we cannot say "the is good," or "a is good," and sine* these words tlie and a, serve no other purpose but to define and par ticularize some other conception, and do not even perform thisfunctioi completely, without reference to some further conceptions, we may in those languages in which they exist, reckon them as a separate, bu
;

Proposition.

name of the article. 108. The word Preposition is badly chosen from its use (and eva that use not without exception) in the Latin language; nevertheless it has become sufficiently intelligible to signify a class of words whicl describe another sort of mental operation. When one object is placec in a certain relation to another object, whether it be a relation o time, of space, of instrumentality, causation, or the like, the con
accessorial part of speech, under the

ception of that relation serves as a bond to unite them

in

the secondan

That expression may form part of a word, a: of a sentence. "to overleap a fence;" or it may constitute a separate word, a: •'l.i leap OMT a fence;" imd in the latter instance the word oirr therefore do not hesitate to rank as called a preposition, which
i:

I

I

rata part of ipteeh.

LOO, As the preposition connects conceptions, the Conjunction con necte assertions; or, as it is commonly expressed, the preposition join: l'.v 000 nouns, the conjunction verbs, and OOBMque&tly sentences.

agreement Of
I

mean showiu the relation!, whelhcr o and the ;e al ,o ma\ be expressed either ii tM lorui of the Verb, or by means of a separate particle of which lore (jiioted ulliirds an illustration .sentence
it.-.
I

in.',

in

both instances,
di

1

,

l»"rccmcnl

;

:

:

><

Duller
u.. <//
1

hnnlil'

I

lln

.ii
t

In'

t

luill

the

lilt

wend,

iboa

M'.t

Ifhere,

d rendered

into thl

;— more common
ii

in iins

expression,

" if

thot

;

CHAP.

III.]

OF WOP.I

S,

AS PARTS OF SPEECH.
stirring in the cause,
if,

45
and being

wouldst not
dull,

stir," the relation between would be expressed by the word

to

which

I

therefore give

conjunction. Hence, it appears, that the conjunction not improperly be reckoned a distinct part of speech, since it expresses a distinct operation of the mind. 110. More doubt may perhaps exist as to the Adverb, a class in Adwh. which grammarians have often confounded words of very various effect and import, such as interjections and conjunctions. ^Neither do I, in this instance, any more than in those of the participle and preposition, pay much regard to the etymology of the word adverb ; but I take it

the

name of a

mav

as a

word in common use, and applicable to a large class of words which describe operations of the mind very distinguishable from those which have been already considered. The adverb either expresses a com rption which serves to modify another conception of quality or
action
;

or else

it

expresses a conception of time, place, or the like,
is

by

which the

assertion itself

modified

:

in

either

case

it

serves to

modify by its own force, and not, like the preposition, as an intermediate bond between other conceptions. 111. The following TABLE will show how Words, as significant constituents of a complex sentence, may be distributed into classes, or
'Parts
I.

gfyrf

of Speech.

Words used
1.

in enunciative sentences:

principal words,

The Noun,
1.

the

name

of a mental conception,

primarily,

ii.

Expressing a substance, (the Noun substantive). Expressing a quality. 1. without action, (the Noun adjective). 2. with action, (the Participle). secondarily, (the Pronoun).
2.

2.

The

Verb, asserting existence or action,

accessorial words,
1.

limiting the extent of

an universal or general conception
in a

to a particular (the Article).
2.

showing the

relation,

stantive conception to another, or to
Preposition).
3.

complex sentence, of one suban assertion, (the

connecting one assertion with another, according to their relations, (the ( 'o) junction).

modifying a conception of quality or an assertion, (the Adverb). II. Words used either in passionate sentences, or as separate expressions of passion, (the Interjection). 112. The mental operations which these various classes of words represent, are obviously distinct; but it by no means follows from thence that the words themselves are so that a word which has been employed as a substantive may not also be employed as a conjunction
4.
;

Mylf

46
Mental operatious

OF WORDS, AS PARTS OF SPEECH.

[CHAP.

II]

bv which we have expressed an assertion ma In short, there is n< not be used as a preposition or an interjection. reason why one word should not successively travel through all th<
or that the very sound
1

for it must be remembered, that word do not communicate thought by their separate power and effect only but infinitely more so by their connection and consequently the modi of connecting the signs, and not the signs themselves, determines thei place in any given class. The first exercise of the reasoning power we have seen, is conception; and of all our mental operations, whetbe different classes here stated
;
:

relative to the external world,

or to the laws of

mind

itself,

con

ceptions

may be formed and to all the conceptions which we form names may be given and those names are nouns and therefore it
; ; ;

ii

not surprising that

all

other words, except interjections, should be his

nouns as their origin. Nay, since reason anc passion are so complicated in man, we must not wonder that a con nection is often to be found even between interjections and nouns
torically traceable to

substantive Woe, which is the Scottish Wae, agrees with th< Latin interjection Vae ! probably pronounced by the Romans Wae and with many interjections and other parts of speech, in varum:
Surely, this afford! Teutonic languages, as will be shown hereafter. no proof, nor shadow of a proof, that the different uses of the same, or different words, do not depend on the different exercise of the mental faculties; but, on the contrary, it absolutely demonstrates the necessity of some mental operation to distinguish between the dilferonl meanings, force, and effect of the same sign, as employed on dilUanl
occasions.

Thus our

(

47

)

CHAPTER
OF NOUNS.
113.

IV.

The

classes of words,

which form grammatically the Parts

of Speech, being thus determined, I proceed to explain them in order, beginning with that which, according to all systems, stands first in

importance, the Noun. 114. " It is by nouns," says
nate
all

the beings which exist.
if

Court de Gebelin, " that we desigWe render them known instantly by

The Noun,

Thus, in the they were placed before our eyes. in the most profound obscurity, we are able to pass in review the universality of beings, to represent to ourselves our parents, our friends, all that we have most dear, all that has struck us, all that may instruct or amuse us ; and in pronouncing their names thus keep a register we may reason on them with our associates. of all that is, and of all that we know ; even of those things which we have not seen, but which have been made known to us by means Let us not be of their relation to other things already known to us. astonished, then, that man, who speaks of every thing, who studies every thing, who takes note of every thing, should have given names
these means, as

most

solitary retreat,

We

body and its different parts, to his soul, number of beings which cover the earth or are hid in its bosom, which fill the waters, and move in the air that he gives names to the mountains, the rivers, the rocks, the woods, the stars, to his dwellings, to his fields, to the fruits on which he feeds, to the instruments of all kinds with which he executes the greatest labours, to all the beings which compose his society, or, that the memory of those illustrious persons who deserve well of mankind by their benefactions, and their talents, is perpetuated by their names from age to age. Man does more. He gives names to objects not in
to
all

things that exist, to his

to his faculties, to that prodigious

;

existence, to multitudes of beings, as if they

formed but a single inand often to the qualities of objects, in order that he may be able to speak of them in the same manner as he does of objects really
dividual,
existing."

115. This great power of the
to that faculty of the

Noun

is

to

be attributed
:

solely

its origin,

mind by which it is formed and that power I have called Conception. Every act of this power produces one thought, presents to our view one object, more or less distinct. We conceive a certain impression to which we give a name, be it " red" or "white," "John" or "Peter," "man" or "woman," "animal"
or "vegetable," "virtue" or vice;" or whatsoever else
tinguish from the

we

can dis-

mass of continued consciousness which

constitutes

our being. 116.

We do not

name every impression

that

we

receive, or ev^ry

48
act that

OF NOUNS.

[CHAP,

we

perform.

and

distinctly

from
:

single instance

it

not name any one separate would be useless to do so in would be impossible to do so in all. But we nan In truth,
all others.

we do

It

what
call

often occurs to us.

We
;

have often a sensation of colour ; v

"white:" we have often a feeling of pleasure; we call "joyous :" we often see an object which affects us with peculiar se we call it " father" or " enemy :" v laments of regard or aversion often meditate on thoughts, which appear to us amiable or the r In this manner verse; we call them "benevolence" or "hatred." is that our catalogue of names is formed. 117. Each of these thoughts or conceptions has its natural ai proper limits but these we do not always very accurately observ No man confounds " red" with "white," but he confounds "whitist with " reddish." A boy does not think his hoop square, but he knov Thus it is, that men do n< not whether it is circular or elliptical. agree in their opinions of many things, to which they neverthele otherwise it would be impo agree in giving some common names sible tor them to communicate to each other anything like the though or feelings which they respectively entertain. 118. The relation between words and thoughts has been express* Plato calls tlu> Vci in various ways by writers on language. " showing forth" and the Noun, otiptiov, a " sign ," Ari C)j\u>fMn, a totle sometimes calls a word aij/jieiov, a sign, and sometimes avfifi6\o\
it
; ;

a symbol

;

l'lotinus says,

o iv

<pti)rij

Xoyoc

fii^t)jnt

rS iv ipv%fi, "

tl:

word (or sentence)
Cicerq renders the

in the voice is an imitation of that in the soul

(rv^jhXoy of Aristotle by the Latin iVota, writers have described words as the I'icturr, the fibfoes, the Colours, the VtstmMtt of thoughts, the representatioi The author of of thoughts, of ideas, of mental operations, Sec. ivoait work, entitled "The discovery of the Science of Languages, objdCti to all expressions which iniplv that, words in any mania He observes, that if words had this power, " w represent thoughts.

"mark."

More modem

em

should have as manv names lor the same object, we receive \arioii impressions from it;" that. " no single person can ever see the sain thing twice in the same manner;" and that, "no two person have i oft impression of it;" consequently intelligible lai
this supposition, be whollj impossible.
it

M

guage would, on would Ik- just,

The

objei tkj

«! were

to

take

nch

expressions, as

those abo\

en.e; luit ihe\ are obviously ligurative I, in their literal because we have do other means of explaining mental operations the b? the analogies w bJch wt sapyoae then to bear to sensible sets an
«»1
i

I

.

What

the aulhi.rs

in

cjiiestion

mean
in

is

not

that

.\n\ nun
i

lered

by asp' al. mind a1 the tbne;
peiSJBfl

presentation of a thought
but
that

words
I

general serve bo tndicat
this

what pull

is

m

tlf

human mind.
ition,
ait.

And

indeed
their

words

OR

more by

grammatics

nt.

CHAP. IV.]
119. It
that
it

OF NOUNS.
is

49

in such an arrangement,

according to the place which a particular word occupies The Noun, and to the function which it therein exorcises,
its

grammatical designation as a part of speech. in a simple sentence it serves merely to Indeed, a conception, and not to assert anything concerning it. the English word noun is nothing but a corrupt pronunciation of She French nam, which, like the Italian name, was again a corruption of the Latin notnen, and this latter was of common origin with the Greek ovopu, which, both in the Iliad and Odyssey, signifies the name by which a person is distinguished from others the radix being found in
receives

A

word name

is

called a

Noun when

;

tin'

verb

re'/xw,

to allot, attribute, or distribute.

And

as a personal

name

from other men, so a noun distinguishes the thing or thought, to which it is allotted, The trite definition of a noun, as from other things or thoughts. * the name of a thing which may be seen, felt, heard, or understood" for it may or may not include adjectives, and nouns is equivocal commonly called abstract, according as the words " thing " and "understood" receive a stricter or more lax interpretation. I therefore prefer defining a noun, the name of a conception and it has been seen that, by a conception, I mean whatsoever we can contemplate in thought as one existence, either subjectively in the mind, or objectively in the external world, and either as substance, or as attribute for red is as much the name of a certain colour, as Peter is the name of a certain man, or England of a certain country and in like
distinguishes the
it is

man, to

whom

allotted,

;

;

;

;

manner
the

virtue is as

much

the
;

name of
all

a certain thought, as a ship

is

name of

a certain thing

these, therefore,

and whatever other

words

serve, in a simple

sentence, to

name any conception of the

mind, are nouns.

120. It is next to be considered, how nouns mav lie best distri- OImm«1 Nouns. buted into classes, with reference to the different kinds of conceptions, name. "Many grammarians," savs VossiUS, which they serve to 4 and among them some of the highest celebrity, first distribute the

aoun into proper and appellative, and then into substantive and adjecive ; but erroneously ; since even the proper noun is a substantive, ttasmuch as it subsists by itself in speech. But let us seek our method from the schools. Our great IStagirite first divides r'o ov (or
that

which

is)

into that

which

subsists

by

itself,

and

is

therefore

and that which exists in another as in its subject, and is therefore called attribute. Afterwards he proceeds to distinguish substance into primary and secondary, the primary being an individual, the secondary a genus or species. By parity of reason, therefore, we should divide the noun first into that which subsists bv
sailed substance,
itself in

addition of a substantive in speech, and

and that which needs the called adjective ; and afterwards we should distribute the substantive into that which belongs to a single thing, and is called proper, and that which comprehends manv, and is commonly called appellative." K 2.
is

speech, and

called substantive,

is

50
Conception

OF NOUNS.
121.

[CHAP.

:

The

distribution proposed
I

by Vossiua seems most consone
;

mated,

to grammatical principle.
stantives from adjectives,

therefore begin with distinguishing si

and I call them both JNouns; for they both names of conceptions, and they are nothing more. They do r imply any assertion respecting these conceptions; and herein they clearly distinguished from verbs. It is true that the adjective agrt with the verb in expressing, not substance, but attribute ; and thei fore it is, that Harris, and some other grammarians, rank the two classes of words together under the title of attributives, do not deny that this arrangement is so far correct but I say that interferes with the method which I conceive it advisable to purst as the most direct and scientific. As Vossius justly postpones t consideration of the classes of substantives, to the distinction betwe substance and attribute so I postpone the consideration of t assertion of an attribute, to the consideration of those conceptio both of substance and of attribute, which must necessarily precede assertion. This, I apprehend, is strictly the order of science. La guage is a communication of the mind; the mind, as far as it is car ble of communication, consists of thoughts and feelings. Thougl are formed by the reasoning power. The reasoning power is divid into three faculties, conception, assertion, and conclusion but cc caption necessarily precedes assertion, because we cannot assert tli anything exists, until we know what that thing is.
;

;

;

;

r_''_\ Conceptions are either conceptions of substance, that is something considered as subsisting of itself, or conceptions of at! bote, that is of something considered as a quality or property of It may appear unnecessary to dwell on a distinction substance. obvious. No man, it mav be said, however ignorant, can SUppo that in the phrase "a white horse," the WOra "white'' does n denote a quality belonging to the "horse;" or that in the phra " glorious victory," the word " glorious " does not denote a qua)]

belonging victor}'. No man, when he says "the sun is shinint thinks of the sun but, on the contrary, an attribute of shining considers "shining" to be an energy, or property, or quality, This is no doubt true; but unfortunately the bute of the sun.
t
i

M

;

.

have !"' u writers In modern times, who have treated the distinct!* in question as a "technical impertinence," and as resting OU " 1; philosophy, and obscure because mistaken metaphysics ;" and thei
i! it,

io

examine the arguments on which

th<

tnded.

•.

r_''..

It

has been contended thai " the substantive and adjective a rtible without the smaUtst change qf meaning" and
i

i

iii.it

ii.it

natural perversity;"
i,

we ma) now

IncUflerentij

saj

" a perver
I

surely, although

would

q

that

the person advancing such
I

an Illustration

was

altogetb

nature," mighl without offence attribute his opinio on tins particular pout, to a lit !• "natural pervei Ity." In t)
1

I


CHAP.
IV.]

OF NOUNS.

51
'

of the person in question would understand me to whole mind was tainted with the vices of obstinacy and self-willedness, that he wilfully shut his eyes against the truth,
case, the friends

assert, that

his

A4jecttv«
veri

and maintained opinions which he

knew

a description of his character, philosophy, in politics, and in religion In the Hrhich would naturally occasion them to take great offence.
rther case, they

to

lie

wrong

in literature, in

would understand me
;

eading and
I

literary acquirements, as

to give him credit for such might well have corrected what
it

look upon as an error

and they could hardly take

amiss that

I

attributed that error,

which the best latures are not wholly exempt, than to gross ignorance, or total want So much for the particular expressions quoted as jf understanding. )roof that substantives and adjectives may be convertible without the smallest change of meaning on the other hand, the well-known nstance of a " chesnut horse," and a " horse chesnut," affords an oample of a change of meaning produced by such convertibility,
rather to a slight defect, from
:

scarcely less ludicrous,
)f

than rendering into English the miles gloriosus The fact is, that in all Plautus by the phrase "military glory." nieh instances, the views taken by the mind are different, according
is it

regards the one conception, or the other, as principal

;

just as the

nan
)c

on the eastern side of the street considers the western to the opposite side whilst he who is on the western side thinks the
is
;

who

ame

may speak of a "religious life," or of of the eastern. ' vital religion." In the one case, we are considering the conception )f " life," as that which must necessarily form the basis of our asserion, and which may be diflerently viewed, according as it is put in onnexion with the conceptions of religion, irreligion, business,

We

asure,

or the like

:

in the other case,

we

'religion" as the direct object of thought,

and then

take the conception of limit it by the
as regularly be effected Be

aception of
124.
>y
ife

life,

or vitality.

It is objected, that this limitation

may

life," or " the eon of man" is exactly equivalent to "human life;" which I by no ueans deny but then it must be observed, that the sentence takes a liferent form, and instead of simple becomes complex ; the terminate m 's) or the word (of) signifies " possession," or " belonging to," and

u substantive as

by an adjective

;

and that " man's

;

gliders oik; sentence resolvable into

two.

dtion

" the

life

of man

is

precious," includes
is

For instance, the propotwo propositions

1.

Life belongs to, or Life
is

possessed by,

man.

2.
)r.

precious.

i
;

WALLIS, indeed, in his valuable English Grammar, first published 1653, treats the genitive "man's" as an adjective. He says, Adjectivum possessivum fit a quovis substantivo (siye singular!, sive fundi) addito s ut man's nature, the nature of man, nature umana vel hominis men's nature, the nature of m$nt nature humana el hominum." But no other grammarian has adopted this notion,
;

e2

52
and the principle on which
all
it

OF NOUNS.
rests,

[chap.
equally go to prove
tl

would
all

the oblique cases of substantives, in
;

languages, should be o

kes
Ui^Jv°°

Mr. Tooke has justly observed, that th although he has not noticed that this owing to the complexity of the sentences in which they are used. 125. The last-mentioned writer contends, that " the adjective equally and altogether as much the name oi a thing, as the noun si stantive." If he means by thing, a conception of the mind, he is p fectly right but if he means by thing, an external substance, such ** a horse," or " a man," or " the globe of the sun," or "a grain "Red" a the light dust of the balance," he is as clearly wrong, *« white," " soft" and " hard," " good" and " bad,"'" virtuous" t " wicked," do not represent any such things as the latter but tl do represent conceptions of the mind, some of which conceptions n be considered as belonging exclusively to external bodies, others belonging exclusively to mental existence, and others as common both. Mr. Tooke says, he has " confuted the account given of
sidered as adjectives
for
;

cases cannot stand alone

;

;

I

by Messrs. de Port Royal," who " make substance and at dent the foundation of the difierence between substantive ami adj
adjective
if so, he has confuted an account given not only by Afest de Port Royal, but by every grammarian who preceded them fr the time of Aristotle; and whatever respect may be due to abilities of Mr. Tooke, I must a little hesitate to think that he ak was right, and that so many men of extensive reading, deep reflectt and sound judgment, were all wrong. But how has he confuted Why, truly, by showing that when a conception is doctrine? regarded as a substance, it may be regarded as an attribute; and wl

tive;" but

i

t

I

regarded — " There not anyan
it is

not

as

is

attribute, it may lie regarded as a suhsmn accident whatever," says he, " which has do
Its

uiiiatical

substantive for
its

sign,

when

it is

then- any

substance whatever which
sign,

may

not attributed; noi not have a grannnati
'

adjective for
••v

when there
is

is occasion to attribute it ;

which

much

like

sa\ in-, there

not any captain whatever

who

n

not be degraded, and placed In the ranks; nor any private sold •rbatever who may not be raised from the ranks and honoured will
captain's
lin

commission; and n private

<!»</

thsrtfbn there

is

no different licturcn
arc

tolditr.

The premises
l

incontestable;

I

only bull

they have nothing to do with the conclusion, irily vindicated the principle
I

i

1;

down by
tint

Aristotle,

of .Mr. Tooke,

and adopted by all grammarians from his tunc vi/., tint the noun substantive is the nan

conception, considered as possessing a substantial, that is, independi the noun adjective is the name of a conception, con tide]
:

as a quality

,

or attribute of

tl"'

former,

(

53

)

CHAPTER

V.

OF NOUXS SUBSTANTIVE.
26.
tre

Tje

accounts given by different writers of the noun substantive
different.

Various

According to Tooke, it would seem, that vith exception of the verb (if even that be excepted) the noun sub.tantive is to be considered as the only part of speech; whilst a went writer (Mr. Kavanagh) says " there are no such words as subitantives," and he afterwards maintains that the words called subtantives are " adjectives in the fourth degree of comparison." Harris,
remarkably
;

Lowth, S.Johnson, L. Murray and others, consider the substantive as Vossius and most earlier writers consider, as I have the only noun lone, that the term noun comprehends both substantive and adjective. definifa this conflict of opinions, it is no wonder that the various tions of substantive, or noun substantive, are not easily reconcilable
it is a noun of one, or at most two genders, noun adjective, which has three. This defiand is not cor'nition has nothing to do with Universal Grammar A. Caucius ,rect, even in the Latin language, to which he refers. " quod defines a substantive that which signifies something by itself, But this definition may as well be applied aliquid per se significat." to adjectives, verbs, or pronouns, and even to interjections, which by Vossius says, " That is themselves signify emotion, if nothing else. " subcalled a substantive which subsists by itself, in a sentence" Harris speaks stantivum dicitur quod per se subsistit, in oratione." " Substantives are all those principal words, which are signithus

together.

Frischlin says

in contradistinction to a

;

:

ficant

stantive

subLowth says, " of substances considered as substances." is the name of a thing, of whatever we conceive in any way And Dr. Johnson deto subsist, or of which we have any notion." fines substantive, " a noun betokening the thing, not a quality." 127. In each of the four last-mentioned definitions there is an ap- n>w
It is p,"^^" proach to accuracy, but neither of them is entirely satisfactory. proper to observe, with Vossius, that the grammatical character of a word is not necessarily attached to its sound, but to the function which Particular languages indeed may appropriate it performs in a sentence. certain forms to certain parts of speech, and therefore in the dictionaries of such languages we find words marked as substantives, .adjectives, adverbs, &c; as, in Latin, Dominus is a substantive, flebilis an adand these words cannot be used otherjective, prudenter an adverb wise in that language but this is matter of particular Grammar, and
:

A

;

not of universal. Again, we must agree with Harris, that substantives signify substances considered as substances ; but it must be remem-

54

OF NOUNS SUBSTANTIVE.
is

[CHAP. \

bered that the significance

not always direct.

The word

signifie

primarily the conception, and if that conception be of an extern;, Lowth introduce object, the word signifies that object secondarily.
in his definition the

tunatelv adds, by
lastly,

word " Thing," which is equivocal but he foi way of interpretation, " whatever we conceive :" an Johnson, who also employs the doubtful word " Thing,
;

limits

it,

by adding

that substantive does not betoken a quality

From

all

these considerations taken together, a

noun substantive ma

not improperly be defined " a word employed in a sentence to nam a conception, existing separately, and not involved as a quality in an
other conception."
Dis'ribution of
tntives.

128. This definition will lead to a distribution of substantives a< The easentu cording to their differences essential or accidental. differences exist in all languages, and may be classed under the head of kind and of gradation : the accidental difierences vary, as to thei mode of expression, in different languages, and these include diilei ences of number, gender, and relation. 129. The kinds of nouns substantive are differently considered b According to Harris, there are three sorts (c different grammarians. kinds) of substantives, representing as many sorts of substances, th To the natural (he says) b< natural, the artificial, and the abstract. long such words as " Animal," " Man," Alexander;" to the artificia
"Edifice," Palace," "Vatican;" and to the abstract, "Motion, " Flight," " this or that flight." This distinction, however, rests natural substance indeed may I) no sound grammatical principle. lith.'i a thing or a person, whilst an artificial substance can only be thing; hut the conception of each is contemplated by the mind a that of an individual substance limited by time and space, and existin

Kinds of
-

A

out of the mind objectively and so far as regards Universal (iranunai Loth the one and the other sustains the same part in the constructio of a sentence; for we cannot speak of many Alexanders, or man On th Vatican*, otherwise than by a rhetorical figure of speech. other head, the kinds of substatire, which Harris calls natural, e> " Annual," " Man," or the artificial, a d by such words " Edifice, " Palace," without some definitive word or particle t
;

m

Individualise them, are neither

individual things nor persons, and ai

not limited by time or space, nor have they
in

any objective prototype

the external world, but the\ are subjective conceptions Ot the mini
in this

agreeing,
'

180.

It

respect, with the conceptions expressed by the word or " Bight," w here ion various logical distinction

UDMOMMn
Oi

t

.

»

<

I

<

1

1

applicable £o

r*

Complex," WOrdS "

ntivej such at those of words "simple an tin Bl A intention, and of the second intei
I

mean b\ th Bui that difference of substantives, which difference oi kind, i-> U-tween then- expressing conceptions of /"«/// To this, the andei Impression, and conosptioni of tntmtal action. in mi M -and 1)io.mi;iii;s alluded, when they defined

CHAP.

V.J

OF NOUNS SUBSTANTIVE.
signifying a

55

noun a part of speech
" pars orationis
this also rests the

thing orporeal or incorporeal,

rem corporalem vel incorporalem :" and on popular and ordinary distinction between I Thing and a Thought, as well as the more learned distinction between phtenonwua and noumena. This difference of kind, indeed, is denied by some persons to exist. They say that we can have no conceptions but those of bodily impression that nouns are only the names of
significants
;

Things; and that there being (as they think) no incorporeal things existing, or at least none cognizable by human faculties, there cannot be any noun signifying an incorporeal thing. I answer, that Universal Grammar, as I understand it, rejects alike the two extreme theories, that everything is mind, and that everything is matter. It agrees with the common sense, and common experience of mankind, in assuming that there are certain Things, or objects external to us, and certain Thoughts, or mental acts, which we experience internally. Of both these, the human mind forms conceptions: and to conceptions of each kind names are attached, which names, when the conceptions are contemplated as existing substantially, are nouns substantive. 181. Those nouns substantive, which siniplv express conceptions

s>,

of things external to us are necessarily particular ; those which ex-^SSSSamT press mental acts, whether employed on the generalization of external things, or on the internal operations of the mind, are either general or

Alexander was a particular human being, and the Vatican but the word Conqueror designates a general conception of the mind applicable to Alexander and many other human beings, and the word Palace designates a conception of the mind applicable to the Vatican and many other buildings. Hence arises the ordinary distinction of grammarians between nouns substantive proper, and common, or, as some say, proper and appellative; a distinction marked by Varro with the terms nomina and vocabula, and answering to the logical distinction of words singular and comuniversal.
is

a particular building

;

mon.
182.

A

noun substantive proper

is

a

name of

the conception of a

particular Thing. It must be remembered that our English word " Thing " may be used in different senses, and particularly in two,
viz., first, as any external object contradistinguished to " Thought ;" and secondly, as an external object not personal, contradistinguished

substantives proper *

to

" Person." I here use it in the former sense, including either an Inanimate mass, for instance Mount Etna, or a person, for instance William the Concpieror. Every such particular thing, whether viewed
as present,

remembered

as past, or

imagined as possible,

is

considered

to be always identical.

Etna is, to the present gaze, the same vast mountain mass, which lias towered over the surrounding region for Bges beyond historical record William lives, in memory, as the same bold warrior, who nearly eight centuries ago won the battle of Hastings, and with it the crown of England and so long as our language lasts, even the fictitious Hamlet will remain the same wondrous creature of
;
;

56

OF NOUNS SUBSTANTIVE.

[CHAP. V.

the mighty dramatist's imagination, as when he fiist formed it from his rude materials. I sav, the noun substantive proper is the name

not of a thing, but of the conception of a thing ; for though it would idle scepticism to doubt whether such a mountain as Etna exists, or whether such a warrior as William the Conqueror evei existed, yet it must be remembered that words (as has before been shown) represent primarily our thoughts, and secondarily the external I speak of Etna such objects of our thoughts, when anv such exist. as I conceive it to be, and of William such as I conceive him to have been and hence arises one great source of misapprehension among men, when one man has formed a certain conception of a particulai

be an

;

Examples
formation,

and another man has formed of the same particular thing a very different conception. 133. This will be the more obvious, when we consider how oui They are not conceptions of particular external objects are formed. stamped on the mind by the objects, as an impression is stamped on Wax by a seal for, if so, every man's conception of the same object would be precisely the same, which is certainly not the case. But Let us supthe process which takes place may be thus illustrated. pose that a lofty mountain existed long ago in Sicily, and still exists there and that the first person who gave it the name of Etna had previously seen it; how came he to give it a name? Because he had formed a conception of it. And how came he to form such a conception? Because he had seen the mountain, as a distinct, external thing. But what is seeing? An affection of the nerves of the Now it never happens, when we see any one thing distinctly, aye. that it equally affects all the nerves of the eye. Therefore, \\ hen the " Mountain was first seen, other things were also seen. What was It that distinguished those different affections of the eye into murks,
thing,
; ;

signs, or

thoughts of diflorent things

?

What was

it

that

made

the

" Mountain,"
vig faculty.

in particular, a thing, in

the contemplation of the

tliink-

Could

neb

by an

act of the thinking faculty itself?

an effect have been produced otherwise than And if this was an act oi

was parent of the thing, so tar, grammar can haw anything to do with it, namely, as capable nown to the mind, and eoinmiinieal ile 1>\ u pmttM this Investigation a little further. The word " Mountain" does not. ligfiifj I thing only seen at one moment of our lives let us suppose, then, that we do in fad see the MffM iiioiiiitain several Lime;; mil-,!, necessarily happen, that we see under very dillennt circumstances. As we isprotcfl i". or recede from it, ever] step makes it affect the eye differently, both i to form and colour. \\ bat
the thinking faculty, then the thought

at least, as
i

1

.

1

1

1

l.

:

!

it

it,

t

that

-.till

makes

aions as one thing t iii a second degree, the thought
!

us ffflmHff the rail .e of these different illlpresl'lainlv the thinking fnultv so that here again,
;

is

parent of the thing;

and, he

it

observed, that

it

li

not

until
v\'c

alter

this

secondary

process has been

pealed, that

give the thing a name.

Now,

what, are

;

CHAP. V.]

OF NOUNS SUBSTANTIVE.

57

the acts of the thinking faculty, by which we form the conception of The applying to it certain laics this external object as one thing? of the mind, which enable us to discriminate not only between

By certain laws of the mind we know thoughts, but between things. that an object subtending a given angle at a given distance is of a cercontemplated by us, approximate to it more or less we cannot think the directly contrary. In like manner the laws of similarity, of contrast, of association, &c, enable us to say that the top of the mountain is white with snow, or tinged with a roseate hue from the beams of dawn, that the sides are dark with groves of ilex, the lower declivities bright with verdure ; and 1 >v another law of our nature, we know that all these and numberless other impressions of sense are bound up together in one vast material mass forming the particular object, which we call by the proper name of Etna. 134. It has been truly observed by Mr. Locke, that "it is im,. ,, possible that every particular thing should have a distinct peculiar name ; for the signification and use of words depending on that contain altitude.

The law may not be

distinctly

but

it

so far governs our judgments that
;

we must

iii

i

i

liii

Proper nam** cannot form « language,

sounds which

mind makes between its internal operations and the uses as signs of them, it is necessary, in the application of names to things, that the mind should have distinct conceptions
nection which the
it

of the things, and retain also the particular name that belongs to every one, with its peculiar appropriation to that conception. But it is beyond the power of human capacity to frame and retain distinct conceptions of all the particular things we meet with ; every bird and beast men saw, every tree and plant that affected the senses, could not find a place in the most capacious understanding. If it be looked on as an instance of a prodigious memory, that some generals have been able to call every soldier in their army by his proper name, we may
easily find a reason

why men have never attempted to give names to each sheep in their flock, or crow that flies over their heads, much less to call every leaf of plants, or grain of sand, that came in their wav, by a peculiar name." So far Mr. Locke, in which quotation I have onlv takeji the liberty to substitute for the word ideas, in one place internal
operations,

and in two others conceptions. The reasoning, however, is not affected by this change, and it is such reasoning as must carry conviction to every mind. I also agree fully with this writer, that to name every particular thing, if possible, would be useless for the purpose of communicating thought, unless every man could first teach the whole of his own endless vocabulary to every other man with whom he conversed, or for whose information he wrote. And again, supposing even this possible, it would not conduce at all to science for as Aristotle has said, " of particular things there is neither definition nor demonstration, and consequently no science, since all definition
is in its

nature universal."

135. Proper names are therefore comparatively few in number. Sometime* They serve to denote a very small part of the immense multitude of common.


58
particular objects

OF XOUXS SUBSTANTIVE.

[CIIAr. V.

which

fall

under our observation.

Some of
;

these,

indeed, obtain a distinguished celebrity within a small circle
are

they

— — Talked of
>

far

and near

at

home.

raise them to a prouder eminence. He may render them the symbols or representatives of It is thus that " Alexander" the classes to which they belong. becomes the synonym of a conqueror, and " Cicero" of an orator. Even proper names, however, have in general been given to individuals from some quality or action not strictly peculiar to them. Hence the old English rhyme alluded to by Veestegax, in relation to the family name of Smith

But

the poet, the orator, or the historian,

may

Whence oometh Smith, albe lie knight or squire, But from the Smith, that amitetA at the lire?
Nevertheless
it

must be admitted,

that the

common

notion
that

is

soon

lost in the particular application.

Few

people

reflect,

Georgt

originally signified

" a husbandman," or that Charles and Andrea both signified " manly" or " strong," the former from its Gothic, the These names have now come to latter from its Grecian etymology. indicate individuals; and as even thus a single word is not found to answer the purpose sufficiently, we have the baptismal name and suras the Romans had the proenomen, the cognomen, and the ; agnomen. 136. The designation of common is usually civen by Grammarians ™ v © to all nouns substantive, except the proper. Consequently, under this term, common, are included alike words answering to general and

name
Common
Sin
.-I

til' IVt

.s

•/

tO

Universal conceptions;

to

buf these tWO classes I think consider Separately; as well because the distinction

it

advisable
in
itsell

is

extremely important; as because different writers have employed the terms expressing it in very different wa\ s. LOCKE, for instance, calls Harris uses the words all common nouns "general words." "general and inn'rersal " as svnonymoiis for he calls all common 8Ub« Oilier writers [ncef " symbols of general or universal ideas." employ the term " universal" alone (including general) as the contra
;

nt

to particular.
t
.

MllaiAlitWa*.

Those ns substantive which correspond to general concepin .ii- are names imposed on whole classes ol individual substances, 81 Man, House, Mountain; ill of winch, notwithstanding each may ha\e its n nhar qualities, agree In possessing some one or mure dis> tlnctive qualities. Mr, Locke says truly of these winds, that they an
187.
.

111

,•

i

i

i

I

i

i

.

"the inventions and creatures of the understanding;" for it is n< doubt a mental act which makes the word " Man" stand for Peter, Jami -. John, and millions of other individuals, past, present, Intuit and \ w beth to the murderers
i
i

men honnd and groj hound mon| rel Bhonghs, « •( mid demUwolvei
.

j

\

.

.

panli

I

.

i,

in

oleped

All bj

tin-

oasM

hi dogt.

— —
C1IA1'.

V.]

OF NOUN'S SUBSTANTIVE.

f>9

Yet the word "
that

man

or

Man" or " Dog" alone would not designate this Of dog, without some addition which will presently be
it

noticed.

138. Nor

is

nouns are applicable;

only to classes of corporeal substances that such Corporeal for it must be remembered that by the wojd la pawd

w

" substance, grammatically speaking, we mean not merely a material and bodily substance, which we can see, or handle, or weigh, or measure; but also any mental conception considered as having an independent and separate existence, and of which something may be affirmed or denied substantively, that is, without reference to any NotUM of this sort, other thing as its basis and necessary support. since they comprehend therefore, form the great bulk of language not onlv such words as man, house, mountain, or animal, plant,
;

ship;

but also such as
of

affection,

thought,

passion,

delight,

spoken

as individuals of a class of particular conceptions.

when Thus

BPENSEB says
What war
As
that

so cruel, or what siege so sore, which strong Affoctiona Jo ajijily Against the fort of Reason ?

So

Coleridge
All Thoughts,
all

Passions, all Delights,

mortal frame, All are hut ministers of Love.

Whatever

stirs this

139. Such words are formed by the process of generalisation described in a former chapter, and though they thus obtain a general signification, they are easily made to express a particular conception,
or a number of particulars, by adding to them a definitive, or numeral, or an attribute, as " that Mountain," " these six men," " the ruling On the other hand, they cannot passion," " the domestic affections."

1

^{j^^

^

form the subject of any proposition absolutely and universally true, however nearly it may approach to the truth. Thus it may seem at first sight that Hamlet's mother utters an universal truth, when she
says to her son

Thou know'st

'tis

common

:

all that live

must

die.

But

the instances of
;

Enoch and
if

Elijah destroy the universality of the

no such instances had occurred hitherto, it some such might not occur hereafter. Indeed, St. Paul expressly says, " we shall not all sleep," (meaning, die,) " but we shall all be changed in a moment, in the
proposition

and even

would not

necessarily

follow, that

twinkling of an eye, at the last trump." 140. The other class of nouns substantive

common, namely,

those Uatamal
C0 " tt''>UtUB

maintain) to universal conceptions, have given occasion to great diversities of opinion. To this class belong such words as " Flight," " Whiteness," " Temperance," " Motion,"

which correspond (as

I

" Colour," " Virtue," when not used as individuals of a class. These Harris considers as expressing " abstract substances," or as others
sav " abstract ideas," and Johnson
calls

them "

abstract names."


60
OF NOUNS SUBSTANTIVE.
abstract"

[CHAP.

V

But the term "
cation.

in these expressions is of equivocal signifi
is

By

some, as has been before observed, abstraction

ex

plained as a process of generalisation, by which the same attribut< being found to exist in many substances is contemplated as one sub stance, forming as it were a part of each, just as a substance callec
saccharine forms part of the sugar-cane, and of various other plants and may therefore give name to them as a class. Harris explains i somewhat differently as a refined operation of the mind, by which w< abstract any attribute from its necessary subject, and consider it apart I do not deny the possibility of either o devoid of its dependence. but they do not explain the real character of th< these operations class of nouns under consideration, namely, their universality. White ness is so called, not because it is found to exist in snow, or in lilies, oi in the foam of the sea, or in all these alike, but because it expressei the result of a certain physical law, which would exist if snow hac Tem never fallen, nor lilies blossomed, nor the sea cast up its foam. perance is a moral habit, and might be contemplated as such by person who had unfortunately passed his whole life among glutton: and drunkards. And similar observations might be made on th< other words of this class above quoted. 141. Certain modern writers have treated the nouns here callec universal, in a way which, I own, I cannot well understand.
;

i

Oadbf
Abmrict
lde

^

M

Condillac, for instance, supposes

them

to serve the purpose of

wha

he

calls

" abstract ideas;"

for

he says that " abstract ideas are onlj

On this notion, Mr. Tooke enlarges at. greal Length denominations." His several chapters on abstraction, which abound with much curiou: etymology, occupy above 400 quarto pages, in the course! of whicl h" is pleased to inform his readers, that " heaven and hell" ar<

Wha merely participles poetically embodied and substantiated." drawn from this statement, 1 know not hut Mr. Tookc's doctrine, so far as it relates to the nouns calle( It may be stated abstract, appears to me confused and contradictory.
44

practical inference is to be

I

think, in the following propositions:
1. p. M4). The verb is the noun, and something more (vol. The adjective is the noun, directed to In' joined to another noui
ii.

2.
(vol.
3.

ii.

p.

481).
participle
ha,,
is

The

the verb adjectived,
for
t

«'.

c.

"

it

has

all

that

tin

noun
4.

a.lj.rtive
<

and

lie

.same reason, viz. for the purpose

Ejection"
'i

sol. h. p,
t

K)8).

4< illy participles or adjectlvi ans substantive to which they can lie joined" (vol. ii. p. 17) Without The result of this seems to be, that when an abstract noun is:

nouns

participle

(as

Mr.
i

'I

heaven
to

is)
!*•

it

is

into

a noun iliverted

joined to another noun,

a noun and somethim bu

How far thia mode o noun to wliHi it ran Iv joined. ii td vcitluiut an;/ reasoning gOOS to show thai then ate not m the mind any lUCh ideas as 4t whTtonci," " stn Dgth," " virtue," and the like; or that thesi


CHAP. V.
OF XOUXS SUBSTANTIVE.

Gl

words do not serve to communicate anything but conceptions of solid, tangible, corporeal, substance, in an abbreviated form, must be left
for my own part, I to the determination of the judicious reader cannot see that it tends much to enlighten what may be thought obstill less does it scure, in the works of the ancient grammarians appear to me to cast a doubt on those principles, which the ancients
; ;

have stated with great clearness and precision. 142. An unicersal conception, as I have before said, is an Idea, in WeM the true and proper sense of that word; a word which was used by Plato, and according to him by his great instructor Socrates, to expr. a Law of our conceptions, a Form which they must necessarily take, or to which they must at least make some approach, before they can These laws are imbe at all distinguished the one from the other. pressed on the mind of man in the same manner as the laws of vitality, of growth, and of varied action, are impressed on his bodily organs; that is to say, they exist from the first moment of birth as faculties not yet put in action, and in that sense not innate, but capable, from the first, of development, each in its order and degree, and in that sense innate.
So from the root Springs lighter the green stalk, from thence the leaves airy, last the bright consummate flow'r Spirits odorous breathes.

«

More

Hence
that

ideas

were

termed

by
all

the

Stoics

\6yot

cnrepfiariKol,

seminal reasons,
tually,

or forms, of

natural things.

So Cudworth

says,

" the cognoscitive power of the mind contains within
as the future plant
is

itself vir-

contained in the seed,

general notions,

which unfold or discover themselves, as proper circumstances occur." So Leibnitz says, " the germs of our acquired knowledge, or in other words, our Ideas and the eternal truths resulting from them, are contained in the mind itself; nor ought we to be surprised at this; for if we examine our own consciousness, we shall find that we pos-ess in ourselves the ideas of existence, of unity, of substance, of action, and
all

other ideas of the like nature."

And

so

Thomson speaks of the

Seeds of art deep in the mind Implanted.

143. This analogy, which from
individuals,

its

truthfulness has struck so

many

£'Jj^e

suggests several important considerations regarding the class of conceptions in question. It intimates that, as on the one

which gives form to our no material quality drawn by the organs of sense from surrounding objects, but an intangible and invisible principle in the mind itself; so, on the other hand, that principle may long remain inactive, and unielt, whilst
thoughts,
is

hand, the vivifying and shaping power,

In th' unconscious breast Sleep the lethargic powers.

And

yet

it

may be

preserved
Pure
in the last recesses of the

mind,

I

;

62
and ready

OF NOUNS SUBSTANTIVE.
to burst forth into

[CHAP. V.

noble thoughts and high actions, under the invigorating impulses of the outward world. The human mind was not intended by its divine Creator, to exist in a perpetual state of solitary contemplation, or amid dreams and phantoms of its own

and be acted on, to influence and be influenced by the scenes and beings amidst which it is placed.
creating, but to act

vmLmmi
conceptions,

nature of man, spiritual, intellectual, and which regulate conceptions, and give them their appropriate forms, belong to the intellectual power, which we commonly call reason ; but those laws and forms may be applied to
tne
'

*^*

*n

tm ee f°ld

corporeal, the laics

objects as well spiritual

or corporeal, as intellectual.
is

In those of

mere
in

intellect,

indeed, their nature"

mathematical conceptions.

most obvious, and particularly Every one, who knows anything of

circle, can only exist in the mind, that it is true, necessary, absolute, universal, and entirely independent of the question of fact, whether any man ever did, or ever can receive the sensible impression of a perfect circle. And the more we dwell on this idea, the more plainly we perceive, that it not only is not furnished to the mind by the senses,

Geometry, must at once perceive that the pure idea of a

but is directly opposed to what is commonly regarded as the evidence of the senses, for both the radius and the periphery are lines which have length without breadth the centre is a point which has neither parts nor magnitude, which terminates innumerable radii without
;

being a part of any one of them, and which must remain at absolute rest, though the other extremity of a radius proceeding from it should

move with
Nevertheless

incalculable
it

rapidity

round

has been

by applying

the whole circumference. these and similar ideas to

Tf-.ii.....

sensiUe objects, that a great proportion of the physical sciences and aits have reached that high degree of perfection to which they have at present attained. 146, Universal conceptions of the highest order have been termed transcendental. This designation was confined by the old logicians
t.i

-i\

Bartended
(i

conceptions, Ens, nit, dUqvic^ umon, iwum, bowumi but it is by other writers to all conceptions, understood to exist.
that
is

priori,

prior

tit

their

application

to

sensible

impressions.

That the human mind has a power of forming such conceptions, by its Very nature, has been admitted to a greater or less extent, and
d
iu
I

various

terms,

by philosophers of
(

all

Bge8, countries,

sr. Augustin have mentioned Plato and the Stoics, called them "innate notions;" Cardinal inus, " concreated jii' "notions of the divine mind;" MKLA.NOraox, " innate fixed points," and " principles of knowledge " Lord li forms," and "ideas of the divine mind;" Sir K Diody, " universal notions;" Spinoza, "modes of thinking;" N LuiiMi/, " truths Kant, " Notions of the Reason,"
'i
1
I

.

;

:

i

" TrsAScecdentes," and "Noumena;" Duoald Stewart, " intuitive trutlu;" Abkrcbomdi froths," and M intuitive articli of


CHAP.
V.]


OF XOUXS SUBSTANTIVE.
necessities

;


63

of the mind," and "forms of first revealed to us by experience, must vet have pre-existed in order to make experience itself possible;" and WHEWELL, " fundamental ideas," from which he considers " ideal
belief;"

Coleridge, " thinking, which though

conceptions" to be derived. Nor among the ingenious physiologists of the present day are there wanting authorities for the same doctrine. Professor MULLER says, " that innate Jdeas may exist, cannot, in the slightest degree, be denied." Mr. Mayo says, " certain Truths mav

be called intuitive." And Mr. GREEK, in his Hunterian Oration of 1840, describes Ideas, as " principles, which give to the results of sensuous experience their connexion and intelligibility " " powers
predetermining and constructive" 146. The doctrine of Ideas, as

'*

intelligential acts."

first

taught by Plato, and

after-

l
t

{

m '^7

wards (though
till

less clearly)

by

his scholar Aristotle, continued to

prevail with the great majority of philosophers throughout Europe,

within less than
it

which

two centuries ago. The successive theories, by was to a great degree superseded, were these: 1. That Ideas are not acts of the mind, but separate and distinct objects which it perceives. 2. That Ideas comprise all our thoughts. 3. That Ideas (i. e. all our thoughts) are derived partly from
4.

sensation, and partly from reflection. That Ideas of reflection an mere transcripts or combinations of sensations.

That both sensations and reflections are mere bodily acts. 147. The first and apparently most simple notion of thoughts, proposed as a philosophical theory, was that they were a kind of airy
5.

Ttimwiitsmii

ttoaune."*"

shapes detached from external bodies, and senses to the mind, as Lucretius assures us
qu;c

conveyed through the

reran riwmlacra vocamus

Quff,qnaai

membrana sumnio de coqwre nran

]k'iv]>la',v<jlitant.

And again
QuippectenimnraHd nia^is ha?c stmt tenuia texto Qoain qua> perefphmt oculoa rlsnmqae Ucesaaat; Corporis bee qnoniuo penetrant per nn, ckntque Tenuem animi naturam intus.

But
avro

this

was

directly contrary to the doctrine

1

oth of Plato and
v\t)c. re

Aristotle, the

latter

of

whom
'

says, 'En-t fiiv

yap tQv uvtv

ici to »'oS»' na\ votifisioy,

in incorporeal existences, the

thinking

and the thought are the same thing." Descartes and others, who rejected the gross fiction of forms emanating from external bodies, held, nevertheless, an opinion equally irreconcilable with the doctrines of Plato and Aristotle, viz., that an idea is a substance separate from the mind; that the mind can only receive it passively,
faculty

contemplate
the

it

as the eye contemplates a picture, or

work

after

it

as

hand works after a model. " In every exercise of the mind " (says Tucker) " that which discerns is numerically and substantially

6-i
Tu..,,ne-,of

OF NOUNS SUBSTANTIVE.

[CHAP. V

from that which is discerned." "Whether this proposition b is a plain question of fact, which every human bein] can determine, if, without being led away by prevalent expressions such as " abstract ideas," " association of ideas," or the like, he wil
diilerent

true or false,

Are nr calmly and quietly appeal to his own internal experience. And thoughts different from myself? or are they my own acts? they are my own acts (which was the doctrine of Plato and Aristotle) then are they wholly capricious and accidental, or are there any laic by which they must be more or less strictly governed ? any form which they must more or less exactly assume ? If there be such law and forms of the mind, as all admit that there are of objects in tin external world ; if we can no more believe that a square is a circle or a triangle a parallelogram, than we can that the sound of a flue is the pain of the gout, or that a grain of wheat sown in the eartl will grow up an elephant; then those laws are ideas, by which ever one must be consciously or unconsciously governed in the exercise o his mental powers; and which are universally, necessarily, and ab solutely true, whether or not the circumstances, in which an indi
i

vidua!
uon
oithc *"
ea
'

is

placed, require
.

him

to call

them

into action.
'
.

148. Nothing however contributed so effectually to pervert tin •. . ,° _ , , , knowledge or this most important part ot our mental constitution, a the very vague use made of the term idea in Mr. Locke's work 01 the Human Understanding. By employing it for all modes and formi of thought without distinction, he introduced into the philosophy the human mind much the same sort of confusion as a mathematiciai would into geometry, who should inform his pupils that all figure) aie circles; and that though Euclid had given that name only t( figurei possessing certain well-defined properties, no regard should In
paid to his doctrines, nor any distinction

made between

curvilinear

and

rectilinear figures.

Unfortunately
for

for

traneous circumstances procured

Mr,

us in England certain ex Locke's book, at Its firs
either
to
its

appearance,
(natter:

a

popularity

certainly

not due

style

oj

and toe consequence! have been, first, that the original meaning of tin; tenn idea has been totally mistaken and secondly that the word has obtained the must Vague acceptation of any WOT! it in our language, ha, been supposed that Plato meanl by it ai On this assump something like the tMMaVfora of Lucretius. n hi, Dr. Johnson, as we are told by Boswell, "was particularly u indignant at th ..I the word Idsa, in the Sense Ot Notion 01
; ,

wgnify something oi mind." ©0, A BE \ n \ M an Idea is wiili reaped to things in general, what an limp- i, with reaped to object! of sight." Ami David HuMEsaya, " nit an hing can Ih; present to the miml Image ot perception j an are the only channel! destined n. receive (and convey) Tli.,e ,u|i|i,,sed mental images answer much more Sttch images."
in,

thinking
/;/(//;/.•

ll

clear, that
lie

idea could only
in

which

an

can

formed

the

1

!

.

Dearly to the

^amiffpiVu

ot*

Plato,

and

an

totally

different from


CHAP. V.]
ideas,

;

OF XOUNS SUBSTANTIVE.
class

65

of Nojj/mra ; the former being particular creations of the fancy, the latter universal laws of the intellect. As to the popular use of Idea, for thought, notion, belief,
conjecture, and, in short, for almost

which belong to the

any vague conception, subjective

can be assimilated to any Platonic term, it must be to 2o£a, opinion, which, as Plato says, is at best only a medium between knowledge and ignorance— j) 6p$)) dofafieraZv ^pow/fftwe
or objective, if
it

149. Mr. Locke certainly did not intend to expunge the notion of mind from all philosophy. By distributing ideas, as to their origin, between sensation and reflection, he no doubt meant to imply that there was, in the nature of man, an immaterial mind which reflected, as well as a material body which felt but the inevitable consequence of his own vague conceptions on the subject was to employ expressions which might be taken in different senses and accordingly the materialists, not without a plausible appearance of reason, cited him as a conclusive authority in their favour. Thus Condorcet says, I Locke fut le premier qui prouva que toutes nos idees etaient com;

Locke's
^

materialism,

;

posees de sensations." Locke, at all events, was not the first who maintained such an opinion. It was clearly that of Epicurus, as set forth

by Lucretius,

in the introduction to the
age, quae

passage before quoted,
res accipe, et

Nunc

moveant animum

unde

Quae veniunt veniant in incntem percipe paucis.

Montaigne repeats the maxim which he had heard and seems to have approved: "All knowledge is conveyed to us by the senses; they are our masters Science begins by them and is resolved into them."* Hobbes in England and Gassendi in France had held the same vague opinion before Locke's book appeared and since Locke's time it has become the distinguishing characteristic of modern mental philosophy, as professed in England by Hartley, Priestley, Darwin, Beddoes, &c, and in France by D'Alembert, Diderot, Con-

:

;

dillac,

Condorcet,

&c,

until

it

at length attained its climax in the public

atheistical lectures of

M. Comte.

Happily

this

extreme proof of

tht

insanity, to which false principles of philosophy eventually lead, has pro-

duced

in

France a reaction in favour of
is

M.

Cousin's powerful exertions

to restore the writings of Plato to their true place in public estimation.

150. Universal conceptions, that

to say, ideas,

though subjectively
are ob;

cusses of
ideas -

existing in, or rather forming the basis of the
jectively applicable to spiritual, mental,

human mind,

and corporeal substances

for

none of these can be comprehended by the mind otherwise than according to certain laws imposed on them by the Creator, which laws, as felt by the mind, are ideas. Those applicable to spiritual objects are, to us, by far the most interesting and the most important but in each class the more profoundly an idea penetrates into the first
;

principles of existence, the
faculties to

more

difficult is it for

unassisted

human

comprehend

it,

in all its clear

and comprehensive certainty
p. 275.

* Montaigne, by Hazlitt,

6G

OF XOUNS SUBSTANTIVE.

[CHAP.

'

whilst on the other hand,

ceived in the weakest minds
Transcennentaj idea
oi

some faint glimmerings of it are to be pe and there is no human being so co
;

stituted as clearly to conceive its direct contrary.
God.

151 I have said, that in the mind of man the consciousness » simple existence is the source and necessary condition of all oth powers ; and accordingly we find that at the head of the six tran cendentals above mentioned, is placed Ens, " Being." This appli
to all objects,
spiritual,

mental, and corporeal

;

but, above

all,

applies to the great
Spirits, in

Ens Entium, the Being of
live,

Beings, the Spirit

whom

" we

intellectual energies, therefore, that
is

that which oilers to

and move, and have our being." Of i we possess, the most transcendei our finite conception, however imperfectly, tl
Ruler of the Universe.
writers, that
It

idea of an

infinite, spiritual

has been sa

by very worthy and pious

"

the belief of one Almighl
i

Governor of all thing? is not an instinctive and universal principle our nature." Certainly not, if we speak of such an instinct as teach an insect to fly as soon as its wings are unfolded from their sheath, such universality as makes human beings of all ages feel the necessii of food and sleep. But this statement is wholly inconclusive, as the gradual development of ideas in the human mind. It is lil saying, that there is no pure idea of a circle ; because a child, in h early notion of roundness, does not reflect on the position of a cental point, on the equality of radii, or on that combination of centripet and centrifugal forces, which produces a circular movement or it like denying that a particular plant has within it a principle of fru tification, because it has as yet put forth only leaves, or perhaps There is not, there cai just raising its young stem from the earth. not be, such a thing as a pure atheist; but the idea of Deil y develop! itself in the human mind slowly: it is easily overlaid and perverted b the phantoms of imagination and the intellect can make but gradui approaches toward that which, in its brightness, "dark with exeat The word Goi), our Teuton of light," defies human comprehension. name li.r this adorable Being, is in its origin synonymous with 67m the idea of which, Plato, in the Gth book of the WepuMic, niaki Socrates declare to be " the moat sublime of all intellectual concej ttons;"* adding moreover to this Munition, the following remarkabl " We do not sufficiently know it; but it' we were whol] vrorcU; ignorant. dI it, then although we possessed all other knowledge in tli - i" iv,., wuiild, without this, profit us Thi " p.i, :(• cannot but lorciNy brin;; to mind the expressions of St l'an •• .-peak with tli of men and of angels, and have n< though charity, am become 88 sounding hra.s, or a tinkling cymbal." Yt
<
l

;

;

-

ii

it.

>

1

1

>

1

1

i

1

1

1

though goodnaaf (which
hf> in its infinite purit)
*

in human nature the Apostle calls charity, one element Oi the ihellali' idea of tin- Divinitjj

H

f muriit
ft*9m, ,'tt

r*Z iym'itv'lilm /ilyirrt* fiiiSnu*. «i-^ IhmtSt "tftifu JJ fth 'tfitr, itiv

Ji

ruirnt

t!

tri umKifrtc rait,**

\

t.»

in tUk

kfih

#>*•»

:

^HAP. V.]

OF NOUNS SUBSTANTIVE.

67

two other elements are essential to the mental conception of that idea, aamely, the elements of infinite Power and infinite Wisdom. And iough this be not the place for theological discussion, yet I cannot 3mit to observe, that many eminent divines have considered these elements of our finite idea of God to indicate respectively the creative Power of the Father, the enlightening Wisdom of the Son, and the inlivening Love of the Holy Spirit. 152. From that combination of Power, Wisdom, and Goodness, tvhich, in its perfection, belongs to God alone, flows the spiritual idea }f Law; which, in its application, comprehends as well " that which Grod has eternally purposed in all His outward works to observe," as I that which He has set down as expedient to be observed by all His
creatures," spiritual, intellectual,

Spiritual i.iea

°

"*

and material

;

and from which

all

human laws
)f language,

are or ought to be derived.

The development of

this

idea has never

been treated with so much depth of thought, or power by any author, ancient or modern, as by our own Richard

Hooker, in his invaluable production, the Ecclesiastical Polity; book of which, with equal truth and beauty, thus concludes I Of Law there can be no less acknowledged, than that her seat is the bosom of God, her voice the harmony of the world. All things n heaven and earth do her homage, the very least as feeling her care, and the greatest as not exempted from her power both angels and nen, and creatures of what condition soever, though each in different sort and manner, yet all with uniform consent admiring her, as the mother of their peace and joy." Thus may we see, that the more profoundly we meditate on an idea, the more prolific we shall find it x> be of new and subordinate ideas, each becoming gradually more uminous and comprehensive, as the parent idea is more distinctly «en and felt for while we dwell in awe and admiration on the idea of *n Almighty Lawgiver, not only do we obtain more elevated and philosophic views of Law, but new and clearer ideas present themselves to us of right and wrong, justice and injustice, virtue and vice, >rder and disorder, with their attendant trains of thought.
the first
;
;

153. The ideas applicable to

intellectual objects

have been differently
;

ideas or
ottfccta.

irranged, in the systems of different philosophers

for instance, in the

'Categories" of Aristotle, the " Verstandes-begriffen" of Kant, and he " Fundamental Ideas " and " Ideal Conceptions " of Dr. Whewell. Aristotle mixes together those which relate to Space and Time, with )thers which are more clearly intellectual. Kant, properly as it seems o me, separates the former from the latter, inasmuch as space and
•ime imply the existence of an external world, whereas the ideas of

imit and infinity, unity and number, substance and attribute, cause md effect, and the like, might be applied to intellectual conceptions

vithout reference to anything beyond the mind itself. It does not ;eem that the ancient, or at least the heathen philosophers, distin;uished spiritual from intellectual
ideas.

Indeed Socrates,

in the

?haedon, places the spiritual

ideas of goodness

and

justice

on the

f2

68

OF NOUNS SUBSTANTIVE.

[CHAP.

same footing, in point of reasoning, as the intellectual idea of equalit " We must necessarily have known equality" (says he), " before v first saw equal things, and became aware that they desired (as it wer
to partake of the nature of perfect equality, but
fection."*
fell short of that p< not more applicable equality, than it is to beauty, goodness, justice, and the like."']" ( the other hand, however, it will be remembered that in the passa above cited from Plato's Republic, the same Socrates is represent as attaching to the spiritual knowledge of goodness a value incoi

" And

this reasoning" (he

adds) "

is

ideas of

luiwL.

parably higher than that of any mental acquisition, 154. The remaining class of ideas consists of those which a applicable to corporeal objects. Space and time (purely and sinq
considered) do not necessarily imply the existence of any corpon

them for space may be contemplated as o vacuum, and even if portioned out and limited by lines a figures, there might be no material forms corresponding to these ; a the same might be said of ever-flowing time, if there were no cours of the stars, or revolutions of the planets, by which it could measured. But when a new idea intervenes when we suppc this idea, like all others, becomes prolific of a vj matter to exist
object corresponding to
infinite
;

•»'»"•

w

il

wul ,

train of subordinate ideas, according as we apply to it the higher idc of space, time, substance, attribute, cause, effect, &c. concei of matter as occupying space ; as enduring for a greater or less tim and as a substance holding together vario as the effect of a cause corporeal attributes, as the mind is a substance holding together vario mental attributes. From the idea of matter flows that of motk which combines the idea of force with those of time and space, in; much as it supposes a portion of matter to occupy at one time o part of space, and at another time another, and to be caused so to by some force, whether the force be such as urges the planets to mo round the sun, or such as makes the smallest conceivable atoms attr; All matter, organized and unorganized, and or repel each other. motion, voluntary and involuntary, hive their laws, which become d tinctly or indistinctly known to us by sensation and reflection* a may be contemplated either substantively in themselves, or adj.rtiv. as attributes of other substances. 16& Words whi'-h express ideas substantively, whether refer*] to spiritual, mental, or cor|Mircjil objects, are for the must part coi

We

;

prtMnded by Harris and others among " abstract substantives," ds expressing "abstract substances:" and the way in which th
.

\plaimd

is,

that " by a relinrd

operation of the mind alone,
uhj.rt,

\

abstract any attributi

and consider
Xi"" u
oidi
'

it

apa
'

'AmmmA*

o!f« Tipmt

« {«uJ/»«( ri
,

"lr«» *(»

\hiUov r»Z

* rt

T*

T' *
1

Hitrtt t« '\rm ittunfufttt,

in
*Zt i

ifiyirui pit

*ri*ra

rawr'
ti

iTvai

ri

"l<ro»,

i^u

i>)nrri(mt— t Of y»» wt() r»Z"lriv
mvriZ rtv ±ymi)*Z, ««<

X»y*t
<r.

fifii*

a«XX«»

»i

n*t

<ri{)

aur»Zrdi KuktZ,

Aw/w »

\.

iHAP. V.]

OF XOUXS SUBSTANTIVE.
its

69

dependence ;" " for instance " (says Harris). " from body ve abstract to fly, from surface the being white, and from soul the >eing temperate ;" and tlms are formed the words " Flight," " WltiteThat such an operation of the mind is possible tess," " Temperance" as I have before said), I do not deny but that it is often exercised doubt and that it accurately explains all the conceptions of which t is supposed to be the origin, and consequently all substantives laming those conceptions, appears to me more than doubtful. r 156. The term "Abstraction" is the Latin ahstractio, and the "fj£ t™£? 3reek ufaipeatc but I can find no classical authority for the tion use of either of the two latter terms, in the sense of the mental Dperation alluded to. Aristotle appears to have incidentally spoken Df geometrical magnitudes as ra il a^aiparttoc, "things abstract;" but this was merely to distinguish the reasoning part of geometry from the diagrams, or visible points, or lines, which Themistius calls vXrj ttjq ytu/^ierpiag, " the matter of geometry," in opposition to The schoolmen seem first to have used the its intellectual form. term " abstract," as opposed to " concrete." The former they defined, " quod significat formam aliquam cum exclusione subjecti,ut albedo ;" " that which signifies any form, with exclusion of its subject, as whiteness ;" the latter, " quod significat eandem formam cum ha?rentibus
levoid of
;
J

;

-

;

subjecti, ut albus ;"

" that which signifies the same form with the accompaniments of the subject, as white.'" Still this decides nothing as to the mental operation by which the conceptions in question are formed, or the manner in which they arise in the mind I therefore venture to suggest the following explanation, in conformity with the views which I have hitherto taken of the constitution of the human mind. 157. The idea of Substance is enumerated above among those which are applicable to intellectual objects but it has pleased the Almighty that man should possess not only a spirit and a mind, but also a body, which Plato (or whosoever composed the First Alcibiades) has compared to an instrument of the mind. It may also be compared to the soil, in which the spiritual and mental seeds are implanted, and the elements by which they are surrounded, and without which, as seed sown on a rock, they could never put forth their vegetative powers. Hence the idea of an intellectual substance, as an individualising principle, not limited by space, but holding together, as attributes, various mental faculties, has its contra-type in the idea of a corporeal substance, namely, matter, which, as an individualising
:

Corporrai

""k^""**

;

principle limited
tions,

by

space, holds together, as attributes, various sensa-

and elementary powers of action. These ideas of tr matter, at first vague and obscure, become by experience and observation more and more distinct conceptions, so that we can reason on them, on their parts, constitution, and elements, and hereon is founded ' the whole of Natural Philosophv.
organic,
»
i

and

158. Further, the corporeal conceptions do not at

first

come

to us corporeal
attributes.


70
OF NOUNS SUBSTANTIVE.
[CHAP. V

in the shape of substances, but of sensations, as of heat and cold, ligh and darkness, &c, all which the mind even of an infant can soon dig

tinguish

and it can form conceptions of them before it can refe ; them, as attributes, to any particular substance. Nay, even in afte life, sensations often occur, such as those of faintness, languor, ennui am or tcedium vita, of which we know neither the seat nor the cause vet we can easily reason on them as independent conceptions. In th early stages of reason, when men first look on external objects a causes of their sensations, they usually suppose the attributes of thos an objects to be similar to the sensations which they experience
; ;

hence they ascribe heat to fire, light to the sun, cold to ice, &( the Still the conceptions of heat, light, cold, &c, remain the same may be viewed in concreto or in abstracto, as the logicians say, that ii
:

Corporeal
actions.

as attributes, or as substantive conceptions. 159. What has been said of the attributes of corporeal substanc may be understood of its actions; which, indeed, are commonl

reckoned among its attributes ; as Harris, speaking of abstractor And so Falstaff humorousl says, " from body we abstract to fly." All corporeal action in ascribes to his size an " alacrity in sinking." plies motion, and the conception of motion (as has been shown) is n The conception of "flight, less an idea than that of matter is. therefore, may be considered not merely as an attribute of the flyin
body, but as a substantive conception derived from the idea ( Moreover, there are certain things, as light, heat, eta motion. tricity, magnetism, &c, of which we form substantive conception: and express them by nouns substantive, though the learned ;u by no means agreed whether they ought to be included amon corporeal substances themselves, or to be reckoned as attribute: The great discovers forms, or modes of some unknown substance. in these, and, indeed, in all branches of physical science, have bee men who traced our knowledge of the operations of Nature up to son" brigfU idea, of which their predecessors had had obscure anticipation:

but had never obtained
That sober certainty of waking
whi< h ever accompanies the
1

bliss

||.

.'MM.

mighty truth. 160. In What has been hitherto said, it must lie observed that wholly disregard the historical origin of the words expressing idea It may be, and it is true, that the Knglish word Right and the 1'iviu word limit are of the num. origin as the Latin word Rego, " rul
a
I

"Heureka" of

govern,

or

command}" but

long before any of these words uvi
In

employed

in their

present signification, there existed

the

human min

an idea of Right (still, alas! too impeilertlv understood, and too litt b\ the great mass of men) whieh is eonvl; ,[, -..ued to 1m- understood, tive With the idea of /hit;/, and, together with it, Hows from

development of the hJghtl IdeftOf LaU.
el\
ii

So

iol< igie. ill

v

connected with our
ii

common

the word Heaven may verb "to heave," or wit
I

Iwtfotl,

"the head;" but

that

there

is

a state

<


CHAP. V.J


OF NOUNS SUBSTANTIVE.


71

greater purity and happiness than can be attained in this mortal life that there is, indeed, "another and a better world," such as we believe
logies,

Heaven to be is an idea wholly independent of these etymoand which even the most barbarous nations have in all ages
General and
not to
i*-

been found to cherish. 161. I have dwelt at some length on the doctrine of Ideas, not only because the gross misuse of the word Idea has become so inveterate, since the time of Mr. Locke, in our literature, but because a dear understanding of it will correct a confusion very injurious to By the grammatical science between the terms general and universal. former we imply that which is equally common to many individuals, n and which therefore may be particularised, as " a man," " a slave by the latter, that which is absolutely and simply true, whether it can be applied or not to any existing individual, as " manliness, " slavery."
;

c<mloumled

These two classes of words are not always distinguishable by their form, but always by their meaning in the sentence in which they are employed. Thus " man " is a general word, when King Henry
says

Wish not a man from England. would not lose so great an honour, As one man more methinks would share from me,
God's peace
!

I

For the best hope

I

have.

But

Isabella

employs

it

as an universal in her passionate exclamation

Man, proud Man, Drest in a little brief authority, Plays such fantastic tricks before high Heav'n

As make

the angels

weep

!

And, on the other hand, the word " Right "
false,

is

an universal in the bold,

and wicked, but too prevalent assertion
That what makes the right and wrong, Is a short sword and a long,

Or

a

weak arm and a

strong.

v

becomes merely a general word in the Bill of Rights, where the Lords and Commons of England, after setting forth thirteen specific declarations, " claim, demand, and insist upon all and singular

But

it

far the the premises as their undoubted rights and liberties." distinction between general and universal words may be grammatically

How

by the construction of a sentence, will be noticed hereafter. Logicians term the words indiscriminately " common," which I have
indicated
either

and a proposition in which ; Formally, be the major of a syllogism. therefore, the two classes agree, but materially they differ ; for to general words, strictly speaking, belong only probable arguments, whereas demonstration requires universals. 162. Thus have I considered the first essential distinction of
distinguished as general and universal
is

predicated

may

Gradation.

substantives, that of kind.
tion, that

of gradation,

come now to the other essential distincby which I mean that order or arrangement oi
I

72

OF NOUNS SUBSTANTIVE.

[CHAP. V

conceptions, and consequently of the

Harris refers
substances,
vidual."

when he
animal
is

says,

their genus, their species,

to whic " those several (kinds of) substances hav and their individuals ; for example, in nature

words naming them,

a genus,

man

Of

these three distinctions,

a species, Alexander an ind logicians rank the two firs

among

the five predicables, genus, species, differentia, proprium, an that is to say, they hold that whatever is predicated (o : asserted) of anything must be predicated of it as falling under one c
accidens

"™»
'i.

i

'"'i

•ubonLna,n

Omitting for the present to notice the thre observe, that an individual, which, strictl speaking, is only an object designated by a proper name, as Alexandei Vatican, Etna, may be classed under a species by possessing some on or more qualities common to it, with all other individuals of th same species, as Alexander agrees with John and others in the qual ties of a man the Vatican with the Tuileries and others in those of and Etna with Vesuvius and others in those of a volcanc palace And again, that a species may be classed under a genus In- possossin some one or more qualities common to it with all others of the sam genus, as the species man falls under the genus animal by possessin sensibility; the species palace under the genus edifice by possessin construction ; and the species volcano under the genus mountain b' possessing height. But as there is no one external object which pole) aiil exclusively answers to the terms man or animal, palace or edifice volcano or mountain, it is clear that these are conceptions of th mind, and that the nouns substantive naming them must be not prope but common,* that is, either general or universal. 163. Harris and others speak only of the three gradations abOT mentioned, gentlS, species, and individual but it is easy to see tha
these five distinctions.
last predicables,

I

may

;

;

1

;

the intermediate gradation

Thus

be practically multiplied to any extent by an operation of the mind we may divide the species man [nt
free

may

Greek and barbarian, governors am being the genus, created being the fin species, organised being the second, animal the third, and so down " Every genus," says Harris, "ma; ward-, in regular subordination. <• found whole and entire in each one of its species; for thus man horse, and dog are each of them distinctly a complete animal." An< "erai tpedei ma* be found whole and entire in each one o
white and black, governed; or we

and

slave,

may make

I

i.

cUvidunls

;

for

them completely and
Plato
*
In

thus Socrates, Plato, and Xenophon are each o " This," he adds, "is wlm distinctly a man."

ivlui) lie talks (in the
1 1
-

hav* axprated, in a manner somewhat mysterious Sophist) of ^mtr 'hVur hit noXXwv, ti oc tu'irrn
'i.-

1

1

-

ili''

predii

of every proposition
'.ii

nflirtiititi
'

'i.

"ili.

i

,

«nc
In

h in
'

"John
i

i;

ii.iini',

in

i-H'i'i't

'i.

iiiiiioii
I,

must lie in effect a common word William is merely to say (hat tuoiiatnr; itn a i>i"|>«> Iii ii.' Indh i'lnal. not William," tii.- predicate, though formally i props lli.' Mtertion I"! amount, to llian .(..linn: 10M
i.
i

lliat

I

|

I

i

or Philip, or urn/ i.lhrr
'

/..r,v../i
J

im.l

in this ninliliiT it nwij

bf Mi

•'.•

<n.

i

.i!is.-.|.


REAP. V.J
Ktifiiru
bird

OF NOUNS SUBSTANTIVE.

7o

ywplc, -navvy CLartTafiivrfv kcu 7ro\\ae iripac ii\\t)\wv Now there is really no mystery in t£iodev irtpuyo^ivaq. these expressions to any one who has well studied the use of the word idea by Plato ; for he is speaking of an accurate reasoner, one who understands the proper method " of dividing by genera, and neither supposes one species to be another, nor the latter to be

pae

" Such a person," Plato says, "will clearly discern the former."* one idea spreading through many things widely separated from each other, and will perceive that those many separate things are held together under one." If any illustrated, 1G4. The philosopher's remark may be thus illustrated: person should profoundly meditate (as Hooker did) on the generic idea of law, and should know how to divide its species with perfect accuracy into the law divine, revealed and rational, the laws of nature, of nations, and of separate polities, civil and ecclesiastical, assigning to each its due limits, he would clearly perceive that this generic idea pervades all its species, and that all the works of the Creator and of man must alike conform to it, or perish. For want of this animating principle in human laws it is

That mighty States characterless are grated

To dusty

nothing.

happen, if we could suppose a like defection from the laws of nature, has been admirably described by the great authoi of the Ecclesiastical Polity himself " If those principal and mothei elements," says he, " whereof all things in this lower world are made, should lose the qualities which now they have ; if the frame of that heavenly arch erected over our heads should loosen and dissolve itself; if celestial spheres should forget their wonted motions, and by irregular volubility turn themselves any way as it might happen ; if the prince of the lights of heaven, which now as a giant doth run his unwearied course, should, as it were through a languishing faintness, begin to stand and to rest himself; if the moon should wander from her beaten way the times and seasons of the year blend themselves by disordered and confused mixture the winds breathe out their last gasp the clouds yield no rain ; the earth be defeated of heavenly

And what must

;

;

;

influence;

the fruits of the earth pine away, as children at the withered breasts of their mothers no longer able to yield them relief, what would become of man himself? See we not plainly that obedience of creatures unto the law of nature is the stay of the whole

world?"
165. There are two modes then of acquiring knowledge, with refer- Proceedm* ence to the distinction of genus, species, and individual, the ascending tomefe*?" and the descending mode ; and these have been explained or typi- ^Jl°e fied in various ways, as by the Arbor Porphyriana of logicians, the
Zeiprj x,ov<7£t»7 of the poet,

and the Ladder of the

patriarch's dream.
IftgM
«»

To Kara y%in

oiaioiitrHai, x.x) u,r,rt retire* iTSas

irsjav, Yiyn<rair6a.i, fttirt

74

OF NOUNS SUBSTANTIVE.

[CHAP. V

Porphyry, an eminent philosopher of the third century, in his Isagogt or introduction to the five predicables above enumerated, thus form a scale (usually figured as a tree), viz., Socrates, Homo, rationale animal, vivens, Corpus, Substantia; according to which we ma ascend from the individual, Socrates, to the genus, substance ; c
descend, vice versa.
describes the golden chain

Homer, in Chapman's spirited translation, thu by which Jove holds all things suspended-

Let down our Golden Chain, And at it let all Deities their utmost strengths constrain To draw me to the Earth from Heav'n you never shall
;

prevail,

Though with your most contention ye dare my state assail. But when my will shall be dispos'd to draw you all to me,
Ev'n with the Earth itself and Seas, ye shall enforced be. Then will I to Olympus' top our virtuous engine bind, And by it ev'ry thing shall hang, by my command inclin'd.

The patriarch Jacob, in his dream at Luz (afterwards called Bethel^ " beheld a ladder set up on the earth, and the top of it reached t heaven he saw the angels of the Lord ascending and descending c Ever it; and the Lord stood above it." (Genes, xxviii. 12, 13.)
;

tree, every link of the chain, every step of the ladde: beginning at the lowest, brings us nearer to the source of all knov ledge, until we reach

branch of the

Things not reveal'd, which the Invisible King, Only Omniscient, hath supprest in Night.

In which belief of a wisdom beyond human attainment our grej poet agrees with Plato, who intimates that as the bodily eyes the generality of men are unable to look steadily at the clear mer dian sun, so their mental eyes, contemplating the divine light, ai On the other hand, the knowledj unable to sustain its splendour.* which begins from the highest intelligible genus, and descends in i gradation through subordinate species (as has been above exemplify
<

i*mrtip«i

Kniutiun.

To tl of law) is also of inestimable value to mankind. former belongs inductive science, to the latter demonstrative; the are the two wings of the human mind, and he who attempts to f with either alone will efiect but an Imperfect and limited flight. 166. The practical utility of a wdi formed gradation from an Inc vidua! through successive species to a genus, or the contrary, may 1 The general aim and object of the process thai briefly explained. to acquire sonic kn<>\\ l.d " (hat may he useful, not only on one occ
in the idea

m botOO all similar occasions; to know some truth which may Q onlv apply t<» PctSf OC John, but to all persons who resemble l'ct or John; hut this cannot he .lone unless we have a comiii.ni woi which implicH that resemblance, and the persons in question cann resemble etofa Other hut by relation to some common conceptio
.si.

which does not neces anl\ helmig to any one of them more than That common conception therefore supplies the clSfl anv otlnr.

T« y*(

rni t£» «Vx.X*» ^i/"tS« S/tftara K«{Ti{i<V
I"'.

irjof

to Bi7«» afo^uvra at

Mr«.

M,

I'M,..;

;

CHAP. V.]

OF NOUNS SUBSTANTIVE.

75

Thus Peter, James, and •word, which renders the truth common. Andrew may be slaves ; the conception of slavery therefore is common
to

them

all,

relation to Peter,

and whatever is universally true of James, and Andrew, but to

it is

true not only with

all

others

who

are, or

have been, or may be, in the state of life expressed by the word slave. Again, a slave and a free citizen agree in this, that they are subjects a subject and a sovereign in this, that they are men ; a man and a
beast in
this,

that they are animals.

Now

all

these conceptions, to

and animal nature, are so many mental conceptions or ideas, and they are regularly subordinated, one to another, in a certain gradation, according as they are viewed by the mind which view is determined, not by any accidental impression received from the senses, but, on the contrary, by the general truth of which the understanding is in search. Thus, if I am in search of some truth relative to the state of slavery, I may consider the conception of slave as a genus, and divide it into the species of domestic, or if I wish to reason on political, absolute, limited, and the like animal nature, I may regard animal as the genus, and man, beast, In like manner I may consider an angle as bird, fish, &c. as species. a genus, and right, acute, and obtuse angles as species. 167. They who think that we can have no conceptions but those Certainty, of bodily impression, that there is no substance but matter, and that sensation and reflection are alike bodily acts, will of course contend that there can be no truth or certainty in the mental conceptions which we call genera and species, and consequently no precise meaning in the words by which they are signified, inasmuch as there is no exBut an external ternal standard to which they can be referred. standard, to which there are no means of referring, is in fact no standard at all. Now this must happen, in the great majority of cases, with No sooner have I seen " Peter " or regard to corporeal conceptions. " John," than he may take his departure. Shall I then say he is a nonentity ? And what has truth or certainty to do with external do, in fact, attain greater existence, more than with internal? certainty, and are more confidently persuaded of truth, in regard to some mental, than we possibly can in regard to any corporeal conceptions. Mathematical demonstration is proverbially clear and unquestionable but mathematical demonstration is carried on solely by means of ideal conceptions. If men were to trust to physical measurement, aided by the very nicest instruments, they might be emwit, slavery, subjection,

human

nature,

;

;

We

;

ployed for ages before they could
angles.

satisfy

themselves that the three

angles of a right-lined triangle were universally equal to

two

right

168. The species is to the genus as the individual is to the species. it is, that though (as I have said) an individual, strictly speaking, is an object designated by a proper name, yet a species, though necessarily designated as such by a common noun, may be' contemplated as an individual, with reference to the genus to which

Species
individual,

Hence

7G

OF NOUNS SUBSTANTIVE.

[CHAP.

V

conceptions of virtue and modesty, separately conit belongs. but if the latter be contemplated sidered, may be regarded as genera When only as a species of the former, it may be individualised.
;

The

Hamlet says

to his guilty mother,

Assume a virtue,

if

you have

it

not,

he alludes to modesty as one of several species of the genus virtue. Again, when we say, " Virtue is its own reward," we speak of virtue On this principle as one of the several species of the genus reward. we may correct what seems to be an error of the learned grammarians of Port Royal, and of M. Dumarsais. " There are nouns," say Messrs. de Port Royal, " which pass for substantives, but are really adjectives, " and M. Dumarsais says, in Physician King,' Philosopher,' as Now it surely the phrase " Louis is king," king is an adjective. would be more correct to say that the words alluded to are substantives common, signifying species or genera, of which the person indiLouis was an individual of the species king, cated is an individual. and genus ruler. Davy was an individual of the species chemist, and Condillac says that when a genus natural philosopher, and so forth. substantive is the attribute (he means the predicate), it is the more general of the two terms. Now, this is true with reference to the When we say " Time particular view taken at the time of speaking. is money," we do not mean to use the words time and money both
'
' ; '

as

universal*, implying genera, so as to
identical

make

the proposition merely

an

one; but we suppose the word money to be employee
:

symbolically as a genus, including all the means of acquiring whatsoever men deem valuable we regard time as a species of thai genus, and we might continue the gradations thus, Time is money, Money ii power, Power is happiness. So when we say li Gratitude is justice,'
it is one o: gratitude is a species of the genus justice forms of rendering xuiim citiifiu; such as punishing crime, rewarding merit, paying B debt, returning a kindness, fa lii'.'. md From what has been said it will be manifest that a genu an idea including various species, not as a day includes an hour, or a: mile includes an inch that is to say, as a given measurable portioi Of tiflM OK space, matter or motion, luit as involving conceptions of This distinction < 'icer< lower order and less comprehensive nature. expresses liy the words I'mii/iniuul Divisio. " In partilione," sayfl he

we mean, tin- many

that

:

-

i.-

;

|

"<)iiasi

mlna Hint, Ut
osetera.

corporis, caput, humeri,

manus,

latent, crura

mom,

In divisione
has
in

forma

sunt,

<|u,is aostrl

species appellant

Formal sunt

in

qoaa

gi

dm,

sine alllua pretermissione, dividitor

To

legem, morem, nqnitatem, dividat." (Topic 6, 7." partition, rather than to difieion, belongs the class of nouns callei mult it iuli\ cucli of which, though it roproaentB a ntunber o
quia joa,
finite

or iudetinite,

still

represents

them

its

one thing

;

of

thii

urny,"
I,"

" a

flock."

" a regiment," "a troop," "a nation,' Those writers who have not well compre

linided the distinction of genus .md mectee, have sometimes explains

CHAP, v.]

OF NOUNS SUBSTANTIVE.
;

77

that is to the words representing them as mere nouns of multitude say, "as representatives of many particular things," instead of being
representatives of an idea

common

to those particular things.

170. Having thus considered the essential distinctions of nouns Number, substantive, viz., kind and gradation, I have next to speak of the
accidental distinctions, viz., number, gender, and relation or case. Whatever is accidental may, or may not, be viewed in connection with

that which
or

is

essential.

Thus the conception of ideas of number may
with other conceptions, as that of

may not be viewed
or

in connection

" whiteness," or "sun," or "star;" and if viewed in connection with any one of these, the complex conception may be expressed by a single word, or by two words, as happens in regard to other combinations of ideas; thus as "saint" is a single word, including the conceptions expressed by the two words, " holy " and " man," so the word " horses " includes the conceptions expressed by the words "horse" and " number." 171. In order to understand when the conceptions of number can, whence and when they cannot, be added to other conceptions, we must conFor this purpose I cannot refer to a more sider what the former are.
sometimes called but the whole passage is too long to be extracted, and I should do it injustice were I to exhibit it in an imperfect state. Suffice it to say that Plato agrees with Mr. Locke in asserting that " number is the simplest and most universal idea," for unity itself is in this sense the origin of all our ideas of number. But the latter philosopher is by no means correct in saying that " its modes are made by addition " for we might as well say that they were made by division, or by subtraction, or by multiplication since addition is, equally with each of the others, one of the powers ol numbers, and presupposes the idea which Mr. Locke imagines it to produce. He says, " by repeating this idea (viz., of unity) in our minds, and adding the repetitions togetJier, we come by the complex ideas of the modes of it. Thus by adding one to one we have the complex idea of a couple." Very true, by adding but not by simply John is one, and repeating, which is a totally different operation. What Peter is one, and Henry is one but one is not two, or three.
satisfactory or better authority than Plato's Epinornis,

" man,"

the Thirteenth

Book on Laws

;

;

;

;

;

two or three ? Certainly not the bare act of repeating one, one, one ; for children and idiots who cannot reckon three, can do this and M. de la Condamine mentions whole tribes of savages who cannot reckon beyond three, though certainly they could
ideas of
:

makes me then acquire the

repeat one, two, three, all the day long. There must, then, be something in the nature of the ideas of number without which it would be

impossible for us to " add one to one," and thence to obtain " the complex idea of number." Now, this consists in the still more general nature of all ideas, and in that power, which they have, to grow and multiply by contemplation. Thus, if we enumerate John, and Richard, and Henry, and William, and James, and Edward, and so forth, the

78

OF NOUNS SUBSTANTIVE.
is

[CHAP. V
not merely unity

very slightest attention will show us that there but multitude, or the idea of number in its most
threes, or fours,
it

indistinct

in order to distinguish this multitude into given

form ; bu numbers, as twos
;

will

be necessary to

refer

each conception to son*
are tall

other.

Thus

these two,

John and Richard,
;

these three

Henry, William, and James, are short or these three, John, an< these two, William ant Richard, and Henry, stand in the first line James, stand in the second; or the first, John, is counted on th thumb the second, Richard, on the fore finger the third, Henry, oj the fourth, William, on the finger next beyond th the middle finger middle and the fifth, James, on the little finger. This last mode o sorting and classing conceptions has been very generally adopted b; mankind, whence the Greek word irifxira^uv, " to reckon by fives,'
; ; ; ; ;

was used

for

"to number."

Some
;

barbarous tribes never went beyon<

nations employed both hands
are
piurni

; whereas the more cultivate! and this latter mode is the origin o our decimal system of arithmetic, and explains why the numeral figure

the use of one hand for this purpose

still

called digits, that

is,

fingers,

172. I have observed that the first conception of number is simply that it is something beyond, and different from, unity ; that it is unit; repeated, or multitude. Thus far most nations have gone, in expressing by one word, the combination of number with any given conception and this variation in the noun is called, by grammarians, the plura number. The plural number usually differs from the singular in form either by the use of a word altogether different, as " pig and swine
:

:

or by a change in articulation, as "man and men;" or by a syllable added, as " horse and horses," " ox and oxen ;" but as the variety » these forms proves that no one of them is essentially necessary both experience and reflection will show that no change whatever necessary in the noun itself, provided that some other won! serves U show us that the noun is used with reference to plurality; thus English we say " fifty sheep" and " fifty head of cattle;" and so Latin the genitive and dative cases singular, and nominative ttt
;
i

ii

ii

vocative plan] of the
ll'.\.

first

declension, are identical.

which the noun expresses unity of conception but, would not lie possible for nouns t< is called the singular number have a separate inlleetion for every separate conception of Dumber, the Therefore, they canno could be combined with them by the mind. have separate farms for the du<th knot, mtattndl numbers, and so on ltd uiiiiiiiiuu but, tor some of these numbers they may. Experience indeed, bsi OOf Shown OS the! Ihey have ever gone beyond the duct Certain writer: number; and that has n done by very few nations.

The form

in

j

it,

;

I

on
of

this

and

oilier

matters concerning language, as
a
all

if

the formatioi

dillcrciit
II

dialect;
is

were

matter

of premeditation and study
in

whereas
,

oerteln that

languages,

their early state,

grow

u]

without meditation os reflection, and that the cultivation and poushinj ot it Noi results of s nation';, civilization. language ii one of the h
I

;

CHAP. V.]

OK NOUNS SUBSTANTIVE.

79

can this be otherwise ; for ideas, themselves in practice, and guide our mental operations, just as animal laws direct our bodily actions, long before we suspect either of them walk, and dance, and ride, according to the laws of to exist. gravitation ; we swim by the principles of hydrostatics ; we form and express thoughts by the laws of conception, assertion, and conclusion but it is not until long after we have submitted to those laws, that we begin to take cognizance of them as distinct objects of thought

which are the laws of mind, develop

We

the last operation of the human intellect is that by which it separates itself from outward things, and discovers wr ithin its own
for

nature a world of beauty and order, which even more than this wondrous body of man with all its curious apparatus, chemical and mechanical, more than this terraqueous globe with its animal and vegetable and mineral riches, more than the sun " looking from his
sole

dominion," or even than the countless numbers of the heavenly

host peopling interminable space, discovers to our finite comprehension the traces of that Deity, who cannot be more fully revealed but by his

own

divine word.

174.

Thus

it is,

that in intellectual, as in moral speculation, our Absolut*
trut
'"

simplest conceptions are most closely connected with that absolute

which Mr. Tooke altogether denies the existence. " supposes mankind for whom, and by whom alone, the word is formed. If no man, no truth. There is, therefore, no such unless mankind, such thing as eternal, immutable, everlasting Truth as they are at present, be also eternal, immutable, and everlasting. Two persons may contradict each other, and yet both speak truth." This is not only not common sense, but it is very bad logic. The argument runs thus A man trowed or believed something to exist he used the word "troweth, troth, or truth," to express this belief;
truth, of

" Truth,"

savs he,

;

:

;

therefore no such thing existed.
different things existed
;

Again, two

men

believed that

two

they both used the same word to express the same belief: therefore the belief of both was equally well founded. Turn Mr. Tooke's sentences how we will, they come to this sort of reasoning, and can only be accounted for by his loose and hasty conception of the word thing ; which as he uses it, corresponds exactly to Mods. Condillac's object, and to Mr. Locke's idea ; and really means nothing ; that is to say, nothing certain, definite, or intelligible. 175. That the human mind can embrace Eternal Truth, in the widest sense of these terms, it would be folly and madness to assert but that none of the truths which it is formed to comprehend are eternal, is a proposition, to say the least of it, extremely bold. At all events, the circumstance that men, " such as they are at present," may not be able clearly to comprehend a given truth, is certainly no proof of its falsehood. Suppose a child does not well comprehend that two and two are four, are they the less so ? Now, this is the case with all conceptions of number. begin with unity, we proceed to multitude, we advance to numeration but the elementary

Truth

<>f

We

;

80

OF XOUXS SUBSTANTIVE.

[CHAP. \

books of arithmetic will teach us that this last is the introduction t that science by which Newton brought down the old divinities froi their starry thrones, and converted lovely Venus and potent Jove hit
silent monitors of the lapse of time, or friendly guides of the adventi rous navigator on a lonely ocean; that science, by which judicii astrology was for ever confuted, and men learnt to gaze unmoved o the comet, which, as they had once thought,

from his horrid hair

Shook

pestilence and war.

How
c:»nn ;ct<»d

with other
truths.

176. Such being the nature and power of the conceptions of numbe: us inquire how, and on what principles it is that they are connecte with other conceptions and here it will be seen that these principle are founded in the essential distinctions of the noun, as ahead for the principal office of numbers is to apply science t described fact, by distributing the genus into its species, and the species into il individuals ; number, therefore, is the bond uniting the universal wit the particular, the highest genus with the lowest individual, Eternj Truth with momentary sensation. Therefore it is, that Plato say
let
: ;

tiirtp

apiSpov tK

Ttjq

<f>p6vi/jLot

ytvoifitSa.

av§pumLvT}Q <pvat(OQ l^e\oi[XT)v ovk av iron i " If we were to take out nwnber from huma

nature, we should become void of thought on every subject ;" whic he again illustrates by observing, that an animal which has not th distinct conceptions of two or three, or of even and odd, and, cons< quently, is quite ignorant of numeration, can never give any accour of those things which he perceives by sense and memory. 177. "The genus," as has been observed, " is found whole an Il'iu ;ippli.il t<i gMMM and Thus the genus animal is found i entire in each one of its species." specie*. tin- different species, man, horse, and dog; that is to say, a man an animal, a horse is an animal, and a dog is an animal. By nun bering the species, we find that the genus though one, is capable being conceived in them as many, and therefore we can speak of man Again, "the species is found whole and entire in th animals. Thus Socrates is a man, Plato is a man, Xenophon is individual." man and by applying the conception of number to the species man, we call them three men. The plural number, therefore, 1.. to genera and species: and accordingly we find all language apply the plural number to words expressing genera and species, tlin ^ay, to the words, railed common, or appellative. 178. lint the case is totally diilerent with proper names, whe •inwiiUr. strictly Qiad as such; for in that case they are applied to individuals and UM individual is not found whole and entire in the genus Q The conception of Civsur is not, found whole and entire inuiial, or in the specie:; man, or in the class of Kmnans, o
i

<

;

<

..

i

(

'.i

ii,

iquerort, or of generals, or of soldiers, or of scholars. therefore, w hen usei t o ex pn the very individual
I
i

The won

who

passei
i

Rubicon, and who spoke behalf of the ttaiton
tin
i

with
-

so

much

affected

lileraluv

the CatUinariao conspiracy, and

wb

!


OF XOUXS SURSTANTIVK.

CHAP. V.]

81

doubtod of a future state, and who profligate Antony, and who at once flattered and subjugated the Roman people, cannot receive a plural termination ; and for this reason, because the particular conception which it expresses cannot be associated with number; since there never was nor ever will be more than one such man ; who therefore spoke philosophically and truly, when he said For always I am Ca;sar.

associated with the debauched and

But
it

if if the word Caesar be used to express a different conception mean something which is also found whole and entire in Alexander,
;

and Attila, and Jenghiz Khan, and Napoleon Buonaparte, then indeed "the Caesars" is a proper grammatical form of speech; because the

noun

is

no longer a proper name, but an appellative
;

:

then

we may

what we say of one will be equally true of another but then the word, though the same and the reason which in sound, will be very different in signification
reason on the Caesars, as on a class or species, and
;

before

prevented our adding to

it

the plural termination will

no

Ifcger exist.

179. Mr. Harris has mentioned various ways in which a proper How they name may come to be used as an appellative. The persons indicated $^°™ by it may, as members of the same family, or from other accidental Hence the expression of muses, happen to bear the same name.
" the twelve Caesars," to designate twelve
cessively

Roman

emperors

who

suc-

bore that name. Hence too the Howards, Pelhams, and Montagues, " because a race or family is like a smaller sort of pecies ;" so that the family name extends to the kindred, as the Again, another cause winch specific name extends to the individuals.
contributes to

make proper names

plural,

is

the

marked

character of

eminent virtue, or for notorious vice, or simply for anything extraordinary and singular in lis conduct or opinions. It is thus that in speaking on the subject of arammar, we might not improperly say, " these are the opinions of a Condillac " referring to an author of some celebrity (though, as I think, of remarkable inaccuracy) in his views of that subject. So the iberality of Horace's patron and friend has made every patron of literature be called a Mcecenas ; the odious cruelties of Nero have made lis name a synonym with the word tyrant and on the same irinciple Shy lock, when he would express the integrity and acuteness of he supposed young lawyer, exclaims,
individual

ome

who

bears

it,

whether

for

:

]

A Daniel come

to

judgment

!

Yea, a Daniel!
Gender,

180. Gender, as an accidental distinction of nouns, has given rise to nuch litigation among grammarians. " Gender," says Vossius, " is oroperly a distinction of sex but it is improperly attributed to those ;hings which have not sex, and only follow the nature of things havng sex, in so far as regards the agreement of substantive with adjecive. Sex is properlv expressed in reference to male and female, as '
;

2.

G

— —
82
OF KOUNS SUBSTANTIVE.
[CHAP.
1

Pythagoras and Theano ; ager, a field, therefore, is improperly calk and herba, an herb, is improperly called feminine. Bt masculine animal is neuter, because it is construed neither way." Scaligi says, that the ancients improperly attributed sex to words; and th; with respect to the neuter gender, it is absurd to attribute that gender which is the negation of gender. Neither is it to be born says he, that words should be called of the doubtful gender, from tl circumstance of their being sometimes used with a masculine ar sometimes with a feminine construction. Mr. Harris, however, ha with some ingenuity, endeavoured to assign reasons for the gener " Every substance," says he, " is male distinction of nouns. female, or both male and female, or neither one nor the other. : that with respect to sexes and their negation, all substances coi ceivable are comprehended under this fourfold consideration." Hem lie proceeds to consider language as if it had been really and into tionally formed with a view to this classification of substances. 1 to the first and second class, they are manifestly such as must < many occasions require some mode of expression. The third is rar and its expression would in general be shunned. But as to the fburt
;
i

<

by far the greater portion of the objects In languages which express the natural sexes alone I terms corresponding to them, very little difficulty occurs in this pa In general, every noun denoting a male animal is ma of Grammar. culine every noun denoting a female animal is feminine ; and evei
it

must

necessarily include

thought.

;

noun denoting neither the one nor the other is neuter. The on exception to this general rule, is an exception which is founded in tl poetical part of our nature; and it happily serves to distinguish tl

The instances to whit language of imagination from that of reality. I allude are those in which the conception of a thing is raised to tl dignity of a person, or where we dwell with such fondness on oi irti thouglits as to invest them, as it were, with life and action. Patfcn stands before us in the enchanting form of a lovely female. appears "gazing on kings' graves, and smiling extremity out of act
\

—So
And

Shakspeare says,
The mortal Moon lmth her
eclipse endured.
i

perhaps a

finer instance

of this figurative

dor cannot
in

1

Gtted than its application to the Idea of

Fonn,

Milton's noble

d

Hcription of Satan
His
All
/»•;

bra
i

had yet DOt ImI

original hrieditness, nor appeai'ii
haii'/r]

Le*H than an
I

iiin'd.

>nt

in

lailflliayi

mipposi'd
tli.ii

to

whore the mere terminations of words imply, oral imply, any oi all of these distinctions, it is no wondi
arise* in

much
t

conl'ii.n.ii
>i

the various

modes of explaining

a

ci

rum
word

it,-

Con

n to the

general laws of thought

"The Qred

Linn, and many oi the modern tonguea," says Mr. Harris, "has tome ma uline, some feminine (and tQOM tOO in great mult
i,
i

"

CHAP. V.]
tudes),

OF NOUNS SUBSTANTIVE.
reference to substantives

83

where sex never had is surely neither male nor female yet is vovq, in Greek, masculine and mens in Latin, This learned grammarian could not but perceive that " in feminine." some words these distinctions seemed owing to nothing else than to the mere casual structure of the word itself;" but he was of opinion that in other instances there might be detected " a more subtle kind of reasoning, which discerned even in things without sex a distant which have
existence.

To give one

instance for

many, mind

;

;

analogy to that great distinction which, according to Milton, animates
the world
I
!

am far from asserting that in particular instances some such Mr.HwWi 181. i t i c u theory. Indeed it appears to be or the analogy may not have operated. nature of that imagination to which we owe the figurative language above mentioned but it could only have been a rare accident, by no means capable of carrying us far toward the explanation of the princiHarris, it must ples on which language in general was constructed. be owned, expresses himself modestly enough, observing, " that all such speculations are at best but conjectures, and should therefore be " Varro's received with candour rather than scrutinised with rigour." words, on a subject near akin," says he, "are for their aptness and
i

;

elegance well worth attending
lure

Non mediocres enim tenebrce insilvd,ubi quo pervenire volumus,semitce tritoe; neque non in With this tramitibus qucedam objecta, quce euntem retinere possent." allowance, we may therefore notice the general principle for which Harris contends, namely, that " we may conceive such subjects to have been considered as masculine, which were conspicuous for the or which were, by nature, attributes of imparting or communicating active, strong, and efficacious, and that indiscriminately, whether to >ood or to bad or which had claim to eminence either laudable or otherwise ;" and again, that " the feminine were such as were con:

captanda; neque

eb,

;

;

spicuous for the attributes either of receiving, of containing, of proiucing, or of bringing forth, or

which had more of the passive in their which were peculiarly beautiful and imiable, or which had respect to such excesses as were rather femiline than masculine." Hence he thinks it would be reasonable to consider as masculine nouns, the "sun," the "sky," the "ocean," •time," "death," "sleep," and "God;" and as feminines, the 'moon," the "earth," a "ship," a "city," a "country," and virtue." But the question, as respects the science of Grammar, is lot whether any or all of these may not occasionally and accidentally >e so considered but whether there be any necessary cause connecting in our minds the conception of sex with any of them. Now, here can be no other such cause than personification, because sex is a )ersonal distinction but even that cause does not universally apply to ny of these conceptions. God, indeed, our creator and preserver, ve usually and properly regard as a person and then the reasoning f Mr. Harris is so far just, that we cannot easily view the Supreme
lature than of the active; or
'
; ; ;

62

84

OF NOUNS SUBSTANTIVE.
for

[.CHAP.

<

even in those heathen mythologies whic Being as a female; abound with female divinities, the chief and sovereign Deity is alvva^

But Harris himself admits, what indet represented as masculine. the common experience of every day sufficiently proves, that we ofte
contemplate this ineffable conception without any reference to sex, even to person, calling it " Deity," " Numen," " to Stiov." It mu be remembered, that personification was more common among tl The Greeks actually worshipp( ancients than among the moderns. Sleep and Death in the form of men Virtue was portrayed befo Isor must we forget that mat their eyes by the statue of a female. of these personifications have been handed down to us from them t mere tradition and the language of the poets. Thus it is difficult f us, who have seen Fame and Victory so often delineated as female on ancient medals, and in sculpture, who read of them as such poetry, and know that Fama and Victoria are nouns of feminine te mination ; it is difficult for us, when we do personify these ai: beings, to figure them to ourselves as men, in a different habit ai form, with different accompaniments, and expressed by words ai But there a sentences of a different character and construction. comparatively few things which we personify in our common pros and when we do so, the change of the form of words from neuter masculine or feminine, at once and powerfully marks the transition This, hoi the mind from cold matter of fact to ardent imagination. ever, is again an accidental circumstance appertaining to the particul history of the English language, and not to the philosophy of langua
i

:

in general.
Gender ef
imm^i.

182. There is a curious difference of opinion between Sancti and Harris. The former writer asserts " that proper names of me cities, rivers, mountains, and the like do not admit of grammatic gender;" " Nomina propria hominum, urlrium, fluviorum, moiitium, catera hujusmodi, genus grammaticum habere non posse:" whereas latter author says " both number and gender appertain to words.Number, i" strictness, descends no lower than to the last rank
1

individual,

species: gender, on the contrary, stops not here, but descends to eve however diversified." This apparent contradiction betwv

two

emmi'iit

writeis

is

nevertheless easily reconciled.

Harris att

butes gender to words as significant of the conceptions of the tnifl Sanctius, on the other band, following the authority of Varro n
I

>Joi

itlci ;

;

i

:i

1

1

1

1

1

i:i

t

ii;i

1

gi-nder as relating only to the tern

nation or construction of words.
call

" Thus," says Varro, " we do n
1

those words masculine which signify male beings, but those befi which arc propulv plftOtd /'"' and hi, and those leniinine wit \\ hr
1

|f| (.in

.iv
,

/((irand A-'."

" Sic

il <t</io'

ea

virilia
;

dicimus, nonqiuc rim
sic

ssd ijuilms ]<nvjinniiniis hie

et hi

el

midielma,
u

in </ni/>

dicere VOttifMn base et hie."

The
i

reason which this author
(
i

to

i

.M

i

it

i

i.i

i-

as an

art, hut, not,

as

science.

fllUHMMftos pnpotihm non

est

singularum vocum

signijicntici,

CHAP. V.J
explicare, sed usum.
significations

OF NOUNS SUBSTANTIVE.

85
is

" The object of Grammar

not to explain the

mere

Now, though the of particular words, but their use." words is not the object of Grammar, the mode of signification is so far from being an immaterial part of that science, There is no doubt but that the expresthat it is its sole foundation. sion or non-expression of the distinction of sex in connection with other conceptions, must affect the relations of language considered as signisignification of
ficant,

and consequently must fall under the science of Grammar, This expression is according to the definition of it above adopted. not essential to all nouns, but it is an accident universally affecting whole classes of nouns, and therefore demanding for its application
rules of Universal G rammar. 183. Now those rules not only do not depend on the termination or other peculiarity in the sound of words, but even in the Latin language, as Wallis has observed, sex is not so distinguished; for though the termination urn is neuter, yet the words scortum, mancipium, amasium, &c, are applied both to the male and female sex and so we find it even in proper names, as Glycerium mea, which Priscian

some

Tenninii-

:

notes as figurative.

184. Regarding only the science of Grammar, as dependent on the Union of -r i.i r conceptions. nature of thought, it is manifest, that those conceptions which are of a nature to coalesce, in reason or fancy, may be considered either disThus the conception of " number" and tinctly or in absolute union.

/.i...

i.i

that of " soldier" are absolutely united in the conception of
or " regiment," or

" army " " royalty " and that of " man " are absolutely united in that of " king ;" and so the conception of " sex " and that of " child " are absolutely united in the words "boy" and "girl." This sort of union gives occasion to many classes of words in most languages, as " horse " and " mare," "ram" and "ewe;" "bull" and "cow;" but there is a second class in which the same distinction is expressed by the compound form of the word, as "shepherd" and "shepherdess," "milliner" and "manmilliner;" and lastly, the sexual quality is often expressed by its proper adjective, as the " male and female elephant," the " male and " troop
;

" the conception of

female rhinoceros." 185. There are some conceptions in which that of sex is tacitly* included, but may not be absolutely determinable, or may not require to be determined for the purpose of communicating thought. Thus a " child " is either a " boy " or a " girl " but if we are reasoning on
;

ro," mnn

the education of children generally,

many

thoughts

may

occur to us

1

r

which indifferently and equally relate to boys and girls, and in expressing which we may therefore use the neuter word " child." And perhaps this consideration alone would afford a sufficient answer to those persons who contend, like Hobbes, that the general word "man" is no more than the representation of some one particular man in my

memory
I
1

or imagination
it

sented a boy,

for if the word child in my thoughts reprecould not represent a girl, and vice versa; whereas
:


86


OF NOUNS SUBSTANTIVE.
it

;

[CHAP.

V

we

see in practice that

represents the

two opposite

sexes at the

Accidental
associations.

and serves the purposes of reasoning quite as well, and oftentimes better than if we had employee different words for the two sexes. 186. Lastly, there are conceptions, which in reality have nothing to do with sex, but which, from various causes, principally depending on imagination or habit, we are apt to consider in connection witt

same

time, without the least difficulty,

Thus the English sailor, who has contracted a son of affection for the tight vessel in which he has braved the winds am waves, and who sees in her neat trim and gallant tackling the elegance of female apparel, is habitually led to speak of her as a female. Wh( has not been electrified with the feeling expressed in the old sea
notions of sex.

song
She
rights, she rights,

boys

—we're

off shore

!

a similar cause it is to be attributed that we can hardly thinl of Britannia as a mailed warrior, " an arm'd man for the battle," o as a sea-god wielding his trident over the subject waves ; but we se< her, like another Minerva, great in arts and arms, circling her brow at once with the olive and the laurel, covering the nations with he If we speal aegis, and stretching out her spear for their protection. of her domestic greatness, it is as The nurse, the teeming womb of royal kings

To

if

we lament

her errors, and her

failings,

we

Feel for her, as a lover, or a child.

Animated
«t>le.

187. This is the language, not of mere plain unadorned reason, bu of reason elevated and sublimed by passion ; yet does not this circurn stance take it entirely out of the domain of Grammar, viewed a leaching the necessary modes of communicating thought; for passioi
is

a Decently part of our nature, and it unavoidably gives a hue am to our conceptions, and forces us to modify accordingly th forms of ezpresaioo in language. Unhappy is the critic who know nothing of this part of Grammar; he will not only miss some of th finest beauties in the poets, but if he attempt to correct what. Ii
tbinkl faulty, be will display, in the most ridiculous light, his <>wi want of I: Harris has finely exemplified this remark, by
i

quotation from Milton
At
his

command
/lis

th'
:

uprooted hill* retired

Kuril to

place
:

ties heard his voire and

went

Oh i'i|iiiuiiN lleuv'n /,/. wonted Tare renew'd, And with fresh llow'ret hill and valley utnil'd.
"all things are personified : the bills hear Suppose, then is renewed. 1>\ the laws of his language (or w .•-,. itat. d the poet had Inn add by the correction of the critic) to have said. Each bill retire)
Hairis,
\

1.
1

"Here," says
-\
-

the

unile,

and the lace of heaven
i

i

lens

|.i.e. Heaven renewed U$ wonted fact how prosaic and lift would theft DCOteri bftVfl appeared how detrimental to the pro
,

;


CHAP.
V.]

OF NOUNS SUBSTANTIVE.
!

87

In this, therefore, he sopopeia which he was aiming to establish was happy, that the language in which he wrote imposed no such necessity, and he was too wise a writer to impose it on himself. 'Twere to be wished his correctors had been as wise on their parts." That they were not always so wise we have a striking instance in the celebrated Bentley, who has taken upon himself to make a vast number of alterations of this kind in Milton's text. Thus the great poet, in his picturesque description of creation, had written

The swan, with arched neck, Between her white wings mantling proudly, rows
1

Her

state

with oary

feet.
:

" The swan, her Dr. Bentley has the following note I wonder he should make the swan of white wings and her state always the feminine gender, contrary to both Greek and Latin This comes Rather, therefore, his wings, his state." Kvki'oq, cygnus. of having learnt only the Greek and Latin Grammars, and not know-

On which

!

!

;

ing,

even of these, the true foundations 188. I come now to the expression of the relations of nouns to each other, which is effected by declension, or case, if the relation
!

Relation,

and the conception coalesce
different words.

in

one word, and by a preposition,

if in

By

this

short statement

many

disputes of gram-

Declenmarians relative to the cases of nouns will be easily settled. sion is the term commonly used to signify the variation of case; but Varro considers case as only one mode of declension. His expressions are these: " Of words, as man and horse, there are four kinds first nominal, as from equus comes equile ; secondly of declension casual, as from equus comes equum ; thirdly augmentative, as from albus comes albius ; and fourthly diminuent, as from cista comes cistula" I have, however, at present only to do with the second of
;

these modes.

189. It was long disputed what number of cases existed in the Number of Latin language. These are thus enumerated and explained by Priscian: " The first case is called the right, or nominative case; for

by

this case

naming

is

effected

;

as this
it is

man

is

called

Homer, and

sometimes called the right or straight case is, that it is first formed naturally by merely laying down the word, and then the other cases formed by flexion from this are called oblique. The next is the genitive, which is also called by some the possessive or paternal. The word genitive is either derived from genus, a race, because we signify by it the race to which any one belongs, as he is of Priam's race,' or from genero to generate, because from this case are generated many other words and parts of speech at least it is so in the Greek language. Again it is called possessive, because we signify possession by this case, as * Priam's kingdom,' or the kingdom possessed by Priam whence possessive adjectives may also be construed by this case for what is the Priameian kingdom but the kingdom of Priam,' or Priam's
that
Virgil.

man

The

reason that

'

;

:

;

'

'

'

'

88

OF NOUNS SUBSTANTIVE.
?'

[CHAP.

V,

a similar reason, because the father's name is thus expressed, as Priam's son ;' and hence patronymic names may be resolved into this case, as ' Pelidan Achilles is the same as Achilles the son of Peleus. The following case is the dative, which some term the commendatke. I give a thing to a man,' or I recommend a person Fourthly comes the to a man.' accusative or causative : I accuse a man, or I (as a cause) make |
It
is

kingdom

called paternal

for
'

'

'

'

The fifth case is the vocative or salutatory, as O Eneas !' or Hail Eneas !' The ablative is also called the comparative ; as ' 1 take from Hector,' or I am stronger than Hector.' Each of these but they have recases, moreover, has many other different uses ceived their names from their most general and familiar use, as we see
thing.
'
' ' ;

happen
Meaning
the word
cii»e.

in

190.

many other things." From this enumeration,

it

is

observable that the

sort

of

not only expressed the relation of nouns to each other, but also that which they bore to verbs, as agent or object; and lastly, their use in the expression of in passion, without reference either to another noun or to a verb order to explain the reasons of which it will be necessary to observe, that the meaning of the word casus, which we render case, is, proThus, if the perly, the falling or declining from a perpendicular line. simple notion of the noun be supposed to be expressed by an upright straight line, as in the letter I, the other cases may be supposed to
:

declension which the ancients called case,

be expressed by
the letter
Nominative.

lines obliquely declining

one

way

or the other, as iu

V. 191. It was long disputed among

the nominative should, or should not, be called a ease.

the ancient grammarians, whether On the one

hand it was urged, that conceptions are only expressed by speech, in some one of the forms called cases, including the nominative and
;

that of these forms, the nominative expressing the agent of the verb active was the simplest, and was, therefore, used whenever there was

occasion simply to
that the

name a

thing or person.

Thus we should

not say,
or

name of

the person slain by

Marcus Urutus was

('irstiris,

Those, on the contrary, who called it. a case, Casari, but Cwsur. contended that everv expression of a conception in speech was a declension, or (ailing away from the simple conception in the mind,
which, taken by itself, does not imply either action, or passion, or relation. Thus, befon ert anvthing whatsoever of Caesar, f but form th'- conception or thought of " Ca'sar " as a person
;

whan
1

I

pot

otion the wife "of thought to another, when the friends who were faithful "to Caesar," or those who
that
I

revolted

" /nun
i.

<

'a-sar ;"

or assert
;i

that

"t
m.itiMii

killed;" or express

feeling
all

" (Vsar coni|Uered," OT of any §OT( by the

that.

such occasions niv conception and consequently iii% expression should he s.ud t<> dec Inn', OT ill auav from the pure noun. They added, moreover, that a was not always the simplest form of the
(Jafiar
itl

"()

"—on

these and

declines from

Original simplicity,
I.

; ;

*

CHAP.

V.]

OF NOUNS SUBSTANTIVE.

89

noun, but was sometimes more distant from the radical, and therefore more deserving of the appellation of oblique than some other cases
as, for instance,

the vocative or ablative, which latter

some

writers

have considered as the primary and original case of the noun. 192. Since the notion of action implies the notion of an agent, there A»ent Jta must be a form of the noun which denotes the agent to every verb in The action, however, may be represented as proa simple sentence. On the former ceeding from the agent, or as received by the object. supposition, it becomes a verb active, and the nominative case is the On the latter suppoform of the noun which denotes the agent. and the nominative case is the sition, it becomes a verb passive Thus, " Caesar fights," form of the noun which denotes the object.
;

or
"

" Caesar is killed," are two simple sentences, in both of which Ca sar In the former, the word Cesar signifies the the nominative case. signifies the agent that fights in the latter, the same word In both instances the nominative is essential to object that is killed. the completion of the sentence ; for when we speak of fighting, as proceeding from an agent, we must necessarily express that agent
j

is

;

Cam

and u hen we speak of being killed, as received by an object, we must express the object. Hence the trivial rule, that the nominative
answers to the question who, or what; as " Caesar fights." Who It "Caesar is killed." Who is killed? Ca\sar. fights ?— Caesar. is justly observed by Harris, that the character of the nominative may be learnt from its verb. The action implied in the verb " fights," shows The suflerthe nominative "Caesar" to be an active efficient cause. ing implied in the words " is killed," shows the nominative " Caeaw"

to be a passive subjeet.
lights
;

Persons

may be

considered in both these

as Caesar

other.

the one instance, and passive in the But Things cannot, except figuratively, be considered otheris

active in

wise than as passive, and, consequently, can only become nominatives passive verbs; as we may say, "the house is built;" but we cannot say, " the house builds." 193. The nominative is the most essentially necessary of all cases ; Nominative * * arc lifi'cshii rv and it has therefore been described as " that case without which
to

The sentences can be no regular and perfect sentence." which we make the pronoun it serve for a nominative, and which the Latins used without any nominative at all, as pluit, "it rains;" tcedet me, "it wearies me," or " I am wearied; are imperfect sentences, which I shall hereafter consider separately. In
there
in
all

other instances, although

it

may

object to

which an action

is

directed, or the agent

not be necessary to express the from which a suf:

fering proceeds, yet the converse is absolutely necessary

thus,

when

we

" William builds," it is not necessary to add " a house," or " a palace ;" but if we say " builds a house," or " builds a palace,"
say,

it is

necessary to prefix the

name

of the builder.
it

194. In order, however, to extend and enlarge a sentence, **

often

aiut

AmmOm A UtlVP.
>

:

90

OF N'OUNS SUBSTANTIVE.

[CHAP. V.

becomes necessary to state the object of a verb active, or the agent of a verb passive. Hence arises the necessity for two other cases, which have been called the accusative and the ablative. When I say there is a necessity for such cases, it will be understood, from what I have before observed, that I do not contend for the necessity of any paror inflections, or prepositions, or arrangement of words, to mark these varieties of case ; I only mean, that it is necessary, that by some means or other the noun, which indicates the conception, should be placed in such or such a relation to the
ticular terminations,

verb which constitutes the assertion. It may happen, and, in point of fact, it does happen in some languages, that there are no in lections of case but there are means in all languages of determining when a noun is the object of an active, or the agent of a passive verbs It has, indeed, been disputed, whether the cases of nouns should be reckoned according to the relation in which they stand to other words, or according to the diversity of their inflections nor are there wanting names of high repute on either side of this question. Sanctius contends, that there is a natural partition of cases, according to the relations which they imply, and, consequently, that there must necessarily be the same number of cases, which he estimates to be six, ir all languages. Vossius objects to this reasoning, and alleges, that the cases of nouns were to be reckoned by the relations which the) bear to other words, they must be endless. This contest, like main others, has arisen from confounding Universal Grammar with l'ar The difference of inflection, or position, belongs to the hit or ticular. that of signification to the former. True it is, that the relations ol nouns to other nouns and to verbs are infinite ; but yet they are disI

;

;

il

t

tinguishable into certain great classes; and whether these classes ought or ought not to be allied cases is a mere verbal dispute. 1 shall so designate them, for the sake of convenience at the saim time it must be understood that this arrangement is not intended tc interfere with the (.irammar of any particular language, in which the
;

Oises are arranged according to their insertions.
ind
1

',».">.

In

th'tin-

.i

"lit

f

my sense of the word ease, then, the nominal i\e, that BM active. Of Objed Ol the passive Verb, ina\ Dfi eallei'

is,

ablative, in eo tar as tliev perform the functions

primary case; and the secondary eases are the accusative and the above noticed. Thesi
c.i ..-.,
it

!»»Uv«,*e.

bserved, are respectively convertible with tin change of the verb from active to passive; f'oi " Jamc loves John " is convertible with " Johfl is loved by .lames ;' the nominative ol' the second, and th' in the accusative of the fu nominative of the lir.st. being tin- ablative of the second. '•'••. So the matter stands in the simpler combinations of thought { idei but whal is lo be done, if in one and the same sen tonce WO wish to .\piv, not onl\ the a^cnt. and object of any action, the end to which the action is directed the cause on account
i.

two

to
I

I

BOmioative,
.

b

i

i>.

I

!

.

;

:

3HAP. V.]

OF NOUNS SUBSTANTIVE.

91

af which it happens, or the instrument, mode, and circumstances of For these purposes it is necessary that the concepts performance. tion of such end, or cause, or instrument, &c, should be expressed by and that some means should be adopted to show whether ja noun the noun was meant to stand in the relation of end, cause, or instruIt is, as Vossius justly ment, or in any other relation to the verb. observes, quite impossible that any language should have separate inflections for all these relations, and therefore some of them are, in most languages, represented by separate words, or particles, commonly called prepositions but others are often expressed by inflections, the number and diversity of which vary exceedingly in different languages, as will be shown hereafter.
;

;

197. Thus have I noticed three classes or degrees of relation in Genitive, which the noun may stand to the verb but it may also be related to another noun, as depending on, or belonging to it. Thus the words " Priam's kingdom," " the son of William," mark a dependence of "son " on " William," and of " kingdom" on " Priam." This relanion is expressed by a separate inflection in Greek, Latin, English, and many other languages and it is commonly called the genitive case. Now the use of the genitive case in nouns substantive differs but little from the use of an adjective. It expresses one conception, as dependent on another, and the expression of the latter serves to individualise and specify the former. The dependent conception is therefore, in fact, a mere attribute of the other, and consequently the genitive is easily convertible into an adjective. Thus the words
; ;

BciffiAtoe Sfcj/Tpoi', regis sceptrum, the king's sceptre, are easily converted into 'ZkytrTpoy BchtiXikov, sceptrum regium, the kingly sceptre. For the same reason, we find that in some languages, the Chinese,
for

example, the adjective

is

in

no manner distinguished from the
for
it
;

genitive or possessive

case of a substantive;

is

said that

but hao gin is a good man, or man of goodness ; and gin hao is human goodness, or the goodness of man. Hence, too, we see why Wallis considers the English genitive case as a possessive adjective ; e.g., " the king's court," aula regia, where he differs from all other English grammarians, in calling the word " king's " an adjective. On the other hand, Lowth reckons the words 7nine and thine, which are usually called adjectives, as the possessive cases of me and thee. It is, perhaps, from a similar cause that Dr. Jonathan Edwards asserts the Muhhekaneew or Mohegan Indians to have no adjectives at all in their language a fact on which Mr. Home Tooke lays great stress, but which, in reality, proves nothing as to the signification of language, whatever it may do as to its forms or inflections. 198. It seems hardly necessary to distinguish the vocative case by any particular inflection. Indeed, we find the terminations of the nominative and accusative equally employed in Latin as exclamatory
signifies
;

the

word hao

goodness, and gin signifies

man

Vocative,


92
OF NOUNS SUBSTANTIVE.
[CHAP.
V,

and it is said that the Sanscrit grammarians do not allow the vocativt Yet, when we are speaking of the different relation? to be a case. which a noun may bear to other words in a sentence, it is impossible to overlook its use in those sentences where it stands forth promiThus, in the first ode nently as the object addressed or invoked. Horace, we find two verses almost wholly occupied with vocatives
Maecenas, atavis edite regibus, et presidium, et dulce decus
o;
:

meum

!

So Plautus uses

it

as an interjection,

"Io! Hymen! Hymenal
it

!"*

From

which, and

many

similar instances,

might be called the inter

jectional case.
* Casinn, a. 4, sc. 3, v. 3.

;

(

»a

;

CHAPTER

VI.

OF NOUNS ADJECTIVE.
199.
I

have
In

said that the

noun

adjective

is

the

name of a concep-

Definition,

tion or thought, considered as a quality or attribute of another con-

ception.

a word added to a it from some other substantive of the same class, as a red house, a lovely lady, the moneyed interest, the fiftieth regiment ; where red, lovely, moneyed, and fiftieth are all adjectives. In order fully to understand this definition, it will be proper to advert once more to the nature of a simple
it

more popular language,

is

substantive to designate a quality, which distinguishes

enunciative sentence or logical proposition.

The

subject, or that con-

cerning which something

always a noun substantive the predicate may be a noun adjective. Thus, in the sentence " John is tall," the subject is " John," which is a noun substantive the predicate is " tall," which is a noun adjective. Complex sentences are resolvable into more simple ones and where adjectives are used, so as to render a sentence complex, they are always resolvable into the predicate of a logical proposition. Thus, if it be said that " a wise
is

asserted, is

;

:

man is cautious," this sentence is resolvable into the sentences " a man is cautious," and " that man is wise," of these the adjective is the predicate of the proposition.
200.

two simple
and
in each
Adjective.

drawn from this statement are several. In the first place, whenever the name of a conception is employed as the subject of a proposition, it is not an adjective. Thus, the conception expressed by the words "good" and " goodness" is the same but if we predicate anything of this conception if, for instance, we say " goodness is amiable," the word goodness must
inferences to be
;

The

Not the
proiSsiUou.

;

be a substantive. And this does not depend on the form for if the idiom of our language allowed us to say "good is amiable," or "the good is amiable," the word "good" would be as much a substantive as " goodness." 201. Hence it follows, that the distinction between a substantive Mode of and an adjective does not necessarily depend on any difference between Viewlng ltthe conceptions which they express, but between the different modes in which those conceptions are contemplated by the mind. If we contemplate goodness as a separate idea, if we assert anything of that idea, if we make it the subject of any proposition, then it is a substantive but if we predicate it of anything else, if we consider it only as a quality of that thing, then it is an adjective. 202. Hence, again, it follows, that an adjective and a substantive Not eoncannot be convertible, without wholly changing the meaning of the verUble proposition in which they are employed. Thus, to say that " envy
necessarily

of the

word

;

;

-

94
is

OF NOUNS ADJECTIVE.
is

[CHAP. VI

criminal," and that " criminality

envious," are

two

propositions

entirely different.
Cannot stan.i

BmmmI
meaning.

203. It is equally a rule of Universal and of Particular Grammar, an adjective cannot stand alone, but must be joined with its sub stantive ; which is, in truth, no more than saying, that a predicate must necessarily refer to some subject. Mr. Tooke, however, controverts this rule, though it is certainly as old as the words adjective and substantive. He objects, that the rule equally applies to the oblique cases of nouns substantive, and that therefore " the inability to stand alone in a sentence is not the distinguishing mark of an adjective ;" but, though it were not a distinguishing mark, it might However, the real intent ol yet l)e a rule common to all adjectives. the rule is to distinguish adjectives from the substantives with which they are used, and that in the most simple sentences and with reference not to their form or inflection, but to their signification. Thus, if we say " a golden is valuable," the sense is incomplete, and the adjective " golden " requires the addition of a substantive, as, for instance, " ring," to render it intelligible. On the contrary, if we say "gold is valuable," the sentence is perfect. 204. Mr. Tooke contends that " the adjectives golden, brazen, silken, uttered by themselves, convey to the hearer's mind, and denote the
t'aat
;

same
that

things as gold,
it is

brass,

and

«7/c."

The

short answer to this

is,

contrary to

common

sense and experience to confound these
if

Mftog together; and nobody ever does so, English language in the slightest degree. But
source of Mr. Tooke's error,
expressions.
First,

who we

understands the wish to trace the

we must examine more particularly his what does he mean by "uttered by themselves?"

Words
force

uttered by themselves are like syllables or letters uttered by themselves. They are the mere elements of discourse. Their proper

and effect in rational speech must depend on their connection with each other. Again, \vh;it is meant, by "denoting the same things?" In so far its they are both of the same origin, there is diiilitless a common conception to which they both hear relation; but it does not follow that they both bear the same relation to it.

A

words derived from, or connected with, this term, Is it tO bfl gold, is to be found in the dillereiit. Kuropcan languages. said that tiny all "coin.y to the hearer's mind and denote the same
tribe of

numerous

from ( 1) Let us see how this can possihlv be made out. gplaodout of the rlafag or setting sun, was denominated (2) ihe yellow colour resembling that, splendour. From the name of thai colour, u.i. d- lived 8 that of the jaundice, which rendered the whol.' bodjj jrtJloW, and I) thai of the gall, which produced the jaundice. From yellow al n came (5) the name given to the volk ot an egg. And u^iiin, limn tin. colour came ( li ) the name of gold. <>l Sold, b<aii(.: the most pror.iou metals, gave its name 7 to riches Hence were denominated ami particular!) (H) to money. la antral
things?"
tin'
1

(

)

(

<

I

(

)

;

all

kinds

ol

pajnMDjftj whether (9) rolontary gifts, or (10)

oflei

;

CnAP. VI.]
or (11)
tribute, or

OF NOUNS ADJECTIVE.
rent, or

95
as (14) debts

(13) (12) due on any of these accounts. In process of time, certain societies were formed and maintained by regular payments from each member, and these societies » received their name (15) from this circumThe name was afterwards extended to societies (16) or stance. and it occasioned the peculiar designation of a fellowships in general Fines in ancient building (17) in London, where they assembled. times were applied, in the nature of punishment, to almost all and hence their name came to signify (18) punishment in crimes general; and particularly a barbarous mutilation (19) often used as a Lastly, the general term for punishment was naturally punishment. applied to the criminality (20) by which the punishment was occaIn a future part of this work I shall trace these progressive sioned. changes of signification, as they are to be found in the Mseso-Gothic; Anglo-Saxon; Alamannic Lombardian Precopian Greek; Latin, Suevian Swedish Icelandic Russian old, middle, and barbarous German Dutch; Welsh; Italian; old and modern French, and old Every change of application is occasioned by a and modem English. new operation of the mind. The sound of the word conveys a new thought, similar indeed to the preceding, and having reference to the same conception, but placing it in a new light. It would be absurd to say that the thought remained the same through all these different uses and it is equally incorrect to say, that it remains the same after There is as real, though not the same difference beany one step. tween "gold" and "golden," as there is between " a guilder " and " Guild-hall." If Mr. Tooke were right, to gild a thing would be to convert it into gold whereas these words, though of the same origin, are so far from denoting the same conceptions, that they are often " Is this gold? No, it is used in direct opposition to each other. only gilt." So gold and golden are not the same. They both, but they refer to it in different yideed, refer to the same conception ways. In the one instance, the conception (namely gold) is the very thing of which we are speaking; it is the logical subject of the pro;
;

fines; as well

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

:

;

position
says,

;

the

mind looks

at

it,

as

it

were, directly

;

as

when Bassanio

—————
for

Hard food

Thou gaudy gold, Midas— I will none

of thee.

Whereas, in the other case, it is noticed but incidentally, as a thought passing over, and giving a momentary tinge to another thought, but differing from it as the light in which we view a substance differs from the substance itself. So the same Bassanio, in
the

same

scene, speaking of his mistress's portrait, says,
here in her hair,

—————

The painter plays the spider, and hath woven A golden mesh to entrap the hearts of men.

205.

From what

has been already said,

it

will easily

be under- How treated
bsUa"
adjectives, SvS.

stood that these secondary thoughts, which are expressed

by

96

OF NOUNS ADJECTIVE.
distinctly before the

[chap.
si
tl

may be brought more
stantives
in

mind, and treated as
It
is

connection with other substantives.

thus

instead of " a virtuous man,"

we may

say ''a

man

of virtue;"

I

though there appears, in this instance, very little difference of me: ing, vet, on analysing the two expressions, we shall find that a n and distinct operation of the mind is performed, which operation here expressed by the word " of." do not merely, as in the a of the words " virtuous man," contemplate the conception of " ma as a substance, and that of " virtue " as a quality belonging to individual in question but we contemplate " man " as having a si stantial existence, and "virtue" as having an existence capable coalescing with man and further, we contemplate the actual union Slight, the these two thoughts, as expressed by the word " of." fore, as the difference of meaning is between the words " a man virtue" and " a virtuous man," yet the grammatical difference ia DOt

We

1

;

;

be overlooked: and the best proof of this will be to consider Ik totally the style of any author would be altered if we were always change the genitive case of the substantive into an adjective, and v versa. Suppose that, instead of the line,
The quality of mercy
is

not strained,

we were to say, " the merciful quality is not a quality of comp sion," we should certainly not augment the force and beauty of t language and we should as certainly change the flow and current the thought; we should alter the Grammar, and annihilate the poet
;

New«ary

to

20'i.

The preceding remarks,

too,

show the absurdity of assert

i

that "adjectives, though convenient abbreviations, are not invessa

and that "the Mohegans have no adjectives in tin language;" for though this latter fact is vouched by " Dr. Jonath Edwards, D.D., pastor of a church in Newhaven, and communical to the Connecticut Society of Arts and Sciences, and published) Josiah Meigs," it ami units really to this, that the Mohegans cann distiii'Mii h subject from predicate, or substance from quality and so, they must be utterly destitute of the faculty of reason, win probably neither Dr. Edwards, nor Mr. Bfeigs, nor Mr. Tooke i' assert. lv conceivable ground for the Revere] Tin Doctor's ertioo it, that the Biohegani employ the same word in substantive and adjective sense, OS we say "there is a calm," ft] have " a cold;* "tbedaj iscotot," the weather "is cold" and itively, as " silivr lucks," the " /iow//-moon," " angtl visit.to language,"
;
I
i

u

I

"
Mltll Mil*

eerj'

2<»7.
'

It

i.

cniiinioii

"tla/tou pador," and h. hke. rule, that the adjective should agree with
i

i

mtive
t

in

gender, number, and case,
be ini'ii'd,
tii.it

at

in

i'ht

whence perhaps, It mi". gender, Dumber, and case proper
This, liowevi
;

belong
is

U

Well tO the adjective as to the sul>stantive.
:

not the fuel

the adjective
i

'

•inn rt<
:

d

in

imply expresses a quality init it mu language with its substantive, and th;
I

in

main

iniilarity vl' inllectioii

;

CHAP.

VI.]

OF NOUNS ADJECTIVE.
inflections of the substantive express gender, or

97
number,

and when the
tion.

or case, those of the adjective often follow a similar rule of construc-

This construction, it is obvious, is a matter belonging only to and not to Universal Grammar. It may exist in one language and not in another and, in fact, there are languages (our own, for example) in which all these variations in adjectives are
Particular,
;

unknown.
208.

On

the other hand,

a variation of degree

belongs,

in

an
to-

Degree.

especial manner, to certain adjectives,

but not at

all

to substantives

and where there are variations of degree, they
gether,

may be compared

whence

arise,

what

are technically called

by grammarians, the
Notappiisubstantive,

degrees of comparison.

Substantives cannot be compared, as such, in point of degree; would >e to suppose that the nature of substantial existence was variable; and that one existing thing was more truly existing " than another, which is absurd. mountain," says Harris, "cannot
2<)9.

for that

1

A

be said more to be, or to exist, than a molehill but the more and less must be sought for in their quantities. In like manner, when we refer many individuals to one species, the lion cannot be called more a lion than the lion B but, if more anything, he is more fierce, more speedy, or exceeding in some such attribute. So again, in referring many species to one genus, a crocodile is not more an animal than a lizard is, nor a tiger more than a cat; but, if anything, they are more
;

A

;

Mky, more
attributes.

^i\olto

i]

the excess, as before, being derived from their ; that saying of the acute Stagyrite, owe av imovaia to fiaWoy ku) to 7\ttov ; substance is not susceptible of
strong, &c.

So

true

is

same passage of Aristotle, hence infer that comparatives cannot be drawn " Therefore," adds he, " they are deceived, from nouns substantive. who reckon the words senex, juvenis, adolescens, infans, &c, as substantives, for they are altogether adjectives. Nor is it to be objected, that Plautus has made from Peenus the comparative Pcenior ; for he does not there mean to express the substantial existence of the Carless."

more and

Sanctius, referring to this

observes, that

we may

thaginian, but his craftiness, as if he had said callidior ; for the Carthaginians were reputed to be a very crafty people. So the writer who used the word Neronior, from Nero, meant only to signify an excess of cruelty."

210.

As

some adjectives which equally exclude either intension or remission. *•**• Thus Scaliger justly observes, that the word " medius" can neither be heightened nor lowered in degree and that the same may be said of " hodiernus," and of many other adjectives. On this topic Mr. Hams thus expresses himself: "As there are some attributes which admit
;

substantives in general admit not of degree, so there are

Kwtem*

of comparison, so there are others which admit of none. Such, for example, are those which denote that quality of bodies arising from
their figure
;

as

when we

say a circular

table",
is,

a quadrangular court,

a conical piece of metal, &c.
2.

The reason

that a million of things

H

08
participating the
fore, that

OF NOUNS ADJECTIVE.

[CHAP. V

same

figure, participate it equally.

To

say, ther

and B are both quadrangular, A is more or le quadrangular than B, is absurd. The same holds true in all attrib tives denoting definite qualities, whether contiguous or discrete, wh
while
ther absolute or relative.

A

Thus

the two-foot rule

A, cannot be mo

a two-foot rule than any other of the same length. Twenty lioi and B be both trip cannot be more twenty than twenty flies. If or quadruple of C, they cannot be more triple or more quadruple 01 The reason of all this is, that there can be no cor than the other. there can be no intensk parison without intension and remission and remission in things always definite and such are the attrihut which we have last mentioned." This reasoning, which, as far as goes, is very just, seems nevertheless to require some further dev What is here meant by " things always definite ?" Plainl; lopment. what we have already called ideas, and those clearly conceived. Tl idea of a circle, when clearly conceived, is a thing always definit By mathematicians it is clearly conceived and consequently the would think it absurd to say, that one table was more circular tlu another but persons who have not a distinct idea of a circle wou To them, circulari not perceive the absurdity of the expression. would appear capable of intension and remission and therefore th< would conclude, that this quality admitted of comparison as much Hence v sweetness or sourness, hardness or softness, heat or cold. find in language such words as round, which expresses the idea of d cularity in a vague and indistinct manner and these words are COB monly used in the comparative and superlative, as well as in the pof tive degree. For the same reason, all words signifying bodily Bens tion are capable of comparison for though we agree generally in tl meaning which we attribute to them, yet there is no definite idea which any one of them can be distinctly referred, Men employ tl terms " hot, cold, white, black, green," &c, so as to convey to ea< other's lnind certain General. notions, but not to communicate precii ainl distinct ideas, like those expressed by the words, " square," " triangle." Again, in moral qualities there is usually the same indi tine tries*. We say, one man is braver or wiser than anothe because we |K)Ssess no absolute standard of bravery or wisdom.

A

;

:

;

;

;

;

;

;

i

we
WHS

possessed such

ft

standard, that

iv, or

either

of wisdom, brave Of QOl
In
|

oounoa comparison and that whim
pi

is to say, if we had a clear idea should simply say, that each of the t\\ There is no mo brave, wise or unwise. all language than between that which la got yc( the pure idea of goodness presented

we

;

by the Chri
bllt

on exolodes
1^
<

all

comparison

— "Thereto

"run

gOO(l

one, that

io|.."

observed, that where there are variations of dears be compared together. ii;umiiari:ins have lixi
I

i

<

itnpariaon

tba

positive, the comparative,
to

and

t]

mptflafel Tt

;

andn

leemi material

observe,

that

the

comparisi

CHAP. VI.]
here referred to
is

OF NOUNS ADJECTIVE.
of two kinds.

99

We

may
it

as existing in any given substance, with the
in other substances, or

we may compare

compare a quality, same quality as existing with some assumed notion
either
:

of the quality in general. and 212. The positive is the simple expression of the quality Harris savs, it is improperly called a degree of comparison ; but in this he seems to be wrong; for it is that form in which the comparison of equal degrees of the same quality is expressed, either affirmaThus we say, in the positive degree, " Scipio tively or negatively. was as brave as Csesar ;" " Cicero was not so eloquent as Demosthenes."
qualitv in

Positive.

expresses the intension or remission of any (.'©m^rative. one substance, compared with the same quality in some ;" one other substance, as " Cicero was more eloquent than Brutus " Antony was less virtuous than Cicero." Hence it is manifest, that there are, properly speaking, two kinds of the comparative degree, one expressing the more, and the other the less of the quality compared. Languages in general have employed a peculiar inflection only to but the latter is in its nature no less capable of express the former expression and both belong to those distinctions which constitute It is to be remarked, that the comparative, Universal Grammar. though it excludes the relative positive, does not necessarily include If we say "John is wiser than Jarues," \\>the absolute positive. exclude the assertion, that " James is as wise as John ;" but Ave do not necessarily include the assertion either that " John is wise," or that

213.

The comparative

;

:

*'

is wise." All that may really be intended by the affirmative, It may only be meant to assert that a negation of the negative. " John is less unwise than James." 214. The superlative expresses the intension or remission of a quality in one thing or person, compared with all the others that are contemplated at the same time. There must be more than two objects compared, but the number compared mav .be indefinite we may say, Octavius was the most prudent of the triumvirate Homer was the

James

is

superi idt*

:

;

most admirable of poets Solomon was the wisest of men. In other respects, what I have 'observed of the comparative, applies equally to the superlative, which may properly be considered as expressing the most or the least of the quality in question, but which does not, any more than the comparative, necessarily include the absolute positive. Of this remark, the common proverb, " Bad is the best," affords a
;

sufficient illustration.

existing in one subject with those existing in another or others

have only spoken of the comparison of qualities Comparison ?em but the comparison may be made with a general conception of the quality and here also may be three similar degrees. Where the quality is supposed to be of the general or average standard, we use the positive ; where we mean to imply simply an excess beyond that standard, we use the comparative, which in English is commonly expressed by the adverb too, as when Hamlet savs, " Why may not imagination trace
215. Hitherto
I
;
:

h2

1

00
:

OF NOUNS ADJECTIVE.

[CHAP.

'

till he find it stopping a bunghole Horatio answers " Twere to consider too curiously, to consider sc Lastly, where that is, more curiously than is usual or needful. mean to express a high degree of eminence in the quality of which

the noble dust of Alexander,

i

1

use the superlative, as vir doctissimus, vir fortissimus, most learned man, a very brave man that is to say, not, perhaps, t bravest or most learned of all men that ever existed, or of any giv number of men ; but a man possessing the quality of learning
speak,
;

we

Names of the

bravery in a degree far beyond the common standard. 216. It is of small consequence to inquire whether all these fori of speech together are properly named degrees of comparison, a equally immaterial whether the particular names, positive, comparati and superlative, are well chosen to designate each degree. Ma eminent grammarians have contended on these points. Voss objects to the name positive, because the two other degrees
i

equally positive, that
tions,

is,

equally lay down their respective

signifi

riSivai, to lay

whence the Greeks called the superlative fiypcrthetic, fn down. Not more appropriate, says he, is the nai

of the comparative degree, since comparison is applied to many wor both nouns and adverbs, which are not of this degree, as the adj
tives, like, tinlike, double ; and among adverbs, equally, similiter, i Moreover, comparison is effected no less by the superlative than the comparative for it would be equally a comparison if I were say, speaking of Varro, Nigidius, and Cicero, " Varro is the nv learned of the three;" as it I wore to say, speaking of Varro a Nigii litis only, Varro is the more learned of the two." Lastly, the wc superlative is not well chosen, since it merely signifies preference, or and in this sense the comparative it.raising one thing above another for in saying, " Varro is more learned than Nigidiu is a superlative I prefer, or raise Varro alxwc Nigidius in regard to learning. I similar reasons, Sealiger proposed new names for the three degre
: 1 ;

;

The first he called the aorist, or indefinite; the second, tholiyperthei or exceeding; and the third, the acrot/ustic, or highest degree. Qu tilian and others call the poMtive the absolute degree; others
I

iwnpb, and so forth; Imt none of these names having come it ^ciMial use, 1 think it more OOPTBBtant to hold to those which commonly received not considering the choice of a name as \(
it

tin-

;

;

impoilant, compared with the accuracy of a distinction; and tl three variations of adjectives in degree are essential to Gra Biar, has been already siillicientlv proved.
ill-

rim

"_'I7.

It

li

o£ more conwvj uence
conliiied
to

to note,

that

intension and

ten
;

sion

nut

lieing

adjectives, the degrees of

comparison

likewise not confined to them, Imt
idples,

an common
that,

also to certain veil

and |dv<

bort, to

the whole class
in

of attributh
tl

(as tbey are railed

u

ll.un.1,

provided

signification,

That, Import qualities sfUoh may be increased or diminished, the adjective "amiable" admits of the comparative and superlatl "more amiaUe," and "most amiable ;" 10 Wt niay use the

<

CHAP. VI.]

OF NOUNS ADJECTIVE.

101

pressions " more loving," " most loving ;" " to love well," " to love better," " to love more," " to love most of all." These indications of degree, however, have been rarely expressed by inflection, and this seems to be the true reason why the except in adjectives
;

degrees of comparison have often, but inaccurately, been considered by grammarians as belonging to adjectives alone. It is scarcely worth

while to occupy attention with such words as aurora-roc, used by Some critics, inAristophanes; or ipsissimus, employed by Plautus. deed, have seriously adduced these as examples of comparison in pronouns, as if I could be more I, or he more he in reality ; whereas it is plainly seen, that the comic writer, by a natural boldness in the use of language, employs these pronouns in a secondary sense, as if they exbut not as if a man could be pressed a quality instead of a substance
;

ore

or less himself without losing his personal identity. 218. I come now to consider the two great classes into

jectives

may

be divided

;

and

these, as I have before observed,

which addepend

gfcdjirf

Thus, if we say " a on their expressing, or not expressing action. four-footed animal," although the quality of being four-footed has reference, in this instance, to action, as its final end ; yet as it does not
express action (for a table or a chair may also be four-footed), this is On the other hand, if we an adjective of the first-mentioned kind. say " an animal moving," we clearly express that action is really taking
place
these
:

this, therefore, is

an adjective of the second kind.

Now,

of

two
I

kinds, the former are exclusively called adjectives

by the

commonly called paradopt these distinctive terms from an unwillingness to alter the received nomenclature of grammatical science ; but at the same time, I wisli it to be clearly understood, that both the adjective and participle of the common grammarians fall under the definition which I have above given of the word adjective in its largest sense. 219. Of the adjective simple, or unmixed with any idea of action, VerUi jectlve*little remains to be observed but before I proceed to the consideration of the participle, it may be proper to notice a large class of adjectives, which, though they do not express action, yet bear reference Such are those words expressive of the capability or habit of to it. action, which Mr. Tooke has classed among the participles. There is great hazard, when a writer chooses to treat all his predecessors with contempt, that he may fall into gross errors himself. Mr. Tooke has confounded, in his new scheme of participles, the verbal adjectives, gerunds, and participles of former writers and, at the same time, has laid down no clear definition of his own to guide us out of the What is more, he has adopted as participles the verbal labyrinth. adjectives in bilis, ivus, and icus, and excluded those in ax, arius,
majority of grammarians, and the latter are as
tickles.
; ;

bundus,

icius,

&c, which seem

quite as

much

entitled to the

same

distinction.

220.

Upon

a full consideration of

all

these different kinds of adjec- aresimpiy
a ' jet
'

tives, there

seems to be no reason for classing them apart from the simple adjective, and as little for confounding them with the participle. They

102

OF NOUNS ADJECTIVE.

[cHAP. VX

ought not to be separated from the simple adjective, because they do. and it is difficult, if not imposin fact, express only a simple quality sible, to draw a line between qualities which are originally derived from action, and qualities not so derived. Let us take, for instance, No doubt this is derived from /alio, which, the word falsus, false. expresses the act of failing or deceiving yet, by a transition of meanIn like manner, ing, it comes to signify simply that which is not true. many of the words which Mr. Tooke treats as participles have beer
;

;

really introduced into the English language as simple adjectives, without the least reference to the action, which their radicals expressed ii commonly sa) Such is the word " palpable." other languages. "it is palpably false," ''the truth is palpable," &c. ; yet, perhaps i\-w persons, when they use these phrases, entertain any notion o: feeling and handling the truth or falsehood in question, though palpure The sanx to feel or handle, is the undoubted origin of this word. maybe said of "ductile," "frail," "sensible," "noble," and main other English adjectives, which have not the slightest pretence to b<

We

considered as participles.
entitle a

If the

mere derivation from

word

to be

called a participle,

we

a verb is t( should have numerou:
:

both of substantives and adjectives so distinguished for i be a participle, because it is derived from duco, so is uudax because it is derived from audeo ; ridiculus, because it is derived fron Nay, we may add to this lis rideo ; and a thousand other adjectives. the substantives derived from verbs, if the mere derivation is to be Thus, we may say, that pistrinuMf test of the grammatical use. bakehouse, is a participle of pinso, to bake juramentum, an oath, In this juro, to swear judicium, a judgment, of judico, to judge, &c. as in numberless other instances, Mr. Tooke supposed the history q words to l>e the science of language. Because noble is derived lion A to know, therefore he called it A participle of that verb! this rate, all the parts of speech must heroine an inextricable mass o contusion for, historically speaking, each is derived from the other and there can lie do rule which gives any one the precedence. If wi lo,,k to the signification, all is clear. Either a given adjective ex
classes
ductilis
i
\

;

;

,

;

ea action or

it

doef not.
its

If

it

does not,

it

is

a simple adjective
for actioi
1

and the circumstance of
cannot alter
t,,

referring to the habit or capacity

itf character.

The words "forcible" and "culpable

relate originally to the actions of forcing

ami blaming; but they relau tii. ni only as the ground-work of an existing quality, and not a: really in action, or as having been so, or to be BO, at any (rival
rations will probably sutlice to clear a\va\
all

th< tin

difficulties
ilen
I

which
fif
ii

Mr.
1

Tooke

raised
I

respecting

what be

called

tin

poii -nil. il

tliu

oihi
In

lal

the Bngli
r.ml.

lb

moot active, the potential mood passive .and the future active. The) are all, ai language, simple substantives, 0T simple sdjectivei
participles, would not only be to oppose tin M ho have treated of these subjects, but t(

and to

them among

nf of Write)
,

i

-.liable

principles relating t0 this part

of Grammar.

;

(

103

)

CHAPTER

VII.

OF PARTICIPLES.
221. Although, in accordance with the generality of the grammarians, I have enumerated the Participle as a distinct part of s]>eech, yet it is in truth (as may be seen by the Table in Chapter III.) a Bill division of the noun agreeing with the adjective in expressing an but differing from the adjective in expressing a attribute or quality quality not simply, but as being, or having been, in action. Inasmuch, therefore, as action implies time, the participle partakes, in this respect, of the nature of the verb; and hence it received the designa;

Definition.

tion Participium,

a parte

capiendo,

;

for,

as

nomine, partem a verbo.

The

definitions given

was said, partem capit a by many ancient gram-

,

marians of this part of speech were founded on its characteristics in Thus Vossius says, " Participium est vox the learned languages. But here the variation variabilis per casus, signijicans rem cum tempore." per casus is a mere accident of the Greek and Latin tongues ; and the

word rem must not be taken as expressing a substance, but a quality. The words cum tempore, indeed, apply to a principle of Universal Grammar; and, so far, the definition is correct. Upon the whole, however, Spinoza's definition in his Hebrew Grammar is more worthy of attention. He says, " Participia sunt Adjectiva, qua actionem vel omne quod Verbo signijicari solet tanquam liei ajfectionem vel modum, cum
relatione
,

ad tempus exprimunt." 222. The participle differs essentially from the verb in this, that The Participle does nut .1it simply names a conception, but does not assert anything concerning assert, " loving, moving, reading, tliinking," &c, assert it. The words, nothing respecting these acts ; they merely name the acts, or rather they name the conceptions, as in action. It is said that the participle should be ranked among nouns when it constitutes the subject of a logical proposition, and among verbs when it forms the predicate but this is not accurate a participle, as such, can never form the subject of a proposition. The example given is, Militat omnis amans, Ilctc o spu>v woXefiii ; but in this instance amans has an adjectival force, and it is the same in the Greek. au iveing with homo understood Again, when the participle is a predicate, as Socrates est loquens, it equally fills the office of an adjective, and is not to be treated as a

.11",

:

r

;

which I have attached to the latter term. 223. The adsignification of time is proper to the participle. This point, however, Mr. Tooke contests, upon the ground that the Latin participles, present, past, and future, are not confined to the times from which they respectively receive their designations. Proficiscens is a participle of the present tense ; yet Cicero says, abfui proficiscens,
verb, at least in the sense

Acisifmitii-a-

104

OF PARTICIPLES.

[CHAP. VII.

thus connecting time present with time past. So profecturo tibi dedi literas, connecting the past with the future and again, quos spero societate Victoria tecum copulatos fore ; where spero is present, copulatos past, and fore future. Kone of these examples, however, prove anything against the expression of time by the participles, but merely
:

that time

is

contemplated

in various lights

by the mind

in

one and

Thus, in the phrase abfui projiciscens, the first the same sentence. word relates to the time of speaking, and the second to the time of

The going was present, when the absence (which is now was present. Again, dedi refers to a time past; but when that time was present, the departure (expressed in profecturo) was A thousand such cases as these would lead to no inference future. whatsoever against the expression of time by the participle. It is necessary to observe, however, that words which express time express it in two ways, either as simple existence or as relative to the different Thus, when we say " justice is at all times portions of duration.
acting.

past)

mercy," the present
tinuous.

is

So when we

a mere expression of existence, a present consay, " the sun rises every day," we speak of
It is the nature of the
;

an act habitually present.

human mind

to

be

able thus to contemplate duration

but this

in

no degree

interferes

with, still less contradicts, the view which we take of different portions of time, as past, present, and future, with relation to each other. The assertion, for instance, that the sun rises every day, does not at all clash with the assertion that the sun is rising at this moment. In both cases time is referred to a certain portion of time is designated in the one case which coincides with the general assertion in tin; other; and, iu fact, the diilcrence between the two assertions docs not depend on the verb itself, but on the accompanying words " every day " and "this moment." In these respects the veil) and
:

participle agree.

The

participle

is

the nature of the verb as to signify action, and

an adjective so far participating it cannoi signify action

without the capability of adsignifying time.
JjjjjMj

224

Particular languages
inflection

mayor may

not,

have separate words
portions of time
is

adapted by

to

signify the

dillerent

participial form.

In

truth, the notion of time

jtW element
ception
pl.'Mtv

in

the

compound

conception,

in a such cases a which compound con-

in

all

ma\ be expressed by one word or by
:

several.

The com;

of OOnOtptioO may go s till further it may include the unctions of active and passive', of absolute and conditional and,
short,
it

in

come to when Hence we see, that languages may have as great a of the v.M b. does variety of participles as they may of moods and tenses: and
all

those which

I

shall

have

to

consider

I

it

not
ii

..

,

in o|
]

the nature of language altogether to exclude
;

participles

the
it

mi'U of Speech
i

fbl Ifl,

Harris
Ir

is

perfectly right in saying,

that

we

participle.

II

a verb there will remain a speaking of the signification, and not of the sound
issi-rlion
;

and therefore Mr. TookVs

ridicule

of this

passage

ia

entirely mi..-

; ;

CHAP.

VII.]
It
is

OF PARTICIPLES.

105

placed.
'*'

an observation, as old as Aristotle, that the words

is
:

Socrates speaks" are equal in signification to the words " Socrates speaking ;" but it is evident that the assertive part of this sentence

consists entirely in the word " is," which word being taken away, the word " speaking " still expresses a quality of Socrates, and expresses

that quality in action,

and is therefore a participle. And so it will happen with every verb, as is instanced by Harris in the verbs, yp<tyci, Tooke misrepresents Harris as ypa(f)wy, " writeth," " writing."
saying,
that, by removing « and eth, he takes away the whence he concludes, that Harris supposed the assertion

assertion

to be im-

but Harris says nothing about taking away is very true, that the words ypafti and writeth imply assertions, and that in the words ypa^wv and writing, the assertion is taken away ; and yet there remains the same time, and which expressions of time and attribute, without tlic same attribute
plied
et

in

those syllables

;

and

eth.

He

says

what

;

;

assertion, constitute a participle.

225. It has been

laid

down

as a rule

by some

writers, that there where no
'
;

can be no participles but what are derived from verbs and hence they deny that such words as togatus, galeatus, &c, are to be called participles. Augustinus Saturnius, who treats particularly of this point, calls them, by way of distinction, participials. It is manifest,

in^'verb!'

however, that
Universal

this is

Grammar.

When

a distinction altogether nugatory, in regard to Othello says

My

demerits

may

speak untxmncted,

he uses exactly the same form of speech as if he had said uncovered, and the one word is as truly a participle as the -other; for although there may be no authority lor the use of the verb " to bonnet," or " to unbonnet," such verbs would be perfectly consistent with the" principles of Universal Grammar and, indeed, as much so with the English idiom, as the verbs " to veil," and " to unveil," both which
;

Uncovered, unveiled, and unbonneted equally viz., the removing the cover, veil, or bonnet from the head and it is by this signification, and not by their etymology, that the part of speech to which they belong is to be
are used

by Milton.

express an action of past time,
;

determined. 22G. must not be surprised to find, that participles of different classes pass into each other. Many active participles come to have a

We

Pass into «.rh other '

passive signification.
is

The word

eridens,

which was

originally active,

found with a passive meaning, from whence our common adjective, evident, is derived. This is a circumstance not peculiar to participles
for

when

I

which

are the

come to treat more at large of those transitions of meaning, groundwork of sound Etymology, it will be found that

they apply to every part of speech indifferently. Men cannot always find a separate term to express each distinct shade of thought, and they naturally avail themselves of those expressions which come the
nearest to their meaning.

106
A dmit of

OF PARTICIPLES.

fCHAP.

VII,

caw par idem.
it

227.
is

From what

clear that

participles, as well as adjectives,

has before been said on the subject of comparison, when they express

qualities capable of intension and remission, may admit the three degrees of comparison thus we may say amantior as well as durior, amantissimus as well as durissimus. It matters not, that in some languages the idiom will not allow of expressing the degrees of com:

parison

by

inflection
;

;

that, for
this is

example, in English

we

cannot say

a mere accident of the particular language, depending principally on circumstances connected with its sound ; and it is to be observed, that however barbarous such words as lovinger or lovingest might sound to the ear, yet they would be perfectly intelligible to the mind ; there would be nothing absurd or contradictory in the combination of the thoughts for the same com" bination is effected by the words " more loving," and " most loving
lovinger, or lovingest
; ;

U<e<I subrtaathrHy,

languages there must be means more or less concise, or circuitous, to express such combinations. have seen how the conception of a quality considered 228. alone, and rendered the subject of assertion, becomes a noun sulv

and

in all

We

stantive

;

and

are expressed
jectives. for this

which which are expressed by adWhether the same or a different word shall be employed
this applies, in principle, as well to those qualities

by

participles as to those

purpose

is,

again, a matter of particular idiom.

In English,

Thus, "sin use the very same word for both purposes. " dancing,'1 &c, may be used in construction as adjectives, or at substantives of the sort commonly called abstract. may say " a Singing man," M I dancing woman ;" or we may say, " singing is

we

We

In Latin, tin an accomplishment," "dancing is a recreation," &c. idiom is different: cantons, sultans, flbc, can only be used in the "former of these two ways; but, nevertheless, a similar principle is observable in the use of what are called gereads and supines.
tin- following account of the Oertmdi ''from our ancestors chose certain tenses, by means ot which they might imitate those (ireek terms Xektiov, nayrjTior, &«•., ut with a more ample and extensive use. These they called gerunds,
1

L'L! .'.

Bcaliger gives

thete

(participles)

I

ol assigning to them three cases, pugnunili, jmgnuiidu, /mt/iitiiiduin which the second preserved the power ol' a participle, bill so much
;

as the verbs were cause of action i| more ndneravi,' than by Saying rrridi, oaderem mlneravi,' the whole of

the

more Aptly

excelled by the participles.
plainly

For,

M

the

shown by saying
still

OCXU*

and
this
in

better
is

expressed

OfXdeml

1
i

VUlseraVi.

Id

>ver,

many

'quia by the gerund things the form and the

by saying

end are the same; but the end is partly out ..I' us, as the ship is a thing out of the ship-builder j and partly within us, in our minds, is called an itieti, by which W6 are impelled to (lie is that which

M

rial

end.

Now
.

both
a

•<{'

these the\
signify

veiv

skill'ullv

expressed;
1

for

Ix.tli

pugnantH and pugnandum
juitnt
,

the end.

Thru

may

say,

-,idi
t

1

mounted my

hov.se lor the

purpose uj

CHAP. VII.]
fighting
;

OF PARTICIPLES.

107

est ex equo, I must fight (or the fighting must " Hence it appears that these (gerunds) are participles, differing little from other participles, either in nature, or use, or even in form." Again he observes " Some writers have called these gerunds from their use •participial iiouns ; for they are neither pure nouns, since they govern a case, nor are they pure participles, since, with a passive voice, they bear an active signi-

or

pugnandum

be) on horseback."

:

fication."

is

the explanation to be given of the Supines the same meaning more forcibly. Thus, eo
;

230. The same author thus speaks of the Supine : " Nearly similar but these hitter expN
;

supine*,

ad pugnandum

signifies

a

future action

eo

pugnatum expresses the

future so as to be quite

"Hence it signifies activity with actives, and passiveness with passives: eo factum injuriam, or injuria mihi factum itur ; but indeed it always savours, in some degree, of passiveneas; for it does not so much mean eout faciam, as it means eo ut hoc fat ; as if one were to say, I am going indeed for the purpose of doing so and so, but I hope it is already done; and like Sosia's speech, Dictum puta, " suppose it said." " Since, therefore, the end (or aim) of an action was to be thus signified, the other extreme was not improperly expressed by a different word." Hence Scaliger explains the different use of the supines in um and w, the latter of which he regards as a " There is equally a movement," says he, sort of ablative case. " from and to an object; and therefore we rightly say venatu venio, as we do venatum vado." He goes at length into these considerations, opposing in some measure what other grammarians had said of the supine in u; but these questions are beside my present object: and
absolute."
all

that is necessary here to be shown is the chain of connection which unites the participle, as an adjective, on the one hand with the noun substantive, and on the other with the gerunds and supines.

(

108

)

CHAPTER

VIII.

OF PRONOUNS.
Definition.

Pkonoun is a part of speech so called from the Latin Pr 231. nomen, and the Greek 'AvTwvvpla and agreeably to this derivation, is defined by the generality of grammarians, " a sign or rcpivsentath of a noun ;" for things (and persons), as Vossius observes, are coi sidered in grammar as named by nouns. When, therefore, a pronoun such as he or it, is used to signify a person, for instance " Casar," or thing, for instance, " a crown," the pronoun he is a sign or repr sentative of the noun " Civsar ;" and the pronoun it is a sign or repn sentative of the noun "crown;" and so forth. Aristotle, indeed, his treatise 7T£pi 'Eppyveiac comprehends the pronoun under the tit Noun. By subsequent writers, the tern pronoun has ecu applied 1
;
i
1

A

several classes of words, very distinguishable from each other

:

and
I

may be

Di»Unctions.

doubted, whether it would not originally have been better restrict its signification within narrower limits than those which wei adopted. Upon the whole, however, as the meaning has been so Jon settled, I deem it advisable to follow the established usage. 232. Of the many distinctions which have been made in this pa]
of speech, that which
dilutive
first

demands

attention, as essential,

is

into std

and adjective, answering to the like division of primary noun: which has been already explained. ThusAe is a substantive pronoui which may, standing alone, represent the primary DOun sul>stantiv( Socrates understood, and they is a substantive pronoun, which, standin alone, may represent the primary noun substantive, Mm, or S/h'jk understood; whereas, in the expressions even/ person, any natioi every and any are pronouns adjective, which cannot stand alone, bti agree, as adjectives, with the substantives "person," and "nation,
expressed.

Some

of the adjective pronouns, however,

may

lie

use

substantively, by i sort of ellipsis, which will presently be explained, those which are com I consider as pronouns substantive all I,

monly
p'
I

called personal,
I

and distinguished as of the

first,
Is,

second,
that the

am
lira

third person.
"ii
i

M this distinction the
tin-

common

account

the speaker,

second the person spoken

to,

and the thin
;

lb thing spoken o£ But this Is cot quite correct though the first person In- in tact the speaker, and the BeOOUd, th per-,., n spoken to, yet, unless they are also spoken of, the] do no

the

person or

into the grammatical eon miction of a sent, nee.

And

again, a
it

to the
in

thud
i

pel

,ii\

hem" poken

of, this is a

character which

.diare

,,,iin

both the other persons, and which oan never, there own. To explain by an In tana beoalled i pscuharitj of

w

ith

n


CHAP.
VIII.]

;

OF PRONOUN'S.

109

or two.

When

iEneas begins the narrative of his adventures, the

lecond person immediately appears; because he at once makes Dido, win an he addresses the subject of his discourse.
Infandum, Regina,
jitbes

renovare dolorem.

From henceforward

for

1500

verses,

(though she

is

all

that time

the person spoken to) we hear nothing further of this second person, In the meantime, a variety of other subjects filling up the narrative. the first person may be seen everywhere; because the speaker is Everywhere himself the subject: the events were, indeed, as he says,

those
Quae ipse miserrima
vidi,

Et quorum pars magna fui.

Not

this narrative

that the second person does not often occur in the course of but then it is always by a figure of speech, when those ;

their absence, constitute, in fact, so many third persons, are converted into second persons, by being introduced as present. On the other hand, when we read Euclid, we find neither first person nor second in any part of the whole work. The reason is, that neither the speaker nor the party addressed (in which light we may always view the writer and his reader) can possibly become the subject of

who, by

pure mathematics. 234. The clearest explanation of the different persons is that given by Priscian, who took it from Apollonius Personce pronominum sunt Prima est cum ipsa, qua; loquitur, de se tres, prima, secunda, tertia. pronuntiat ; secunda, cum de ea pronuntiat ad quam directo sermone
:

^j^^ > n
t

loquitur

;

tertia,
1.

cum
p.

de ed quo? nee loquitur, nee

ad

se

directum accipit

sennonem,
tinctions:

xii.

Ilpwroi'
ui

Theodore Gaza gives the same dis(irpoouiTOV, SC.) ^ irtp\ kavrov <f>pa£il 6 Xiytov'
940.

ctvrtpov,
1.

ntpi rod, npug ov o Xoyoe. Tp'iTov, i^irip) iripov. Gaz. Gram. 152: and this explanation is stated more at large by Harris, whose words therefore, I shall, with a slight correction, adopt. 235. " Suppose the parties conversing," says he, "to be wholly First person, unacquainted, neither name nor countenance on either side known and the subject of the conversation to be the speaker himself. Here, to supply the place of pointing, by a word of equal power, the and as I write, I say, I desire,' &c. speaker uses the pronoun I. the speaker is always principal with respect to his own discourse, this is called, for that reason, the pronoun of the first person. 236. " Again, suppose the subject of the conversation to be the *wmd Here, for similar reasons, the pronoun thou is emparty addressed. Thou writest,' thou walkest,' &c. and as the party adployed. dressed is next in dignity to the speaker, or at least comes next to him, with reference to the discourse, this pronoun is therefore called the pronoun of the second person.
iv. p.
'
:

4

;

237. " Lastly, suppose the subject of the conversation neither the
speaker, nor the party addressed, but

Thirdperwu.

some

third object, different

from


110
both
;

OF PRONOUNS.
:

[CHAP. VIIL

here another pronoun is provided, viz. he, she, or it, which, in from the two. former, is called the pronoun of the third " And thus it is that pronouns come to be distinguished by person."
distinction
their respective persons."

But plain and intelligible, as this explanaof the grammatical distinction of persons, it must not be understood to imply that the actual conception of a person is subsequent, in the human mind, to that of the noun which the pronoun represents ; for, as has been observed, the notion of our own personal identity,
tion
is,

which
all

is

expressed by the pronoun, "
;

I,"

is

essentially necessary to

consciousness

and by an innate sympathy, we cannot but

believe

other Persons to possess, like ourselves, each his notion of identity we even transfer to Things,

own
if

identity

;

which
us-

they appear to

How gjfcring
from the two
tormer.

under all circumstances to retain the same qualities. 238. It will not fail, however, to be observed, that there is a marked 1 11 c rr* 1 he hist difference between the third person, and the two former. and second are strictly personal, the speaker must be a person, and th« party addressed must be at least personified, as when Satan addresses
i 1
.

r-

the sun,
thou, that with surpassing glory Look'st from thy sole dominion !

crownM,
represent either a person,
different one, according
tc

But

the pronoun of the third person
;

may

or a thing

and that by the same word or a

Hence, some grammarians dis the idiom of the language employed. tinguish pronouns in general into personal and demonstrative, including
in

the former class only those of the
latter class.

first

and second person, and re

ferring those of the third person, together with all other pronouns,

U

This arrangement, in so far as it confounds sub He or she ma) stantive pronouns with adjective, I cannot approve. stand as much alone in a sentence, as Peter or Jane, and may regu hirlv be made the subject of a proposition, and connected with an ad may say Indifferently " he is wise," o: jective as its predicate. 4l 44 Jane is handsome." No Peter is wise," " she is handsome," or
the

We

does the pronoun of the third person necessarily represent a noun on known, or a person or thing absent, any more than a pronoun of th< The name of the speaker (that is tin fast or second person does. noun represented by the pronoun I) may be as little or Less known b the pSfSOD addressed, as the name of the person or thing spoken of and, in point of fact, lilt speaker, the person spoken to, and the persoi or thing poken of, may be all present, and noaj as little need to t» dcmon.-ur.ite.l or pointed out, one || the other. Therefore, though pronoun substantive relating to a thing cannot in strictness be CSJlst under net; yet the grammarian will do right, who includes common head with pronouns >f the first and second persons.
I

it,

I

2 19.

The
I

ei,

.
i

.if
><
.

the

three

persons are not
restrictions.
-•
i

so entirer
dii

SSparatS,
l,,,
iii

tO

preclude a
j

,,iUe coalescence of the

pronouns of

pet

OOSj
first

btrt

thin

is

uhjeet to certain
pt
I

The

pre

i

of the

or ssdood

|!

'"

6

ii

Itb

the third


CHAI'. VIlI.j

;

OF PROXOCXS.

Ill

and second cannot coalesce with each other. For example, we may say (and the difierence of idiom in different languages docs not afiect these expressions), " I am he," or, " thou art he ;" 01,
but the
first

as in the text, "art thou he that should come, or do we look for another ?" But we cannot say, ..' I am thou," nor " thou art I ;" the

reason

is,

that there

is
;

no absurdity
as

in the speaker's

being the subject

also of the discourse

addressed being so,

ame

person, in the

when we say, " I am he;" or in the person as when we say, "thou art he;" but that the same circumstances, should be at once the speaker

and the party addressed would be absurd; and, consequently, so would the coalescence be of the first and second person. Some grammarians seem to have inaccurately supposed, that all but the personal pronouns of the first and second person were to be considered as belonging to the third person. This, however, is inaccurate, at least with respect to the relatives, who, which, that, as may be observed in those lines of the old song What you, that loved
:

!

I

And
Shall

I,

that loved!

we

begin to wrangle ?

of the second person in the first line, and of the first person in the second line and if translated into Latin, it must e rendered, not tu qua; amabat, and ego qui amabat, but tu quae amabas, and ego qui amabam. 240. The pronoun adjective is distinguished from the pronoun sub- Pronoun
tliat is
:
1

Where

the relative

same manner as the noun adjective is from the noun by its inability to stand alone because it implies some attribute or quality of a noun or pronoun substantive. It must l>e admitted, that to determine whether a particular word, which
stantive, in the

adjecme

-

substantive, namely,

;

occurs in a speech or literary composition, should be considered as a pronoun adjective, or a noun adjective, is not always very easy ; but this is rather a difficulty of idiom than of grammatical principle.

Without dwelling on this point, therefore, I proceed to notice the most obvious distinctions of the pronoun adjective.
positive I

consider that they are either positive or relative. By r°S9eBsiv «'» those distinctions which regard the word as a member of a single sentence and by relative, those which relate to another sentence preceding or subsequent. The positive either depend on the
I

241. First,

mean

;

personal pronoun, and are
limit general nouns,

commonly

called possessive, or else serve to
definitive.

and may be called

Some

possessive

pronouns must be necessarily expressed or understood in all languages for if it be necessary to have a pronoun personal, which is a word representing a whole class of nouns substantive, it is equally necessary
to indicate (in

some manner or other), the quality which consists in belonging to that class. If every speakei must indicate himself by the word 1, or me, he must indicate what belongs to himself bv some such expression as mim or of me. Whether this be done by the former of these two modes of expression, or the latter, is immaterial to the sense,

112

OF PROXOUNS.

[chap. VIII,

particular language

and must depend on the construction permitted by the idiom of the but if such a word as mine or my be employed, it must be regarded as a pronoun adjective, and indeed is treated in many languages exactly as any other adjective is, at least in the positive degree. For instance, metis, mea, meum, is declined in Latin exactly Under the head of possessive pronouns may as bonus, bona, bonum, is. be classed those which Vossius calls gentilia, such as nostrates, meaning
;

individuals of our race, family, or party

;

as military officers in this

Definitive.

country often mention a comrade, as " of ours," meaning, " of oui regiment." 242. The definitive pronouns serve to limit general nouns, with reference either to an individual simply, as when I say " this man," 01 M that man ;" or else with reference to other individuals of the same How far such class, as when I say, " the other man," " every man." distinctions may be carried in practice, depends on the degree of cultivation which particular languages may receive; but some degree oi and definition seems necessary to the formation of every language from pronouns of this class is derived the definite Article, which will The pronouns which limit with reference tc be considered hereafter. an individual simply may be called demonstrative, as they show the
:

individual

intended,

by

reference

situation, or the like.

Thus, the words "this

a person near, or present; the distant, or perhaps absent. The pronouns which limit a conceptioi with reference to several individuate of a like class are distinguish^ by Vossius into partitives, such as "either," " neither," " other;" an<
distributives,

own particular position, man" usually indicate words "that man," a person mon
to
his

such as " any," " some," "every." The distributives agail but these lattei might be distinguished into general and numeral form an important class, which I shall have occasion to considei
;

apart.
Mtfancthr.
j

348.
.r. •

Of

the relative pronouns adjective,

those
;

which
those

relate
\\

to

i

•< linj;

sentence are

commonly

called suhjunctiiv

Inch relate

tO
in

I say those which relau to | Inline sentence are called interrogative. because ft Sentence, and not those whirl) relate to a person or thing
;

truth

all

but the pronouns of the
or
'»•

first

and second person must

refei
In

to soni"

penOO

When we say, " thing previously indicated. lived, W* presume thai the persons intended b)
with the sul

h

ma the
in

aw
o!
it

previously known.
>ent.'iices

dure or lead
point

These pronouns, however, may intio which do not depend on any previous sentence
Bttft
it

OUttatrUCUOB.

is

not

BO

.jun.t

i\

cs

introduce an original lentence, but only serve to subjoin on< The principal subjunctive pro to some other which has preceded it. arc who and which, and sometimes //k*£. It does not seen essential to the Const it ul K .ii o! a language, however convenient, tha lor they may lie resolved int( lln
!•
;

another pronoun and n conjunction; and consequently by such othe proiiuiin and conjunction then- place may always be supplied. Lei u


CHAP.
VIII.]

———
OF PRONOUNS.
is
:

;

113
desired to

take the example given by Harris. I will suppose that it combine into one sentence the two following propositions
1.
2.

"Light is a body." " Light moves rapidly."
light,

Here

it

is

obvious that the use of the noun
supplied by the pronoun
it,

in the

second pro-

position,

may be

as thus:

It

" Light is a body moves rapidly."

:

This slight change, however, leaves the two propositions let us then connect them by the conjunction and ; thus
:

still

distinct

" Light

And

it

is a body; moves rapidly."

Here is a connection of the two propositions, yet still not so much dependence of the latter on the former, (not so intimate a union of the parts,) as if, for the words " and it," we substitute the subjunctive pronoun which ; thus " Light is a body, which moves rapidly."
:

Accordingly,
the interval

sents the proper

we see that in the punctuation, which most accurately repremode of reading the passage, we gradually diminish
is

between the two propositions, horn a period to a comma.
the nature of the subjunctive pronoun

244.

Of

the interrogative

:

interrogative

and therefore we very commonly rind the same word performing these two functions. Thus, in English, the subjunctives who and which, are used as interrogatives, though with a remarkable diflerence in their application. As subjunctives, in modern use at least, who is applied to persons, and which to things. As interrogatives, they are both applied to persons, but wJto indefinitely, and which definitely. Thus, the question, " Who will go up with me to Ramoth-gilead ?" is indefinitely proposed to all who may hear the question but when our Saviour says, " Which of you, with taking thought, can add to his stature one cubit?" the interrogation is individual, as appears from the partitive form of the words " which of you " that is to say, "what one among you all." These applications of particular words are
:

indeed matters of peculiar idiom but the distinctions of signification to which they relate properly belong to the science of which we are
;

Interrogative pronouns are necessarily of a relative nature, and on that account were ranked by the Stoics under the head of the article ; but as they do in fact stand for, and represent nouns, they are properly called pronouns. On interrogatives in general, Vossius has the following just observation " It appears to me, that the matter stands thus there are two principal classes of words, the noun and the verb and, therefore, to one or other of these every interrogation must refer. For, if I ask who, which, what, how many, I inquire concerning some noun but if I ask where, whence, whither, when, how often, I inquire concerning some verb. As, therefore, the
treating.
:

:

;

;

2.

I

114

OF PitOXOUXS.

[chap. VIII

Transition.

words which are subsidiary to the verbs are called adverbs, so th words which refer to the noun should be called pronouns." 245. The number and variety of classes into which pronouns ma be distributed in any one language must, in a great measure, depem on the classification of conceptions, which had become habitual anion:
early formers of that particular Language. Thus we cannot English express, without periphrasis, the Latin pronouns qualii quantus, &c, any more than we can the adverbs quoties, qualiter, &c Nor must it be forgotten, that many of these pronouns pass infc different classes, according as they are used in particular passages " Sunt ex istis," says Vossius, " quae pro diverso, vel usu vel respectn

the

i:

ad
in NumcraU.

diversas pertineant classes."

246. This remark applies with peculiar force to the Numerals which, according to the different modes in which they are employed may be regarded either as nouns substantive, or else as pronoun substantive or adjective, as the case may be. I have heretofore showi the fundamental importance of the conceptions of number. Thes conceptions must have names, and when the names are used h express the mere ideas of number, as when we say, " one and one ar two" they may be considered as nouns substantive in the sam manner as the words line, point, angle, which are also names of ideas But when these nouns are used with an express o are considered. tacit reference to some other noun, they become pronouns, either sub When we say, "two men are wiser than one, stantive or adjective. or " many men are wiser than one," the numeral " two " is as nnieh pronoun adjective as the word " many " is a noun adjective. But we say, generally, " two are more than one," the word "two" is a pro
;
: i

i

noun substantive.
ordinal
:

Numerals are commonly divided

into cardinal

am

have hitherto spoken of the former, that is to say, of tin names given to our distinct ideas of number, simply as distinguishinj tin in from each other, as one, two, three, &c. ; but these same con ceptioiis, viewed with rafcWDOC to older, form in the mind a class o qualities of the substance secondary conceptions, which are treated Hence originate such words as first, second to which they belong. Those may be called pronominal adjectives. Th third, fourth, Sec. ordinal uumlxirs are in general derived from the cardinal numbers In but Ml necessarily so for in mam, perhaps in most langUI 0, -•I WOBUd ha\e no similarity to the words OM and tin, I'n.fessor Bopp has observed " that whilst in the Indo-European Has,
I

M

;

[1

i

of languages the greatest rarttty obtains unanimous mnnbtf ons, th<*)
.

in

designating the cardial
designation of tin from the corrc

in then-

ordii
n] »oiid
ii i.'

Inch innie uf those
cardinal. "•

laiij.ma^es derives

Thusli

the Sancrii
wptbroi

'l.i.i tiii-

'iieek
Ii*

rWoomsj

/mi comes prathama the Saxon fan come, Soft
seriindus, second, &c.

est, first;

mi the Latin si>qw>r
I'.Mj.p,

com -s
1.,

Conpi Oram,

321.


chap, vm.l
247. Almost
all

——

!

oF

noxwmut

115
other

pronouns, except tne first and second personals, but they do not continue to be such when they stand by themselves, or as Lowth rather singularly expresses it, " seem to stand by themselves." It is true, that in such cases, they often have " some substantive belonging to them, either referred to or understood ;" but this only proves that they are pronouns. Whether we say " this is good," " it is good," or " he is good," there is always
are adjectives in origin
;

some noun referred to, or understood and the words it and he " seem by themselves," just as much as the word " this " does. So in the phrases " one is apt to think," and " J am apt to think," the words one and / equally " seem to stand alone," that is to say, they They perform the function of naming an equally do stand alone. object, so far as it is necessary to be named and they name it not as
:

to stand

;

a quality of another object, but as possessing a substantive existence. The words this, that, who, which, all, none, and many of a similar kind, are (in this view of them) substantive pronouns when they stand alone, but adjective pronouns when they are joined to a noun substantive.

When Antony
This

says

this

was the unkindest cut of all,

I

consider the

indeed, be explained

word this to be a substantive pronoun. It may, by transposition, as if it were, " this cut was the
:

unkindest of all ;" but such is not the order of the thoughts and, in fact, the particular wound inflicted by Brutus had been before described at some length, but the noun cut had not been used and supposing that, for dramatic effect, the line had been broken off* at the word " was," it would have been impossible to say that the pronoun
:

this

had any

specific reference to this particular

noun

cut,

as

we may

>See,
easily perceive

by

so reading the passage

:

what a rent the envious Casca made Through this the well-beloved Brutus stabb'd

;

And as he Mark how

pluck'd his cursed steel away, the blood of Caesar followed it, As rushing out of doors, to be resolv'd If Brutus so unkindly knock'd, or no : For Brutus, as you know, was Caesar's angel. Judge, ye gods, how dearly Caesar lov'd him This this was

!

If the

passage had thus broken

rather

seemed

to refer to the

off, the pronoun this would have whole narrative of the share which Brutus
;

had taken

in the

transaction

that narrative presenting to the
illustrate

mind

one complete and definite conception. passage in Othello will further

A

my

pretends to caution Othello against suffering his any suspicion against his wife's honour
:

mind

meaning. lago to encourage

It is

0, beware, my lord, of jealousy ! a green-eyed monster which doth make
it

The meat

feeds on.

i2


116


OF PRONOUNS.
[CHAP. VIII

After he has pursued this strain of reasoning for some time, Othello
interrupting him, exclaims with surprise

Why, why
Evidently meaning,
jealousy to me,
this

is this

?

Why

do you act thus ?
all

Why

do you
?

talk o

who am

not at

disposed to be jealous

The won

cannot here be said to refer to any one noun that precedes, or t< any one noun that follows it and it is therefore most manifestly uset with the force and effect of a substantive. On the contrary, it clearly used as an adjective, in a subsequent passage, where Othello
; i

speaking of Iago, says
Sees and

:

This honest creature, doubtless,

knows more, much more than he

unfolds.

248. Whether the same or different words shall be employed ti express the substantival and adjectival form of pronouns is mat tor o idiom. Thus, a language may, or may not, have different forms fo Lowth considers the won the personal and possessive pronouns. mine as the possessive case of the personal I ; but the English won mine answers to the Latin metis, which is certainly an adjective. Oi the other hand, the Latin mi, which is commonly called the vocativ singular of meus, seems to be the same word with mihi, the dativ. case of Ego ; for it is used in connection with plurals as well as sin pillars, and with masculines, feminines, and neuters indiscriminately Thus we have in Plautus, mi homines ; and in lVtronius, mi hospites and in Apuleius, mi sidus, mi parens, mi lierilis (sc.Jilia), mi conjit.v &c. ; and in a passage of Tibullus, the different manuscripts have some midulcis anus, and some mihi littlcis amis in all which instances the dative mihi seems to he intended to be used in that manner wliicl grammarians often, though-iaoo ectly, call redundant ; and describe There an as adopted, nulla necessitatis, sed potius festicitatis causa. many other idioms relative to the use of pronouns which it is not hen -sary to consider, such as the combination of the adjective 010) and the substantive self \\\t\\ the pronouns my, thy, &c, in English and the subjoining the syllables ?/!<•/, citui/ue, &C, to certain pronoun Litui, ai ipsemet, quicunaw', &<•., which are usually necompanie< in Im" chan •.• in the force of he original pronouns with some eon,-] 240t To the e.,eiitial distinction Of pronouns as substantive am adj. Ided the accidental distinctions to which, like tb represent, th,.y are liable, of Dumber, gender, am \ doom ulueh Since the pronoun stand noun, and .sine in the place of a OaSO.
;

w

I

.

t

!

i.

.

number is a conception irhicfa may b bined in general with o ou that the pronoun may have the distinctions of number;
i

i

nor

indeed,

is

it

e.i

.-,

bo oonoaive
vu.
I, .i

i

language so constructed as

bo havi
it
i

pronourtH without
thai th.-ie
or,
'..

distinction.
i

As
al hi iv

to

the

first

person,

m.u he man) ipeakci

once of the same sentimenl
deliver the

une thing,
a.

common

sen

tan. it

ol

many, and

their

name;

for

the

same

reason, therefbri


CHA1'. VIII.]

;

OF PRONOUNS.

117

that the pronoun

/ is necessary, the pronoun we is so too. Again, the singular thou has the plural you, because a speech may be spoken and the singular lie has the plural they, to manv, as well as to one because the subject of discourse often includes many things or persons
:

at once.

250. The pronoun is also susceptible of the distinction of Gender, Gender, difference, however, because the noun which it represents is so. has been said to exist in this respect between the pronouns of different It is certainly true persons and the reasoning thereon is plausible. that the pronouns of the first and second person, both in the dead and living languages, have no distinct inflection expressing their gender and the reason for this is alleged to be that the speaker and hearer being generally present to each other, it would have been superfluous to have marked a distinction by art, which from nature, and even " Demonstratio ipsa," dress, was commonly apparent on both sides.

A

:

says Priscian, " secum genus ostendit."
true that the pronouns of the
first

However, it is by no means and second person have no gender.

not, indeed, in any known language, inflections distinguishing them in point of gender, but they always take, in construcThus Dido tion, the gender of the noun which they represent.

They have

cui

me moribundam

deseris, hospes ?

And Mercury

addressing iEneas

Tu nunc Carthaginis altse Fundamenta locas, pulchramque uxorius urbem
Exstruis
?

hands that the pronouns of the third person must almost of necessity receive the distinctions of gender in all languages. These pronouns are called in Arabic the pronoun of the absentee, and, in fact, they usually refer to persons or things which being absent require to be distinguished, as to gender, &c, by some expression in the discourse. It is further to be observed, that the pronouns of the first and second person each apply only to certain known and present individuals; whereas, the pronouns of the third person may, in the course of one and the same speech, refer to a great diversity of objects, requiring to be distinguished by their respective genders. " The utility of this distinction," says Harris, " may be better found in supposing it away." Suppose, for example, we should read in history these words and that we were he caused him to destroy him to be informed that the he, which is here thrice repeated, stood each time for something different, that is to say, for a man, for a woman, and for a city, whose names were Alexander, Thais, and Persepolis. Taking the pronoun in this manner, divested of its gender, how would it appear which was destroyed, which was the destroyer, and which was the cause of the destruction? But there are no such doubts when we hear the genders distinguished when, instead of the ambiguous sentence, " He caused him to destroy him" we are told,
It is agreed

on

all

:

;

118

OF PRONOUNS.

(CHAP. VIII.

with the proper distinction, that " SJie caused him to destroy it." Then we know with certainty what before we knew not, viz., that the promoter was a woman; that her instrument was the hero; and
Case.

that the subject of their cruelty was the unfortunate city. 251. Case is another distinction, not essential to the noun, but
accidental.
;

It is therefore to be ranked among the accidents of the pronoun yet, so frequent is the occasion to use pronouns, that many of them, especially those which are particularly denominated personal, have the variations of case, even in languages which vary their nouns

in

When a person speaks oi this respect very little or not at all. himself as the performer of any action, he seems naturally led be adopt a different phraseology from that which he employs in speaking of the action as done toward him and hence the difference betweer / and me, thou and thee, runs throughout far the greater number o: known languages. After all, Universal Grammar only furnishes th( reason for this difference when it exists, but does not prove its oxis
;

There may be languages of which the pro nouns have no cases but where they have cases, the same function h performed by each case in the pronoun as in the noun.
tence to be necessary.
;

(

119

)

CHAPTER
OF VERBS.

IX.

252. A Verb is a part of speech, so called from the Latin verbum, which seems to have been intended to correspond to the Greek '¥iip.a though the latter word was used by different Grecian writers in verv different senses. Aristotle defines *P»/^a, " a complex word, significant, with time, of which no part is significant by itself;"* but this definition, which differs from that which he had before given of the noun, only in the words " with time," is manifestly referable to the Greek language, and not to Universal Grammar. Some philologists under;

Aristotle*

stand Aristotle in one instance to apply the designation 'Pjjj/ia to the adjective \ivkoq, white; but this seems to be a misapprehension. It however led Ammonius to maintain that every word which forms the predicate in a logical proposition is a 'P^a.f Some of the Stoics contended that the only genuine *Pr]/ia was the infinitive mood of a verb. Others, again, disputed whether or not the copula, in a logical proposition, should be deemed a 'Pqaa. Words answering this purpose were called by most Greek writers 'P»//uara vwapKTiicu, verbs of
existence;
refuse to

by Latin authors, verba substantiva; and in English grammars, "verbs substantive:" but Aristotle seems, in his Poetics, to

them the title of 'Pi/^ara, considering them, perhaps, as mere 'Lvvlta^oi, connectives. He defines the SwvSto^ioe " a word not significant, which is fitted to make of several significant words one significant word" And further on he says, J (or rather sentence). "not every sentence consists of 'Pij^ara and nouns ;"§ "but it is possible that there may be a sentence without a 'Pfjfin" as an instance of which (it seems) he refers to "the definition of man."^" The passage is rather obscure, but it would seem from the context that he means this If we say " man is an animal," the sentence is perfect, but there is no 'Prjfia in it for the word "is" serves merely as a connective to make of two nouns, "man" and "animal," one significant sentence but in itself it signifies neither substance nor at||

:

;

;

* w»>) evthrri
8.

<rnftx*rix*i, ftira

X'otov,

ri;

siJiv pious rnu.ai>n xaff airi.

Poetic,

34. f Tlxrav

<pu*t)»

xttrriytgevfuto*

oon

!v

ToiTxru
fticis,

vtncvra.i 'Vr,fia.

xakiTffat.

Ad

Arist.,
J

De

Interp.
u<rnftof, ix
ifaivijv.

4>i/nj

TXticiut
s.

fti»

Quyiuv

rnficivrixiur St,

mtil
Ibid.

vrKfuxZiei filat

gftpuvrixriv

Poetic,

34.
Xoyot.
Ibid.

§
||

Ow yae

ecra; Xoyoi lx pn/tarv* xat avofiaruv trvyxurui.
avii/ fYifjua-Tui jT»a<
beio-ftcf.

AAV
Oiov

Uli^irxi
o

^f

rov a.iQou<xov

Ibid.


120
tribute, neither does
it

OF VERBS,

[CHAP. IX.
for these reasons
it is

mark

time,

and

not to be

deemed a
lateme

'PjJ^za.

253. If these explanations of the nature of a verb are not very still less so is the manner in which this part of speech was treated by Mr. Tooke. So early as the year 1778, he published a letter to Mr. Dunning, in which he advanced some propositions concerning language, which were thought at the time rather paradoxical. These were amplified and extended in 1786, in the first volume of his " Diversions of Purley." He there laid it down that " in English, and in all languages, there are only two sorts of words which are necessary for the communication of our thoughts, viz., the noun and tJie verb."* He said, "he was inclined to allow the rank of parts of speech only to these necessary words ;""j" that "a consideration of ideas, n or of the mind, or of things, would lead us no farther than to noms; \ and that "the other part of speech, the verb, must be accounted for from the necessary me of it in communication ; that it is in fact the communication itself, and therefore well denominated 'Vij/ia, dictum; And with this for the verb is quod lapiimur, the noun De quo."§ mysterious hint the readers of the first volume were obliged, SO far as In that volume, and also in the regarded the verb, to be content. OOIld, which was published in 1805, he asserted many words to be moods, tenses, or participles of certain verbs (remarking, however, incidentally, that mood, tense, number, and person, are no parts of the verb), but still the verb itself he neither defined nor explained, further than by saying that it was "the noun and something inore."H" At the close of the second volume his 'supposed colloquial friend asks What is that pethis very pertinent question, "What u the verb? culiar differential circumstance, which, added to the definition of a noun, constitutes the \. rb?" Is the verb
satisfactory,
||

1.

Dictio variabilis,

qua

significat

actionem \vl passioncm?

2. Or, dictio variabilis per
1

modoS?
''

hr,

4. Or,
.">.
<

quod quod
notu

asu ? ivirignat tempos si agere, pati, vel esse significat
ivi

>r,

sub tempore?

I

Or, pars orationis predpua sine can ? Or, nn assertion } 8. Or, mini significant, at quasi nexus et copula, at verba alia (piasi unimuivl nn mot declinable Indeterminatif? Or, mi mot. (pu pivs.ni.- a 1'. ,prit un eliv indetermino,
0.
7.
''
1

.

.

(leaignd will. -in. -Hi pit I'ldee generate de ['existence sous

DM
To
all

nlation h line modification
T<*.k.'

'.'"

this

Mr.
in

rtpUet

"A
tx p.
v.

truiv

!

a

true!
No, no,
1
*i

I

know sou
mil
'

art not serious
• (

laying this troth
p,
«;:..

fors
67.
It,

me.

Wk

Mr, of
Iliii|.,|i.

I'.i.l.. v. I.

\
II

li.i.l.,

lbi.l„ p. 70.

71.

tUt,

p. 478,

ibid, p, :.il.


CHAP.
IX.]

OF VERBS.
the present !

121
;

off here

for

"

And

so he did

but never resumed the
inconciusiTe.

discussion.

254. Surely, if the verb was one of the only two necessary parts of speech if it was one of the two main pillars supporting the whole if Mr. Tooke himself had it constantly in view, edifice of language and referred to it in his three successive publications he might have found time, between 1778 and his death in 1812, to have given the
; ; ;

disciples of his

new

school,

which was to sweep away

all

the old

grammatical doctrines as " trash," a little more distinct information on the nature of the verb, than that it was a noun, " and something more," and that both it and the noun being equally necessary for the communication of thought, the verb was distinguished from the noun "something by the "necessity of its use in communication." more," of which we know nothing, is to common capacities just equal to nothing and to distinguish one of two necessary things from the other, by the common attribute of necessity, is a mode of division no less ungrammatical than illogical. 255. The verb has been differently defined (as we have seen) by Analysis, different grammarians and indeed when we reflect on the variety of conceptions, which it often combines in one word, we must allow, that this circumstance, " throws considerable difficulties in the way of any person who attempts to analyse the verb, and ascertain its nature."* The first step in such an analysis is to distinguish those properties of the verb, which are essential to it, and are therefore necessarily to be found in all verbs, from those which are accidental, and form different combinations in different languages. I consider as essential properties of the verb, its power

A

:

;

2ndly.

To signify an attribute of some substance. To connect such attribute with its proper substance. 3rdly. To assert, directly or indirectly, the existence or non1st.

existence of the connection.
I consider as accidental properties,

those which grammarians have
kind, voice,

commonly

designated by

some such terms as

mood,

tense,

person, number, gender, &c.

256. The definition of a verb, so far as regards Universal Grammar, should be confined to the essential properties of this part of speech. Before I attempt to define it, therefore, I shall examine those proper-

Attribute,

and first, as to signifying an attribute. Here the term " attribute " is to be taken largely, so as to include every conception, which can be predicated of another in a simple proposition. Therefore, the genus is to be deemed an attribute of the species, and the species of
ties
:

the individual.

Existence, too, whether absolute or qualified, is to be deemed an attribute of the existing substance absolute, as when

we we

say, "

say "

God is," or when God says, " I am God is almighty," " man is mortal ;"
* Encycl. Bntan.,
art.

;" qualified, as in

when

both which cases,

Grammar.

122
the

OF VERBS.

[CHAP.

I.N

existence are numberless.

word "is " forms a verb substantive. The attributes of qualific "We may, however, divide them into thos which are qualified by conceptions of action, and those of which th
Conceptions of
;

qualifving conception does not relate to action.
are spiritual, as, to love
;

actioi

mental,

as, to

know

or corporeal, as, t
as, to liv

touch

;

and they may be of a positive or negative character,

or die, to

move

or stop, to

with action are such as, honest or dishonest, tall or short, beautiful or ugly. Now, the signi fication of an attribute belongs to a verb in one of two ways it i either added to the verb substantive as a necessary adjunct, or it i Propositions, in which tb involved in the form of a different verb. attribute is a necessary adjunct to the verb, are such as, " Socrates wise," " Cicero is speaking." These necessarily contain three words and have therefore been called, by some logicians, propositions terti Propositions, in which the attribute is involved in th< adjacentis. form of the verb itself, require but two words, as " Cicero speaks,' " Victoria reigns," and have been said to be secundi adjacentis. Ii the former class, the attribute is absolutely necessary as an adjunct t( the verb for if we stop at " Socrates is," or " Cicero is," the sen
:
i

Conceptions unconnectei to be wise or foolish, to be hot or cold, to b
or sleep.

wake

;

In the latter class, so imperfect as to be unintelligible. attribute is involved in the form of the verb, as in "speaks"

tence

is

tlu
oi

" reigns."

From what has been

said,

it

is clear

that the property

of signifying an attribute belongs essentially to the verb. Nevertheless this property is not the peculiar and distinguishing characteristic of t verb, for it equally belongs to adjectives and participles. 257. The next essential property of the verb is that of connecting the conception of an attribute with the substance to which it belongs;
f>r
it

may have been observed
attribute

in
it

the

instances above noticed, thai
signified not alone,

when an
"
is

was
is

signified,

was
it

but

in con-

junction with the subject to whieh

belonged.

If
<>r

we

say,

"is"

oi

"reigns," without showing to whom or to what these attributes belong, we utter no intelligible sentence. Ami this is so obvious, that no one ever denied Nay, some able philologists connection to be a property of the verb. to 111. nut. mi that connection is the characteristic From that opinion, however, I peculiarity of tins part of sjM'ech.* nets, but it does more; it dedissent. Tin' verb not only c
speaking," or "•peaks,"
clares that the OOQPtCttd Conceptions Coexist as parts of one assertion.

almighty, " or "

does not predicate one thing of two distinct, terms. Thus, it wo say, "lie is good," the conceptions expressed l>\ the words he and //'-«/, ih.it i. to sajr, the conceptions of a particular man and of onl\ connected, but the one is asserted to e e,,...|i Itherwi is it in the thar, and to be a ipmlitv belonging to it.
Tlii-

conjunction also connects,

but

it

BOOther, or

make up one

proposition of

<

;<<

I,

firt.

(irnmiii

ir.

!

;

CHAP.

IX.]

OF VERBS.

123

speech of the duke of Buckingham wishing happiness and honour to his sovereign Henry VIII.

May
And when
Time
fill

he live
!

Longer than I have time to tell his years Ever bclov'd, and loving may his rule be
old
shall lead

!

him

to his end,

Goodness and he

up one monument

viz., those of a particular man and goodness are connected, but the one is not asserted of the other, and they make up no intelligible meaning when taken together, without the further aid of a verb. cannot assert without connecting our thoughts lor to assert is to declare some one thing of some other thing, which cannot be done without connecting those things together

Here the same conceptions,

We

;

in the
teristic

mind

;

of the verb

m

and therefore it is that connection is always one characbut it is a secondary characteristic, being involved
;

the

more important property of asserting,

declaring, or manifesting

real existence.

&

258. This brings me to that property of the verb which is not only Arcemon. essential to it, but is its peculiar and exclusive characteristic, and which I agree with Messieurs de Port Royal and other eminent grammarians' is the power of signifying Assertion. It often happens in

word, the same in orthography, in pronunciation, and in accent, is both noun and verb. How then can we determine when it is the one, and when it is the other? Very simply and very infallibly. When it directly or indirectly involves an assertion it is a verb when it does not it is a noun. The word love, in English' is one of the words which I have just described. It is impossible to tell, a prion, whether it will be a noun or a verb in any particular
identical
;

the very

same

language, that

discourse
will vanish.

We

must wait
it is

Thus,

"
!

to see how it is used, and then a noun in these exquisite lines
:

all

doubt

Love

is

not

love,

Which alters when it alteration finds, Or bends, with the remover to remove

Oh no It is an ever-fixed mark. That looks on tempests and is never shaken.

And

again, it is a verb, in the speech of the crafty Richard, alluding to * his unsuspecting brother:
I

do

love thee so,

That

I

will shortly send

thy soul to heaven.

259.
rect

y

I say, that assertion is involved in the or indirectly, I mean the

When

verb either di- n

contradiction

to nomination.

verb implicitly or explicitly asserts ;' its existence or non-existent and rmatlVelj negatiVel >'' P°sitivel >- or "vpothetknv wav'oLt: °l mmand ' request ' desire or fa an;/of the °*« y indnect modes of implying existence, on which moods of verbs in different languages depend. For instance, when the shepherd Claius, in

word assertion to be taken lately in The noun names a conception ' the

%££

-

2 "X r
W

T

'

124

OF VERBS.

[CHAP. I

Sir Philip Sidney's Arcadia, says of Urania " her breath is more swe than a gentle south-west wind, which comes creeping over flowei fields, and shadowed waters in the extreme heat of summer," the a sertion contained in the verb is (however figurative or poetical) But when, a little afterwards, he asks, "hath n direct and positive.

made us, being silly ignorant shepherds, raise i our thoughts above the ordinary level of the world ?" the questk
the only love of her
negatively expressed in the words "hath not," indirectly asserts th So when the other shepher the love of her has had that effect.

Strephon, exclaims,

"O

Urania! blessed

be

thou Urania

!

the fain

There is an implied assertion sweetness, and sweetest fairness !" Again, when tl the verb M be," that she ought to be blessed.
"; author thus relates the preservation of Musidorus from drowning drew they up a young man of so goodly shape, and well-pleasii favour, that one would think Death had in him a lovely countenance there is an assertion contained in the verb "had;" but it is clear Other variations of the mode of ass( hypothetical, and not positive. tion will be noticed when I come to speak more particularly of tl moods of verbs. If it should be objected that to some of these mot fications the term "assertion" is, in strictness of speech, inapplicabl I might answer that I contend not for the fitness of the term, but on for the accuracy and importance of the distinction between the non

asking,
on.

which merely navies a conception, and the verb, which by allirmin commanding, or otherwise, gives to that conception life at animation, and so forms a sentence enunciative or passionate. 260. It has been objected that assertion cannot be an ossenti
I

property of verbs ; because we can assert without the express use True, we can do so in certain languages; that part of speech. in such a case the assertion is an act of the mind, not expressed, bu The verb is wanting; but Its pla as grammarians say, understood. is not supplied by any other part of speech, nor is it to be collect! from a change of inflection, or accentuation, or from any other nio< Tims the verbs " is." " were," and " was of express signification.
are
Brtl

intentionally

parents:

omitted,

in

Milton's

beautiful

description of

oi

Ill

tlii'ir

looks

1 i

x

im»

hniji oiiioii' lorioai Ifakit shout, Troth, ui'<i"in, Mootitttdi nmrt and pun', Sovoiv Imt in Irnr filial ti [on |'li' -I'll though I... lh Wli.ii"- tllM authority in nii'ii Not i^Hliil, an their Ml BOl <• i-i in'.
Tin:

;

j

i

I

I

;

iit.-inphitnui lir, :m,|
i

valour I'onnM
|

M>ftnoM she,

ntnl dwi'i'l

iittriutivii (rrai'i*.
•<

tin.' authority is in men: unr not etpial he in Now, atemplatkw the. mis fbnnM for softness, &<. fona'd all these canes, the inniil ptrfbnni the id oi lo the won o| manifest ...in" uctioti, I'I.iIm, it ami declares that somethir
i'
I

>t

!

i

;

I

;

i

.

exists;

and

this

mantle

tatioii

or deilatatton

is

not contained

in

tl

;

CHAP.

IX.J

OF VERBS.

125

nouns themselves, which do nothing more than name the conception thus, when we say " nemo bonus," the assertion is neither included Nemo in nemo, nor in bonus, for these are mere names of conceptions. but neither of them includes is the subject, bonus is the predicate The two terms are not connected by anything which the copula. either of them contains, but their connection is inferred by the mind from their juxtaposition. But the question to be here considered, and does not relate to verbs not expressed, but to verbs expressed universally where the verb is expressed, it imports assertion, either
; ;

simple or modified, direct or implied. 261. From this view of its essential properties, the verb may be defined, a part of speech lehich signifies an attribute of some substance,
connects the attribute

Definition,

and

substance together,

and

asse7~ts the existence

or
in
;

non-existence of the connection. definition is alike applicable ;

To

all

verbs in

all

languages this

but there are properties belonging

various

modes and degrees
which
in so far
I

to different verbs in different languages

and

these,

sider, first

have termed accidental properties, I shall conas they apply to a whole verb, and then as they

apply to
2(32.

its

separate parts.
properties
its

A

verb, taken as
certain

verbs,

by

a whole, may be distinguished from other which grammarians have generally con-

V*Am*

sidered as marking

by some and simplest distinction of kind (as stated by Messieurs de Port Koyal) is into substantive and adjective.
kind, either simply, or as modified
first

other conception.
I

The

of existence

have already alluded to the nature of the verb substantive, or verb but the following remarks of Harris will place it in a clearer light " Previously to every other possible attribute, whatever a thing may be, whether black or white, square or round, wise
; :

or eloquent, writing or thinking,
it

it must first of necessity exist, before can possibly be anything else ; for existence may be considered as an universal genus, to which all things are at all times to be referred.

The verbs, therefore, which denote it, claim precedence of all others, as being essential to the very being of every proposition in which
they
'

may still be found either exprest or by implication exprest, as when we say the sun is bright ;' by implication, as when we sav the sun rises,' which means when resolved, the sun is rising.' Now, all existence is either absolute or qualified. The verb is can
; '

'

by

itself express absolute existence, but never the qualified without subjoining the particular form ; because the forms of existence being in number infinite, if the particular form be not exprest, we cannot

know which
a mere

is

intended.
'Tis

And

hence
it

it

follows, that
little

when
it

is

only

serves to subjoin
assertion.

some such form,

has

more

force than that of

under the same character that

latent part in every other verb

by expressing that
far

one of their essentials."*
tions the verbs
is,

So

Harris

is

right

groweth,

becometh,
i.

est, fit,
6.

becomes a which is but when he menvTvup^h kh Trt'Xa,
assertion,
;

* Hermes,

126

OF VERBS.

[chap.

i>

tact,

yiyvirai, as equally verbs substantive, he does not advert to th that several of these words combine in their signification othe
;

conceptions than that of mere existence
usually implies something

for to

grow, or to become

\>ri«s

transuive.

more than merely to be. Still, if th idiom of a particular language allows it, any verb of this kind ma occasionally be employed as a mere verb of existence. 263. All other verbs are comprehended by Messrs. de Port Roys un(j e r the designation of verbs adjective, a term which seems reasor able, as contradistinguishing them from the verb substantive. verbs assert existence the verb substantive asserts nothing more bt the verb adjective includes in one word the assertion and some attr

A

;

;

Now those attributes are either of such a nature that we ea bute. be aware of their passing from one substance to another, and th verb expressing them is then said to be transitive ; or we only pei ceive the existence of the attribute, and the verb is then said to b intransitive. This distinction forms what some grammarians call th As the conception of cause is one of the pi mar voice of a verb. ideas of the human mind, and not a mere inference (as Hume an others absurdly fancied) from an observed similarity in the successio of events a verb transitive implies an agent as the cause of trans Generally the agent an tion, and a patient as receiving its effect. patient are two different beings, and this gives occasion to the ai liv Where the agent is first cor voice, and the passive voice of a verb. sidered, the verb is said to be in the active voice, as " John beat James;" where the patient is first considered, the verb is in th passive voice, as " James is beaten by John." But in some case tJi.- same substance is both agent and patient, which in human being Thus the Jleautont'nnorumnios, C arises from their double nature. Terence, was a man in whom the attribute of suffering was caused h All languages have sum himself, and reflected back on himself. mode, mors or leu direct or circuitous, of expressing this reflects!
i

;

action:

in

the

(i

reek

language

it

give occasion to

a

loim usuall;
a step furthei

called the middle voice.*

The Turkish language goes

an attribute in which the agent and patten It expresses in one are reciprocally cause and effect, as sevmek to love, si-rir/unck to lov mutually. J How far these distinction-; are marked by peculiar forffl

wmd

languages will he considered in u future treatise; lui such firms exist, often happens that in practice tin J thus the Cireek middle verb is often used with ai are confounded iilicution; ami in Latin there is a huge class of Verbs callei having a passive t. itnin.it .11, with a sense in genera ••! > .!!'• al-o ii.'. tin |.a>sivel\ and the re fori active; th"
in

diflerent

ev.ii wlw-iv

it,

:

,

i<

I

,

.

..

II.

certain writers
in

rinnmim—m
a.

a pa live rerb,

gem-rail)'
11

an

which though In linn used actively, but sometime! passively live sense, '• Deque ita udithitus I'.ntiiiian
itdulari,
11
11

Dt vri.i f David*, <irmn. Timlin-,
||

*

Vi

Kn'.tiT,

\

itImii inn iih ilim inn.

p,

34.


CHAP.
IX.]


OF VERBS.
ut

127

sum

al terms,

me

sense, " ne assentatonbus

But elsewhere, in a passive meae poeniteret.* patefaciamus aures, nee adulari nos sinais

mus."t 204.

Where

the existence of the attribute

alone expressed

by

Verbs neuter,

the verb, without reference to its transition from an agent to a patient, the verb involving such expression of existence and attribute, is called intransitive, or (with reference to action and passion)
neuter ; and it may be either personal, as " he sings," " the tree blossoms," &c. ; or impersonal, as " it rains," " it lightens," it Harris, following the authority of Priscian, Sanctius, grieves me." Vossius, and others, rejects the doctrine of impersonal verbs, on the ground that " every energy respects an energizor or a passive subThus he would explain the instances above given by supplyject.'^

a nominative understood, as " the rain rains," the lightning " the event grieves me." These forms of speech are to but I would observe, that in the proper a certain degree idiomatical impersonals there is usually in the mind of the speaker some doubt at least as to the energizor ; and the fact is meant to be asserted or else the cause is to be simply, without reference to its cause otherwise collected from the context. Vossius explains pluit to mean aqua pluvia pluit ; but the Roman peasant, when he said pluit, though he did not perhaps contemplate any distinct cause of the showers, would have been far from disputing the poet's animated description of
ing
lightens,"
; ;

that cause

:

Turn Pater Omnipotens,
Conjugis in gremium

foecundis imbribus, jEther
descendit.

laetee

And

again,

when

the same great poet says of the

unhappy Dido,

Mortem

orat, tosdet coeli

convexa tueri.

No

the cause of the tedium

nominative understood (such as res or eventus) can serve to imply but the context shows that to behold the The same very sky was the cause of tedium to the forsaken queen. confusion which I noticed between the middle and active voice of a
;

or, its transitive and intransitive character more correctly, the same word is used sometimes as an Thus in Greek we may say, active verb and sometimes as a neuter. e k yrjy <77r£p/iara irt7rr£iv,§ to fall seed into the earth, i. e. to drop

verb, often occurs between
to speak

;

it.

!So in Latin,

trally.

And

auxit rempublicam, actively, or auxit morbus, neuso in English, " to beat the air," or " the pulse beats ;"

but these are matters dependent on the idiom of each particular
language. 265. I have spoken of those distinctions of kind in verbs which are other kind* ofTerbi most simple; but there are others which result from modifying the signification of a verb by some additional conception. In all languages,
-

such modifications

may be
ii.

effected

by separate words
+ De
Offic,
i.

;

but

in

some

* De Divinat.,

2.

26.

J Hermes,

i.

9.

§ Plato, Politic., c. 16.


128
languages the same end
ticles or letters.
is


OF VERBS.
attained

[CHAP.

I]

by the
it
;

addition of certain pa

The

modifications which

may

suffice to notice ai

either of a positive or negative character

to the former are
;

owin

verbs desiderative, causative, inceptive, and frequentative to th latter, verbs implying either simple negation or impossibility. " Thei is a species of verbs " (says Harris) "called in Greek eferiKa, Latin desiderativa, the desideratives or meditatives; such are TroXsf.ujaeiu bellaturio, I have a desire to make war fipuxreiu), esurio, I long t
i ;

So prensare brachium, according to Turnebus, was not " take by the arm frequently," but " to catch at the arm, to desire take hold of it," as Horace did when he wished Aristius to rid him
eat.

t t c

his troublesome

companion

:

vellcre ccepi,

Et prensare manu lentissima
Distorquens oculos, ut

brachia, nutans,

me

eriperet.

The Turkish

language, which

is

very rich in modifications of th

verb, has a causative form, as aldatmak, to cause to deceive, froi: aldamak to deceive. In Latin the termination in sco usually marks a
inceptive form, as

Fluctus uti primo ccepit

cum

albesccre vento,
;

where albesco is to begin to be white, from albeo to be white bu some of these verbs are rather thought to express continuation, a where Virgil says of Dido, dwelling on the contemplation of th
beauty of the
fictitious lulus,

Expleri

mentem

ncquit, ardescitque tuendo.

The

frequentative, or, as
in

some

call

it,

the iterative character, ha

though man; of these have ratlin an augmentative, and some a (Imminent loive asin Engliih The simply negative form Is common Inmost "will be nil! lie," i.e., " ne will he ;" so in Latin "noto," i. e., " I n vdb. had also, in Old English, nustc for ne wist, 1 did no
several forms
Latin,
Mftdtto, Qcfiuto, pufoo, facesso;
I .

M

We

know

:

In |] tins wnrhlirlic won, a i.m .1.- of bled aad of i>on,

N.

\

Of Jttl J

ii'is/r

nmi,

LuMtomuri'

in lo&dti

M.S. Earl, 2263,
,li

a.i>.

1200.
in
it:

language has not only a form
nil
i

o!'

simple negation

of ImpottlbUltT.

In English

we have

a fbrn

•salve of count to undo, which, in old [zaak Walton': tb nig book oo angling, gives occasion to a dispute am
|

Si
m, ,.„:..
•_•<.'•.

..ii

the

diflfTence

Ix'tweon

riffling a .loak

and unripping
I

it

todiA ation
i

in
ti.

.liili-rent

I.

in

ii.i

..',,

thl of the significatii and will l>e noticed in the secom

of thil

Having thai ootunantod

the

accidental

propertiea

wind

J


OF VERBS.


129

CHAP.

IX.

belong to a verb considered as a whole, I come to those which affect it as consisting of different parts. These I shall examine as tlu-v arise out of the essential properties of the verb ; for from the property of assertion is derived the mood, from that of connection the tense, and from that of attribute the person, number, and (where it
First, then, as assertion is not only an essential, but the peculiar property of this part of speech, there must be certain portions of every verb showing how assertion may be directly or indirectly expressed. These portions we call, in English, the moods of a verb. Grammarians differ widely as to the number, and no less as to the names of the moods. Scaliger says that mood is not necessary to verbs ; and Sanctius contends that it does not relate to the nature of the verb, and therefore is not an attribute of verbs rum abtingit verbi naturam, ideo verborum attributum non est ; on which passage Perizonius very justly observes, that great as the merit of Sanctius was in many parts of his work, yet he had in others, particularly in what regarded the moods of verbs, been misled by an excessive desire of novelty and change. It is very true, as observed by Sanctius, that the great mass of grammatical writers are so extremely discordant in their opinions respecting this part of the science of which they treat, that they have left us scarcely anything on it which can be said to be established by general consent. Some make only three moods, others four, five, six, and even eight. Again,

exists) the gender.

:

some

moods; others call them diviand as to the various appellations of each mood, we have the personative and impersonative, the indicative, declarative, definitive, modus finiendi, modus fatendi, the
call

these affections of the verb
states,

sions,

qualities,

species,

&c.

;

I

rogative, interrogative, requisitive, percontative, assertive, enunciative,

precative, deprecative, responsive, concessive, permissive, promissive, adhortative, optative, dubitative, imperative, mandative, conjunctive, subjunctive, adjunctive, potential, participial, infinitive,

vocative,

and probably many
it

others.

In this confusion of terms and of notions,

is

absolutely necessary to adopt
;

some

distinct principle

which mav

guide us through the labyrinth and that principle, I apprehend, will be easily and intelligibly supplied by adverting to the peculiar function of the verb itself, namely, assertion. 267. It must be remembered that I use the word assertion in its Four 1 largest sense, to express declaring, affirming, or distinctly manifesting, ft^T any perception or volition. In this sense, assertion may be said to take place either in an enunciative or in a passionate sentence. Thus,
in

the admirable scene between Brutus and his wife, Portia says

Make me

Dear, my lord, acquainted with your cause of grief.

And

again, she says

/ charge

you,

by

my

once

Upon my knees commended beauty,


1


OF VERBS.

;

30

fCHAP.

]

By

Which

your vows of love, and that areat vow did incorporate and make us one, That you unfold to me, yourself, your half, Why you are heavy.
all

In both these instances she asserts her earnest demand to be made i quainted with the secret cause of that sick offence which she perceiv In the o to exist, not in her husband's health, but in his mind. instance the demand is directly and enunciatively expressed by t words " I charge you ;" in the other it is indirectly and passionate expressed by the words " make me acquainted." Again, an ent

dative assertion
positively,

may

be expressed categorically (that

is,

positively

or else hypothetical]}-.

Thus

Caesar, in describing Cassius, first assei

by the word " has," what he had observed in his outwa appearance, and then hvpothetieallv, by the words "as if," wr might be supposed to pass in his mind
:

a lean and hungry look Seldom he smiles, and smiles in such a sort As if he mock'd himself, and seorn'd his spirit, That could be mov'd to smile at any thing.

Yond Cassius has

Antony's expression, " fear him not," Ca?$ words " fear not," that he does not fear hi but puts a case hvpothetieallv, by the word " if," in which he mig

And

so,

referring to

asserts positively,

by

the

do so:
I fear him not Vet 1/ my name were liable to fear, I do not klMW the man 1 should avoid So much as that spare Cassius.
;

In like manner, a passionate assertion maybe distinguished accord] as the object of the passion is within the power or inlluence of Thus, in Virgi speaker, or only within his desire or aversion.
t

!i:th

Eclogue,
"

Mopsus
8parg&t
!"

addresses his brother shepherds

command,
the spirit

human
in

foliis

:"

in t!i" w;o d whereas Menalcas address!
ll

of Dtphnia,

the

way

of a prayer, says,

Sis bonus,

(

These two eiiinidative and two passionate modes expressing assertion, here stated, supply us with four principal moot has been SU It the indicative, conjunctive, indurative, and optative.
felixque tuis

gestfd that thaSS arc O&ly a

of the manv inoililications of signi moods of a verb that there might " ran" a permissive for instaiin' a pot -tit nil mood expressed by has id "may," 1 oompultht bj ** wiwf,* and so forth ;* bul to this well replied, thai "the possibility of providing separate forma for
f.

\v

n which

mighl

be called

j

1

it

I

iv the least, doubtful on introduced by I

:

and
anj

that,

If

possible,

ti

into

a

pari

"I'

ipi-ecli

already

.

•>.

>

.

<

1 1 1

1>

- 1

\

minute distinctio eomplex, would render tl
to

Import

of the

varb absolutely unintelligible

nine-tenths even
exisl

the Nariod."!

i»r.

Where any

soch

po
t

ilble

moods
l.

Inaparticu]

Gregory,

Bnoyi

Brit, art.


CHAP.
IX.]

OF VERBS.

131

language, they must of course be explained in the grammar of that language ; but they do not require notice in this part of the present I shall therefore proceed to examine the four moods abovetreatise
:

mentioned.

268. " If we simply declare or indicate something to be, or not to whether a perception or volition 'tis equally the same," says " this constitutes that mood called the declarative or IndiHarris Thus, " I love," " you walk," " he died," " we shall rejoice," cative."
be,
;

indicative,

all simple, or, as logicians say, categorical assertions of fact, some of which do, and some do not, relate to passions of the mind, but which do not necessarily imply any passion in the enunciation. Some of them too may in reality be contingent, or doubtful, and may be dependent on the truth or falsehood of other assertions but as they are not so enunciated, but on the contrary are declared positively and

are

;

It is to be observed simply, they belong to the indicative mood. that the indicative, from its very nature, is capable of being united

An assertion does with the conjunctive, as well as of standing alone. not necessarily become the less positive for being coupled with another, although that other may be doubtful or contingent. Thus, When Milton says The conquer'd also, and enslav'd by war,
Shall, with their freedom lost, all virtue lose,

matter of contingency whether any nation ever will be conquered and enslaved but yet the assertion that, supposing a nation to undergo that fete, it will lose all virtue, is properly expressed in the indicative
it is
;

mood by

the

word "

shall."
Conjunctive.

I

269. "V\*hen a fact is asserted not as actual but merely as possible, or contingent, the form of words by which such assertion is expressed in any particular language, may perhaps be the same as if the assertion were more positive yet the context will show that the verb is no longer in the indicative mood. The mood adapted to such contingent assertion has received various appellations, of which I consider
;

i II

I
I

most appropriate, inasmuch as the continmarked by a conjunction (such as if, though, that, except, until, &c.) which connects the dependent sentence with its principal. There are various methods of thus connecting sentences but they may be distinguished into two great classes. In the one class,
the Conjunctive to be the
is

gency

usually

;

an uncertain sentence is connected with a certain one ; in the other, both sentences are uncertain in the former case a conjunctive is t dependent on an indicative; in the latter, both sentences are con|

i

:

l<

junctive.
a

i

rf!

this distinction the ground of of moods, calling the contingent assertion, in the first case, subjunctive, because it is subjoined to the indicative ; and in the other case potential, because it states a potential, and not an actual

Some grammarians make

distinction

t

existence.

It

seems, however, unadvisable thus to multiply
length,
call

moods;

and

if

should

we were to proceed this not go much further, and

there

is

no reason

why we

every possible variation of conk 2

132

OF VERBS.

[CHAP. E

Of these I shall here notice some instanci tingency a separate mood. easily distinguishable in point of principle.
1.

Ut jugulent homines surgunt de nocte latrones.
is in

Here jugulent
the rising.

the conjunctive, as indicating the end and object

<

2. Peter said unto him, though yet will I not deny thee.

/

should die with thee,

Here " I should
ficient one.

die "

is

mentioned as a motive to denial, but an

inst

3. Si fractus illabatiar orbis,

Impavidum

ferient ruinse.

Here, in like manner, iUabatur is in the conjunctive, as expressing fact which might be the cause of fear to ordinary minds, but which
not so to the just

and stedfast-minded man

;

and the conjunction

si

the one case

is

equivalent to though in the other, both of
if."

them

havii

the proper force of our expression " even
4.

Except a man be born of water, and of the he cannot enter into the kingdom of God.

spirit,

Here the conjunctive be born, is placed in opposition to the indicatf " cannot enter;" so that if the one be in the negative, the other mo be so too, and vice versa ; for the implication is, that if a man be be of water and of the spirit, he can enter into the kingdom of Go Accordingly, the Greek conjunctions in this and the preceding examp would be directly opposed to each other: in No. 3, the word won K fir, that is, Kat Lav but in No. 4 it is Lav iti§. ,
;

5.

dementis

licet

occupcs
tuis et

Tyrrlicinmi

——^^— nmi
Non
mortis

HUM

mare Apulicum,
caput.

Mniiiiuiu inrtu

U4{MH wptdiw

Here the condition differs from that of No. 2, in being a fad present time and on the other band the indicative non crpcdies diiVe
;

lrom the indicative/lrtc;//
0.

1

in

No.

it,

b\

being

in

the negative.
001
;i

The

sceptic ihtU Mrf

!•

put from

.ludali,

law-

giver from
II

Initwei'ii Ins I'c.t, until Shiloli

come.

n

l«ith the facts arc future, but the conditional

one

is

the term

L-juiuLin) of the other.
7.
l'luji d

tacituf poaci

ti

pouot Corviu, haberet
absolute
but here
it

In all tho preceding instances

one assertion
• •

is

;

il

food

;

hasnio both part* of the sentence, therefore, are contingent, and cons
d
in silence,

nor that

rjuentlv, I'oih urn in the conjunctive
8.

mood
.1...,.,

If it u*rt don* when 'U» It wan done quid v.
I

ihm

't*tr$ veil

li

a is

also one contingent, namely, 'twere wll, depending on anotfa

!


we

:

CHAP. IX.]
contingent, if also depends.
it

OF VERBS.
were done
;

133
see a further contingency

and on each

These eight examples are
contingent

sufficient to

show

that the varieties of

assertions are too various to be considered

and treated as

so

many

distinct

moods of

the verb.
;

called,
called,

by some

writers,

subjunctive

The six first are of the kind the two last are of the kind
;

in contradistinction

from the subjunctive, potential

but as

they are all equally conjunctive, it suffices to give them that name and, indeed, it is a more correct and systematic distribution of the grammatical nomenclature so to do ; for the proper correlative to the term indicative is not subjunctive or potential, but some term which Comprehends them both as, for instance, the term conjunctive. The indicative asserts simply the conjunctive asserts with modification but if the conjunctive is a mood, if the one is a mood, so is the other then its subdivisions cannot be properly so called but they should rather be called sub-moods, if it were necessary to give them any peculiar denomination. 270. The effect of any degree of passion is pro tanto to interrupt and modify the processes of reasoning. Reasoning is conducted by Passion goes at once to its direct assertion, absolute or conditional. Thus, object, assuming it as the consequence of an indirect assertion. if the fact be that I desire that a person should go to any place, it is not necessary for me to state my desire in the indicative mood, and his going in the infinitive or conjunctive, " I desire you to go," or " I desire that you should go ;" but by the natural impulse of my feelings feelings which language conveys as clearly as it does the more gradual processes of thought I say, in a mood different from
;
:

:

;

;

imperative

either the indicative, infinitive, or conjunctive

Go ! Now,
most

this

mood,

from

its

frequent use in giving

commands

to inferiors, has

been called

the Imperative, and that name, adopt.

as being the

general, 1 shall

Some

writers have distinguished from the imperative, the

pvecative, the deprecative,

so far as language

the

same mood

:

the permissive, the adhortative, &c. ; but, concerned, these are but different applications of the operation is the same in communicating the
is

object of the passion,
exists.
(

A

and implying the assertion that such passion few examples may serve to explain my meaning:
Let there
Ethereal,

1.

God; and forthwith light of things, quintessence pure, Sprung from the deep, and from her native east To journey through the air}' gloom began.
be light, said
first
1

Milton.

2.

Fear and piety,

Religion to the gods, peace, justice, truth,

Domestic awe, night-rest, and neighbourhood,
Instruction, manners, mysteries, and trades, Degrees, observances, customs, and laws,

Decline to your confounding contraries And let confusion live

!

Shakspeare.

!

134
3.

OF VERBS.
Help me, Lysnnder. help

[CHAP.

I

me

!

Do thy
from

besl

To pluck

this crawling serpent
!

Ah

me,

for pity

— what a dream was here
!

my

breast
!

Shakspeai

4. Go, but be

A
In the
first

mod'rnte in your food chicken too might do me good.

Gay.

of these examples we have an instance of the highe imperative, that which proceeds from the Almighty power, to who command all things created and uncreated are subject; and who, Milton's fine paraphrase of the first chapter of Genesis, is describe
as calling into existence the hitherto uncreated essence of light.
Tl

second example
calls

is

deprecative, or rather imprvcative, in

which Tim<

down on his worthless fellow-citizens the natural consequentof their profligacy. The third is precative, in which poor desert Hermia, waking from a terrific dream, calls for help from her faithlt lover Lysander. The last is permissive, in which the old dying fc after a long harangue to dissuade the younger members of his coi munity from pursuing their usual trade of rapine, at length penal them to go out on a similar excursion. In all these varieties of tl imperative mood, the grammatical process, both of thought ai expression, is the same. In all of them the assertion of desire aversion on the part of the speaker is clearly implied. The sense " I command that there be light" "I wish that confusion may pi vail" "I pray you to help me "—-" I permit you to go ;" but it unnecessary to express those various assertions, because they are implied in the imperative moods, and without those moods they cou The imperative animates the passionate sentonc not be so implied.

;

as the indicative or conjunctive animates
converts the
the
it

name

tlie enunciative sentence. of an object of passion, or will, into a inanifestntu

tlmt such object exists;

just

as the indicative or conjunctive

comer

name

is

of an object Of perception or thought into an assertion th The original text, " Hod slid let there be ligfc really existing.

and tbere was light," atlbrds a plain example of this operation in DO The conceptions in both are two; namely, existence and tigl Tl Without the verb, would remain a mere noun. word " light" does so remain; but "existence," by becoming a ver exhibits [tattf first in the imperative as nil object of volition, and tin
,

in the indicative its an object of perception. In the one case impli in the other an assertion of the Divine will thai light should exist The authors of the " Po esses an assertion that light did exist, Royal Oltminir " Observe, that as the future tense is often taken an impeiati\e mood (which will be pies, mis noticed), so the it lie,|,|,.|,tl\ ,e.l lor I future; and this they ascribe to imitation of the lb o i\ I'.ut in truth there must in all langoag) be a oinmunit\ o! signification between these two portions of a veil
it
;

tl

ii

1

I

..

i

because, an
the
t

ApoUonhM
seme

remarks, "
nl

we

can

command
shall

only in regard
not
steal," ha\

mix-

tO con,

not,''

and " thou

therefore the

signification.


CHAP.
IX.]

:

:

:

OF VERBS.

135
optative,

271. The Optative mood seems at first sight to imply only a minor degree of the same passion, which is more energetically expressed bv
inclined to agree with unnecessary to make the former a separate mood. But the Greek and some other languages distinguish it by a peculiar form ; and on reflection it appears to me, for the reasons above stated, that the distinction is well grounded. I cannot, indeed, adopt the language of Scaliger (lib. iv., c. 144), differunt,

the imperative

:

and hence

I

was formerly
it

those grammarians

who

think

quod imperativus

respicit

personam

inferiorem, optativus potentiorem

" they

differ in this,

that the imperative regards an inferior person,
;"

the optative a superior

for that difference is altogether accidental.

Moreover, it makes no provision for the common case of wishes expressed between equals; and again, how are we to determine whether a request is addressed to a person in one character rather than another ? Or why should we not have moods to designate the different degrees of superiority and inferiority? The fact seems to be, that the more distant and indirect influence of the will on its object, has given rise, in some languages, to a peculiar form of the verb, generally called the optative mood. Yet even this distinction does not appear to be very accurately observed in practice, for we sometimes see the optative used, where the imperative might have been more naturally expected. Thus, in the Electra of Sophocles,

when

Orestes

is

forcing ./Egisthus into the

the apartment where he
reluctant victim
:

palace, to kill him had murdered Agamemnon, he says to

in

his

BXuco7;
Nu»

av

Ufa

rvy rax%t'

Xiyan yag i
iripi.

isiC

ay*»i

aXXa

vn; ^u^ij;

Go

without delay, for now the strife Is not for useless words, but for thy life
in,

where the optative x w P°'£ undoubtedly expresses a strong volition that iEgisthus should do what he was unwilling to perform. The common distinction between the optative and the imperative is nearly expressed by the English use of the auxiliaries "may" and "let." Thus, the following passage in the hymn to Sabrina is an example of the optative, expressed by may

Virgin daughter of Locrine, Sprung of old Anchises' line, May thy brimmed waves, for Their full tribute never miss, From a thousand petty rills

this,

That tumble down the snowy

hills

!

Summer

drouth, or singed air, Never scorch thy tresses fair Nor wet October's torrent flood
!

Thy molten

crystal

fill

with

mud
!

!

thy billows roll ashore and the golden ore May thy lofty head be crown'd With many a tow'r and terras round ?

May

The

beryl,

——
136
OF VERBS.

;

[CHAP. IX.

The tribute from the rills, the bervls rolled ashore, and the crown of towers and terraces were matters not within the power or control of the speaker, and which he, therefore, could only wish for. On the
contrary,

when

the speaker can
let,

command

the execution of his wishes,
:

he uses the word
Let

as the king, in

Hamlet

^———— ——
all

the battlements their ord'nanee fire. — Give me the cups,
the kettle to the trumpet speak,

And

let

The trumpet to the cannoneer without, The cannon to the heavens.
It
is

observed by Vossius, that the Latin optative

is

no othei than

the conjunctive— and, indeed, the form is the same in both; for we sav, utinam amem, or cum amem ; utinam amareni, or cum amarem utinam amaverim, or cum amaverim ; utinam amavissem, or cum ama-

And so, in the passive voice, utinam amarer, or cum amartr utinam amer, or cum amer ; utinam amatus sim, or cum amatus sim, The mood, however, is not to be determined by the form, but &c. by the signification ; for it often happens that particular languages do not possess distinct forms for the different moods; and Where they do, the form of one mood is frequently used with the force of another. This even takes place in the Greek language, which possesses the The Greek indicative is richest abundance of inflections in its verbs. often used for the subjunctive and optative, and that through almost all its tenses, as VlGER has shown at large in his celebrated treatise on Greek idioms: and in return, the optative, especially in the Attic
vissem.
dialect, is
lUtive.

used for the indicative. 272. Besides the four moods which
that there are

I

have reckoned as principal,
inqKirtance,
1

some grammarians hold

two others of equal
these

nanielv, the Interriyatire and the

Infinitive;

therefore

shall

And first, as to the interrogative: Varro speaks proceed to examine. of the mode of interrogating as different from that of answering. No doubt the state of the mind in these tWO arts [g widely different; but
as both acts must, of course, relate to the same conception, and to the same direct assertion, categorical or hypothetical, it is not surthat the grammatical forms expressive of those acts should and approach each other, or be .sometimes the very same lieiice that some mammalians should deny the necessity of an inter' lii u nil. .,!!'.• u a\ | an able « rfter), " take Ian la -•" I. the mark of Interrogation, mid iii spoken language the peculiar tone of von.., and the brtenogathra and Indicative modes appear preiieiulv
;
i
1

1

'i

I

cisely

the sum.-."*

Of
tiii!

A
.m
Cot
>i« <M|iiin,

i

remarkable Instance
falta

in

the

Venus,
Qtriu

in
,

loth fook of the ASneld;
olt, Tiioiii-.|iir

ui hi nil

tumlduiqu* houb4o

M.n'

i

.

i',

|

where,

If

read without tfaeMOtoi of Interrogation, the word "cernis"
,

|

ut. lii.umimr.

t

Vir &'-

K "'» 10 20
.

-


CHAP.
is in

— —
;"

;

IX.]

OF VERBS.

137
but
if

the indicative

mood, " you see

read (as

it

certainly

ought to be) with that accent, it is clearly in the interrogative, and In like manner, the beauty should be translated " do you not see ?" of the following lines of Catullus would be lost, if read without the interrogative accentuation, though the form is simply indicative
:

Jam te nil miseret, dure, Jam me prodere jam non

tui dulcis amiculi

?

dubitas fallere, perfide ?*

Of a question put in the form of an assertion (savs the same learned person) we have a remarkable instance in the Gospel of St. Matthew. When Christ stood before Pilate, the governor asked him, saying, " lit el 6 fiamXtvc rGv iBtkuW." t Now this is literally " Thou art the king of the Jews ;" but pronounced in an interrogative
it must have signified, " Art thou the king of the Jews ?" And seems to have been understood. Indeed, in colloquial English, nothing is more common than to use the indicative form interrogatively, and with the interrogative intonation, as " you took a ride this morning?" meaning " did you [or rather did you not] take a ride?" On these grounds the writer alluded to concludes, that " the [so

tone,
it

so

mood is a useless distinction," and one which (he says) is " not found in any language." I confess that at one time these reasons appeared to me to have much weight but when I reflect that the mental energy exercised by an interrogator is altogether different from that exercised by a respondent or a narrator and that it is marked in all languages either by a change of the arrangement or accentuation of the words, or by some additional word or particle, or perhaps even by a peculiar inflection, I cannot but agree with those who add an interrogative mood to the four abovementioned. 273. This mood may be said to partake both of the enunciative and of the passionate character. On the one hand, it requires from
called] interrogative
;

its

mixed

natuU! •

the party interrogated a direct assertion, affirmative or negative, either

of the existence of some

fact,

the precise nature of which
or else of

is

pre-

sumably unknown to the

interrogator,

some unknown

circumstance of person, place, time, or the like, relating to the fact in question ; and, on the other hand, it implies in the interrogator the

|

some sort of passion, varying from the simple desire of information, to the height of pleasure, or to that tumult of painful feelings, which renders thought itself a chaos of doubt and confusion. Thus, Ismene, ignorant of the nature of the act, in which Antigone wishes her to take part, asks
indirect assertion of

What

is

the act

?

What

danger ?

What

intent ? J

So Creon,

ignorant of the person

who had

buried Polynices, asks
this deed ?§

Who

was the man, that dared to do

J

* Catull. 30. lloiiv ti Kivbunvpa
ri( xvipuv »»
i

;

vou yiuftni ror
ToXfiwcc; TaSi
s

§

f Encycl. Brit., lit sup. Soph. Antig., 42. iT; Ibid; 248.

— ——
138


OF VERBS.

.


[chap. IX.

So iEneas,
asks

ignorant of the place
!

whence the ghost of Hector came

Long-wished

Hector, from what coast, for, dost thou come ?*

So Lady Macbeth, when her husband says
here to night," significantly asks, as
his departure
if

to her,

" Duncan comes

ignorant of the intended time of

And when
is

goes hence ?f

expressed on the part of the interroand the verb, though interrogative gator a simple desire of information But when Catullus would express in effect, is in form indicative. perfect delight, he does it in the form of a question

In

all

these instances, there

;

What

is

more joyful or more happy than

I

?J

And

again
!

what

is

happier than to live free from cares ?§

the other hand, so painful were the feelings of the unhappy queen of Carthage, when abandoned by her lover, that she scarcely

On

knew what own mind.

she said, or where she was, or what was the State of her Yet all this she expresses interrogatively, though the

verbs retain the indicative form

What do
P

I

say

?

Where am

I ?

And what

rage

Transforms
d
cora 'i'x"

my mind ?||
two kinds
of

274t.

The

ancients (as Harris observes) distinguished
Ilvoyia, )Mco>itati<i.%

interrogations, the simple, called 'Epwrr/yua, interrogatio,

and the oomr
question,

pfcr, called

The simple

present a

answer to which may be given in the same words by converting them into a sentence affirmative or negative: ex.gr. Qu. "Are these rexief of [Omar f Answer. " Tlicse are verses of Homer," or " These are not verses of Homer," or, still more shortly, by the adverbs Pit The complex interrogations are either definitely or indefinitely or No. A definitely complex Interrogation, such as, " Is this a verse ox such. Horace or of Virgil?" or, " Is this a Texas of Horace, of Virgil, or of >vd ''" admits ox two possible answers to each separate intern whieh it involves, and also of one general negative; as, " li is
the
I

<

H.

i.

ice's"
.

—"It

Is

i

«

t

of neither."

The
l>y

tence, or elliptinilly
//

or, Horace's" (and so of Virgil and Ovid) Indefinite may be answered l>v a whole sena single essentia] word in such sentence
;
:

M
.

i.

'•

How mam righl TWO right angles
.

angles equal the angles of a triangle,?* equal the angles of a triangle." Uul as
.

this re|M'titionol' the

-

-i

1

-

of

tin-

question would be tedious,

———

Quihui, Hector, ab oris
:.

./.V,

'.',

BIS.

Jut,
ii

8h»k»p. MwIkiUi.

beatlmvo
i.i

?

CataU.,
(

B.

m

}

';itull., :;l rUf Qui up hi. in iiisiuii:i

liuitiit. ?

,

b.

i..

..

8.


CHAP. IX.]
the

;

OF VERBS.

13^

question may be elliptically answered by the essential word " Two," corresponding to the interrogative " How many?" 275. Of the so-called Infinitive Mood, the following is the account " Through all the above modes (indicative, &c.) given by Harris always verb, being considered as denoting an attribute, has the " But there is a mode or reference to some person or substance."* form, under which verbs sometimes appear, where they have no For example, to eat is reference at all to persons or substances.
:

g**"*

pleasant, but to fast

is

wholesome.'

Here the verbs

to eat

and

to fast

stand alone by themselves, nor is it requisite, or even practicable, to Hence the Latin and modern grammaprefix a person or substance. rians have called verbs under this mode, from this their indefinite they not only lay nature, infinitives."^ " These infinitives go farther aside the character of attributives, but they assume that of substan:

Now, as he had before said that " those far Harris. which have the complex power of denoting both an attribute and an assertion make that species of words which grammarians the call verbs ;"§ and as he here denies that the infinitives retain character of attributives, and nowhere pretends that they have the power of denoting an assertion, it would seem strange that he should has still consider them as verbs, were it not that this inconsistency
tives."^:

So

attributives

been shared, as Vossius observed, not only by the semidoctum vulgus, but even by some of the scientissimi. For my own part, far from ranking the infinitive among the moods of a verb, I agree entirely, for reasons which will presently appear, with those who call it a
verbal noun substantive.

276.
the

Whether we call infinitives nouns or verbs, the propriety of name infinitive is very evident from the observation of Vossius
:

wj.^so

illo

UtfinitwnestnomenftumiMhsoYihuSttiimplurativusYihilosophi; quippe unus, hoc muJti significantur : at contra infinitum est sui, quia utriusque est numeri; item Grwcum foiva, quo et ille et illi denotantur ; sic

finitum verbum est audio, ac facio, ut quo certus numerus desiguetur ; infinita autem sunt audire, agere, ut qua: deficiant numeris ac personis, " As the noun philosoet undique sint indefinita ac indeterminata. phus is finite, both in the singular and in the plural philosophy since

the former signifies one person, and the other

many

;

hand the word sui is infinitive, because it is both and in like manner the Greek word htva is

singular

but on the other and plural
because
it

infinitive,

denotes both him and them ; so the verbs audio and facio are finite, as designating a certain number ; but audire and agere, which express no certain number or person, and are in every way indefinite and
indeterminate, are called infinitives."

277. That the class of words in question, however, are not verbs '^{JJ^ but nouns substantive, results from the following considerations
:

1.

There

are, as I
1, c. 8.

have often repeated, only two principal modes
f Ibid
-

* Hermes, b.

X Ibid -

§ Ibid «

: .

140

OF VERBS.

[CHAP. IX.

of enunciating thought by speech, that is to say, naming our conceptions, and asserting, or manifesting their existence. Now the infinitives, " to love," aimer, amare, " to have loved," avoir aime, amavisse, assert nothing by themeither as to the conception of love, or as to the conception of time in which the action of loving took place they express both only in the way of notation, or naming, and not in the way of declaration ; and therefore, in so far
selves,

as either conception
2.

is

concerned, the infinitive must remain

in the class of nouns.

Harris admits that

if you take away the assertion from any of a verb, " there remains nothing more than the mere infinitive, which, as Priscian says, significat ipsam rem

mood

quam

continet verbum."*

that nothing can be here the verb.
3.

And by the word rem it is clear meant but the noun involved in

4.

this noun must be a substantive is manifest, since it may be the subject of a proposition, of which the predicate is one of its attributes. Thus Cicerosays, " Cum vivere ipsum turpe sit nobis,"t which might equally be rendered in English " to live is disgraceful to me," or, " life is disgraceful to me." The infinitives (according to the idiom of most cultivated languages) answer to the distinctions of case in other nouns substantive. Thus fowp trt alive answers to the genitive, "time of departure ;" celer irasci, to the dative, "swift to anger;" and dig mis amari, to the ablative, dignus amove.

That

5.

Hence the
with the
the
trite

latter of

two verba, which, when not connected preceding by a conjunction, must, according to
lie

rule,

in

the

infinitive

mood,

is

in

efied

the

accusative case of a noun governed by the

first

verb : ex. or.

God

will not longdWto'
:

UouU
vindication."'

the glory of his imnic j
is

where "defer to vindicate "

equivalent

to

" defer the

IhmM
t'

nated as
II
.tl<

278. These nouns, however, though not verbs, are properly desigverftal ; for though they do not pos.s...,s the peculiar chamo
-.1
'

\.

I

I. -.,

Il.llll.

Iv

.1

.erti.'ll,

the\

|

.,

.

.

,

.

,

\

,|

.

1

1

,

.|'

(

1

1,

.

].(,.( n '1-

Of Veil,,. consequently
tieS
t

TlleV
Mill,

(.III

e\|,|e.S

existence,
t.-uce
;

act

Mill,

|l!LSsi(lll,
;

lllld

a man', action
indefinite

amari,
J

I,

.1

illlfin-

e\|.|. •,..•;

time

or

pn'SCIlt

amavim, time paM.
sibi

dm
..|
.,

future.

" Scripsit Cesar

condom

te

satis esse fiuniltarem,

cerUj fore."§

Moreover,
;

like verbs,

they

may

govt ra
ft. i.

nam
0.

r

ith

oc n IthoQl i preposition
Itic,

m
1.1,

" to excel

H— M,

8.
1.

28.

X Milton, S«ro». Agon., 17

| CtOSIQ, Bp, Inn.

7, 5.


CHAP.
IX.J

:

OF VERBS.

141

in wisdom," " to acquire fame ;" and like verbs they admit of modifiAs some cation by adverbs, as," to live well" " to die gloriously" of these incidents depend on the construction of different languages, they will be noticed more particularly hereafter ; but it may here be

proper to observe that there are various classes of nouns, both substantive and adjective, which are connected with verbs, that is to say, which express, with certain modifications, the same conception which These nouns may be thus is expressed as an attribute by the verb.
classed:

II.

Verbal adjectives (commonly so called), which express the conception in the form of an attribute, as the Latin verbals in bilis, &c, of which Mr. Tooke makes a class of participles, and which do not involve the notion of time. 2. Participles (commonly so called), which agree with the former, except that they involve the notion of time,

Abstract nouns (commonly so called), which express the conception in the form of a substantive, as the Latin nouns in io, &c, which do not involve the notion of time. 4. Infinitives (commonly called infinitive moods), which agree with the former, except that they may involve the notion of
3.

time.
It happens,

indeed,

in

most languages, that

distinct forms are

four classes of nouns, or that the forms are Thus, " he learns to sing" or " he reciprocally used for each other. learns singing" are used in English indifferently ; and so " he learns singing," and " he is singing," are equally consistent with our idiom.

wanting

for

some of these

279. I have thought it necessary to dwell the longer on the consideration of the infinitive, because, in excluding it not only from the moods but from the verbs, I certainly deviate, more than I am generally disposed to do, from the path pursued by the great majority of grammatical writers. Yet this deviation is justified by high authority ;
for

™ff«jjj£

many
:

of the ancients (and those, as

Hams

says,

" the best gram-

have called the infinitive ovofia prjfiaTiKov, or ovofia and with these agrees Priscian, in the following passage, pyj/jLctroQ " a constructione quoque vim rei verborum, id est, nominis, quod significant ipsam rem, habere infinitivum possumus dignoscere." " From the construction, too, we may perceive, that the infinitive has the force of the thing of the verb, that is to say of the noun, which signifies the thing itself." What is here called the thing of the verb, is what I have called the conception of an attribute, the mere name of which is a noun. Thus, "I die" expresses the conception of dying, but it not only names that conception, it asserts the thing to exist, with reference to a certain person; whereas "to die" expresses the conception, that is to say, names the thing, and does nothing more it does not manifest the existence of the thing as an object either of it does not assert that any person is dying, or perception or volition
marians")
;


1

42

OF VERBS.

[CHAP.
it

IX.

has died, or will die, or
conditionally.

may

die

;

neither does
assertion, the

evince any desire
or what-

that such an event should occur, or the contrary, either positively or

" Take away the

command,

ever else gives a character to any one of the other modes," says So, Harris, " and there remains nothing more than the infinitive." I sav, take away from the other modes whatever gives them the

Whether we call this verbal character, and there remains the noun. noun a verbal noun, or a participial noun, or simply an infinitive, is
immaterial
;

provided

we

clearly understand, that

it

belongs not to
nature does not
to die,

the class of verbs, but to that of nouns, and that

its

depend on
dying,
Ten»e.

its all

may

form ; since, be used as

in English, the
infinitives
;

words

death,

and

and,

when

so used, are gene-

each other, with little or no change of meaning. 230. As I consider moods to arise out of the most essential property of the verb, namely assertion, so I consider Tenses to arise out of the next essential property of the verb, namely connection. The English word tense is merely a corrupt pronunciation of the old French temps, as that was of the Latin tetnpus, time. Now, if a word be meant expressly to assert the connection of a substance with its attribute, or of a species with its genus, that word must implicitly
rally convertible into

assert the existence of the things connected. In order, therefore, to understand the connection, we must begin, as Harris judiciously does, by considering existence according as it is mutable or immutable. I am well aware that certain self-styled philosophers hold that there is DO such thing as immutable existence. They conceive that nun's

minds are made up, as their bodies are, of a sort of small dust, which is perpetually whirling ulxmt, and taking various forms and arrangements, some Of* which it may please a man to call true, and others false that this distinction, however, is a mere delusion of the
;

individual's mind, mantis gratissimus error
his notions,

;

that

when

the

man

dies,

and their falsehood, their wisdom and their tolly, •!] die with him; and though some truths wear better than others, ;md keep in fashion fbf twenty or thirty centuries, while the part of our notions do not last longer than the small ephemeral Oti of the Nile, y,| that in the end t.he\ all .sink into one common
their truth

i

1

1

i

Lathe

i

nnimiu QjaftVl alt.ia
i

(fcfto

'.or|Htm ilcln'iitur.

Tl ppoeite philosophy to this, although stigmatized as " a raeta< physical ju-oii and a false nioralitv, which can only he dissipated by
iuoIo

,"

I

I'.-.-l

m;.

.•If

.

>nst

rained to adopt, from the utter rcpugi

m.e of

the former to
t-.

inn
I

rt cannol con.. [?i on. of Intellection and science are mutable in any possibl in any Imaginable conjuncture of circumstai

mj

faculty "i

I

i

i

eamol
.

'\dl lx),

'. believe that in a square the diagonal ever was, These msuraUe with f the sides. Or Can be, COI magnitude-, me not iik-< hiiiik-ii .uraUe because Kinlid happened to

CHAP. IX.]

OF VERBS.

143

think so, or because his doctrine on the subject has prevailed for Their incommensurability is a truth as above two thousand years. independent of that lapse of time, as any two things can possibly be The opposite to it cannot be conceived by the human of each other. The existence of this truth, therefore, is justly styled immind.

mutable. 281. Of such immutable existence the Present tense is usually Pre*"', considered the proper exponent, because, in most languages, it is among the simplest forms of the verb, and in particular has no disThere is no reason, a priori, that there tinct mark of time about it. should not be a separate inflection of the verb to distinguish perpetual, absolute, immutable existence, from that which is predicated with reference to some certain time but as no language, that I know of, has adopted any such form, and as absolute existence is naturally contemplated under the form of a time perpetually present, I regard the expression of immutable existence as one of the uses of the present
;

tense.

The

other use of the present tense depends

on the nature of
time.

mutable existence.
therefore,

Now, mutable
them

objects exist in
is,

When,

we

declare

to exist, that

whenever we employ a

verb active, or passive, or neuter, we must declare them to exist in some time. But time is distinguishable as to its periods into present,
past, and future; and as to and though the present, from
its

continuity into perfect or imperfect:

and positive, and with relation From these sources, and from the differences to some different time. of mood already noticed, may be derived all the tenses, which appear
its naftire,

must be

definite

yet the other

two periods may be

stated indefinitely

in use, in different

languages.

And

first,
;

as to the present, considered
it is

as marking a

certain portion

of time

manifest that

we may

consider as present to us a greater or less portion of time.
;

on continuously, and has in itself no stops or periods dwells on certain portions, and gives them a distinct expression in language. The names of these portions are various, as an age, a year, a day, an hour, a moment but it has been wel! shown by Mr. Harris that the present time, strictly speaking, is not cognizable by any
;

Time flows but the mind

human

faculty

;

for

it is

Like the lightning, which doth cease to be, Ere one can say it lightens.

" Let us suppose," says

he,

M

for

example, the

lines

AB

BC

."

B


144
"
I say,

;

OF VERBS.
that the point B,

[CHAP. IX.

is the end of the line AB, and the beginning BC to repreIn the same manner let us suppose sent certain times, and let B be a now, or instant, which they include the first of them is necessarily past time, as being previous to it ; the

of the

line

BC.

AB

other

is

necessarily

future,

as being subsequent."

cludes, that time present has at best but a

Hence he conshadowy and imaginative

existence

;

that sensible existence
will, doubtless,

and, of course, as sensation refers only to time present, is itself altogether imperceptible, eluding the

steady grasp of thought, and approaching to absolute nonentity.

appear strange to the
is

modem
;

philosophers,

that sensible existence
consider
fasten
it

the only existence

but

let

This hold them meditate

who
let

on what they mean by the words now, or

instant, or

moment ;
;

them

how difficult it is to arrest the fleeting progress of time, and down to the periods indicated by those terms and they will,

perhaps, perceive that their notions are not quite so clear as they have hitherto fondly imagined.

diagram the perfect present is that moment, I open my eves and I contemplate, at one view, a large theatre crowded with numerous happy faces, with splendour and beauty, with the diversities of age, and sex, and condition, with mirth and gravity, and all the passions, which, though not meant to "be brought into public, could pot entirely be thrown off and left at home, like an unvalued garment. Or, perchance, I am on a proud hill-top, from whence, at one glimpse* I behold mountains and valleys spread in rich perspective before me, with the near cottages, and the distant town, and, beyond all, tbfl remote and buy OC6M1. I see the variegated foliage, and the ripening corn, the clouds of heaven sailing high in air, the rustics at their labour, and the little vagrant boy picking daisies at in\ feet, and Without any time for reflection, wiihout delighting in his idleness.
that in the above
correctly indicated

We will assume,

by the point B.

At

a thought of the successive action of the machinery in this grand landscape, say, " />-" .-ill tins, at the present moment, and I
1

enunciate

it 1

in

the present tense perfect.

wish to express a continuous action, if, for instance, I mean to describe myself as remaining for some time in font cm plat ion of the described, am compelled to change my expression, and say " I am to adopt the preaanl tense impn-fiKt. In thai case,

But

if

I

1

contemplating,' "I am beholding:" and the diagram before drawn will not thru so well express the time intended to be described tht following one;

M

\
c

J

CHAP.

IX.

OF VERBS.

145

Here, the present time, designated by the letter B, extends indefinitely and C, embracing a segment, the whole of which is viewed by the mind as being at once present to its contemplation, though without any definite boundary on either side. The English language easily distinguishes this sort of present tense from the other, by the use of the verb to be and the participle present ; but in most other languages the present perfect and the present imperfect have one and the same form, and can only be distinguished by the context. have seen that the present imperfect implies something of 282. the past, and something of the future. Modern philosophy is very well satisfied to pass over all the difficulties which occur in regard to the nature of time. are told, " that we have our notion of succession and duration from this original, viz., from reflection on the train of ideas which we find to appear one after another in our own minds," and that " time is duration set out by measures." This is surelv anything but reasoning. First, it is assumed that there is a train of ideas which constantly succeed each other in every man's understanding. Each of these ideas, then, must either occupy an indi visible point of time, or it must have some distinguishable duration. In the former case I cannot at all understand how reflection on many indivisible points should afford me the notion of any continuous quantity. In

toward

A

We

IV

t,

We

the latter case there

would be no occasion

to reflect

on a

train

;

for

the reflection on a single idea would present to

me

the notion of

duration in
in train ?

itself. But what are these ideas Are they all of equal duration ?

;

and how do they march If so, or if not, what is

it that determines the duration of each ? Is it not the voluntary act of the mind ? Again is there no interval in the train ? On the hypothesis above stated, it would seem that before a man could have any notion of duration, and consequently of time, he must have formed

:

own mind thoughts of a certain duration ; these thoughts must have succeeded each other in a distinguishable order, he must have been fully aware of that succession, and he must afterwards have made it the subject of reflection. But this statement is absurd for on what is he to reflect ? On a succession which would not present
in his
;

any

instance

it involved that notion in the first nor would the succession of any two or more ideas produce a notion of duration if the thoughts themselves, or the interval between them, did not involve it. The truth is, that the idea of duration, or time, is not to be made up out of any other elements, but is an original law, and first element of thought in the human nind. perceive duration of time just as we perceive extension
;

notion of duration unless

We

>f space,
f/e

because it is one of the necessary forms under which alone can contemplate existence. Whilst we are contemplating the ndivisible moment which constitutes the perfect present it has alreadv nelted into the imperfect present; and if we attempt to seize it igain, it has already become the past its distinction is then fully
:

2.

L


^q
marked
;


OF VERBS.
CEAP. EX.

us for the past is presented to
its

by memory,

as the present

is

^^TpasThas

definite and perfect and its imperfect, its may speak of an action which and its relative. finite i£ positive minute; at a given hour, and a given v s nerfoLed on a given dav, P of the first shot winch leapinl into the Rubicon, or
its

inde-

We

rof
.

Ss

waffireH

the

commencement of

the thirty years'

war: or we may

an action in ;l k I we refer. Thus the anaentarbste going on at the time to which that hey d d with the vovdfaciebat, to indicate h ribed their works bad finished and perfect, but that they not put them out of hand, as P them and would have earned ?oVsome time engaged in making btn had tame and c.reumstance , their attempts toward perfection, Heautontimorumenos, describing wrmi t,d. Thus, too, Svrus, in the Antiphila and her servants employed, Ihe work o» which he found
says
otlondnnus Texentem telam studiose ipsam
,

winch was which a person was occupied and

,.

:

Anus
:

Subtemen nebat
Erat
:

pnetcrea una ancillula
fixing the

ea texebat una.

Again,

we may speak
happened, as

of the past time

definitely,

epoch

when
»•
(

it

That day he overcame the Nevvii.
is past, act of which we are speaking indifirMy, declaring that the of its performance was near b| the time 1,„. n,.r ascertaining Whether

distant; as

Thou

.-

and the* so,,,, time preceding the present; it, ores peal al distinguished as pos.t n, nu\ rdoti* „t..„:.s,„ ,v |., reciprocally ; w
,
i

^

That ever

man art tho ruins of the noblest livrd in the tide of times.

past time

nay be

mentioned simply as past

at

thepreseu

Tims,

in

the positive,
!

Macbeth says—
••
i

/„,,

Is fallen into the

UN,
'

" ,v **1 "' hl DOOgll the yellow leaf.

''

LUL

HrtV.S


Tlll
.

(1

odant
,

spirit),

in

the

Masque

<

thsntboohto
/
|

,

.

.

a

\.

//.

,
.

ii„.,
,.,.,

ittppn on thi saVrj borb
\s -1..-

.I.

|..,M.t,Hl.|

Were

III

told,

1

Mite

me down

I"

watch.
In

,l„.

past time axis*
is

,,

sS
)
.

the nature

oi

exists! memory, so the man, or be would be^unaUeJ

F^

,

nl lva,..;,

l

stolm,
i

fduratron
oi

may be suppo.
the

being which had only the perception

present*
coi

irui, to oder that oonosption operative and u v

;

;

CHAP.

IX.]

OF VERBS.

147

ven it into an accurate idea of time, it is necessary that the notion It is a mistake to say that the of futurity should be superadded. present impression is distinguished from the memory of what is past

by

superior vividness and strength.
Pass by us, like Which we regard not

It often

happens that things

present
the idle wind

whilst objects of

Hamlet, we think

memory so fully occupy our attention, that, like we see them " in the mind's eye." Still we see
faculties) not as present,

them (whilst we possess our reasoning
the future, as such,
others.

but

as past, with a specific difference of perception.

The

perception of

is also specifically different from either of the Reason and reflection alone could not explain to us the necessity of such a distinction, because it is an element of reason, so It would be far as that faculty applies to events occurring in time. as correct to say, that by reasoning on the nature of light and colours, we come to discover the sensations of red and green, as to say, that by reasoning on duration, we come to discover that there is a past, a When we treat of these portions of time, we present, and a future. for as time treat of them with reference to some particular moment is perpetually flowing on, that which was future yesterday is to-day The present, and that which was present yesterday is to-day past. particular moment which thus characterises the time, is that in which
;

is addressing himself to his hearers or readers. have seen, however, that that moment is not always referred to as indivisible, but sometimes as capable of extension and indefinite continuance. So it was observed to be in the present and past ; and so it is in the future. person may say, " I shall mount my horse ;" and he may say, " I sliall be an hour riding from London to Richmond." In the former instance the tense may be called the future perfect ; in the latter the future imperfect. Again, the future may be definite as, " I shall mount at six o'clock ;" or, indefinite, as " I shall ride

the speaker or writer

We

A

some time
that
is, it

in the course

may be
is

of the day." * Lastly, the act may be positive, considered only as future at the moment of speakall

ing (which

the case with

the preceding examples), or
till

it

may be

relative, considering

the act as not to take place

alter

some other

which

my

is also future. Thus, a person may say, " I shall have mounted horse before the clock has struck ;" or " I shall have been riding an

hour when I reach the next milestone." 284. These distinctions refer properly to time.

which

refer to the contingency of the act, or to its frequency
;

There are others and

other di»

habitual performance

these

seem

to

draw

their distinctive character

* In our English idiom, the verbs " I shall mount," and " I shall ride," appear, in these instances, to be equally definite, and the indefinite character of the latter is only to be collected from the context but possibly in some other languages tare may be a formal as well as a substantial difference of tense, answering to this
;

distinction.

:

148

OF VERBS.

[CHAP. IX

from the mood, or kind of verb, and, therefore,
so

may be deemed no
named.

much

tenses as modifications of the tenses already

Some
to thos to begii

what more of doubt may, perhaps, be allowable with respect forms of speech which imply either the immediate intention
an
to
act, or its recent

completion.
class

Of

the

first class

are " I

am abou

write,"

"

I

was beginning

to write,"
d'ecrire,

and of the second
veneris d'ecrire,

Je viens

" I had just written ;" Yet though these forms of speech serve to marl given periods of time, and therefore may be called tenses, they als seem to go somewhat further, by including other notions not strictl; At all events, there must be a limit to the corn referable to time.

" I shall begin to write " I have just written ;" J "Effo/nat yeypcKp&g, " I shal

have done writing."

binations,

which
it

are distinguished

as tenses.

Time

is

capable
in all

c
it

endless divisions, and language
ramifications, if

would be

infinitely

minute

provided a separate inflection for all those separat It is true, that idioms vary in nothin more than in the varieties of tense for which they provide. Som languages are very meagre in this respect, others luxuriant; some ar strictly confined to differences of time, others mix up, with these, Thus the English language marks variety of other considerations. distinction unknown, I believe, to any other language, between th and what is remarkable future of choice and the future of necessity " that distinction varies with the different persons of the tense. shall go" implies no particular volition, nor indeed anything but th
modifications of thought.
:

certainty of the event.

"

the other hand,

•'

you

will

I will go" implies absolute volition. O go" implies no volition of any person, bu

" you
proof

shall

go"

implies the volition of the speaker.
nicety

It

is

a strikin
i

how much

and

difficulty there

is

in the

peculiar use

the tenses of verbs, that scarcely a single Scottish writer, howevt eminent, will be found to have accurately observed the distinctions c

" >haU" and " will" throughout all his compositions. The reason if have from infancy become accustomed the Scottish idiom, and idiom is much Lett a matter of reasoning tha critical examination of the idioms regarded as moi of habit. elegant, will show them to abound with the same pleonasms an nly considered as marks of rusticity in th ellipses, which are com m 'u., <>l the c< minion people. Th* English idiom above- mentions It. refers primarily to the wi h<iw\er, of very simple explication. It, therefore, he says " I will," it is to lie understoo of the speaker. that, to tar 88 hi* power extends, the action is to be perfor d bu it he says " I shall," inasmuch as he indicates no volition of his owl t-> be inferred but the futurit.) <>l the action. nothin further Agnir ity he .u " you shall go," he " shall go," he intiinati it fi; /i./// is that in which is necessary, and must, -iii.il h<limn the iMaso-diitliic shit* Hilt tin •tltttft, OOght tO be d in
that the writers in question
t

A

I,

.•

ifl

;

i

;

.

;

t

.

.1

1

«

,

8w Juniua ad vonem.

Al»o Wachter, tohuld, toktUtg.


CHAP. IX.]
necessity, being declared


OF VERBS.

149
relates to his will alone.

by the speaker,
It is

Thus, in Coriolanus
Sicinius.

:

a

mind
it is,

That shall remain a poison where Not poison any farther.
Coriolanus. Shall remain ?

Hear you

this Triton of the

minnows

?

Mark you

His absolute shall i

On the other hand, when the speaker says " you will go," " he will go," he intimates no will of his own ; and, therefore, nothing is underThe proper force and eflect, stood but the futurity of the action.
therefore, of the
1.

two English
t.

futures

may be
t.

thus expressed
e.,

:

Future compulsory.
shalt go,"
e., it is
i.

" I will go,"

it

is

my

will to go.

" Thou
go,"
2.

e., it is

my

will to

my will to compel thee to go. compel him to go.
" I shall go,"
t.

"

He

shall

Future not compulsory.

compelling
there
is

me

to go, independently of

my will.

e., there is some cause " Thou wilt go," i. e.,

some cause compelling thee to go, independently of my will. i. e., there is some cause compelling him to go, indeThe same reasoning applies to the plural pendently of my will. number as to the singular; and, consequently, "we will go," "ye and shall go," " they shall go," belong to the first kind of future
"

He

will go,"

;

we shall go," " ye will go," " they will go," belong to the second. What I have here called the future compulsory has sometimes a
merely permissive force, sometimes a promissive, and sometimes it is used in the manner of an imperative mood, as " Thou shalt not steal," " Thou shalt do no murder," for " steal not," " murder not ;" and this
idiom

"

Ye

found both hi the Greek and Latin "Eo-tcflt ovv vpelg riXaoi, be therefore perfect, i. e., Be ye therefore perfect, St. Matt, ch. v. v. 48. And so Horace Inter cuncta, leges, et percunctabere doctos. Lib. i. Epist. 18. But though various circumstances, of the nature of those which have been already pointed out, do, in fact, enter into the composition of tenses in various languages yet they do not properly belong to the scientific division of tenses in Universal Grammar, which ought to regard only distinctions of time, and not these beyond a certain degree of minuteness and complexity. Where the divisions of time are very minute or complex, their expression rather forms a sentence than a word. It is something more than the mind can easily grasp or communicate in one combined form ; and which, therefore, to be understood, requires to be analysed into different words. In a subject which has undergone such various treatment by grammarians, as the distribution of tenses, I am far from arrogating to my own method any very superior merit still less do I recommend the name which I have given to each tense as the best calculated to express its distinctive character. Instead of the perfect and imperfect, some writers use the terms absolute and continuous ; and those tenses which I
is
:

shall

:

;

;

.

—— —
;

; ;

150
Lave called positive and
Harris's

OF VERBS.

[CIIAP. IX

scheme.

relative, correspond nearly with the perfectun and the plusquam perfectum, the fulurum, and paulo-post futurum. 285. The arrangement proposed by the learned Mr. Harris, thougl differing considerably from that which I have suggested, is, I mas' acknowledge, entitled to great attention and, therefore, without going into all his reasonings in favour of it (contained in the 7 th chapter o the 1st book of Hermes), I think it right to state its general outline. " Tenses," he observes, " are used to mark present, past, ant future time, either indefinitely, without reference to any beginning middle, or end or else definitely, in reference to such distinctions.
: ;

" If indefinitely, then have

we

three tenses, called aorists (so callec

from the Greek aopiarov, undefined, or unlimited), viz., an aorist of tin present, an aorist of the past, and an aorist of the future. " If definitely, then have we nine other tenses, viz., three to marl the beginnings of the present, past, and future respectively, three U. denote their middles, and three to denote their ends.

" The three

first

of these nine tenses

we

call the inceptive

present

the inceptive past, and the inceptive future: the three next the rniddh present, the middle past, and the middle future ; and the three last tin

completive present, the completive past, and the completive future. " And thus there are in all twelve tenses, of which three denotl time absolutely, and nine denote time under its respective distinc
tions."
1.

Denoting time absolutely and
1

indefinitely

:

Aorist of the present, ypa<f>u>, scrilx), I write 2. Aorist of the past, typaxpa, scripsi, I wrote shall write. 3. Aorist of the future, ypu^tj, scribam,
I

2.

Denoting time under the respective distinctions of iuceptioa
continuity,
1.

and completion.

Denoting inception:
1.

Inceptive present,

piWut ypa^uv,

scripturus sum,

1

an

about to write
2.

Inceptive

past,

ifiiWoy yputyav, scripturus tram,
to write
;

I

was beginning
.'i.

Inceptive future, piXM/trui

ypafny,

scrijiturus cro,

J

shall l»e In-ginning to write.

2.

Denoting continuance 1. I xi ended present, Tvyyavu yputywv,
:

scribo, or scribeiu

sum,
2.

I

am
I

writing;

Extended

MOM,
'le<|

past, typu<f><>y, or ua-, wilting;

irvy^nyov ypwpMr,
I

tOfi

future, i/Tn/uti ypaiftm; scrihem fro,

-hall 1m

\\l:t

completion
1.

:

Coinpleofi

|'ic

a -Hi,

yiyp<i<f>a, scripsi,

I

have written;

;

CHAP.

IX.]

OF VERBS.

151

2. Completive past, lyeypafeiv, scripseram, I had done

writing

Completive future, toopai ytypatyuc;, scripsero, I shall have done writing. Whatever arrangement we adopt, we shall certainly not find it for while tome b*V« gfldftt fully followed out in many languages
3.
;

varieties of inflection or construction to express the different times,

others have fewer; and yet it may happen that the idiom, which upon the whole is the least rich in tenses, is more minute than all the
others in

some one

particular distinction.

the combination of tense with mood, much judicious Connection oi criticism is to be found in various grammarians, and particularly in *w.*' the work last quoted, the Hermes of Mr. Harris, who has collected

286.

On

not only his

own

observations, but those of the philosophers of suc-

cessive ages: for the pure science of Universal

Grammar rests on a knowledge of the operations of the human mind which (so far at least as regards the intellectual powers) were profoundly investigated, and ably explained, both by Greek and Roman grammarians. Those learned men were not only conversant with the intellectual philosophy of their time, but were themselves philosophers of no mean rank. Such a person was Apollonius of Alexandria, surnamed Ai/irroXof, or " the difficult," whose four books irept ^vvrditwc, •* on Syntax," are considered to be the most philosophical of any extant on the Greek language. He himself says he composed them, pera iraarfg aKpifitiag, " with all possible accuracy." Priscian, who professes to make him his chief guide, says of his dissertations, Quid Apolbnii scrupulosis
;

qucestionibus enucleatius possit inveniri?

The

celebrated

Theodore

Gaza confesses that he owes to him almost everything. The learned Thomas Linacer follows him, as it were, step by step. And lastly, Harris, who quotes him liberally throughout the whole of Hermes,
declares

him

to

the subject of

be " one of the acutest authors that ever wrote on Grammar." In thus tracing the literary genealogy of
I at

grammatical authorities,

once prove their present

title

to respect,

and show that it could not have subsisted through so many centuries, if it had not been originally founded on superior talent and ability. When, therefore, I find an author like Apollonius employing much learning on the illustration of the tenses, and their combination with the different moods, I cannot be persuaded that such speculations are wholly trifling or useless to those who would obtain a perfect acquaintance with the science of Grammar. Now Apollonius, observing on the connection above noticed between the future tense and the imperative mood, satisfactorily explains why in most languages there The reason is not a distinct form for the future tense of that mood.
that all imperatives are in their nature futures ; for thus argues Apollonius 'E7ri yap u?j yivoueVoic V /^'i yiyovoaiv j; IIpo <7ra£ic* ra Se pi) yivupeva i) fit] ytyovora, £7rir?/3£iorr/ra dz t.^ovra tiQ to " command has respect to those things icrtadai, MiWovtoq tan.
is
:

A

1

——
[CHAP. IX.

lo2

OF VERBS.
either are not doing or

which

things which being not
tain to the future."

now

have not yet been done. But those doing, or having not yet been done, have

a natural aptitude to exist hereafter,

may

be properly said to apper-

And

again, he says, "A7rovra ra irpoaraicTtica

eyKti^iivqv t\ti Ttjv rov fiiWovTog Siadsaty
to, 6

0"%eSdy "yap iv

"iijui

tari

TvpavyoKrovnaaq
ti]

rifiacrdw,

rw

TifiTjOrjaerat,

Kara

tijv

%povov

batXtotl fanWa^OQ, Kcido to /xtv TrpotTTCtKTiKoy, to 2« " All imperatives have a disposition within them which regards the future. With regard to time, therefore, it is the same thing to say, Let him that kills a tyrant be honoured, as to say, He that kills a tyrant shall be honoured; the difference being only in the mood, inasmuch as the one is imperative, the other indicative.'' So Priscian shows the connection of the imperative with the future. "Imperativus verb prcesens etfuturum (tempus) naturali quudam neces-

ivvoiay'

opicrriKoy.

sitate videtur

posse accipere.
fieri,

Ea

enim imperamus, quo?

vel in prceserdi

statim volumus

sine aliqud dilatione, vel in futuro."

" The im-

perative

(mood) seems

to receive the present

ceitain natural necessity; for,

we

and future (tenses) by a command those things which we

wish to be done, either immediately at present, without any delay, or
in future."

the imperative

From this reasoning, it is plain that the present tense of mood is a present inceptive, looking necessarily to a
;

continuance or completion in futurity. It expresses on the part of the speaker a present will but on the part of the person addressed a future act and that futurity may either begin from the moment of speaking, or at a more distant period, Thnt, when Lear cautions Kent not to interfere between him and
:

his anger to Cordelia, the will

and the act are closely conjoined
the dragon and his wrath
!

:

Come not between

tin-

But when he imprecates curses on his unnatural and cruel daughters, object of hie prayer le one which cannot take effect till long afterwards, and which may continue for a course of years:
i

If she

must teem,
it

her child

t>f

spleen, that

in IJ

liT*

And

In-

a thwart, diMiatur'd

torment to her;
<

Let it stump wrinklei on her hrow ot' youth, With eadcnl kMTt/M channels in h« hvelu, ill Ipt uiothor'n p&ini and benefit* To laughter and outempt.

which may be connected with Not is it only the bnjx'rntive m a faturt time. Voestal bat tbearied, that what is commonly called tlii- present conjunctive lias tome instJinces a future import; as, Ifl
1

when Cm

one of nil epi il.-s tu A i.iis, " f.'sl mihi pnr'' (!'• tjtui utinam iilii/windo tecum h/iuir." ular r.as.in fur •toying bere, concerning w lii.ii bope ime time or other talk to you ;" where utinam loouat, " 1 hope
.to

K i\ h,

in

1

ui,i

manendi;

I

.

I

1

1

may

talk,"

i<

lit.-, entirely

t" i future time.
I

It

ii

needle

bere to
critics

follow the numerous and minute remurl

of

many leaned

on


CHAP. IX.]

;

;

OF VERBS.

153

the mixed or variable times which are expressed by all the conSuffice it to say, that the combination of any mood junctive tenses. which implies contingency or futurity, with a tense, referring to present or past time, must necessarily affect the expression of time, and, consequently, that in this respect, the tenses of the indicative

from the analogous tenses in any other mood. As, thereterm gender, originally used to express the mere distinction of sex, has been applied in use to distinguish large cl; of words from each other, with reference only to their terminations so in verbs the word Tense, originally meaning the expression of time alone, has been also used in most grammars to express that concep-

must

differ

fore, in nouns, the

tion in combination with the others

above noticed.
Person,

the remaining essential property of the verb, namely, the expression of Attribute, arises the necessity for a distinction of Person; for every attribute must relate to a subject of the first,

287.

From

may say in Latin M ye arm, amamus, amatis, amant, or in English " I love," " we love," love," " they love ;" but it is manifest that though in the examples cited from the latter language the form remains unchanged, the sigThe difference of person, nification is alike varied in both languages. it pecutherefore, in point of form, is merely accidental to the verb liarly belongs to the pronoun, and has been sufficiently explained in In many languages, the person of the treating of that part of speech. This is uniververb is necessarily expressed by a separate pronoun. sally the case in the Chinese, for the verb being alike in all the persons, it would be impossible to distinguish one from the other without the addition of some other word. The three persons singular of the present tense run thus Ngo Ngai, I love ; Ni Ngai, Thou lovest Ta Ngai, He loves. And the same occurs in the other tenses, and in the plural number.
: :

second, or third person, as above distinguished. may or may not be altered on this account.

The form of the verb

We

In English

we

find

it

partially the case

;

for

though

in the singular

have three distinctions of person in the present, as " I love," " thou lovest," " he loves," and two in the past, as " I loved," " thou lovedst," yet in all other parts (with the exception of the irregular to be) the verb remains unaltered. Nor does this arise from any peculiarity in the original genius of our language, for the more ancient dialects, from which it is derived, abounded with personal terminations. Now these terminations, as will be shown hereafter, were, in their origin, nothing more than the pronouns themselves, which, in process of time, coalesced with the expression of attribute, connection, assertion, and time, and so formed words, signifying at once all these fifierent circumstances, together with the additional distinction of

we

oerson.

288.

Some

verbs are called impersonal, a

name which

only seems

impersonate.

154
to

OF VERBS.

[CHAP.

I

mean

that they are not usually conjugated with distinction of ]X

sons, but remain always in the

form of the third person.

If they hi

no other peculiarity than that from which their name is derived, might not be necessary to notice them in a treatise on Univers Grammar but, in truth, they are constructed on a principle differe from that which has been already explained in reference to torso The impersonals are of two kinds, active and neuter. By active mean those which require an object, as " it grieves me," " it becom me," miseret me, decet me, &c. by neuter I mean those verbs of whi<
;

]

;

the action terminates in

itself,

as "

it

rains," "
il

it

snows," "

it is

hot

"

it is

cold

;"

the Latin pluit, the French

freddo, the German verb contains a mere assertion of the existence of the conception

fait chaud, the Italian In all these instances tl es donnert, esfriert, &c.
;

b

These verbs have been sometimes e does not indicate any agent. thus pudet plained as agreeing with a nominative implied in them said to be a verb agreeing with the implied nominative pudor, as the meaning were, " shame shames me;" but this is rather a form than a substantial explanation. Pudet in reality contains, and do not merely imply the noun pudor it expresses the same concept ion the noun, and asserts its existence. It is therefore rather of the natu of a verb substantive, than of a verb active and though, in son idioms, a nominative is expressed, yet in reality that nominative superfluous, or, at most, is only introduced to keep up the genei analog)' of the language. The nominative it in the English langaag and il in French, have no distinct reference to any conception. Tin If any one shun are pronouns, which do not stand for any noun.
:

:

;

say,

" It rains,"
is

we
if

cannot, as

in

the

common

case,

where

a

distill

nominative
only be
left

expressed, ask

"what

rains?" for the answer
is

it;

and

we were

then to ask, " what

won itf we must

I

Hence, in translation, the nominative it without any answer. often lost. do not say in Latin, Hoc phut nor in (Jreek, TOYT The proper notion of an impersonal verb, therefore, is, that )(pt).

We

;

assort, the existence of an action

without reference to

am

particul

Igent.

SumLi

289. The expression of XuiiiIht is another accidental property verb; and belong! to it only in so far as the verb may be col It is, therefore, like the san bined with the expression of person. prop rty in the adjective, a men! method of Connecting it in constru ti..n with the noun substantive, Of pronoun, w huh forms its nominativ does Accordingly, it applies to verbs in the same manner as
tinit.

novnea&d proooanst
•u,

admit a dual number, as in Sanecri end Ovule, the verb admits the tame; when the] do not,
thej

When

Indeed, the matter could not w< has onh. a lingular and a plural. hM been ahead) stated, the personal tei uiiii.it ioi bfl uthtlWiH, il. le.dlv the pronouns themselve oftl with it. Tl

M

;

\eii, j, e.|ualiv said to i.e

m
,

tl,.

in. Mil.

ii

01

plural,

whether
dillerclit

il

his

i

ha. not ih

I

in-

t

termination

appropriated to those

numbed

; ; ;

CHAP.

IX.]

OF VERBS.
I
;

155

love" singular, and " we love" plural but it is manifest, such instances the expression of number exists only in the pronoun. These are questions of Particular Grammar all that can be laid down on the subject, as a rule of Universal Grammar, is, that as on the one hand there is nothing in the peculiar nature of the verb which involves the idea of number, so there is nothing in the idea of number which can prevent it from being combined with the verb, where the genius of the language permits such a union. 290. Since the verb, by means of its connection with the pronoun, G«wl«r. admits person and number, there is no reason why it should not also admit Gender ; and, in fact, this distinction obtains in the Arabic, the Ethiopic, and some other languages. It is, however, rare and as gender properly belongs only to nouns, or pronouns substantive, with respect to which it has been already discussed, we need not here pursue the investigation.

we

call

"

that in

all

:

;

Some writers contend, that the verb, as expressing an attricapable of Comparison ; nor does it appear that this can be gainsaid, if we regard only the attributive nature of the verb. There are, indeed, certain attributes, as has been already observed, which are
291.
bute,
is

Comparison,

not intensive

;

neither can the assertive

and these of course cannot admit degrees of comparison power be compared for the verb must assert
:

a thing either to exist, or not to exist. On the other hand, verbs may be compounded with conceptions implying comparison, as " to outdo," " to overtake," subesse, superesse, &c. They may too, in

compared by means of the adverbs of comparison, more, but I am not aware that it has been attempted, &c. in any language, to combine in one and the same word the assertive power with the comparative. It is not easy to conceive any form of verb which in itself would express the degrees of comparison and the reason probably is, that though the mere qualities of substance may be simply intensive, yet actions are intensive in various modes, as well as in various degrees. Of different substances, concerning which whiteness can be predicated, some may be more and some less white but of different beings concerning which the act of walking may be predicated, all equally walk, though one walks more, another less one faster, another slower, &c. and so of mental action, several persons love, but one loves more warmly, another more violently, another more purely so that there is not in actions, as there is in qualities, a simple scale of elevation and depression and, consequently, the mere comparison of more and less would not answer all the purposes of language, as applied to the verb, though it does as applied to the adjective. For this reason participles, when they are compared, lose their participial power; for sapientior and potentior do not express acts, but habits, or fixed qualities, and therefore answer to the English adjectives " wiser," and " more powerful." 292. Thus have we seen, that though the proper force and effect of Conclusion, the verb that on which its peculiar character depends is assertion,
general, be

most,

less, least,

;

;

:

;

;

156
yet
it is

OF VERBS.

[CHAP. EC.

capable of combining therewith, and in fact it does so combine, not only the conception of attribute which Priscian calls the res of the verb, but the expression of mood, tense, person, number, and even " Observe," says the President Dks Brosses, " how, in one gender. single word, so loaded with accessory notions, everything is marked,
its member, and the analogical formulas are preserved throughout on the plan first laid down." Elsewhere he adds, " All this composition is the work, not of a deeply-meditated combination, nor of a well-reasoned philosophy, but of the metaphysics of instinct." The Goths, the Saxons, the Greeks, and the Latins, in forming the schemes of conjugation above noticed, were probably impelled by principles in the human mind, the very existence of which they hardly suspected. Similar principles have operated, but with endless diversity of application, in the formation of all the various dialects which have been spoken in ancient and modern times, by nations the most barbarous and the most civilized; and it is the development and explication of these ever-operative principles which forms the proper object of the science of Universal Grammar.

every notion has

; ;

(

157

)

CHAPTER

X.

OF ARTICLES.
of the principal parts of speech Auwwqry I come now to the accessories. 5^u! The principal parts, as has been folly stated, are those which are necessary lor communicating thought in a simple sentence and the communication of thought requires the naming of some conception, and the assertion of its existence as an object either of perception or of volition. Conceptions are named by the noun : they are asserted to
vises

293.

Having

explained the

employed

in enunciative sentences,

:

exist by the verb ; but it often becomes desirable to modify either the name, or the assertion, or the union of both. How is this to be done ? Certain modifications may be incorporated with the noun by its cases, and numbers, and genders ; with the verb by its moods, tenses, and persons with the adjective by its degrees of comparison and with the participle, gerund, supine, and infinitive, by their marks
;

of time, relation, &c. The same, or similar effects, may be produced by separate words ; and what must those separate words be ? Nouns, or verbs, which, appearing in subordinate characters, are no longer to

i

be considered such as they were formerly. 294. wish to modify a conception ; how can we do it but by How mod»another conception ? wish to modify an assertion ; how can we wS""'' do it but by another assertion ? It is therefore plain that the acces-

We

We

must have had originally the character of principals that must have been either nouns or verbs. This is a truth extremely obvious in itself, and of which many grammarians have been fully aware but there is another truth, which seems to have
;

sory words
is

to say, they

;

'been less apprehended, namely, that these subordinate and accessory words act as such a very different part from that which they sustained as principals in a sentence. The mind dwells on them more slightly

dhey express a more transient operation of the intellect. In process of ;time some of them come to lose their original meaning, and to be only significant as modifying other nouns and verbs. It cannot be denied that the words and, the, with, and the like, have no distinct meaning, at present, in our language, except that which depends on
their association and connection with other words. The etymologist imay succeed, or he may not succeed, in his attempts to trace these non-significant words to the significant words from which they are derived but whether he be successful or unsuccessful, the fact will be no less certain, that in their secondary use they lose their primary
;

character and signification
inferior parts

they are no longer nouns or verbs, but ; of speech, commonly termed articles, prepositions, con-

I08
junctions,

OF ARTICLES.

[cHAP. I

and adverbs, each of which

classes I shall

examine

in

it

order.
Howdesigrutted.

295. These inferior parts of speech have been called particles and, as such, are sometimes distinguished from words, and sometime To explain and accoun treated only as separate classes of words.

have given much trouble to many grammatical an< and after all, the subject has been often left a state of great confusion. Mr. Locke, in his second volume, has vague chapter on particles, from which it may be inferred that h considered nouns to be the names of thoughts, or, as he expresses it All other words serve, according to him, to connect ideas of ideas. The principal of these (which I call the verb) he calls the mark c and he says, " the words whereby the mini affirming or denying ies what connection it gives to the several affirmations and nega tions that it unites in one continued reasoning or narration are calta particles." Elsewhere he says of these particles, " they are not trul; by themselves names of any ideas ;" and again, " they arc all mark
for

them seems

to

philosophical writers

:

ii

;

;

:

of some action or intimation of t/ie mind, and therefore, to understate them rightly, the several views, postures, stands, turns, limitation! and exceptions, and several other t/ioughts of the mind, for which w have either none or very deficient names, are diligently to be studied.

The confusion which occurs in these passages between " ideas, " thoughts,'' and "actions or intimations of the mind," shows tha
Locke attached no distinct meaning to any of these words hut 80 la as they lead to a grammatical doctrine, it would seem that be cor Hoogeyckn speak ceived particles not to be derived from nouns. much more Intelligibly. He says, " /nirticidas in sud infant it) fuis>
;

vel verba, vel nomina, vel
t

ex nominibus formata adverbia."

" The
1

pat

rare, in their infancy, either verbs or nouns, or adverbs forma M Ipsa verb, QUATENUS PAKTICUL.K, per se sola spec from nouns." " They themselves, as particles, consider© taUx, nihil significant." lose, Signify nothing." And again, in defining the particle, he sa\>
nl.-s

"The paj particulam esse voctdam, ex nomine vel verbo natam." Had Bli r a verb." word derived from s properly reflected on these passages, which he quotes ii.n Hoog'-wc-n, be WOUld have found them to contain all that was vah able in his own system, without, the errors into which he has lallei
•'
1

1<

J.

i

The term

particle, indeed,

parte of speech;
ficatioi).

well chosen, to include the Inferto is n< nor do grammarians agree as to the extent of it Locks only describes it as including " prepositions IB)
.t

leaving
i

HssSMt of Words
..

fill

nonst,
."

and

II

to his reader's judgment to determin under thee/ OOftetXH bOAUGEB s;;; "/" modi tunt pnrpositiont's, conjundionei aliove, seems to list
it.
<

*

i

tn tha adverb) whilst other gramroarians include in the p all indeclinable words, and even the article, which in Greel

<i

nnneosasarj to adopt an) generic term

;

CHAP.
all

X.J

OF ARTICLES.
;

159
I

the accessorial parts of speech

nor do

deem

it

advisable to dis-

tribute

them

as Harris has done into
I shall,

definitives

and connectives.

which he names however, begin with the article,
classes,

two

which he arranges under the definitives. 296. The Article is a part of speech serving to reduce a noun sub- Vmottim ArtK e I have already stantive from a general to a particular signification.
"

observed, in speaking of nouns, that

by

far the greater pail

of them

must be what Mr. Locke

calls general terms, that is to say,

names

common

cannot give a distinct name to every distinct object that we perceive, nor to every distinct thought which passes through the mind nor are these thoughts, or even these objects, so entirely distinct to human conception as many perIf I see a horse to-day, and another horse sons are apt to imagine. to-morrow, the conceptions which I form of these different objects are The indeed different in some respects; but in others they agree. one horse may be black, and the other white; but they are both The word horse is a noun, exquadrupeds, both have hoofs, &c. pressing the conception which I form of all the points in which I This word, therefore, applies to a class of perceive them to agree. conceptions; but it is necessary that I should possess some means of expressing the individuals of that class. Now those means are af lorded by adding the article to the noun. To illustrate what I mean, let us take a general term for instance, the word man. The conception expressed by this word alone is one which exists in several oilier conceptions, as in that which is formed of "Peter," or of " James," or of "John." Peter, therefore, is a word expressing the general conception, " man," together with something peculiar to a certain individual ; and the same may be said of James and John but it must frequently happen that the proper name Peter, or James, or John, is unknown to us. How, then, are we to express our conception of either of them ? To each the term " man " belongs ; but it belongs to each equally and therefore it does not distinguish the individual from his class, nor one individual from another. If, therefore, we use this term "man," we must also employ some other means of showing that we mean by it this or that man or at least some one man, as distinguished from the conception of " man " in
to

many

conceptions.

We
;

;

;

;

general.

Now,

these

means

are afforded

by the

article

;

and thev

are afforded in

two

different

ways

:

we

either

speak of the general

term simply, as applicable to a general notion of individuality, or else with relation to some particular circumstance which we know belongs only to a certain individual. In the former case we may be said to enumerate, in the latter to demonstrate, the person or thing intended. In the one we say positively " a man," in the other we say relativelv

"

the

man."
articles.

297. Hence arise two classes of

They have been

called t«

das**,

the indefinite and the definite ; but it has been justly observed by Harris that they both define, only the latter defines more perfectly

160

OF ARTICLES.

[CHAP.

X.

than the former. It would, perhaps, be more appropriate to call the one positive, and the other relative, or the one numeral, and the other demonstrative. I shall adopt the two first of these designations, merely for convenience ; but I consider the names by which it may be thought fit to designate the different classes of words, as comparatively unimportant. The most material object is to establish the

^j^^v

on clear and intelligible principles, 298. Grammarians have disputed whether the article be, or be not, a necessary part of speech. Before this question can be properly answered, it must be clearly stated. Mr. Tooke says, " in all languages there are only two sorts of words which are necessary for the communication of our thoughts and these are, 1. noun, and 2. verb;" and he adds, that he uses the words noun and verb " in their common
classification itself
;

acceptation."

It

would seem from
;

this,

that he

meant

to describe

the article as unnecessary

ibr in

common

acceptation

it is

certainly

not considered to be identical, either with the noun, or with the verb. However, he afterwards describes it as " necessary for the communication of thought," and even " denies its absence from the Latin, or from any other language." Those ancient writers who considered the

noun and the verb as the only,
syncategoremata, that
sitv,
is,

or, at least, as the principal

and more
the
its

distinguished parts of speech, either included the article

among

consignificant words, or else denied

neces-

and even

its

existence, in

some languages,

particularly in the

Noster sermo, says Quinctilian, Articulos non desukrat. Articulos intcgms in Articvlos, says Priscian, quibus nos caremus nostra non invenimus Lingua. And so Scaliger, Articulus nol>is nulla*, ra'cis superfluus. And Vossius, Articulum, quern Fabio teste From tin Latinus sermo non desiderat, imb, mejxulice, plane ignorat. authorities, and indeed from a very slight inspection of the language •. is clear that the Latin had no separate words answering to it tin- articles (if the English and other languages; nor is it less clear,
Latin.

m

that the

Greek had only the

relative article 6,
.Mr.

//,

destitute of our positive article.
Inferring,

Tooke

is

to, and was entirely undoubtedly right '"

from the oeoeMtty of general terms, the necessity of the we thereby understand the necessity of some means to He is, however, Ipplj general terms to their individual instances. (mug in supposing that this purpose is always effected either by a distinct wool, or l»v some prefix Of termination added to words: nor fanciful COUK NH <ii.HKi.iN less erroneous in asserting that the article was supplied in Latin by the termination v.r defined whether the in no manner what tin; termination
article;
if
:

j

word was
r.ite.l thf

to be taken in a

OHM,
else.

nothing

"the man"
\te

taken

in

It indimore or less general acceptation. number, and he grammatical gender; but it did Ilmim signified "Man" in general, or "a man," or en of and the termination aflbrded no help b< in which of these three senses the word was to any particular pa me. Thi| was to be discovered in

tfafl

I

'

;

: ;

CHAP.
Latin,

X.J

OF ARTICLES.

161
context.
If,

as in

some other languages, merely by the
question,

whether the article be necessary, mean whether a separate class of words performing the function of the article be necessary, it must be resolved in the negative because no such class is to be found in the Latin and some other languages. If, on the other hand, it mean whether in all languages there must be some mode of performing the function of the article, it must be answered affirmatively and this is a question which, as it relates to the operations of the Mind, properly falls within the scope of pure Grammatical Science. 299. Even though a particular language may have no class of imiinaMm words called articles, the persons speaking that language must cer- mdh'iduai!" tainly distinguish, in their conceptions, the general from the individual. In treating of the noun, I have already spoken of the different gradations of conception but it is necessary to advert again to the grounds
therefore,

the

;

;

1

;

The inattentive observer of external objects beforms are always impressed distinctly on the eye and that every superficies is bounded by a visible outline. more reflecting and more accurate philosophy teaches us, that even in contemplating the objects which we most admire, imagination does more than mere sensible impression toward supplying us with a knowledge of their forms ; and that, in a sense not merely poetical,
of this distinction.
lieves that their

A

We

half create the wondrous world

we

see.

In like manner, the inattentive observer of the operations of Mind, as they relate to language, is apt to suppose that all his thoughts or conceptions are definite and distinct; and, consequently, that the words which serve to name these thoughts are so too ; but this is far from being the case. Let us consider each of the three classes of conception before noticed, viz., the conception of a particular object, that of a general notion applicable to many particulars, and that of an
idea or universal truth.

The

perfectly definite.

No man

first and last of these are in themselves can have two distinct ideas of " virtue,"

considered absolutely and in the primary signification of the word and the same may be said of "squareness," "power," "duration," " space," " wisdom," &c., &c. In like manner we cannot have two
distinct conceptions of a particular person or thing, and, therefore,

when we know
£

its proper name, as " George," " Louis," " London," Paris," "Alexander," " Bucephalus," " Europe," "Guildhall," Skc,

&C, it is unnecessary to prefix thereto any other word for the sake of more clearly showing the individuality of our conception. Hence we see the reason why neither proper names nor universal terms do of
necessity require to be used with an article, either positive or relative. The idiom of a particular language may, indeed, sanction such a construction ; but this depends on separate considerations, to which 1
shall hereafter advert.

Generally speaking, such idioms as the following cannot be necessary to intelligibility in any lancmao-e " the
:

*•

M

1

162
George reigns
in

OF ARTICLES.
the

[CHAP. X
i

London

General
terms.

England," or "a Guildhall is situated in produces a happiness ;" or " an Alexande aimed at the glory ;" and the reason is obvious, because it is no necessary to define or distinguish, in such sentences, one George fror another George, one England from another England, one virtue fror another virtue, &c. 300. But the remaining class of conceptions, though general i their nature, serve to communicate the greater part of our knowledg have often no other conception c respecting particular objects. the individual than that he belongs to such or such a species.
:"

or,

"

the virtue

We

W

only by his profession, the soldier only by his regit neni Hence the great use of general terms i the officer only by his rank. all languages; and hence, too, the necessity for individualizing then

know

the

man

either tacitly in the mind, or expressly in language.

When

this pre
call th;

cess of individualization
;

is

effected

by a separate word, we

Universal*.

word an article and thus we say, that it is necessary, in Englisl to add the article "a" or "the" to the general term "man," order to designate an individual of the human species. 301. It is to be observed, that, in a secondary sense, all words the other two classes may be considered and treated as general terms
i
i

ami, consequently,

may

them.

For,

first,

the idea expressed

require the use of the article to individuali/ by an universal term, such
I

"

virtue," " truth,"

and the

like,

may be

considered as existing sep;

rately in each subordinate conception of quality, action,
it is

&c,

in

whie
<

involved.

If

we speak

of virtue simply, as opposed to vice,

any other manner which regards the pure idea of virtue, withov any modification, it is an universal term which needs not. the aid
in
i

an article; but if we speak of those subordinate ideas, such n justice, prudence, temperance, fortitude, in each of which the hight idea of virtue is involved, as the conception of man is in the concer tion of Peter or John, we may consider the word virtue, in asecondaj sense, as applicable to each of them separately, and therefore ma And not only does this appl call each " a virtue," or " the virtue." to subordinate conceptions of the same kind and nature as the to others, in which that superior is e.|iiall HUjM'rior, but someti The o -eptioii of injustice is of the same kind and natui m\..l\.'d. The) are both ulcus, both universal, bof the corn ption of vice. regard t/wilitics of the mind; but the conception of an unjust actio both these ideas, and then partakes, though in | reinot.i d

H

I

or " a vice." ThosHamlat on Horatio's Haying that he is not acquainted with Osric, replies " Thy st.iN- i| BM more gracious, for 'tis a PJM to know him." An
oaflad

"an

injustice, "

...

|'..i

.inn.,

in

in

lli-

Duke
.i

to

wrest

the law

to his authority,

flfj

1

1

is—To
.|.i

•/n'.it lijlil, ilo

a little vsrtmtj.
,

MTV

in

tin

oiid:ii\

I,

wnrd
1

as virtue
<
1

..'.ii'.

<.ui

be einplo\ei|

111

the

plural

1

1

1

1

1

.

i •

;

and vici andhellC

CHAP. X.]

OF ARTICLES.

163
which unhappily

arises in all languages a vast class of general terms,

are but too often perverted in use.

The
:

agree with our conceptions of crimes

idea of crime does not always and we often find an opposition

honour and honours. 302. Secondly, a proper name, which, in its primary sense, desig- Proper nates only an individual man, may be made to stand for a conception nam**
rights,

between the notions of right and

-

common
ever

many other contrary it may be
to

individuals

;

because
is

to fact, that there

can suppose, howa class of men, each posall

we

sessing those qualities

and powers which make up

that

we know

of a certain individual. Thus the word Shakspkakk primarily means that wonderful poet who wrote Hamlet and the Midsummer Night's Dream, who could portray the characters of Othello and Falstaff, Richard II. and Hichard III., and who as much excelled every writer of his day in the sweetness and facility of his language, as he did in richness of imagination and in profound knowledge of the
another being so endowed to ; and yet we may suppose a whole club of such dramatists, like the " cluster of wits" in Queen Anne's time ; we may imagine one from every countrv under heaven; and therefore we may talk of "a French Shakspeare," or "a German Shakspeare," "the Shakspeare of Tennessee," or "the Shak speare of Timbuctoo." 303. The words which answer the purpose of individualizing Art-cie*
arise before the return of the fancied Platonic year

human

heart.

It is in vain to expect

general terms, in the

two modes above

described,

were

originally derive !,

pronominal adjectives. In some instances they have undergone a change of form, by becoming articles; in others, they remain unchanged. The French le and un, are the Latin ille and unus ; the English the and a are the Anglo-Saxon thcet and am. Hence, it is not surprising, that many grammarians comprehend, under a common
designation, the demonstrative

pronoun ami the article. Such was whom gave to both these kinds of words the common name of article, calling our pronoun the definite article; and our article, the indefinite article; whilst others considered both as pronouns, and only denominated our articles, articular " Articulis autem pronomina connumerantes" says Priscian, pronouns. ''finitos ea articulos appellabant ; ipsos autem articulos, infinitos articulos dicebant ; vel ut alii dicunt, articulos connumerabani pronomimbus, et articularia eos pronomina vocabant" 304. There are, however, some marked differences between the Difference pronominal adjective and the article, which may justify us in consi- £° ™ a u dering the latter as a separate part of speech. In our own language, the same words which act as pronominal adjectives mav also be used substantively and, in particular, the words that and one, are sometunes to be considered as substantive pronouns, as when we say, " that which I love," " one whom I respect ;" but we cannot, in like manner, say, u the which I love," "a whom I respect." This distinction, however, depends on the idiom of the English language,
the doctrine of the Stoics,

some of

^

;

164

OF ARTICLES.

[CHAP. J

and, therefore, will not afford a discriminating characteristic betwee: the separate parts of speech in Universal Grammar. But the case i

when we consider the manner in which the pronomina and the article respectively affect the meaning of a genera They both individualize it but the article performs this func term. it marks som tion simply ; the pronominal adjective does more When we say special opposition between different individuals. "the man is good," there is no opposition implied in the word "the, although there may be in each of the other words. We may say, fo
different,

adjective

:

;

instance,
1.

2. 3.

" The man " The man " The man

is is

good good

; ;

is

good ;

but the boy is bad." but he teas bad." but he is not icise."
that

On
"

the contrary,

position to the other
that."
is

We
and

good," we imply no op but only to the won intimate not only that there is a particular individua
is

when we say "
words

man

in the sentence,

who

good, but also that there
is

This distinction
tives hie

strongly
as

ille;

is some other, who is not good marked in Latin by the pronominal adjec when Ovid says,

dissimiles

Hie

vir, et

Ille puer.

Where
article,

the English article the
its

is

used, the Latins,

who have no
adjective,

sue!
us<

do not supply the noun alone, as Blessed is the man
Beatus
vir,

place

by the pronominal

but

that walketh not in the counsel of the ungodly.

qui non abiit in consilio impiorum ; and not Jieatus ii/lk vir It is manifest, that the act of the Mind is very different in the twt Simply to individualize, is a more tranrim cases here spoken of. operation than to individualize and at the same time to contrast [fence, the word the is less susceptible of accentuation than the won
that.

It res

Called enclitic.
that

embles. In When

this respect, those

Greek pronouns which an
pronouns,
ii

the oblique cases of the personal

language, Were used by way of contradistinction, thev wen ly accented, and were called by Grammarians opQuTovoviitvai, Imt when they weiv merely subjoined to verbs, upfh/ht!// iirraitnl
;

without

any

emphasis
that
It,
I

being
0T

placed

on

them,

they

were

called
ii

'Ky*.\ir(t.<ii,

l<;iiiin i, :

inrlinin;/.

Thus

the Greeks had,

on,
\I,,

jiuv, 'K/ioi,
;

'K/u, for contradistinction, and Jliad

Moe,
th<

for enclitics

whence Apollonius proposes, instead of
tlio

common
u> njsjd

reading,

in

the beginning of
IU/~3«

h
V

fi$]

Xurairt

llmiim
lain,

\fi»)

XvrMiTt.

distinction Intended by the Poel argoes he, that between the weed 'Y/dy and "Euol and therefore the enclitic fuA in impiop. i. The principle in the human mind, which converts the
;

;


165

:

CHAP. X.}

OF ARTICLES.

desire of hastening

contradistinctive pronoun into an enclitic, is no other than the eager toward the object of its wishes

Semper ad eventum festinat

and the same principle it is, which converts the demonstrative pronoun into an article. Instead of " thTs horse," or " that horse," we say " the horse :" shortening the article in pronunciation, because we In the Anglo-Saxon language, dwell but little upon it in thought. the word thcet appears to have been shortened into the ; and we have
retained the longer
for our article.

word

for

our pronoun, whilst

we

use the shorter

305. Since it has appeared that some languages do not employ Notsuperseparate words to perform the office of the article, it may be thought that those words when so employed in any language are superfluous;

but

Articles add much to the clearness, this would be a great error. the strength, and the beauty of a language and to be perfectly furnished with them it is necessary to possess both positive and relative The Latin language had neither the Greek had only the articles.
:

:

latter of the

two

;

but most of the modern European languages have
;

It follows, that in this respect the Latin was less perfect than both. and the Greek, and the Greek than either the French or the English Scaliger was, therefore, wrong in denying the use of this part of speech altogether: Articulus, says he, nobis nvllus, et Greeds super-

fluus

;

and

his sarcasm

on the French nation was somewhat misap-

plied,

when he

called the article otiosum loquacissimce gentis instrur

mention.

306. Yet it must be allowed, that in many European languages, ^^£jm"»« and in none more frequently than in the French, instances occur in which the article is employed superfluously. This circumstance is, for the most part, attributable to an elliptical mode of speech, which
is sufficiently

capricious.

In English,

we

generally prefix the relative

names of our rivers, but seldom to those of our mountains. We say, " the Thames," " the Tweed ;" i. e. the river Thames, the river Tweed but we never say a Thames, a Tweed nor do wo say the Snowdon, the Skiddaw or, a Snowdon, a Skiddaw. In French, the superfluous use of the relative article is very frequent but it is to be explained on the same principle of ellipsis. " llseroit a souhaiter," says Condillac, "qu'on supprimat Tarticle, toutes lesfois que les noms sont suffisamment determines par la nature de la chose, Mais la grande ou par les circonstances ; le discours en seroit plus vif. et ce n'est que habitude, que nous nous en sommesfaite, ne le permet pas
article to the
; ; ;

:

dans des proverbes plus anciens que cette habitude, que nous nous faissons On dit : Pauvrete nest pas rice, au lieu de dire, un hi de le svpprimer. La pauvrete n'est pas un vice." " It is to be wished that the article

were suppressed whenever the noun is sufficiently determined by the nature of the thing, or by the circumstances the style would thereby be rendered the more lively. But the great habit that we have ac;

;

166
quired of using
proverbs,
it,

OF ARTICLES.
;

["CHAP. X.
is onlv in old a rule of supinstead of saying. La
it

does not permit this change
this habit, that

and

more ancient than
it.

we make

pressing pauvrete

We say, Pauvrete nest pas vice, pas un vice." It is here to be observed, that the proverbial expression, which Condillac seems to recommend, is as much defective as the common expression which he blames is redundant. The article la before pauvrete' is superfluous, and originates in an ellipsis of some word answering to " state " or " condition " so that "the poverty," means "the condition of poverty:" but, on the other hand, the word "r?'ce," properly demands the article un; for it is not meant to deny that poverty is the idea of vice, which nobody would have asserted but to deny that poverty is one of those states which necessarily include the idea of vice. The most accurate and philosophical mode of expressing this sentence would therefore be, if the
n'est
;
;

idiom of the language permitted

it,

Pauvrete n'est pas un vice

answering exactly to the English idiom

in

such phrases.

employ the article redundantly with an universal term, and with the names of places, so the Italians employ it with the names of persons "II Tasso," "La Catalani," meaning "the famous poet Tasso," " the celebrated singer Catalani." It is obvious
the French often
:

As

Sp«riai e«vwrt.

that these expressions are to be accounted for on the same principle of ellipsis already explained. The article in all such cases does not in reality serve to modify the proper name expressed, but the general term understood. 307. Then- is a particular use of the relative article, with a general term, to which I have before alluded, but which, as it tends to individualize a general term in a peculiar manner, I must here mora
particularly notice.
their

Certain individuals, having obtained celebrity for
the poet,

peculiar excellences, have been denominated from this circumTroiT)T))c,
it

stance, as 6

means Homer;

b piiTtop,

the orator,

SeoXoyor, the theologian, St. (iregory Na/.ian/cn; 6 ytuyfHtifMic, the geographer, Stralio; & &UWVOVO<pl<nrjC, Athena us, ; author ot the wotk entitled "The Feast of the Sophists " hut this more than we daily practise, when we speak of "the king," "tin- queen," "the prmot regent," meaning the king of England, the

DemOftheneS;

quoit
in

and the prime regent of Knglaud just, as we hear narrow circles of society, of "the captain,'' " the doctor," " the parson," "the squire," &c., the particular applicawere, ly a common unis settled, as aoi which general
ol

Kn

laud,

;

private families and

I

<

it.

i|.

i

liiioii;>

tin-

pail
i

each
hi
i

ot
i

the

individuals
.

thus

honourahl) distinguished ha

hide sphere of
uliii/itu
i

elebritj

" Plurima

thritt."

PAnWM

M

liuiv he employed nouns Substantive, as pronouns substantive, or as pronouns ndI. ui the numeral cm:, when used as a pronoun adjective,
1

ha\e

In |.,ie ol,

,i\.i|

thai the A'ltliuTills

;


CHAP. X.]

;

OF ARTICLES.

167

approaches in signification so nearly to a positive article, that in languages which have no such article, it supplies the vacant place ; and in other languages the positive article is the numeral itself, only varied, and most commonly abbreviated, in pronunciation. In French, the numeral un, " one," is spelt in the same way as the article un, " a," or " an," but in the latter it is pronounced more slightly. In English the word has been not only abbreviated in point of quantity, but changed in articulation, from "one" to "a." The mental operaThe conception tion, however, is nearly the same in both instances. of one is expressed by the article a, not in opposition to that of two, three, or any other conception of number, but as distinguished from
all

In the Scottish dialect, the other individuals of the same class. ane was retained as an article to a late period thus Nicol Burne, in his "Disputation," A. D. 1581, says, " Tertullian provis, that Christ had ane treu body, and treu blude." And on the other hand, in the old English, the numeral pronoun one was sometimes abbreviated to
;

o,

as

we

read in Chaucer
Sithe thus of

two contraries

is

o lore

;

and so

in the

more ancient MS. Poem of the
He

Man in
;

the

Moon

hath his o foot his other to foren

but
(as
in

whereas the article a it was still accented as a separate word was before observed of the other article the) is passed over hastily pronunciation, as a mere prefix to the general term, which it serves

to individualize.

Again, the numeral one (like the relative that) is capable of being used alone, which the article a or an is not. may say, "one seeks fame, another riches, and a third, the wisest of ; the three, content " but if we use the article, we must add its sub" a man should seek content, rather than fame, or riches." stantive, as 309. It is unnecessary to enter into those distinctions of the article, other distlm tlons which do not coincide with the definition above given of this part of speech. Such is the distinction often found in the Greek gramma-

We

'

-

between the prepositive and subjunctive articles. The preposithe sub»/, to, is what I have called the relative article junctive, viz. oe, /), u, is what I have called the subjunctive pronoun. The latter, it is manifest, has no effect whatever in individualizing a general term because it is only employed in a dependent sentence, with reference to a term which must have been individualized in the prior or leading sentence. The learned Hickks, in that valuable work the Thesaurus linguarum Septentrionalium, suggests that the AngloSaxon sum, which answers nearly to the Latin quidam, should be considered as an indefinite article. It appears to me rather to belong to the class of pronouns yet in this and some other instances, the two classes of words approach very nearly together,
rians
tive, viz. 6,
:

;

;

And

thin partitions do their bounds divide.

J

(

168

)

CHAPTER
Connectives.

XI.

OF PREPOSITIONS.

among

which Harris rank proceed to the Prepositions and Conjunctions which together form his class of Connectives. His reasons for adopt ing such a class are these. As in nature a substantive coalesces a once with its attribute, an action with its agent, a passion with it patient, and even a primary attribute with a secondary, so in gram mar, the substantive may coalesce at once with its adjective, as " wise man," a ''fierce lion " the verb transitive may coalesce at ono with its nominative and accusative, as "Alexander vanquish* Darius;" and the adverb with the verb or adjective which it modi fies, as " he fought bravely" " he was completely victorious." Bu when it is necessary to make any other union of conceptions, it cai only be done either by a combination of words; by a change in tli word which requires to be modified; or by a separate word, which Omit as it serves to connect the others, may be called a connective. ting for the present the two first methods, let us observe how connec
310.
the consideration of the Article,
I

From

the Definitives,

i

;

tives may be used. If in addition to the assertion that Alexamle vanquished Darius, I wish to assert that he also vanquished Porus, " Alexander van can effect this purpose by the connective " and," If I wish to state the motive of Alex quished Darius and Torus." The word "and' ander's fighting, I may say "he fought for fame."

U

the word "for," a preposition is commonly called a conjunction and it is true that they are both employed to connect words whicl would Otharwi&C remain unconnected; tut there is this important dil the con junction connects, and does nothinj feieiice between them more the proposition introduces a further conception, namely that o the particular relation in which the connected conceptions stand t( do not merely connect, in tin In the example given, atoll Other, mind ..: the hearer, the conceptions <<i Alexander, or of fighting, will tor they would lie equally connected if lauu the Conception Of lame had been the unexpected ami unthoiight of consct/w.ncn of his fighting
;
1

;

I

;

but

I

ho\\

ihai

lam.I

itood

towards the action

in

the particular rela

MOB

of a

mothi.

theroloic consider that the

word which thus show:
justly

relation

lietwecn

two conceptions may be
ha. be.
.

deemed

gap mite part of speech.
P*tpo*t..ti.

;i||.

Thil |ni

..I

pe.-<

1 1

ii

the Gftik and Latin nionly (though with

Ian

na <>

the

called a I're/josifion, because it words so employed were com
/i/-.//*«..//.f,

some

exceptions-:

placed immediately

;

CIIAP. XI.]
before the substantives to
too, the

OF PREPOSITIONS.

109
In those languages,

which they referred. words in question were Bill iject to few variations in point of These circumstances, though merely accidental, were unforform. tunately selected by some grammarians as essential properties of the and hence originated the wellpart of speech undei consideration known definition, Prcepositio est pars oratioitis iurariabilis, quae p'ceponitur aliis dictionibus. The Greek grammarians, whom Harris followed, ranked both the preposition and conjunction under the common head of ^vvliapoQ, or the connective; and the Stoics, adding this circumstance to the ordinary position of the preposition in a sentence,
;

called this

part of speech

'Lvvheapoq UpoOiriKoc, the "-prepositive

Another accidental peculiarity ef most of the words which were used as prepositions in Greek and Latin, as well as in some modern languages, was that their original and peculiar meaning and from hence some persons had, in process of time, become obscure were led to think that these words had no signification of their own. The learned Harris gives the following definition, " Apreposition is a part of speech devoid itself of signification, but so formed as to unite two words that are significant, and that refuse to coalesce or unite of themselves." Campanella also says of the preposition, Per se non signijicat and Hoogeveen says, " Per se posita et solitaria nihil signijicat." Under the same impression, the Port Royal grammarians say, " On a eu recours, dans toutes les langues, a une autre invention, qui a ete oVinventer de petits mots pour etre mis avant lesnoms, ce qui les a fait appeller prepositions" And M. de Brosses says, " Je n'ai pas trouve qu'il fut
connective."
;

possible d'assigner la cause de leur origine

;

tellement que

fen

crois la

formation purement arbitraire? 312. Now in all this there was much inaccuracy of reasoning, as The position of this sort of words in applied to Universal Grammar. a sentence, had the fact been so in all known languages, must have been owing to accidental causes but the fact is otherwise. Even in Latin the preposition tenus was always placed after the noun which it governed so Plautus uses erga after a pronoun, as in mederga, tor erga me ; and cum is employed in like manner in the common expressions mecum, tecum, rtobiscum, vobiscum. These and other examples of a like kind induced some authors to make a class of postpositive " Dantur etiam," says Caramuei,, " Postpositions, prepositions. quse prapositiones postpositive solent dici " but I shall elsewhere show that there are languages in wdiich all the prepositions, so to speak, are postpositive. Some writers, who for this and similar
; ; ;

Errors

reasons reject the

adnomen, adnoun

preposition, have adopted in its stead that of but as their example has been seldom followed, and as it is my object to change as little as possible received modes of expression, I shall adhere to the ordinary grammatical term, preposition, only reminding the reader that it is not to be taken as expressing an essential property of the part of speech in question. That prepositions are indeclinable may be the case in most languages,
;

word

170
but
is

OF PREPOSITIONS.

[CHAP. XI

That they sig certainly no necessary part of their definition. nothing of themselves, if it were true in any degree, would b< only part of their history, and would throw no light whatever on th< It is not surprising grammatical principles which regulate their use.
nil'y

that Mr.

Tooke should

ridicule these postpositive prepositions,
signification to other

an(

nonsignificant

words but unfortunately he only substitutes worse errors of his own, whei he asserts that prepositions are always names of real objects, and d<

words which communicate

ignition.

not show different operations of the mind. 313. The real character and office of the preposition have beei stated with a nearer approach to accuracy by Bishop Wilkins an< Vossius but neither of them seems to have given a full and satis factory definition of this part of speech. Wilkins says, " Prepoatu >u are such particles whose proper office it is to join integral with integra on the same side of the copula, signifying some respect of cause, place
;

time, or other circumstance, either positively or privatively." Vossiu

vox per quam adjungitur verbo nomen, locum caussam significans, seu positive seu privative." I suited Wilkins's scheme of universal grammar to call the prepositioi a particle ; but however appropriate this maybe to a theoretical viev of language, such as it never did, and probably never will exist, it inconsistent with those philosophical principles on which the actus use of speech among men dejKnids neither is it material on ichicli sia of the copula a preposition may be placed by the idiom of any par ticular language. On the other hand, as Wilkins includes under th term integral both the noun and the verb, he is in this respect mor
says, Prapositio est

tempus,

aut

i

;

accurate than Vossius, for the preposition does not merely join a nou: 1 therefore, with tha to a verb, but sometimes to another noun.
diffidence

which becomes
is

clear the ptth

A preposition
substanticc

all persons who endeavour in any degree of science, shall propose the following definition :— a part of sjwech employed in a complex sentence, an.
t

serving to e.rj>ress the relation in which the conception
>tiii«ls to

that

named by

anotfier

named by a tiou noun substantive, or assei'te
inth a garden," "

i:x»mpU«.

by a verb. ;i I. Thus,

if

I

say,

" he hired a house

Solomo:

Was

the son of David," the words with and of are prepositions, th former expressing the relation of contiguity between the substantive " boOte" and " garden," and llie latter expressing the relation of Jiliu
i

descent
I

tmtt/m

between the substantives "sun" and "David," Again, h<* spoke concerning the law," " he marched from Capua t ," the wor.ls oonotrning, from, and to are prepositions, the fill wing tho relation of tmbjectivity In which the noun "law "stand puke," ami the two others expressing the different teJfl t<> th of l'-a!ili/ in which theiioiin, "Capua" and "Kuiue" .stand | the verb " marched." '.'•]:>. In de\. •loping the above definition, I first observe that lb sentence in whuh a preposition Is employed nxv bei complex one
,

"

<

I

I


HAP.
XI.]


OF PREPOSITIONS.
171

nd this is evident; for, in addition to the assertion of a connection etween a subject and its attribute (which together forms a simple entence, as " John walks," or " John is walking"), the preposition xpresses a conception of relation, which conception, if added to the ttribute and assertion in the verb, forms another simple sentence, f I say, " Jolm walks before Peter," I, in eflect, make two assertions, rst, that John is walking, and, secondly, that the walking is before 'eter. In the language of lawyers, I present two issues for it may e admitted that John walks, and denied that the walking is before 'eter and this latter may chance to become an important question fleeting rights not only of precedence and station in society, but also f property, and not only between individuals or families, but between
;

;

ations. In the secondary question, the relation of locality is exmessed by the preposition before, which is necessary to connect the ssertion "walks" with the name "Peter;" for if it were omitted, nd I should say, " John walks Peter," the sentence would be uninilligible.

In like manner,

if

the conception of relation be added to
as

ine

of

two connected

)avid," the sentence involves

the relation
>avid
of."
;

" Solomon was the son of Solomon stood of a son, and that that relation connected him with
substantives,

two

assertions, viz., that

and the word expressing the connection

is

the preposition

316. It follows, from the nature of connectives, as stated by Verbneukr. Harris, that where a verb is neuter it may be connected immeiately with a following substantive by means of a preposition. Thus le neuter verb " walks" is immediately connected with the following
Ir.

lbstantive
ie

" Peter" by means of the preposition " before;" but
it

if

cannot be immediately connected with a lbstantive by means of a preposition, but must first be followed by s proper accusative, that is to say, by the substantive expressing the
jcipient of the action, ex. gr.
:

verb be transitive

Now
He
(ere the sense

with strong pray'r, and
valour.

now

icith stern

reproach,

stirs their

would have been wholly lost if the accusative " valour" ad been omitted and the same rule applies where the relation is larked by an inflection of the substantive, as in the original of the assage just quoted
:

Nunc prece, nunc

verbis virtutem accendit amaris,

*

here the ablatives prece and
strumentality, in

verbis

amaris show the relation of

which the conceptions expressed by them stand to ie verb accendit ; but those ablatives would have been unmeaning id not the verb been followed by its proper accusative, virtutem. 317. In languages which admit of compounding a verb with a precompound jsition, there may be differences of idiom. The verb, if neuter, verb
-

* Virg. Ma. 10, 368.


172
as forcing his

OF PREPOSITION'S.

[CHAP.
Satan,

',

usually assumes a transitive character, as

when

who

is

descrit

way

into Paradise,

at one slight bound, high overleap' d all bound. *

If the verb be transitive, then (according to the idiom of the languaj

the related substantive may be either inflected in accordance with preposition in the verb or else accompanied with a separate p

1

When inflected, it adopts a case which is said by gra marians to be governed by the preposition in composition, as
position.

Nn
may be
said, as

tibi,

Thymbre .caput Erandrins

abstulit ensis;

f

where the preposition abs (though governing an

ablative

when

aloi

Relation.

forming part of the verb abstulit, to govern the dat tibi ; and where both the preposition and the dative inflection expr the relation of objectivity, in which the person (Thymbrus) stood the act signified by the verb abstulit and its accusative caput, as if phrase had been " abstulit caput abs te." 318. The next point to be considered in the definition of a p position above given is the nature of the relations which it serves
I

lU founilution.

Now, Relation, which is the fourth of the logical predii ments, supposes three things, the subject, or thing related, the 0$ or correlative, and the relation itself, or circumstance existing in subject by means of which it is related to the object, and wh: When we say, " John is before Pete logicians call the foundation. " John" is the subject, " Peter" is the correlative, and "be the foundation, or, as I have been accustomed to speak, the concc tionof a particular relation, expressed prepositionally. 319. It is manifest, that the circumstance, whatever it be, tl
express.
t

forms the foundation of a
tiling) that constitutes

logical

relation,
in

or (which

is

the sai
to the
to

subject and object)

(when expressed a preposition, may

language together with
l>e
it

either

common

ti

terms (as they are called) of the relation, or

mav belong

one

them

exclusively.
l>v
tlie

ENBSod

If I say, "John is with Peter," the relation < preposition with belongs equally to I'eter and to Jofa

ut if I say John is hfore I'eter, the relation expressed by the p In the first ease it position before belongs exclusively to John.
is

lay "John is with Peter," or " IV perfectly Indifferent whether make the subji with John ;" it is perfectly indifferent which
I 1
:

but which the object of the relation should to «ay " Peter is before John,"
anil
I

in

the other ca

ie,

if

I

w\
i<

not only vary the assert

but
1

1

hi

should directly contradict it. would be the same; lor, as a

Still
<'ivat

the foundation of the rf
philolojj
ib.serv*

"

at

th''

bottom of every preposition,

in its original sense,

there

exi:

n relation Iwrtweon two opposite conceptions."! Thus before imp] may illustrate this witli t behind, and over implies under.

We

triviul

comparison

Mill..,,,

ol

Lwo children playing at see-saw.
:

If

John

a

Pj

i

t
;

vTrg, fin. 10,

|i,,|i|i,

Cniiip.

dram.

I,

'/..

:

HAP.

XI.]

OF PREPOSITIONS.

173

FjBter lie equally balanced at the opposite ends of a plank, John is evel with Peter, and Peter is level with John, and the plank is the Measure or standard of the level ; but if John be lighter than Peter, John at once rises above Peter, and Peter sinks below John, and the iame plank measures the elevation of one and the depression of the >ther. What the supposed plank is to the boys, the preposition is o the substantives related and hence we may easily explain not By certain diversities in the idioms of different languages, but some
;

parent

contradictions in the

same idiom.

Thus Mr. Tooke makes

" The he following just observation on the Dutch preposition van latch," says he, " are supposed to use van in two meanings, because Notwitht supplies indifferently the places both of our of and from. tanding which, van has always one and the same single meaning. i\nd its use, both for of and from, is to be explained by its different When it supplies the place of from, van is put in apposiipl tost (ion. tion to the same term to which from is put in apposition. But when t supplies the place of OF, it is not put in apposition to the same The ;erm to which of is put in apposition, but to its correlative. same observation may be made on the prepositions at and to, which n correct modern English express different relations of place, though hey both answer to the Latin ad, the French a, and the German zu. " Verres ad Messanam venit," Verres came to Messina; Mini quoque est ad portum negotium," I also have business at the " II reste a la maison ; " "II est alle a la campagne ; " " He port emaiiis at home;" "He is gone to the country:" " Komm zu In Anglo-Saxon, nir," Come to me ;" " zu Windsor," at Windsor. as " animath that pund vt, at, was also used where we employ from In Old English, we find it vt him,"* take the talent from him. employed where we should use to

In
'

:

:

The
Sir,

vp onane. he said, if thi will were, Tak thi son to me, at lere.f
sext maister rase
•'.

And still in the e., Put thy son to me to learn, " ad discendum." Devonshire dialect, w e hear "he lives to Exmouth" for " at Exr

mouth."
320. Nor is it only the different use of prepositions in the same languages which is thus to be explained, but even apparent fcontradictions. The prepositions for and after are of directly contiarv Drigin and signification, being (as will hereafter be fully shown) the \3ame as the words fore and aft. Nevertheless we say, " to seek for that which is lost," and " to seek after that which is lost." The
jr different
Apparent
1C*

tion.""

thing sought

is

sequently the

seeker

considered as before the mind of the seeker, and conis considered as after, or behind the thing

sought; when, therefore, we use the word before, we specify the relation of which the thing sought is the subject ; but when we use
* Matt.
c.

25, v. 28.

f

Romance of the Seuyn

Sages.

174
the word after,
seeker
:

OF PREPOSITIONS.

[CHAP.

3

we specify a relation of which the subject is t use Mr. Tooke's phraseology, we put before in appo tion with the thing sought, and after in apposition with the seek* From this statement it appears that the subject of the relation specify may or may not be the logical subject of the preposition enunciated
or, to

the sentence.

In the sentences, " John seeks for Peter," and " Jo
se

seeks after Peter," John is the logical subject ; but the former tence involves the expression of a relation of which Peter is
subject, the latter of one the subject of
oi'foreness exists in Peter
;

t

which

is

John.

The

relati

An

act of the

321.

M. Condillac

says,

the relation of afterness exists in John. as we have seen, that the relati

is not a direct sensation; and thence cannot be expressed in our mind, unless by artificial sign.* What he means by " expressed in our mind" I not pretend to understand ; but he is certainly right in saying, that " Eve relation is not a direct sensation, for it is no sensation at all.

between two sensations
infers that a relation

i

cumiiioition.

kind of relation," as Lord Monboddo justly observes, "is a pure id of intellect, which can never be apprehended by sense :" and win Mr. Horne Tooke denies this proposition, he shows strange ignoran of the human mind. Sense, taking that term in its widest accept tion, can only apprehend an external object; it can apprehend t thing which is before another, or the thing before which another but the relation of place, time, order, causation, or the like, which \ express by the word before, is discerned not by a simple operation sense, but by means of an exercise of our comparing and judgii faculties. It is most extraordinary that Tooke, who asserts ui versally that " prepositions are the names of real objects," should s of the preposition for, " I believe it to be no other than the Got] substantive fairina, cause." What real olject is Cause ? How causation to be apprehended by sense? That we have a concept! of cause is certain; but it is equally certain that we come at it means of our mind, and that it is in truth "a pure idea of intellec Which MOM alone never did and never can give. 322. To mppoM 'hat tlie prepositions necessary to any could lie (numerated a priori would certainly lie absurd. TOOKE h ridiculed the grammarian! who have attempted to enumerate them,
i

1

I

It has Keen said, that the Greeks h; matter of fact and history. lighten prepositions, the Latins, forty nine; and the French (| to different authors) thiris two, forty eight, and seventy-mi unly possil.le to ascertain what words /uiiy. hern used as pi
I

uaev
impia. -ticalile to determine

;

but

in

a

hs Ing

language

it

is

how many
new
is

should lm so used;

lor

qui eve

mas
pass
:

i

iihanci- iheir nuiulier, hs
\

coinliinnt ions of thought ai
piece;

pivp-niiioii
in.

not,

like a

of mone) stamped
it

ami
to

svn,. h

cannot change
«.

i

denomination
is

valtlO.

It

is

a

WCtd

which a transient function
* Supra,
55.

assigned,

ai

:

CHAP. XI.]

OF PREPOSITIONS.

175

which, as soon as it has discharged that office, becomes available again for its former purposes, as a noun, verb, or other part of speech. But although it be not possible to enumerate prepositions, yet they

may

be subjected to a general

classification,

according to the great

distinctions of relation in

human

conceptions.

has attempted something of this kind, given an arrangement of thirty-six prepositions,

M. Court De Gebelix and Bishop Wilkins has also
" which," he saws,

equivocalness than is found in instituted languages, suffice to express those various respects, which are to be signified by this kind of particle." It may be doubted whether either of these schemes be sufficiently comprehensive, or perfectly
less

" may, with much

philosophical.
fication,

Prepositions must be classed, if at all, by their signiaccording as the relation which they express is of a corporeal

or mental nature.
stance, that of secondary attribute to primary,

has been already seen that the relation of attribute to sub- CouxneHL and that of action to the agent doing and the object suffering the act, are sufficiently

323.

It

shown by the words expressing
:

the related conceptions, without the need of any connecting link and that all other relations require a separate word or words to connect the subject and object of relation. For the sake of distinction, I shall call relations of the former kind primary, and those of the latter secondary. The secondary, again,
In considering
will notice first the nature of the relations in question,

are either corporeal or mental.
different

them grammatically, I and then the

modes of expressing them.
;

The

corporeal

demand our

first

attention

as in the opening of our faculties the earliest conceptions which we form are those of bodily existence, so the earliest relations which we perceive are those of bodily substance. But bodily substances exist only in place and time; relations of place
for

and time therefore are the earliest of which we become conscious and of these (as far as we can speak with certainty on so obscure a

i

we may not unreasonably believe the relations of place to be perceived by the infant mind ; inasmuch as they originate in mere present Sensation, whereas the very conception of Time necessarily involves also Meinory of the past and Imagination of the future.
subject)
first

324. By the word Place, I mean a portion of that space which to our finite apprehension appears to be infinitely extended in the three several dimensions of Length, Breadth, and Depth ; and in which all

Place.

bodies either move or are at rest. The place of a body may be contemplated by the mind with more or less extent of limits. Thus I may say, that a student is at his desk, or at his rooms, or at his
is going to rooms, or his college, or the university. In short, we may illustrate the conceptions of place as to its limits, by the same diagrams which were applied in paragraph 281 to illustrate those of time; considering the place to
;

college, or at the university
his

that he has just risen from or
to his

desk

;

or

is

coming from or going

which the

relation applies either as the

mere point

B

of the angle

17G

OF PREPOSITIONS,
in

[CHAP. X

ABC
ment

the

first

ABC in the second.
The
and
to;

diagram, or as the whole or any part of the sej Relations of place are either positive
positive either

<

comparative.

imply

rest,

as at; or motion,

i

from and
single

in forming these

conceptions

we

contemplate
issuir

body:

for instance, the sun,

which we may regard as

from

the east, blazing at the meridian, or declining to the west.

Tr

comparative are formed when we contemplate the position or mov' ment of one or more bodies with reference to that of one or moi

Hence prepositions of place have been ingeniously illu by a sort of diagram in which a central human figure is alte nately the subject and object of relation and lines drawn from it different directions indicate the relations of place which it bears various other bodies over and under it, before, behind, and beside i
others.

trated

;

i

1

It is manifest that the relations of place, both positive an &c. &c. comparative, may admit of numerous modifications; as I may be nee a place though not at it; or going toicard though not to it; so or

object,

though not directly over another, may be above it; or thong may be below it. Again, one body may be movir along another, or around it, or about it, or standing or moving m)
not directly under,
it,

or passing through
in or out of
it,

be

side of

it, or between two, or among several it ma a definite space, beyond a certain point, on this or tin Various languages have brought into con or against it.
:

mon

words expressing still more specific rel French chez in " cliez moi" at my house, tl English aboard in " al>oard ship ;" and it is manifestly impossible lay down rules beforehand, either extending or limiting the numbi of words, which may lie so employed. careful obsorvati< 325. Though the relations off place seem, on of the development of our faculties, to be of a more simple nature th; those of Time, yet there is always either a striking analogy, oran e\a .1/ any given Bk coincidence between relations of these two classes. ment of time, a given body must necessarily lie <// some certain point' space: and if it has moved, oi is to move, the motion must be fro
use, as prepositions,

tions of place; as the

I

;i

some

point of

th<-

some other instant of time, as well as /',• other point of space. Indeed, space is our on an of time. Aget, years, days, minutes, seconds are measured iptce, which the earth passes over in its equal and uuivniittii
instant of time U>
H|

le

I

1/

the
in

lagtanl
it,

oitaj uttering a
;

syllable the earth

\*

at
h
;

n

point

orbit
tin'
m

//,/i//v

that instant

the

same

point
first,

was
taken

'.!„•;

after
i

instant of Utterance, the point
will

behind (that is, </./. and thus three instants of time lire found exactly to COincil With three point Of pai e, and are iheivlmv marked b\ the same pr » at," *• before," and " after." lb i less strict analogy, to be war the appointed tini man is said to be Unjnud his ti

nt

have

fallen

:

,

&c.

I

826. The

no

"ur conceptions I

j


OF PREPOSITION'S.

:

CHAP.

XI.

177

;

I

I

j

It may suffice to mention the relation of cause to effect, of means to end, genus to species, and whole to part and to re. mark that the conceptions, to which these relations apply, mav be corporeal, mental, or spiritual. The slightest knowledge of human nature will convince us that mankind do not become aware of any mental relations till long after the relations of place and time have been familiar to them. Yet between the corporeal and mental relations, there will be found to exist the same sort of coincidence or analogy, as has been already observed between the relations of place

numerous.

:

and time.

First, let us consider the relation of cause, as applied to a

|

in the ordinary instance of a billiard ball set in motion, on being struck by a mace. Here the motion begins from a certain point of space, and from a certain instant of time; what more

corporeal eflect,

j

natural than to say that the motion
stroke,

results,

as

an

eflect, from

the

Again, considering the motion as an end produced by some instrument as the means, we perceive that when the motion began, the body close by the ball was the mace it is natural then to infer that the motion was produced by the mace as an instrument. Let us next apply the relation of cause to a mental eflect for
?
:

as a cause

instance, learning.

As

this eflect

began to be produced from the
infer-

time that the learner applied himself to study, the reasonable
ence
is

that the learning resulted from study, as a cause. Or let us consider the relation of cause as applied to a spiritual eflect. " Every

good gift " (says St. James) " and every perfect gift is from above, and cometh down from the Father of lights." * Hence we may say, that as corporeal motion proceeds from a corporeal cause, and as the
mental acquisition of learning proceeds from a mental cause, so all proceeds from a spiritual cause, namely, God and thus have I traced the analogies between the secondary relations,
spiritual excellence

corporeal and mental, in their several gradations. 827. There are three modes of expressing these secondary relations
;

Expression
h)

first

by a combination of words, secondly by a separate word,
;

^"m*

and thirdly by a variation in the form of a word. The separate words used for this purpose are those called prepositions but to understand them fully we must compare their use with the two other modes. I shall begin with an example of the first mode
:

Mark what
In
circle
.Sitting like

radiant state she spreads

round her shining thione,
a goddess bright

In

the center of her light, f

of

Here the corporeal relation of place is set forth by two combinations words, viz., " in circle round," and « in the centre of." Again, in the letter which Hotspur reads—" I could be well contented to be there
in

respect
is

cause

set forth
i.

of the love I bear your house," J the mental relation of by a combination of the words " in respect of."
17.

* St. James,

f Milton, Arcades.

2

J Shaksp.,

Hen. IV. Part

i.

K

178

OF PREPOSITIOXS.

[CHAP. XI

The love which the writer alleges himself to bear to the hous of Percy is the cause of the contentment which he says he migh
in repairing to the proposed meeting of the insurgents. Now such a combination of words constitutes a phrase, or clause, a complex sentence, introduced solely to express some secondar relation of a substantive to a verb, or to another substantive As these phrases serve the purpose of prepositions, they may b termed prepositional phrases ; and their place may for the most par be supplied by prepositions in the same, or a different language Thus, for the phrases " in circle round" and " in the cente of," we may substitute (though less poetically) the preposition 44 around" and " amidst:" and for the phrase " in respect of," w
feel
ii

may
Substantival
j.

substitute in English the preposition

"

for,"

and

in

Latin

tli

preposition propter.

328. Prepositional phrases
is

may be

further distinguished as sub

stantival or adjectival, according as the
in

word expressing

the relatio

the form of a substantive or adjective.

It is true that thes

combinations are merely idiomatical, and will be noticed more part cularly hereafter; yet it may be proper here to illustrate my lm.-uun by a few short examples. i. Under the head of substantival phrases, we may place the above mentioned combinations, in which the relations are expressed by th substantives " circles," " centre," and " respect." So the Gree^ phrase irpoc (iiav ifiov, answers to the English phrase " in spite
(

me," and to the Italian phrase a mio vial grado ; the words ftiu tpktt and grado, being all substantives. ii. Those prepositional phrases may be called adjectival, in whic the relations are expressed by words elsewhere used as adjectives
such as
Milton,
44

contrary to,"

in his

44 li 44 counter to," Sty in contrar," en contre" Essay on the Jleason of Church Government, says, "
1

tht course of judicature to a political censorship seem either tediou or too contentious, much more may it to the discipline of the churd whose definitive deereos are to be speedy, but the execution ol ri ;oi

slow, contrary
th'-

to

what

in legal

proceedings

is

most usual."

We

fin

adjective contrar otod proportionally in the Scottish acts of pH 44 In old Krenc liaiii'-nt, in the phrase in contnir the command."

tfaen
.ml-.

Was

also toe prepositions
tantive,
in

en

contre,
:

which now

exist
ei
tli

contre at present
veil.

nor is the verb signifying an adventure use, though the substantive rencontre, and

and
from

rriiciHintrr,

both lire so; and thou.di in English we retain ritcountt probalil both us substantives and as verbs. It, is P thai Ifi originally took the expression of ruimin

counter to; as in
II.

Locke
l,i
|

think, n
|

himself

in

runiunl
\\ ':.

pt»l/.

i

In nil the rules of virtue.

untcr

to,

perform the

function of a

propj


CHAP. XI.]
sition,


OF PREPOSITIONS.

179

they

may

justly be described as a

prepositional phrase, of the

adjectival class.

rate

329. The next mode of expressing secondary relations is by a sepaSome prepositional phrases occurring frequently in conword.
naturally lead to abbreviations

Expr. P rep<Mlt10

versation
pression,

and
single

ellipses in

their ex-

word which constiThe words so retained tutes the part of speech called a Preposition. They may are those expressing the particular relation contemplated. be divided into two classes, of which the first continue to be used with little or no difference of meaning in the same languages as nouns
and thus ultimately leave but a
substantive, nouns adjective, verbs, participles, or prepositions
;

but, in

the second class, the original nouns or verbs, from which they are derived, have become obsolete, or can only be traced by analogy and
the skilful comparison of kindred dialects.

words of the first class we have few substantives in that are employed alone and without some small Dryden, indeed, uses the substantive inflection, as prepositions. cross in this manner
330.

Among

Substantival,

modern English

:

Betwixt the midst and these, the gods assign'd

Two And

habitable seats to

human

kind

;

cross their limits cut a sloping way.''

*

But with the prefix, a, we have across, aboard, and some others. In German, statt, which is our substantive stead, is used prepositionally statt meiner, " instead of me :" and in a manner not very dissimilar

we

ments to
moted."
volonte,
gre,

use the Latin substantive vice, in the office as " X. Y. to be captain
;

official

notices of appoint-

;" as, " il y est alle de son de son plein^re;" 4< ils ont contracte ensemble de gre a gre ;" " il le fera bon gre, malgre. Savoir gre is " to be satisfied with " a person's conduct, to be obliged to him for it lui savoir un gre infini, " to be infinitely obliged to him." Thus, in a letter written by order of the king of France, in 1814, to the author of certain political works, it is said, " Sa majeste vous sachant un gre infini de la maniere dont vous avez pris, dans des temps difficiles, la defense de ses justes droits," &c, and this same substantive, with the adjective mal prefixed to it, forms the preposition malgre, as in the old French song
r
:

In French the substantive are qu on a de faire quelque chose

by purchase vice T. B. prois explained " bonne, franche

Malgre"

la bataille,

Qu'on donne demain,
Ca, faisons
ripaille,
'.

Charmante Catin

331.

We

use

many

adjectives prepositionally, either without, or

Adjectival.

* Has inter mediamque, duae mortalibus segris Munere concessae Divom et via secta per ambas, Obliquus qua se signorum verteret ordo."
;

Yirg. Georg.

i.

237.

N 2


180
with the prefix
a phrase well

— —
OF PREPOSITIONS.
a, ex. gr.

——
[CHAP. X

round, as in "

all friends

round the Wrekin

known

to Shropshire
merely to

men.

So

officiate light

Round

this opacous earth, this punctual spot.* is

But
song

in

modern usage around

the

more prevalent form, as

in

tl

Ere around the huge oak which o'ershadows yon mill The fond ivy had dared to entwine, f

The adjective near comparative degree
No He
Verbal.
is

is
:

used prepositionally both
come
so near thy heart. J

in

its

positive ar

grief did ever

not one jot nearer the end. §

332. "We have many verbs, which the generality of grammariai admit to be occasionally used as prepositions e. g., " save" an " except" Dr. Johnson (by oversight, I presume) calls the woi Mr. Tooke, in his chapter on Prepositions, moi save an adverb. correctly mentions it thus " Save. The imperative of the verb. This prepositive mann<
: :

of using the imperative of the verb to save afforded Chaucer's Somj nour no bad equivoque against his adversary the Friar
:

God

save you

all,

Save

this cursed Frere."

Here the construction is " Save (set aside or except) this Friar and then I hope that God will save (deliver from evil) all the rest c
you."

So

in the Squire's Tale,

This strange Knight that came thus sodenly All armed, sctue his hedde.

That is, the Knight was entirely armed, but when you say onthvh you must save (or except) his bead, The words "save an- except" are often used synonymously
1

i:

many of our

legal instruments

:

we

shall not
anion;';

therefore be surprise-

to find except reckoned

by Dr. Johnson

propositions

" Except,

preposit. [from the verb.)

a preposition or conjunction, is veil), which, like BOst others, liad
except or excepted.
Of

This word, long taken a originally the participle passive of tfo
for its participle
is all,

two

termination?-

AS except
Jrittonir.

one,

one excepted.

Kx-vpt ma<
all,

according to the

idiom, the

imperative

mood:

ex

cept one; that is, all but one, which you imtst except." " i. K\. lu .ivelv ->! with- nit inclusion of.
;

Ml Imrd except, those, whom we fight against, Had rather hare n« win than him tiny follow.
rihfiktipcim
/
,

Rich.

III.

merely adjectives, with the additional ex
Tiii

• Milton, P. L.
;

| °l>"'

'

"'

l'l»'

'

,i

"

1

"-

Mmkapeare.

§ Locke.


CHAP.
XI.]

OF PREPOSITIONS.

181

cannot be surprised to find them used, as the pure adjectives have been shown to be, in performing the function of a preposition. Such is the case with our participles saving, barring, during, &c. In old Scottish statutes " saving " is written saufande. Thus, in the act of 1455, we find " saufande the poynts quhilks ar neidful for the conservacion of the treaty." So we say in colloquial language " barring accidents." In the Scottish Act of 1456, the participle belangande occurs with the same prepositional " As to the thirde artikill, belangande the sending to construction. In the Act of 1524 we meet with the expression " enFrance." during the time of his office ;" where, in modern English, we should In legal phraseology, the ablative absolute durante vita, use during. is rendered "for and during the term of his natural life ;" where, as the word during and the word for are used with exactly the same force in the sentence, it is plain, that iffor be a preposition, during is one also. It happens that our lexicographers have only acknowledged
pression of action superadded,

we

those participles to be prepositions which are most frequently so

em-

ployed
Dr.

;

such as touching and concerning, which are thus noticed by
:

Johnson

" Touching, prep.

[This word

is

originally a participle of touch.']

With

respect, regard, or relation to."
Touching things which belong to discipline, the church hath aumake canons and decrees, even as we read in the apostles' times it did. Hooker, book iii.
thority to

" Concerning,
ticiple,

prep, [from concern : this word, originally a parhas before a noun the force of a preposition.] Relating to, with

relation to."

There is not anything more subject to errour, than the true judgment concerning the power and forces of an estate. Bacon.

Many other participles, however, might be pointed out in various languages, which are plainly used as prepositions, and some of them so recognised by grammarians. Thus Court de Gebelin ranks
among prepositions the present participles pendant, durant, touchant, moyennant, nonobstant, suivant, and the past participles, attendu, vu, and hormis. So we use pending, during, hanging, living, failing, considering, omitting, regarding, respecting,

At whose

instigacion and stirring, I have
it.

and anciently moiening. me applied, moiening
B. Copland.

the helpe of God, to reduce and translate

one of our earliest English statutes, as we now use pending, and the French pendant ; and cor" The said accompt responding to the ablative absolute pendente lite. to be ij or iij yere hanging," Stat. 1. Rich. III. c. 14. 334. Hitherto I have spoken of those single words used as prepositions, and also as other parts of speech, in which the identity of meaning is more or less obvious. There is no absolute line to be drawn in matters of this kind between that which is discoverable at first sight, or on a short reflection, and that which it requires some
is

The

participle hanging

used,

in

Less obvious,


182
study to make out
;

OF PREPOSITIONS.

[CHAP. X

experience, of different men,

with.

because the different capacities, and the differei must influence the degrees in this seal But we may proceed by almost imperceptible degrees from thj which almost all men think clear and self evident, to that whic almost all will admit to be involved in obscurity, and yet the am logical principle, discreetly used, will give us scarcely less confidenc in the latter than in the earlier stages of this progress, 335. Following this clue, I come to the preposition icith, whic will probably be deemed more obscure in its derivation than any There are no less than throe et the words hitherto examined. mologies, to which it has been thought necessary to resort, in ord< to account for the different uses of this one preposition 1. The Gothic verb withan, to bind, or join together. 2. The Gothic proposition icithra, toward, or against. 3. The Anglo-Saxon verb xcyrthan (or rather the Goth
< 1

:

vcisan), to be.

I

am

inclined to regard the
first

first

and second of these etymologie
i

any two visible objects are nearly connected, must appear to be placed in apposition to eac but if one be viewn other, if both be viewed from a distant point from the other, it will appear to be placed in opposition. Now, tl pre]H)sitiun with, both in Anglo-Saxon and in English, expresses the: dillorcnt relations of apposition and opposition it is therefore probabl that the original radix of the word, (so far as theso two signilu atioi are concerned,) expressed the idea common to both, namely, the id( of connection. To exemplify this observation, let us suppose tli; John and Andrew are seen at the distance of half a mile In Petal they appear to be close together, to be joined with, or bound to eac other; but on approaching them lie finds that there is a constiderabl Interval between them, and the one either stands opposite to the "the or comes toward him, or stands aijainst him resisting, or draws Inn from him. Now all these conceptions of being joined with, Btandifl opposite to, coming toward, resisting, and drawing back from, wit
local situation, they
;

though at the same.

sight so widely different in signification, as original!

When

:

otheri of i like kind, will

lie

found to be expressed

in

different Tei

\\iii.«n.

tome dialects by words obviously related to our proposition m'tl This will appear more at ptmbely examine thonbov< fated etvmoloM],. 880. The idea of connection, or joining together, was expresatl | the Mn*o-Gothio veib, vitli.iit. ot which the past tense, gatcatl
l

,.

I

OCCIirs in thi follow in'

|ii

...i

of the ('mtr.r Aiyrnteiis.

T/iata (lot

gmOOtft,

M
(St.

What
Mark,
x.

<.\.d
«.».)
it

hath

ji >iii,-d

to: /et/ier, lot n<

oi

man piil weed is
i

called

Wndwe«o
to
I

twists round

Hence, as a particnlar kin tin and binds 1
willow
|

plants; so a particular
to
.-,

kmd of tree (the
<
'<<
i

was

called

m

villi

Of

"il/,i/

in

..Id

man, iividrAnunn, or urtte-btMtm
is,

its

tender twigs w«i

d ed bo isfta, (that

to

land together^


CHAP.
XI.]

— — —

;;

OF PREPOSITION'S.

183

many

also called withs, or

The twigs so used for binding were wythes and a with or wytlie was a term given to anything that bound either the body or the mind. Mortimer, in his Husbandry, speaks of the tree
objects in rustic economy.
;
:

Birch

is

of use for ox-yoaks, hoops, screws

;

wythes for faggots.
:

Lord Bacon uses this word to An Irish rebel put up a petition,
and not a halter
;

signify the
that
lie

twig

because

it

might be hanged in a with, had been so used with former rebels.

The two words vcith and
it

halter are

simply Under and holder

;

but use,

appears, had appropriated the former, to a binder
:

made of willow
:

twigs

and the latter, to a holder made of hemp. King Charles employs the same word metaphorically

These cords and wythes will hold men's consciences, when force attends and twists them.

In different Anglo-Saxon glossaries,
withthe, a hoop, or

we

find withig, the

willow

band

;

cynewiththe, the diadem, the king's band, or

" golden round," as Shakspeare calls it. In an Alamannic glossary, " Ubi recensentur res pistrini atque horrei," says Junius, '* with exponitur torta." ** Danis quoque," says the same author, " widde est copula viminea ; potissimum tamen, ut videtur, copula ex salignis viminibus contexta,
contortave."

In Dutch, the willow

is

called wiede, wiide, weyde, wiie.

conveyed the same notion of bindbeing derived from the Anglo-Saxon wilig, which came from the verb wilan, as withig did from the verb withan ; and both withan and wilan signified to bind. Wachter derives the German weide, and Frankish wida, a willow, from the old verb wetten, to bind " Ab usu, quern arbor ofhciosa prabet colonis et hortulanis in jungendis et alligandis rebus ;" and he suggests, that the Latin wtis, a vine, is so
willow itself originally

Our word
;

ing

it

;

named from
to bind, binds

its

binding round other trees.

and

weid, wied, wette, a bond.

The Frankish
wet-boek
;

Weiden also he explains, languuid, is a
is

waggon-rope.
;

Wette also signifies, metaphorically, the law, which

and

this in

Dutch
;

is

wet,

whence

steller,

wetmaaker, wet-geever, a legislator

wethouders,
;

a law-book ; wetmagistrates
;

wetgeleerde,

an outlaw wettig, legitimate, &c. The verb wetten is not only to bind, but to bind in wedlock. " Oritur," says Wachter, " a wette, vinculum, copula, ligamen, unde reliqua, tarn verba, quam substantia, tanquam ex matrice prodierunt." From all these authorities we may safely conclude, that we have ascertained the proper origin of our common preposition with, in the
a lawyer
wetbreker, a lawbreaker
wetloos,

sense of association,

e.

gr.

:

In all thy humours, whether grave or mellow, Thou'rt such a touchy, testy, pleasing fellow ; Hast so much wit and mirth and spleen about thee, There is no living with thee, nor without thee.

Tatter.


184
ii.


[CHAP. XI.
of the other uses of this preposition,

OV PREFOSITIONS.
It is

obvious that

in several

which Dr. Johxson points out, it really expresses no more than the same conception of joining or binding together, modified by the nature " in company," Such are the following of the objects spoken of. " in partnership," " in appendage," "in mutual dealing," for I I am bound to am joined with those with whom I am in company

:

one with

whom lam

in partnership;
;

—a

— —
;

thing

is

joined to that

ol

which it is an appendage two persons, who mutually deal together, and so of similar are bound by the laws of honesty to each other It is remarkable that Johnson himself gives the two following cases. senses of this preposition, in immediate succession.
;

4.

On

the side

of;' for

That cause
5.

sets

up
;

with,

madness of discourse ! and against thyself.

Shakspcare.

In opposition to

in competition, or contest
I

do contest
love,

As hotly and as nobly with thy As ever against thy valour.

Shakspearc.

mun,

mentioned, from irithar says, " n ith Instances of this in composition, signifies opposition or privation." use of the word in modern English are, withdraw, withhold, and with

337. This
i.e.

illustrates the transition before

to withra,

apposition to opposition;

and hence Johnson

stand.

Barbour

uses withsay With


wnag
lyfe,
it

richt or

have would thay;
tine

And if anie would thame withtay, Thay would n do, that thay suld
Kyther land or
Tliis
il

or live in pine.
:

is

in

German

widersagen
urn/
all

as in the old baptismal formula

\\'ii/,rsii(/csta

dem Tcufcl

oBm

MIMfl icerfon?"

renounce the devil and
also used.
It is

his

works?"

And

In this

sense

" Dosl then absa^n
i

observable that the modern German, which docs not use with similar preposition ill the sense of association, has iridcr U lignify Opposition, both in the simple f..n n, ami in a invat. number o Compounds, as Wedrrhaltcn, to resist; widerhyen, to refute; wider
OT

my
.,

to reply

;

wider8chdUt an echo, &c i n Bected Ugnt; iMderiNM, an absurdity with and irithrr are both used ill the sense o In the Anglo-Sai
;

W&Mprechcn,

to contradict, &c.

;

and so

iciderschein

opp
,

reflecting
intlirr oorwn,

with Lid.in,

tu

back from; at withitandum, to resist; with cursed; with •* '.'/'"», xcithersecyian, to contradict in the laws o lead back) with <nji<ni, to repel,
In the old English laws of that day, uit/wnttiniiitm,

Ota

find tdtersaam, apoatatea. Wtthtmmn, in the barbarous Latin
Tin.-, last

wa

w
i

o-

.

I/in.-.

wuid
Iiah
,

i.

in

at

aid to have ghran an aasy victor] tu i-: an ipuch when it was tin
i

ai

I"

CHAP.

XI.

J

OK PREPOSITION'S.

185

on any given subject. accepted the challenge had the choice of a subject, our lawyer proposed, as his question, An averia capta in withernamio replegiari possint ; to which his antagonist, as he did not understand what withernamium meant, was unable to give any reply. In the Icelandic, we find both vid and vidur signifying against. In the Frankish, wid and with are " against," as with thenne Divvel,
scholars to offer public challenges for disputation

As

the party

who

against the Devil."

But

in

most of the other Teutonic
is

dialects,

when

the sense

In the Gothic
alia so baurgs

Jesus."
;

Saei
:"

us, is for us

In the Alamannic, In the old Salic laws, widredo is a repeater of his oath, from eid, an oath. In the Lombard laws, widerboran is a manumitted slave. This last word is also written guiderbora, as in the laws of Luitprand (circ. A.D. 720), " Si quis aldiam alienam aut suam ad uxorem tollere voluerit, faciat earn guiderboram."
is

over against In the Frankish, uuidrunpiotan,
uuidartragan,
is

found in the word. of Ulfilas withra signifies both toward and against, as usiddya withra Jaisu, " all the city went out toward nist withra izwis, faur izwis ist ; "He that is not against and so in the compounds withrawairthan, " opposite," ;" withraidya, " he met ;" withragamotyan, M to meet."
is

contra, or retro, the letter r

to write in reply.

to carry back.

Another remarkable instance of the use of wider in composition, widrigildum, which some writers confound with wergeldum ;

is

in

but

accurately distinguishes these words, observing that the properly signifies the price, ransom, or value of a man ; the former, any composition by which a loss is paid back, or compensated. Weregelt is well known to the old English and Scottish law (see
latter
;

Eccardus

Fleta,
is

and the Iiegiam Majestatem).

Weregeltthef, according to Fleta,

wer, a

" Latro, qui redimi potest." man, and gelt, price.
;

Hence Sojoer

derives wer-geld from

On

the other hand,

preface to the Gothic writers) defines wedrigeldium "

Grotius (in the quod pro talione

" and this word is properly derived by Wendelinus from the Teutonic weder contra, vicissim, and gelt, sestimatio. It is differently
datur
written, widrigilth, widrigildum, guidrigild, wedrigildum,
widrigild.
Widrigilth secundum quod appretiatus fuerit.

wedrigeldum,

Deer. CMldeb. II. (a.d. 711.)

Suum

widrigildum omnind componat.

Deer. Ludov. II. (a.d. 879.)
Si stupri crimine detecta; fuerint

componant

guidrigild,

suum.

Capitul. Arech. Princ. Benevent.

Juxta quod widrigild

illius est.

Capit. Lotharii,

Imp. (a.d. 824.)
Guerdon,

338. Perhaps the most remarkable derivation from the word wither, or wider, now remaining in our language, is guerdon ; and the more so, as the English etymologists in general have entirely mistaken its
origin.

The English word gwrdon

is

a mere adoption of the French


I8fi

,

OF PREPOSITIONS.

[CHAP.

X:

thus speaks "Je croy qu'il vient d werdung qui signifie pretii cesthnatio, et dont les escrivains de la bass Latinittf ont fait aussi werdunia pour dire la mesme chose. D guerdon les Espagnols ont fait galardon, et les Italiens guiderdone. Skinner cites this; but prefers the derivation of guerdon by Myliu
guerdon, of which
:

Menage

from the Dutch

iceerderen, waerderen, a?stimare, censere

weerd, icaerd dignus, et weerde, valor, pretium.

French guerdon, Italin guiderdone, " qua? omnia," says he, " valde alHnia sunt Teutonic ; What is meant by galardon being "valde affine voeerde, weerdiie." any more than I can tell how the Italian to weerde, I cannot guess formed guiderdone out of guei-don and as to the base Latin voerdwm I never happened to meet with that word. The real history of th word guerdon, however, may, I apprehend, be very satisiactoril
wherth
; :

and this fror Junius cites th Spanish galardon, and Wels
;

traced, as follows
i.

:

Widerdonum. This word is correctly explained by Du Cangi " Vox ibrida, a mdar Teutonico, contra, et donum Latino, munus. This mixture of Teutonic participles with Latin substantives or verb* is a fact, which, properly considered, may cast some light on the tm Thus we find our word miscreant to b principles of etymology. compounded of the Teutonic mis (our verb, to miss,) and the hati credere : and the French have many such compounds, e. gr. mirumpfr
meconnoitre, mecontent, mesaventure, mesoft'rir, mesestimer, m'edirc, /aire, &c.

m
I

Widerdonum occurs
dedisti mihi,

in the

Tabidarium Casauriense, (a.

aw).
Quia tu
caballum unuiii
ii.

et indent urn solidos

pro memorntft convenientifi, icidcrdoitum, centum.

Guiderdone, or guidardone.
noticed,
for widergild

This
tci,

is

merely the word widerdonw

witli the Italian articulation

gut for

as in guidrigild and guiderbor

bove

um was
modem

universally changed into o

writing

it is

and widerbora. The Latin terminatio by the elder Italians and softened still more into e ; whence we find in th
;

i

YimlxAario delta (h'usca, guiderdone
tives, guiderdonare,

;\\\A

guidardone, with their derive

guidardonare,guiderdonato, guiderdonatrice,guidat

donatrice, guiderdonamento, guidardonamento, &c.

E come

i

fulli

merit.m puoirionftj OOti

i

Im-iioIh-i

mcritiin guuicrdoM.
(.

Boccaccio,

ire, A.I'.

1350.)

E
in.

per ffuilardone del vincitnre n|>pnnrrliio

(Jliirlniule.

Idem.

(,'uizardonum.

mm.

latiun

This is evidently a mere provincial comiptioi from guidardonum.
r.-. ij.i.-t
.

Item quod nullum mmiui, guitardonwn, vel xeniu nliqun
Statut.
iv.

U

UD. 1220.

Ouiardonum.

Rn
This word

.

tirmnt aliqua pane,

uum, guiardona,
in

vel expense.

is

thus explained

an old glossary:

— " Outonhnvm,

Statu!,

>

onx>
re

;

;

CHAP.

XI.]

OF PREPOSITIONS.

187

vine.

(Vide Glossar. Pro muneratio; Ital. guidardone, nostris guerredon. Lat. ex cod. Reg. Paris, No. 7657.) v. Guiardon, in the Provencal dialect, pnemium. The old French word above alluded to, which is vi. Guerredon.
also found in the verbal form, guerredonner.
Se Dieu sauve le baron, en auront bon guerredon.

lis

Roman

D'Athis.

Voulons, pour

ce,

yceulx guerredonner, et poursuir de faveur especial. Clutrt. Phil. VI. (A.D. 1330.)

vii.

Guerdon.

In the old French translation of the passage above-

cited from the Statutes of Marseilles, the words " Guizardonum vel w lenia, an; rendered " guerdon, ou estrenne." In English, guerdon is used to signify a just recompense either for

good or bad deeds.
He
of
shall
all his

by thy revenging hand at once receive the just guerdon Knolles, Hist. Turk. former villainies.

Fame To

(That

the spur that the clear spirit doth raise, last infirmity of noble mind) scorn delights, and live laborious days
is

But Comes

the fair guerdon when we hope to find, the blind Fury, with th' abhorred sheers, And slits the thin-spun life.

Milton.
Wyrthan.

339. Having examined two derivations of our modern preposition with, I come to the third, which is thus stated by Mr. Horne Tooke.

" With is also sometimes the imperative of wyrthan, to be. Mr. Tyrwhitt, in his glossary, (art. But,) has observed truly, that ' BY and with are often synonymous.' They are always so, when with is the imperative of wyrthan : for BY is the imperative of beon, to be. He has also in his glossary (art. With) said truly, that ' with
meschance,

with misadventure, with sorwe : 5316, 7797, 6916, 4410, 5890, 5922, are to be considered as parenthetical curses.' For the literal meaning of those phrases is (not God yeve, but) BE mischance, be misadventure, be sorrow, to him or them, concerning whom these words are spoken. But Mr. Tyrwhitt is mistaken when he supposes with evil prefe, 5829 ; with horde grace, 7810 with sory grace, 12810;' to have the same meaning; for in those three instances, with is the imperative of withan ; nor is any parenthetical curse or wish contained in either of those instances." There is something ingenious in connecting with and wyrthan ; and it was probably suggested to Mr. Tooke by the analogy which without and with-in bear to the Scottish " but and ben ;" i. e. be-out and The Anglo-Saxons also used with-y eondan, for fe-yond ; and be-in.

'

indeed they employed the separate preposition with so loosely, as to aftbrd room for supposing that it was only equivalent to the general expression of existence, be : for Hickes, in his Grammatica AngloSaxonica, explains with by the Latin words, juxta, cum, contra, adversus, pro, circa, circiter, erga,
a,

ab

;

and one of

his

examples

is

!

!

!

188

OF PREPOSITIONS.
to.

[CHAP.

XI.

remarkable, as using with for by in the sense of near see Adriaticum, juxta mare Adriaticum."
Still it

" With tha

be doubted whether the Anglo-Saxon wyrthan affords since we do not find the r ever introduced before the th into either the Anglo-Saxon or English prein other words, we do not find wyrth used as a preposition position and though icorth is certainly used for in Saxon, or worth in English
the proper solution of this question
; :

may

;

be in the parenthetical curse

wo worth

!

and

in the parenthetical bless-

not quite so clear that with is thus used in the expressions " with meschance, with misaventure, or icith sorwe." In In the vision of Piers Plowman we have the verb worth, to be. Chaucer we have wo worth, and in Piers Plowman, well icorth, and
ing well icorth
!
it is

much wo

worth.

And

said,

Mercy, madam, your

man

shall I worth.

Piers Plowman.

Wo worth the faire gemme vertulesse Wo worth that hearbe also that doth no bote Wo worth the beauty that is routhlesse Wo worth that might that trede ech under fote
!

Chaucer.

Much wo worth And well worth

man that misruleth his inwitte Piers Plowman that pursueth God in
the
!

his goinfl

!

Piers Plowman.

worth, are from the Gothic icairthan

MMatMBIi

and the English but perhaps the Anglo-Saxon and English with, used synonymously with be, are rather from the other Gothic verb substantive, wisan : for the different Teutonic tribes used three verbs substantive, (as they are called,) viz. beon, wisan, and wurthan; of which we retain traces in the different tenses of our verb, namely, be, was, and rcere. to be 840. TheM etymological disquisitions on the word with belong
tourthan, or weorthan,
;
;

The Anglo-Saxon wyrthan,

use them l properly to the History of Language, nnT.lv to illustrate the principles before stated, viz.,
in Ifae lets

,

,

Vri

r

i

T

i

i

i

in
first,

tins

place

that even

Obvious instances, words used as prepositions are significant relations between out conceptions corporeal, mental, or spiritual; and MOOndly, that though signifying the same relations as vrfaeu oaed Is the form of nouns or verbs, their force and effect in the
of certain
•:on

of a lentence ire so
toe

diflferoiit

as justl\
it

to entitle;

them

to

the character of s •eparatsptrt of speech,
purl

will

be seen

in

another

of tin, work, that
ligation
./'•"»',
'ii.

h

inference is to

te drawn from the
:

Biological Invi
out, in,
<>i\
tt>,

of our other ordinan prepositions, by, fur, throwjh, !><•/<»•<•, Miiiul, it/'ter, &c. from the
!n<in

obnol't..
;

and

Core
in short,
..II

and,

emh, anent, ohno, im/en, run, prepositions in all languages, so far
mill,

OH they ran with anv confident

-11.

I

b|

-'I,

thai

tin'

third

mode of
live,

the history of lp 61 b. expn>ssing the secondary or of substantive to verb, is by
I,

in

HAP.

XI.]

OF PREPOSITIONS.

189

is varied from see, and from Co?sar. Here are obviously two kinds of variation, The term /hich may be distinguished as composition and inflection. omposition may be applied to those instances in which a preposition that is, a word capable of being used separately as a connective xpressing relation), or, at least, a particle (or portion of a word), .aving a like signification, is added to a simple noun substantive or erb, as the particle fore is added to the simple verb see ; and these ariations in most known languages are usually made by way of The term inflection may be applied to those instances in <refix.

variation in the form of a word, as foresee

loesaris

ised

vhich a particle, incapable (at least in the same language) of being as a preposition, is added to a simple or complex noun, constiutinp;

a case thereof,

as the particle

is is

added to Casar.
or termination.

These
Pos-

ariations are generally
iblv,
>e

made by way of

suffix,

however, by future etymological researches,

all inflections

may

resolved into compositions.

342. With those compound words which signify primary relation Prep<Hitioni mp°" Those which signify secondary re- Sion have at present no concern. nouns or verbs, are for the most part compounded ations, whether M overseer," as I have said) with prepositions; for instance, the noun tnd the verb " overtake," are compounded with the preposition over, he noun superstitio, and the verb supervenio, with the preposition In some cases, however, they are compounded uper, and the like. vith a particle, the separate use of which, though it may perhaps be liscoverable in some kindred dialect, is either wholly wanting in the anguage in which the compound is used, or at least is wanting in the signification which it bears in the compound. Pre is not used at all is a preposition in French, but enters into many compound verbs, as )revoir, predire, &c. Ver does not seem to be used in modern jierman as a preposition, but is frequent in compounds, as verstehen, lerl&ren, &c. and we have seen that with is not used in the sense of opposition as a modern English preposition, though it is in the verbs cithstand, withhold, &c. These are indeed matters of idiom, but a riistaken view of them might tend to mislead the grammarian, in x>int of principle and the same may be said of an erroneous view of ;he effect of " a preposition in composition," which, when united .vith a verb, is commonly said to " govern " the same case which it loes alone whereas, in truth, this notion of government is equally erroneous in both instances. The rule of the Latin grammar on this xiint, as laid down by Messrs. de Port Royal is, that " the preposition preserves its force even in composition so that the verbs with Arhich it is compounded take the case which belongs to the preposi;ion ;"* but, before I examine this rule, it will be necessary to say something more of cases. 34:5, are told, that " the Indian grammarians take up the Case.
; ; ; ;

We

* P. Royal L. G., b. v.

r.

22.

190
declinable

OF PREPOSITIONS.

[CHAP. XI

primary form, i. e., in the state when it is des titute of all case termination;" and that " this bare form of the wor< is given also in their dictionaries."* In other words, they fix thei first attention on the root, or simple radical sound, and consider al inflections, whether of verb or noun, to be so many off-shoots o This method of investigating Ian branches from the parent stock. guages and forming dictionaries is certainly more philosophical thai anv method pursued by either Greek or Latin grammarians. Applying it to the inflections of nouns, it will at once be seen that, as well Greek and Latin as in the Sanscrit, Zend, Lithuanian, and othe languages of a like construction and origin, there are case termination expressing both the primary and secondary relations. Thus, if wi suppose the root man in Latin to signify " hand," it may be combine* with its and urn, signifying the primary relations of agent and object and the inflections manus and mamim will respectively form th nominative and accusative case singular and again, it maybe com bined with u or ibus, signifying (inter alia) the secondary relation o instrumentality, and will form the ablatives singular and plural. So in Sanscrit, the root sunu, son, gives primary relations in the QOXDJ native and accusative, sunus and swmm and secondary relations ii the instrumental singular sunund, dual sttnubhydm, and plura

word

in its

ii

;

;

combined

tthuAkuA ;S44. But though a
sition

preposition alone, or a preposition in compel with a verb, or the case inflection of a noun, may each sepa rately express a secondary relation, we find sometimes two, am sometimes all three of these modes employed together to signify oik

and the same

relation.

We

may

say, for instance,

in

Latin, witl
;

only a case inflection (vie), damiiari crimine, to be convicted of crime; or, with a case inflection (ate), and a separate pivpositioi (de), damnatus de majestate, convicted of treason; or, with I ofjj
inflection (ibus), and a preposition in composition (ad), aoowerij criminibw, to be accused ox crimes; <>r, with a case inflection (e), separate preposition (ex), and a preposition in composition (cr) url»\ he went out of the city. perhaps be asked It. may
i

in

all

but the Bllt

flf

these examples,

why such

various expression:

To this, different answer: are employed to szpreM I single relation. may 1m- given. In the first place, the OEM inflection does not alwav:
-

II

definite

relation.

The termination

Urns, for instance, in th*

word

iTimiitil'H-,
it

both CMOS,

inav be that of the dative or ablative plural, and, ii may Kignify several relations. The particular ivlatioi

Intended may in t ion of the vi
the v.ili
the part
ii

shown by the signifies made it with niv hands,' manibiu meis, " wlwie the relation intended by the case termination ihus is shown b\

some

instances be sufficiently
i

I

/.,,

to

ulai

be that of instru mentality, But, in other instances nlation intended ma) not be quite clear without th<

Boj)|.,

•„,„,,.

Bam,

i,

112.

f

im.,

1,

i>54.


CHAP.
XI.]

OF PREPOSITIONS.

191

aid of a preposition, as effugit e manibus meis, " he escaped out of hands," where, without the preposition e, it would not be clear that

my

the relation intended
different reason

was

not that of instrumentality.

Secondly, a

dancy of

may sometimes be assigned for the apparent redunprepositions; for they may be employed to add greater
It is manifest, that to repeat

intensity of feeling to the expression.

and dwell upon expressions, often gives energy and weight to disThus course, whatever may be the part of speech reiterated. Shakspeare reiterates the adverb too in those exquisite lines of

Hamlet

:

O

!

that this too too solid flesh
resolve itself into a

would melt,

Thaw, and

dew

!

And
tion

frigid
is

indeed
!

is

harsh

Increase
;

the criticism of Dr. Johnson, that this reduplicaof feeling naturally prompts additional

emphasis of expression and this is true not only of vehement passion, but of the finer shades of emotion. Thus may we understand why a preposition in composition is followed by the same preposition " Quid tibi videtur ? separate. In the Andria of Terence, we find adeon' ad eum ?" So Cicero says " Nihil non consideratum exibat ex ore ;" in both which instances it is impossible not to see that the Nor is this observarepetition of the preposition is a great beauty. tion to be confined to the repetition of the same preposition ; for it applies substantially to all prepositions, and even adverbs, of similar meaning as in Terence " Nonne oportuit prascisse me ante ?" " Multa concurrunt simul." So in Virgil " Metro sublapsa referrir Grammarians of repute, it must be allowed, have censured these redundancies of expression, which may perhaps be regarded as exceptions from a general rule, and ought not to enter into the ordinary construction of a sentence. But the censure, when directed against such passages as I have cited, rather shows an acquaintance with technicalities than a nice feeling of the higher powers of language. Whether a particular language will or will not admit of such combinations is a matter of idiom and accordingly, we often find that they cannot be transferred from one language to another by a strictly literal translation. cannot, for instance, render into English the

:

;

We

lines

Jam

cadit,

quum frigidus olim extremoque inrorat Aquarius anno,*
;

by

translating inrorat ondeics, or overdews

verbs,

because we have no such any more than we can translate anno by the word year with
of a
preposition

any case termination. 345. The omission

defective construction;

arises sometimes from a omiafaa has been often supposed by grammarians to exist where there was no necessity for such an hypothesis.

but

it

* Virgil, Georg.

3,

303.

——
193

;


[chap, it
in th<

of PREPOsmosH.
of the preposition of
:

The omission

is

undoubtedly awkward
have lawefull c. vi. M.S.

following instances

That every person comvng remed of all maner contractes.

to suche feires siiulde

Stat. 1 Hie. III.

But God that

is of maist pouste Reserued to his majestie

For to know in his prescience, Of all kind time the first movence. The kyng Robert wist he was there

Barbour.

And what

kind chiftains with him were.
full enforcedly

Idem.

Then should they

Right in tnids the kirk The Englishmen.

assail

Idem.
:

So, in old French, the preposition de is often awkwardly omitted Wrepoch ab Edenauct, &c. oveke tot le orgoyl de Gales descendi-

rent a la terrenostre seigneurs

le rei.

Let. P.

De

Mounfort, a.d. 1256.

Qui
Faut noter

maison son voisin ardoir De la sienne douter se doit.
la

voit,

la

au

lieu de dire

"

la

maison soii voisin estre diet a maison de son voisin."

la facon

ancienne

;

H.

i'.tticwu-.

So, also,

in

Italian,

the
:

authors

of the Vocabolario delta
il

Crusa

observe, on the

word casa

"Nome, dopo

di cui vien lasciato talvolt;

dagli autori, per propriety di linguaggio, l'articolo, o

segnacaso."
Boccaccio.

E

si

sen* andaron di concordia a casa i prcstatori.

Cominciano a chiedere il Gonfalone che stava in casa Germanica. " Vexillum in domo Gcnnanici situm flagitare occipiunt." Davanzati, Tacit. Aim.

Ou the other hand, though in the construction of the Latin Ian guage, some grammarians contend, that where a noun is commonh said to be governed by another noun, or by a verb, it is proper t< ler that a prejMisit ion has been suppressed; as, "Cicero fuii
eloquentior (prn) fratre;" yet this seems an unnecessary refinemeni in rammar; for the particle or in elo<iucntior, and the termination

g

<

in

Iratn-, sufficiently
is all

show

the relation between eloquence and /niter

which

the cllcct that a preposition could produce.

The same observation may be made on the expression ire riis tlomum, BomOM, //icr<>soli/m<iiii, where Vossius supposes, unnecessarily
an omission of ml or in; hut he adds, "Latinis (am usitata est Iuh ellipsis, in exemplis allatis, ut vulgo naturalis sermo existinietur." Ii may, however. In- doubted whether such constructions as alia>. ?•'•> not to he ranked amotu, frnproP MI, OCetcrtt lutus, and the like, are the aggllgenoea Of OOmpOtitton, (bough sanctioned hy names of higl
lepntc in

Roman

——

literature:

.

Illc earn

rem

ndeft lobrii ot frngauter

ut .diai ret est imperii!

improbus.
J'/nul. I '.piil. iv. 1.

ijrtn ijuiVl

non »imul

e*ie»,

cattra Imtui.

BoreU

//.

I,

10.

:


OF PREPOSITIONS.

;

CHAP. xr.J
Similar observations

193
writers,

may be made on

the Greek
;

who

are
is

often censured for the omission

of prepositions

and the remark

sometimes

just,

though

in general the relation is sufficiently expressed,

and the preposition would therefore be superfluous. The learned Lambkutus Bos says, " Pra>positionum ellipsin tantopere a«mant
scriptores Gra>ci ut interdum duae praepositiones in

omittantur.
(in) hoc (a)

Aristoph. Nub. v. 1083.

*liv tovto nojfljje tfiov:
rjv tig

una orationis parte Si
j'tojGi/e vtt'

me

victus fueris.
it

Plene

:

tovto

ipoi."

would perhaps have been better, had the rhythm allowed it, to express the first of the two prepositions but the relation of Ipov to vucTjtiijs is sufficiently denoted by their respective
In this instance
;

terminations.

sometimes find prepositions accumulated together, either Aecumui* words or as compounds, and, of course, modifying each other. In the earlier, and less cultivated periods of a language, such cumulations of words may be expected to be more common but as grammatical accuracy and elegance of style prevail, the prepositions (considered as distinct words), are confined more strictly to their separate use. We find, even in Milton, the combination at under, as " some trifles composed at under twenty ;" but, in the present day, such a construction would hardly be tolerated by the critics. In more ancient times this sort of construction was still more prevalent and we find numberless such expressions as " of beyond," " for igainst," and the like
as separate
;
:

34G.

We

Artifycers and other straungiers, from the parties of beyonde the see. Stat. 1 Mic. III. c.

ix.

The
est

shiref of the seid countie of Northumbreland, or

and middell marchees for ayenst Scotlond.

wardeyn of the Stat. 1 1 Hen, VII. c.

ix.

the combination has been such as to present to the mind he ready conception of a new relation, it has generally been received n language as a new preposition, as throughout, into, overthwart ; and
io

Where

Custom, too, has sometimes compounds, which appear originally to have lad no signification different from that of the simple preposition vhich formed their basis. Thus we have in English distinguished vit Inn from in, without from out; and more slightly unto from to, mtil from till, &c. So in French we find en and dans, avant and 'evant, vers and devers, pres and aupfes, with more or less of disinction in their modern use and application and, in like manner, the talians, from the Latin ante, have formed innanzi, formerly inanti, nd dianzi ; as, from pressus, they have formed appresso and d'ap*iven a distinct force to
;

perhaps the Latin intra, extra, &c.

resso

L'alma Ciprignia inanti i primi albori Eidendo empia d'amor la terra e'l mare.
Torna amore a
l'aratro, e
il
i

Annibal Caro.

sette colli,

Ou
2.

'era dianzi

seggio tuo maggiore.

F.

M. Molza.


194
Seguir col

OF PRLTOSITIONS.
Io pur doueua

[CHAP.

X]

mio bel sole, io stesso pie, come segu'hor col core
il

;

E
when
used

le

Mai sempre

fredde Alpi, e'l Rhen, ch'aspro rigore, agghiaccia rimir d'appresso.

F. JT.

Moha.

of prepositions, whiel 347. There is one circumstance though really dependent on usage in every language, must not her since it seems, at first sight, contradictory to th be overlooked notion that this part of speech can correctly express the actus
in the use
;

relations

which

it

is

supposed to

signify.

We
is

see,

in

fact,

the

various prepositions are sometimes used indifferently in a sentence

and

at other times a particular preposition

absolutely essential

t

This circumstance depends on the nature of the relatio In general, the external and physic* intended to be expressed. relations of objects must be expressed by their own proper and peci liar words. Thus we cannot substitute in for out, or after for be/on but the case in speaking of visible objects and bodily actions different when we come to speak of the mind ; for, as the analogy c its states and operations to those of the material world are very loos and general, so we may adopt almost any external relation of thiol Thus we may sa as a symbol whereby to explain mental relations. that a person did a certain act in envy, or out of envy, or throug envy, or from envy, or for envy, or with envy ; but we cannot say < the same man, under the same circumstances, that he was in hi house, and out of his house, passing through the town, anil distai from the town, walking with another person, or a mile before hm Still there are limits, fixed by custom, to the use of each preposition but these limits vary much in different languages; and hence translation, correct in substance, often appears literally inaccuratt Thus the French " sous peine," answers to our " on pain," and to th old English " up peine."
the sense.
:
i

No more up

peine of lesing of your hed.

Cluiucer.

a particular preposition may be employed, in this respect, mere matter of idiom, and depends solely on custom:
Quern
jwiieH arbitrium cut, et jus, et

How

i

norma loquendi.

But

it

will generally

be found that the prepositions of most frequer

use are employed with the greatest latitude,

in the earlier stages Of UagOfjge, and so continue, until their equivocal signification give> to inconveoiaootl which are only to be remedied by confining tlrei

H

U) certain forms of construction.

Custom also vaii<s in the course of time; as may be seen in man HOUn pies which have now Income obsolete, as " to learn at" "
10
flf

1

D •''./'"'," ^'

I'Ut
is
\

il

urn.
I

I

not always be supposed that the
is

fori
til

a prapCfitioti

dillerence
r'e-iirh

ma\
;,
t

irifl

aned, on li

.<

-can e tin- application

dilleivnt.

;

lor

th,'

Other Wolds
are

ill

the sentence:

thus

til

u!n-

and

iomm

ft,

oin"

take //vwi," and "-ive

/<;,

CHAP.
but
in

XI.]

OF PREPOSITIONS.

195

sition

both cases a retains its primary force, and the apparent oppodepends on the contrariety between oter and donner. 348. From all that has here been said of prepositions, the neces- Conclusion, sity, and even beauty, of such a part of speech in all cultivated " Though the original use of languages is sufficiently manifest. prepositions," says Harris, " was to denote the relations of place, they
could not be confined to this office only. They, by degrees, extended themselves to subjects incorporeal, and came to denote relations, as " But how," says Court DE Gebelix, well intellectual as local." 'can such words introduce into the pictures of speech so much harmony and clearness, and become so necessary, that without them,

How can language would present but an imperfect delineation ? these words produce such powerful effects, and diffuse throughout The reason, he adds, is discourse so much warmth and delicacy?" simple " There is no object which does not suppose the existence of
:

some other object to which it is bound, with which it is connected, A valley supposes y> which it in some way or other bears relation. Hie existence of a mountain, a mountain that of less elevated lands smoke implies fire, and there is ' no rose without a thorn.' It is of necessity, then, that different objects should be bound together in speech as they are in nature and that we should have words to express the relations which exist among things." After this, it may be unnecessary to remark on Mr. Tooke'a sweeping censure of the philosophers, that " though they have pre:ended to teach others, they have none of them known themselves
:

;

chat the nature of a preposition is."

02

(

196

)

CHAPTER
so called.

XII.

OF CONJUNCTIONS.
Why

Objection to the name.

A simple sentence, as we have seen, may be formed by e noun and a verb alone, as " John walks." The sentence may bi complicated by the introduction of an adverb, which modifies th< verb, as " John walks foremost ;" and it may be rendered still mor< complex, by substituting for the adverb a preposition, which sliowi the relation of the noun or verb to another noun, as " John walk: But in the communication of thought, sentences before Peter." whether simple or complex, must be connected together. When thi connexion is effected by a single word, such word belongs to the pal of speech, which is usually denominated a conjunction. Thus, if say " John walks and Peter rides," the word and is a conjunction o if I say John walks but Peter rides, the word but is a conjunction. 350. Mr. Tooke objected, but most illogically, to this designation "Conjunctions" (said he), "it seems, are to have their denomination and definition from the use to which they are applied, per acct'den What he meant by the essence of a part of speedl essentiam!" apart from its use, it is not easy to conjecture. To conjoin is tli Accidcn.t cssentic essence of a conjunction and not an accident of it. junctum contingenter. Take away the accident, and the essence sti] remains but if we take away from a conjunction its use in conjoining
349.
|

;

;

Besides, this objection ii the essence of the conjunction is gone. He admits that a nou volves Mr. Tooke in a gross inconsistency.
differs

from a verb; but how dues

it

differ, if
love,

not

in

use?

How

doe
tli

the noun fow differ from the
vi-rli

verb
if

or the noun whip from
differs

whip, but in use?

And

a noun

alone,

why

should not a conjunction

dilli'r

from a verb in its us from both, in the sain

manner? Parts of speech arc distinguished essentially by their CM alone; any other distinctions which they may happen to haw, ai accidents, which vary in different languages and at different times an places, without altering their uraiiunatical character. The Knglis conjunction, and, is essentially toe same as the Greek Kit), ami tli iii et, though it differs from I. them in the accidents of sound la there is n<> mre reason for calling the sound of a wind its essence
it
;
1 1

than
Aro apart of
• !*•••.
Ii.

i

that appellation to the colour of the ink with which

Bttd.

1.

than to then meres name.
liold,

Mr. Tooke's objections to conjunctions, however, lay deep " deny them" (said he) "to be a separiri oi part of .p. nil iy lheiiiselv.-s."' Such were tl hut almurd or unuieanine propositions which obtained lor th
I
I


CHAP.
XII. j

OF CONJUNCTIONS.

197

etymologist the reputation not merely of a grammarian, but of an He himself told us, absolute inventor of the science of grammar Why, what greater mystery that " he meant to discard all mystery." can there possibly be, what greater confusion in the mind of a student
!

of grammar, than to be told that there is no order, no classification, among words, that if is derived from give, and therefore if and give are words of the same sort, nay identically the same in all then" turns, that they do not indicate by their use, any different uses &c, of the mind?" The mystery here discarded is stands, postures, The student is stopped on the very threshold the mystery of learning. of his studies, by being assured that there is nothing for him to learn.

the sage who gives the great illuminator of

And

him this precious information, sets up for mankind in this very branch of learning! " I believe I differ from all the accounts which have hitherto been Very true and every patient given of language," said Mr. Tooke.
:

in

Bedlam

differs

from
is

state of mind.

It

other persons who give any account of his somewhat strange, that in support of his title to
all

absolute originality and exclusive knowledge of grammar, this writer should quote the following (among other) expressions of Lord Bacon " Quce in natura fundata sunt, crescunt et augentur ; quce autem in
:

opinione
is

variantur, non augentur." The science of grammar, which " founded m nature," was taught, as has been shown above, by Plato and Aristotle. Since their time it has " grown and been increased" by the labours of grammarians in a great variety of languages
application to languages dead the Sanskrit, Hebrew, Latin,

day and now we see it illustrated by and living, polished and barbarous, to and Gothic, as well as to the English and French, the Soosoo, and the Chinese and we find certain great Why ? Because language leading principles operating on them all. and there are is the expression of human thoughts and feelings certain main channels in which human thoughts and feelings have

down

to the present

;

:

;

When, therefore, at the close throughout all ages necessarily flowed. of the eighteenth century of the Christian era, an individual professed to set aside every trace and vestige of the knowledge which preceded him, his doctrine was not an augmentation, but a variation, and we may be well assured that it was " founded" not in nature, but in the
mere
opinion of its pretended inventor. 352. It was Mr. Tooke's opinion, and nothing more, that a conNow, what is opinion ? junction is not a separate part of speech. Mr. Tooke presumed to ridicule Lord Monboddo's account of it, derived from the Platonic philosophy, simply because Mr. Tooke Plato says that could not or would not understand that philosophy. the subject of opinion is neither to ov nor to f.n) ov, but a medium between both.* Now this, however paradoxical it may appear to any person who will not take the trouble to reflect upon it, will be found extremely clear, with the help of a slight degree of attention.
* Bepub.
1.

Opinion

om
£i!mce'

to

5.

198

OF CONJUNCTIONS.

[CHAP. XII

By to ov Plato meant that which is, in the absolute sense of th( word that which is, always, and certainly, and without any variation By ro pi) ov he meant that which is not at any time, or in am; manner, and cannot be conceived to be. Thus it is always and cer tainly true that in our idea of a circle all the radii are equal ; and it h

not at any time or in any manner true that we can form an idea of i with unequal radii. But there is a third case which is continually occurring to us, namely, that an object is presented to oui
circle

observation which may correspond more or less accurately with a may see, for instance, a coach-wheel, or the dome ol given idea. St. Paul's church, but we can only form an opinion how nearly eithe of these approaches to our idea of a perfect circle ; for the life of mar would not suffice to prove such coincidence beyond the possibility o: a doubt. Now, Plato distinguished this class of objects by th<

We

expression to ytyvofisvov^ which he opposed to ro ov, as in tlu following celebrated passage of the Timceus -Eariv ovv h) war e/ji)i

ho£av Tcp&rov diatperiov raoV

rt

ro

ON

fiev

aet,

yivtatv he
fiEv

ov»
S»]

e\ov Kai ri to riTNO'MENON /iev, ov NOH'2EI, fiera \6yov ntpiXtfTTTOV, 'ail

£e

ovcettote; to

kcito.

raiira

ov.
ical

to

3'ai

AO 5PH,
rendered et quid
:

[1ST

aladifCTtuie aXo'you,

fievovyovrtjg 2e

—" Quid

ovIettote ov
est,

— which passage ClCEHO has thus
sit,

^o^aaTov, ytyvofievov

airoXkvfreely

quod semper

neque ullum habeat ortum:

Quorum alteram nee unquam sit? comprehenditur, quod unum semper atque idem est : alteram quod affert opinionem per sensus ratioms expertes, quod totum opinabile est; id gignitur et interit, nee unquam esse vere potest." And the general sense of both these great writers is, that science is founded on that which is ; opinion on that which seems : science relates to that which is distinctly apprehended, because it is permanent, immutable, and consonant to the necessary laws of human existence; opinion to that which is vague ami indistinct, arising from sensible impressions, and the casual accidents of time and place. What Mr. Tooke called his "general doctrine," was of this latter kind it was an opinion derived from comparing the sound of words,
est,

quod

gignatur,

intelligentid et ratione

:

not only without regarding, but often in duvet, opposition to their am speaking nt conceive that. sense. Should any one for a nu without due respect to the literary reputation of Mr. Tooke, 1 beg remind him that I speak of a passage in which Mr. Tooke himself kttted the profound wisdom of a Pi. A id and a Ciciiko with the most
1

ontempt, and even represented Lord Monboddo as an idiot, Elsewhere he said that the learned quoting their very words. Lord was " incapable of writing a sentence of common English ;" but in mi AM, nothing to his abuse of one of oil cntics, the late Mr.
for
I

W

an accomplished scholar, and as honourable a man as ever existed, M who: in his chapter on conjunctions, a CannibalJ
,•
»

:

1

1

1 . • c

1

and
lMrt»*»«.

"a

:;.>:.

cowardly assassin." Mi. lid hit opinion

g conjunctions on their

:hap. XII.]

OF CONJUNCTIONS.

199
he) " as a conjunction

is not such rivation. n any language, which may not, by a skilful herald, be traced home to This may, or may not, be the case but its own family and origin." 1 is part of the history of language, and has nothing to do with the
;

" There

a tiling" (said

of grammar. Mr. Tooke has accurately " traced home" some but whether in regard to others, he has been mistaken right or wrong in the particular instances, his " general doctrine" can To prove that a word performs one derive no benefit from them. function at one time, does not disprove its performing another funcMany of Mr. Tooke's etymologies in this part tion at another time.
science

conjunctions

:

;

of his work are borrowed from former writers ; but those writers never conceived anything so absurd, as that derivation was the whole of

grammar. 354. Having disposed of these preliminary objections, I come to the Defiuitwe. definitions which have been given by different authors of this part of speech. It has been seen that the early Greek grammarians included what we call prepositions and conjunctions in the class of "Lvvlta^oi Subsequent writers observed, that while the preposi(connectives). tion expressed a relation of word to word, the conjunction expressed a connection of sentence with sentence. Hence Aldus Manutius, a very able grammarian of the fifteenth century, defines a conjunction, u Pars Scaligee, orationis indeclinabilis adnectens ordinansque sententiam." in the sixteenth century, says, " Conjunctio est quae conjungit orationes
plures."

Sanctius, towards the end of that century, more briefly, " Conjunctio orationes inter se conjungit." VossiUS, in the seventeenth century, " Conjunctio est qua? sententiam sentential conjungit :" Harris,
eighteenth, " The conjunction connects not words but sentences ;" and some years after him, CourtdeGebelin, in his figurative manner, says, " Une conjonction est un mot, qui de plusieurs tableaux de la parole fait im tout," meaning by the word tableau not a single object, or word, but such a combination as is properly called a sentence. Agreeing with all these authorities in their common principle, I would suggest, as the definition of a conjunction, a part of speech serving to show the particular mode in which one sentence is connected with another sentence. I designedly omit to notice, as characteristics of the conjunction, its being " indeclinable," as stated by Manutius; or " void of signification," as stated by Harris. Nor do I think it proper to say with Frischlin and others, quoted by Vossius, " that it conjoins verbs and sentences, actually or potentially ." According to the definition of a sentence above given, it is clear that the conjoining of verbs must be the conjoining of sentences. And as to the words " actually or potentially," they seem merely to have relation to those constructions of speech, which are explainable by the figure commonly called Ellipsis. On the other hand the expression " adin the

nectens ordinansque sententias," which was adopted by Manutius from the old grammarians, Comminianus and Palaemon, appears very material, and suggests the propriety of noticing that sentences are

200

of conjunctions,
in

[chap, xi
an uniform manner, bi

connected by conjunctions not simply and
diversely according to their particular
Do not connect

modes of connection.

mere

words.

355. Here again Mr. Tooke objected that there were cases in whic J ° .. ... , commonly called conjunctions, did not connect sentence: " You, and I, and Peter, roc or show any relation between them. Well !" (said he) " S to London, is one sentence made up of three.
,,
.

,

.

the words,

It is, You rode, I rod matters seem to go on very smoothly. Peter rode. But let us now change the instance, and try some other which are full as common, though not altogether so convenient. Tu
far,

triangle ; John an form a triangle, BC form Is John a couple? Are t\v( triangle? &c. Is Jane a couple? four?" This objection of Mr. Tooke's seems to have induced Mi Lindley Murray, after defining a conjunction as " a part of speec chiefly used to connect sentences," to add, " it sometimes connect only words." Now, if it could be shown that the word and, or e> other word generally used as a conjunction, was occasionally use with a different force and effect, that circumstance would not make In the instances cite* lesa a conjunction, when used conjunctionally. however, by Tooke, the word and serves merely to distribute the wh(H and it is ohservahh into its parts, all which bear relation to the verb that though the verb be not twice expressed, yet it is express*) dillc-rently from what it would have been, had there been only single nominative. say, " John is handsome," " Jane & hand some ;" but we say John and Jane are a handsome couple. In thi particular, the use of the conjunction differs from that of the pic position; it varies the assertion, and thus docs in effect combio different sentences j for though Al> does not form a triangle, \>i Al forms one part of a triangle, and HC forms another part, and t'A \\\ So, who: remaining part; and these three parts are the whole.

AND

Jam

and BC and two make four ; are a handsome couple. Does

AB

C A form a

AB

1

:

We

I'l.u/.osirs says, " ESmJ
Inti/iii'i

Libra

was DOt wholly

effected

x drarhinisiV iv. obolis," although lli by the ten drachmas, nor by the ton

oboli

:

yet the purchaser did

employ

ten

drachmas

in

buying, and h
if full

did also employ four oboli

in buyintj.

The meaning,

therefore,

developed, would exhibit two sentences connected by the conjunctioi Since the first publication of the passages immediately pre and. haw lire!) glad to See the view here taken confirmed bv th OSding,
I

authoritn of Dr. Latham,
lbi

in

one of his valuable grammatical works.*
that
that
Is

,

"Although
..i
'

thi statement

Ls

but propositions,

and
U
1

exclusively,
\et

conjunctions connect bq is nearly coeval witl
either believed o asked, 'are we to d<

th>-

studs

acted upon. with
three .-md
tli

grammar* What,'
'ssiona

not

sufficiently
pu'iit ly

have;

been

ti <•<

make

John and Thomas carry a suck to market Surely thi dues not mean that Johl fc& ? and Thomas another that one three makes one sun
as
iX,
t
;

l.

nth. '.iii, First

OntUBNj

y.

-l.

;

CHAP.
of
six,

XII.J

OF CONJUNCTIONS.
six, &c.'

201

and another three makes another sum of

The answer
It
is

to this lies in giving the proper limitation to the predicates.

not

John and Thomas each carry a sack ; but it is true that they It is not true that each three makes six ; but each of them carry.
true that
it is

true that each three makes

(i. e.

contributes to the making).

As

far then as the essential parts of the predicate are concerned, there are

and it is upon the essential parts only that a grammarian rests his definition of a conjunction." It mav perhaps be asked what is here meant by the essential part of a predicate for
; ;

two propositions

what is the essential part of the predicate in the proposition AB, and BC, and CA form a triangle ? I apprehend that the learned author last quoted would consider the essential part of the predicate to lie expressed by the word form; for it is meant to assert first that the line AB essentially forms some part of a figure, say the base and that BC essentially forms another part, say the perpendicular and that CA essentially forms a third part, say the hypothenuse and the
instance,
;
:

result of these three propositions

is, that the three lines form a triangle but this is a result which cannot be obtained, but by expressly or tacitly assuming the three first propositions to be true. So, when I

John and Jane are a handsome couple, I mean to assert that John is handsome and also that Jane is handsome, which two assertions are both implied by the conjunction and. 356. The view which I have here taken of conjunctions leads me
say
to

Sentences
conne<;U!<l

consider

first

different
thirdly,

modes

the nature of connected sentences ; secondly, the of connecting them in point of signification; and

the expression of such connection

by phrases or separate
These
it
:

has been former the verb, in the latter the interjection which stands in the place of a verb, is to be taken as the hinge on which all the rest of the sentence turns. By means of this we form an unity of thought, a distinct perception of some fact, or a feeling of some sentiment, connected with a distinct object. But thoughts and sentiments do not always succeed each other in the mind as detached and perfectly separate things, but more commonly with associations of similarity or contrast, with relations of cause and effect, and with a thousand other modifications and mutual dependencies. Hence these first and elementary unities become parts of larger unities the simple sentence forms only a phrase or paragraph in a more comprehensive sentence; and the longest sentence is more or less closely connected with what precedes or follows it, in a long discourse or poem. Nor are the enunciative capable of being connected with enunciative only, or the passionate with the passionate but we pass naturally from a strong feeling to contemplate its consequence, as in the beautiful anthem, " O that I had wings like a dove Then would I flee away, and be at rest ;" *

words.

And

first

as to the sentences connected.

shown must be

either enunciative or passionate

in the

:

;

!

*

From Psalm

Iv. 6.

202

OF CONJUNCTIONS.

[CHAP. XI

where then, though adverbial in form, acts as a conjunction, b showing the dependence of the second sentence on the first.
I<mirth of
passage-.

357.

How

far these connections

may

go, that

is

to say,

how man
is

conjunctions

may be admitted

into one comprehensive sentence,

matter not to be determined by any grammatical rule, but mui depend on the taste and judgment of the writer ; and great writer;

more particularly great poets and orators, often seem to indulge more than common degree of continuity. Thus Milton

in

Now Morn, her rosy steps in th' eastern clime Advancing, sow'd the earth with orient pearl, When Adam wak'd, so custom'd ; for his sleep Was aery-light, from pure digestion bred, And temp'rate vapours bland, which th' only sound Of leaves and fuming rills, Aurora's fan, Lightly dispers'd, and the shrill matin-song Of birds on ev'ry bough.
Thus,
scias,

too,

Cicero


cum
;

Potestne

hujus vita lux, Catilina, aut hujus cwli spiritus esse jucundtis, at horum esse neminem qui ncsciat, te pridie Kalendas Januarias, Lepido
tibi

Tullo Consulibus,

stetisse in comitio

telo

;

manum

Civitatis interticiendorum causS paravisse

sceleri

consilium et principal ac furori tuo non meat) 111 al
?

quam

aut timorem tuum, sed fortunam Populi Romani obstitisse
it is

And

to be observed that, after each of these instances, the ne:

following sentence begins with a distinct expression of relation to thi which preceded it. Milton, having described Adam's sloop as ligh

goes on to say, " so much the more his wonder was" to find that tl and Cicero,having briefly alluded to tl rest of Eve had been unquiet Indec former atrocities of Catiline, proceeds, " ac jam ilia omitto." there are some writers whose sentences, for whole pages together, ai connected, and it is difficult to detach a short passage so as to show whole force and effect, without referring to the previous and sube quent parts of the discourse. For instances of this continuous styli I may particularly refer to the Sermons on the Creed by the <-ol who, it must ho confessed, carried th biat.d Dr. Isaac Haukow method to an excess; for even in a continued argument the mic
:

i

;

seems
enal.lc

to require
it

some short pauses, and

resting places, as

it

were,

1

4 Nwnii

m 4m

and firmness. roe of reflection must teach any one, that tl 358. A modes of connecting sentences, in point of signification, must be vei various, and consequently that conjunctions may in this view 1
to pursue its steps with regularity
I

under several

dilleron! heads.

It is clear, too, that

thegroutx
cart
froi

of distinction between the classes ought to be adopted with Bad explained with perspicuity so as to prevent the student

E|
the
<

8 Sttid

one conjunction, when a very different one may be require. Accordingly, the beft grammarians have philoii <»ti1.\l. the dill, nut model in Which one sentence ea V) depend OH, or he related to another; and the result'

; :

CHAP.

XII.J

OF CONJUNCTIONS.

203

their labours has

junctions.

been to throw great light on the proper use of conMr. Tooke, unable to estimate, or unwilling to acknow-

ledge the value of these researches, thus endeavoured to depreciate " them. shall get rid of that farrago of useless distinctions into

We

conjunctive, adjunctive,
copulative,
collective,

disjunctive,

subdisjunctive, copulative, negativepositive,

continuative,
effective,

subcontinuative,

suppositive,

causal,

approbative,

discretive, ablative,

presumptive, abneextensive,

gative,

completive,

augmentative,

alternative,

hypothetical,

periodical, motival, conclusive, explicative, transitive, interrogative,

com-

parative, diminutive, preventive, adequate-preventive, adversative, conditional, suspensive, illative, conductive, declarative,

nothing

&c. &c, which explain and (as most other technical terms are abused) serve only As to throw a veil over the ignorance of those who employ them." this mode of treating a scientific subject is extremely flattering to the indolence of mankind in general, the above passage may not improbably have produced an injurious effect, in deterring the grammatical student from investigations which it falsely describes as unprofitable and I therefore think it proper to examine a declamation, which in In the first any other point of view would be totally beneath notice. place, there is a manifest want of good faith in heaping together a qiomber of words, " conjunctive, adjunctive" &c. &c. &c, which are not to be found in any one grammatical writer, and presenting the whole This is a mere trick, and a as a " farrago " common to such writers. trick extremely unworthy of any man with the least pretension to literary reputation. The thirty-nine terms above cited are indeed a " farrago ;" they have no meaning as they stand, they are placed in no order, and they have no relation to each other but whose fault is that ? Undoubtedly Mi Tooke's, for he was the sole author and " Most inventor of the "farrago" which he pretended to ridicule. other technical terms," says he, " serve only to throw a veil over the ignorance of those who employ them." profound remark So,
;

:

;

.

A

!

the geometrician

us of a parallelogram, or of a rhomboid x surgeon must not speak of the metacarpal bone, or of the arterial cube ; nor an engineer of a counterscarp, or a ravelin, because these ire all technical terms ; and technical terms are a mere veil for gnorance Mr. Tooke, however, was not original, in applying this sort of reasoning to grammar. That philosophic statesman, Jack 3adk, thus reproaches his prisoner Lord Say, " It will be proved to :hy face, that thou hast men about thee, that usually talk of a noun uid a verb, and such abominable icords, as no Christian ear can endure o hear." Admitting, however, that some technical terms may be
tell
!

must not

properly employed,
;lassify

Mr. Tooke asserted that the terms applied to conjunctions form only a " farrago of useless distinctions."

^ow, this it would have been better for him to prove than to assert mly assertion was the easier process of the two, and presented the ihorter road to celebrity as a grammatical reformer If Mr. Tooke lad submitted to the labour of attempting this proof, he would have
!

——
204
found that some, at
to
least,

OF CONJUNCTIONS.

[chap.

of the terms which he has specified, se: and that that utility had been in ms points well marked out by Mr. Harris, an author whom Mr. To< affected to hold in so much, but such undeserved, contempt; whatever may have been the errors of Harris, they were nol thousandth part so gross, or so injurious to the science of grain m as those into which Tooke himself had fallen.

mark

useful distinctions

;

Harris's

heme.

for an

359. The following is a comprehensive view of Mr. Harris's sche arrangement of the species of conjunctions, according to tr
:

signification

(1. copulative
1.

Connexive
2. contirtuativc 1;

suppositive

causal
positive

£

collective.

simple
Disjunctive < adversative
absolute, or comparative

adequate, or inadequate.
Connexives.

be observed, is confined to enunciat sentences. The first distinction (though not clearly so stated Harris) is substantially into connexive and disjunctive conjunctio *' Conjunctions" (says he)," while they connect sentences, either conn And so says Scaliger, " Aut sens also their meanings, or not." conjungunt ac verba, aut verba tantum conjungunt, sensum vein
it

360. This scheme,

will

t

jungunt."

Vossius, recognising the same distinction in princi] " Alia'" (s; applies to the first class the designation of copulatives. bej " sunt copulativoe, ut, et, que, ac ; alia- sunt disjuiich'iw, ut, r<7, at, The former of these trnns, he adds, is used in a strict sense,

"N

ononis <|iiideni conjunctio copulat;

Bed has simpliciter

id

preest

citra disjunctionein sententia', aut caussalitateni, vel ratiocinationoi

On the otln r hand be defends the expression of disjunctive conjunctk because by them " conjungunt ur voces materialiter, disjungun
(bnnaliter.

And BOXTHIUS

gives the
en

whore he
in tertio."

says,

I ns most happily chosen
that

" Conjunct ionem do not cite tht
to
less
is

same reason qua conjungit
1

in different

wor

inter se, di

ions of vossius

and Boeth
<

illustrate the distinction in

distinction
I

no
i

obvious

than

question; Kvery fundamental.

nasi pen
passages
:

*ight, the

marked
.,

difference

between these

t

1.

Co«ar was ambition
Cflotsor

2.

was

mul Home was enslaved. < i; was enslaved.

In each pi.ir, there me two propositions joined together b Word, whicn U'i.ill a onjuiiction, and which does not, enter into
<
i

Construction of either proposition.

In
i«»ii
;

the
it

first

passage, the join
ic

word

(-/////)

i.i

a

<

,

.ii

juii.t

merely adds th
In

p
tl

position to

tiie

other, in the lloW of discourse, without Intimating
in

the facts asserted

them P

latfl at

all

to

each other.

the

;

CIIAI'. XII.]

OF CONJUNCTIONS.
:

205

joins the

the joining word (or) rs a disjunctive conjunction whilst it one proposition to the other, as successive parts of the same argument, it disjoins the facts asserted in them, as standing on different though indefinite grounds of belief; for the meaning is, I do not
,

assert positively that Caesar
;

was ambitious, nor do I assert that Rome was enslaved but I assert that if Caesar was not ambitious, then Dme was enslaved, and vice versa. Gellius uses the word cunnexiva for that sort of conjunction, which Vossius calls copulatim ; and the former term seems better suited than the latter to the scheme adopted by Harris, who divides " the conjunctions, which conjoin both sentences and their meanings," (i. e. those which I call connexives,) into The copulative conjunction " does no copulatives and continuatives.
therefore applicable to all subjects

barely couple sentences; and is whose natures are not incompatible. Continuatives, on the contrary, by a more intimate connection, consolidate sentences into one continuous whole and are therefore applicable To explain by only to subjects which have an essential coincidence. 'Tis no way improper to say Lysippus icas a statuary, examples, and Priscian was a grammarian Tlie sun shineth, and the slty is clear. But 'twould be absurd to say Lysippus was a statuary because though not to say the sun shineth Priscian was a grammarian because the sky is clear. The reason is, that, with respect to the

more," according to him,

"than

;

first,
'tis

the coincidence

is

merely accidental
in

;

with respect to the

last,

essential

and founded

nature."

The Greek name
;

for the copula-

tive (in this sense)

was ^.vvltapoQ

avpTrXticTiKvc

for the continuative

fyvva-KTiKOQ, or TtapavvvairTiKoQ.

301. The continuatives are subdivided by Harris into stippositive Contbu* The suj (positives are such as if; the positives, such as and positive. because, tlierefore, as, &c. The former denote (necessary) connection, but do not assert existence the latter imply both the one and the other. The Creek term owcnrri/coe and the Latin continuativa was applied to the suppositive conjunctions, which extend not only to possible but even to impossible suppositions, as, li if the sky fall, we .shall catch larks the positives were called Kapaavva-miKoi or subymfinuativcv, and assumed the actual existence of the primary fact
; ;

where the connection is strictly and logically necessary, mere matter of analogy, the former case being expressed by because, &c, the latter by as, &c. Of the suppositives, liAZA says, {/7rap£iv fikv ov, UKoXovOiav Si nva, cat ra^ir hr}\ovffiv: Priscian says they signify to us " qualis est ordinatio et natura
an
I

this either

pr where

it is

rerum,

cum dubitatione aliqua essentia rerum." And Scaliger says, they conjoin " sine subsistentia necessarid ; potest enim subsistere, et non subsistere; utrumque enim admittunt" The positives are either
:ausal or collective.

The
;

causals are such as because, since,
e. gr. the

&c, which

sun is in eclipse, because the moon mtervenes. The collectives are such as subjoin effects to causes; ''i. gr. the moon intervenes, therefore the sun is in eclipse. The causals

subjoin causes to effects

206
were
called in

OF CONJUNCTIONS.

[CHAP.

Greek 'AtrtoXoyicot, and

in

Latin causales or causativo
cc

the collectives were called in Greek SvXkoyurriKot, and in Latin
lectivce
Disjunctives,

or

illativce.

362. The

disjunctive-

conjunctions are in like
first

manner

divisible in

various classes.

Their

distinction

is

into simple

A

simple disjunctive conjunction, disjoins
it is

and adversatk and opposes indefinitely
1

either

day,

or

it is

night.

An

adversative disjoins with a positi

KulxliijunctlTO.

one alternative and denying tl Again, the adversative other; as it is not day, but it is night. according to Harris, admit of two distinctions, first as they are eith absolute or comparative, and secondly as they are either adequate or % adequate. The absolute adversative is where there is a simple opp sition of the same attribute in different subjects, or of differei attributes in the same subject, or of different attributes in diftere: subjects; as 1. Achilles teas brave, but Thersites teas not ; 2. Gorgi was a sophist, but not a philosoplier ; 3. Plato was a philosoplier, bi Hippias was a sophist. The comparative adversative marks the equali or excess of the same attribute in different subjects, as Nireus w more beautiful than Achilles Virgil was as great a poet as Cicero wt an orator. These relate to substances and their qualities, but tl other sort of adversatives relate to events, and their causes or cons quences. Mr. Harris applies to these latter the terms adequate ar inadequate ; he however confesses that this is a distinction referring on to common opinion, and the form of language consonant thereto ; in strict metaphysical truth no cause that is not adequate is any caui Thus we may say, Troy will be taken unless the Palladium at all. preserved; where the word unless implies as matter of opinion, tb the preservation of the Palladium will be an adequate preventive of tl capture of Troy. On the other hand, when we say, Troy mil taken although Hector defend it, we intimate an opinion that Hectoi defending it, though employed to prevent the capture, will be t inadequate preventive. :{»'>.'!. I'imsc] introduces a distinction which lie calls suhlisjunctivi Acconlii and in which he is followed by S<\\i.ti;i and VossiUS. to these authorities, the Latin *m', answering nearly to the (.irei disjoins in ii.T ovv, is I subdisjunctivo conjunction, inasmuch as the meaning of auv mtaDOt, but merely different names given to Thus "Alexander sire Paris Conception invoK <d in a lentence. signifies the Bams person who is sometimes called Alexander, an Dome times Paris. •' A glol>e or sphere" means the same figure, whir
definite opposition, asserting the

and

fi

i

w

i:

it,

some call a globe, and some i phere. •• John Brown alius Thorn Webl)" means the same individual who has gone at, dilleivnt linn
by these different
hen- to be
iiuineM.

Put
i,

if
it

the

words

sivc,

or,

and

alias

ai

from

th.it

junctively

would

I..

deemed conjunction must be by a very different ellipa When we say di: employed in the case of u disjunctive. "ever) number is even or odd," the ellipsis if tilled u uiMiilar number ft either an c\eii number,

<.

:hap. xii.J
•lse it is

of conjunctions,

207

But when we say " Alexander or Paris an odd number." led from the field of battle," the ellipsis if filled up would be a >erson fled from the field of battle, who was called Alexander, or else Unfortunately we employ our English word or le was called Paris. n both characters, disjunctive and subdisjunctive, which sometimes It were to be Kicasions no small obscurity, especially in narratives. vished that we had two different words lor these two different pur>oses but since that is not the case, it becomes the more necessary o distinguish the different functions of the same word by appropriate
;

lesignations.

364.
:lassify

It

must be observed that many old grammarians not only names
to the different species than those here
it is

other
*cheme8 -

conjunctions differently from the scheme above adopted, and

five

other

employed

;

when they use the same terms, brce and effect. Thus Apollonius
nit

sometimes with a

different

divided causal conjunctions into

proper causals, adhe was followed by Manutius. It vould be endless, however, to note all these diversities of arrangenent and as Mr. Harris's scheme is one of the simplest, I have :hosen to follow it, with some small correction. 365. Having thus seen how sentences may be connected together n point of signification, I come now to consider how they may be :onnected in expression. Now it is manifest, that one sentence may, ind generally speaking, in a long discourse, the majority of sentences nust, serve to lead the mind from what precedes to what follows. It vould, however, be endless to attempt to point out all the means by vhich this is effected ; nor would such an explanation, if practicable, properly fall within the scope of grammar. The remark nevertheless s important ; for a sentence is in this respect only the development )f an operation of the mind more briefly effected by a word or a ihrase. In treating of prepositions, I first considered prepositional )hrases, and then showed how those phrases were gradually comive species, viz., continuatives, subcontinuatives,

unctives,

and

effectives,

and

in this

;

Conjun©.
ph^Les.

class to which the name of preIn like manner, I here think it advisable o examine first the Conjunctional phrases, and then the separate words :alled Conjunctions. It seems probable that in the early attempts to 'orm a connected discourse, the junction of sentences, which is now >erformed by a single word, could not easily be effected by unpracised speakers, except by the more circuitous mode of whole senences, or phrases. In process of time these were contracted by neans of ellipses, that is, by dropping out those portions of the senence or phrase which were easily supplied by the intelligence of the
position is usually assigned.
learer,

pressed into

words constituting that

and retaining only the word which most distinctly marked in he one sentence the sort of dependence on or relation which it bore o the other. Hence it is, that even at this day there are certain

onjunctional forms, concerning which it is not always easy to determine whether they should be regarded as words or phrases. Thus

——
208
R. Stephaxus
of coxjun-ctioxs.
says of quamobrem, that
it

[chap.
is

:

" unica dictio, quit

etiam tros:" and Vossius says " quamobrem, quasobres, profit e> quare, et similia, non videntur hujus esse classis (sc. conjunctionu quia non tarn vox unica sunt, eaque composita, quam plures." A again, " Vix caussa apparet ciur quamobrem magis sit vox unica, qu

dam

earn ob

rem

:

vel quare

quam

ea re

;

ut
:

illo

Tulliano,

Ea

re aa

statim Aristocritum misi."* Quas ob
res,

So Lucretius

ubi viderimus nil posse creari

De
In our

nihilo.f

language several of the conjunctions now considered ; such are because, therefore, ir/u fore; and such too are the following in Old English, Scottish, i French, Howe be it— for als moche at least waye not forcing whet contrariwise insafer as—pur ceo que cest asavoir and over thai how often, so often no the less neuertMas not for tk coment que nought gaynstandand—forfered that set in cais put the cais—forse that, &c. &c.
single words,

own

were formerly phrases

Hoxce be

it,

the kynge held styll his siege.

Berners' Froissart

Bot for als moche as sum micht think or seyne Quhat nedis me apoun so lytill evyn

To

writt

all this

;

I

ansuere thus ageyne.
it is

The King's Quair

This geare lacketh wethering

;

at least tcaye

not for

me

to plough.

Bishop Latimer

These words goe generally the reuersion by dyscent.

to all the king's tenants

not forcing whether he h

Sir

W. Stamford,

A..D.

1590
acci

Contrariwise, certain Laodiceans and

lukewnnn persons think tiny may

modnte points of

religion

by middle ways.
saidis actis ar repugnant

Bacon. SUttj/t
c.xti

And

decernis the saidis actis and euery ane of tlinme to be abolisbil and

for euer, insafer as

ony of the

sioun and word of

God

rbbttddia.

and contrarie Scot. Act. Pari.

t.i

the con
1

a.i>.

.'•(!?

Hoiaume se doutenl qe lei aide*. &c. puss avoms graunte pur nun-, el pur nos hcires tamer Stat. 25 Edtc. I. o. 1, a.i>. L9tf nies tides aides &c. ne treroms a custume.
ceo qe nucunes gent/, dl Dra en temge a eus e a leurs heirs
•s les chart res

E pur

(aicnt
liartre

ali.\'.

en tout/ leur ]>olnti en pics devaunl cus e enjugementl chart re des franchisee come ley commune,
I

i

de

la forest

solom

l'ttssisc

de

la forest.

Tli.it the same fynq be ojwuh and .-nlcmply rad and proolaymed in the sa court And in the same tyim- that il is mi redd and proclaymed all pl« and over that n transcript of tin' mune fyne be sent by tin' seid justice! unto Stat. 1 Hie.' 1 1 r. c. 7, MS, .ISOZ.

II

dc

common

,|

(icincr pur

Le

rent adcn-ie,

e,,,.

.lone

I

fait Mill
il

Lit!:

ttractine
In-,

adamant, to often did an vnspeakee
Sir
I'.

borrour strike

noble
v. liat

in-art.

Sidney's Aroadta,

ansuere thei bani.
i

tin-

sothe

ou
ii

I

not say
II.

||| (ft

l.-L-

tin

.

v

Kiwc
Iter.

l>e

llntnne.

• BpUt. ad Km,.

I

|

I).-

Nat.

!,

155.

;hap. XII.]

OF CONJUNCTIONS.

209

Youe knowe, Lordes Syracusans, that we haue hytherto done in thys warre, as nen of honestie neuerthelas, leste there be anny that vnderstandeth not fullye the iffayre, I wolle well declare yt vnto hym. Nicolls's Thucydides, fo. 191.
:

Was mad another statute, that non erle no baroun No other lorde stoute ne fraunkeleyn of toun
Tille holy kirke salle

gyue tenement rent no lond.

Not for thi he wille that alie religioun Haf and hold in skille that gyuen is at resonn. £. De Brunne.
Item
egis or

ordanyt that all craftis &c. be distroyit nought gaynstandand ony priuifredome geifyn in the contrare. Scot. Act. Pari. A.D. 1424.
it is

He slogh him sone that ilk day Forfered that he sold oght say.
With
stout curage agane

The Seuyn
I

Sages.

him wend

will

Thocht he in proues pas the grete Achill, set in cats sic armour he weris as he, Wrocht be the handis of God Vulcanus sle.

Or

Gawin Douglas.

And put the cais that I may not optene From Latyne land thaim to expell all clene, Tit at leist thare may fall stop or delay. Idem.
It

may

be ordered that

ii

or

iii

oldiers waited to the coast of

,auen there.

of our owne shippes do see the sayde Frenche France ; forseing that our sayd shippes entre no Q. Elizabeth to Sir W. Cecil.

It is plain, that

these phrases operate, with relation to the sen-

show a relation, exactly in the same nanner as the words do, which we call conjunctions. phrase is irst abbreviated into its principal words, and these are again conences between which they

A

Thus the French c'est asavoir above was probably first translated into English, " it is to know," r " it is to wit," whence we now have in our legal documents the bbreviated phrase, " to wit ;" as from the Latin videre licet comes idelicet, which we have adopted into the English language. These bbreviations and contractions are very arbitrary in their use and he longer sometimes supersedes the shorter. Our ancestors in the fteenth century used to say where, for that conjunction which we ow express by whereas, i. e. where that.
racted into one short word.
|uoted
;

Wher
it

in a statute made was ordeigned, &c. &c.

in the xvij yere of the reign of

King Edward the
c. 6,

iiijth

Please

it

therefore youre highnesse &c. to ordeign.

Stat. 1 Sic. III.

MS.
conjunction*

366. I have before observed on the erroneous notion entertained by jme grammarians, that men at any period of history set to work
to invent
little

Merely as prepositions

mctions.
le

It is

words " {oVinventer des petits mots), to be employed and the same remark is applicable to contrue, that of some few conjunctions we cannot trace
:

with perfect certainty ; but even these are manifestly conless closely with significant words in different lanuages or dialects and the far greater number are distinctly seen to ave been used as nouns or verbs, somewhat differing perhaps in >rm, but showing a clear analogy in signification. This will be
origin

ected

more or

:

2.

P

i

210

OF CONJUNCTIONS.

[CHAP.
tl
tl

rendered sufficiently clear, by tracing the etymology of two or of the principal conjunctions ; the others being reserved for appropriate place in a future part of this treatise.
And.

367. " The principal copulative," says Harris, m is and," wr answers to the Greek ml and the Latin et, and is found subst Vossius considers the Latin et tially in all cultivated languages. be derived per apocopen from the Greek hi, prceterea, insuperj more properly speaking, to be the very word in, only pronoun more briefly by the Latins. It is remarkable that in the rr ancient remains that we have of the Latin language, the fragment* the laws of the Twelve Tables, et rarely if ever occurs, but its pi is supplied by the enclitic que, which is probably of the same ori The force and effect of all these words, as sim as the Greek ical. coupling together sentences, will be fully understood from what been already said of the copulative conjunctions. Mr. Tooke deri our common word and from anan-ad, which he says in Anglo-Sa: This etymology is altogether obscure, signifies dare congeriem. has even been doubted whether Anan, which he expounds dare, give or grant, had any such meaning and as to the syllable ad\ \vh he translates congeriem, it signified a funeral pile. However, w his usual confidence in his own judgment, he elsewhere says, " I fa
;

already given the derivation which I believe will alone stand exai Skinner, more modestly, but with at least as much phu nescio an a Lat. addere, q. d. add, interject! bility, says, "And word of this very ami epenthesin n, ut in render, a reddendo."
nation."

A

use can only be guessed at with much doubt, and may possibly find terms of so itself one of the original roots of language. In the Frankish ami ,\ analogy to it in the early Gothic dialects.

We
;

niaunic

it is

written indi, inti,enti, unte, unde
in

in the

modern

Gem

und;
it is

in Icelandic end,

Lower Saxon
n
is

un.

Adelung,
et,

consider

(like Skinner) that the letter

often inserted in one dialect, wl

omitted

in another, is

of opinion that the Latin

and Greek

with the Teutonic enti, unte, &c. It is possi too, that our word and may have a connection with the Mseso-Got a, ut, which is used as a prejxwition answering to the Greek tV, t or with the wmd andar, which in the same langm tV<, k-nru un HUM " Other.* Upon the Whole, Skinner's suggestion is probe]
identical in origin
;

re

for the meaning of and is clearly an remote Prom the truth separate entefiCei we may always substitute the nt| rat fix the conjunction and, with little if an\ difference in the force Tims, "John rode, add IVter walk* Intelligibility of the MBMPOt. add Junes sailed," will not only convey the same notions, but V

not

\'-rv
in

;

.

i

><

MM

ir.

had been un tin-in nearly in the same ih.uuj.i-, If H mtlv written, " John rode, end Peter walked, and James sails 868. 1 come bow to the contimatk* conjunction!, that is to sr

Md

M

which

not on!

them

together.

md their meaning bj coups pendence of one on the other; and ih


:hap. XII.]
irst

OF CONJUNCTIONS.

211

if is called by Mr. Harris a suppositive conjuncsome other grammarians term it a conditional, ; but however it nay be designated, the general force and effect of such a conjunction s obvious in most languages. It serves to mark the certain de>endence of one event on another, without asserting the absolute

as suppositives

ion

:

existence
ither

of either.

We

therefore intimate, that

if

the one

be,

the

must

necessarily result

from

it

;

that when
;

we

are sure of the

me, then

we may

reckon upon the other also

or that the former

jeing given as a datum, the latter follows

by the power of reasoning, ience the Greek t], and the Latin si merely expressed being ; for tl s part of the verb ito or tlut, and si is part of siet or sit. The power )f the conjunction el is thus elegantly illustrated by Plutarch, ac»rding to the free translation of the old English folio " In logike, his conjunction EI (that is to say if, which is so apt to continue a peech and proposition) hath a great force, as being that which giveth brme unto that proposition, which is most agreeable to discourse of eason and argumentation. And who can deny it ? considering that he very brute beasts themselves have in some sort a certeine knowedge and true intelligence of the subsistence of things but nature 'iath given to man alone the notice of consequence, and the judgement or to know how to discerne that which followeth upon every thing. r or that it is day, and that it is light, the very woolves, dogs, and ;ocks perceive but that if it be day, of necessitie it must make the aire ight, there is no creature, save onely man that knoweth." The Greek ir Latin construction, therefore, is " be it that there is day, there must
: ;

;

Again, the German conjunction answering to our if is signifies when. Hence the expression, " Wenn man lich fragt, so antworte," which signifies " i/any one asks you, answer hus," may be rendered with little difference of meaning, " when any >ne asks you, answer thus." The etymology of our English conjuncion if has of late been matter of dispute. Skinner first traced a jonnection between it and the Anglo-Saxon verb gifan, to give. Gif he Anglo-Saxon conjunction, he says, was used in his time in Lin>e light."

cenn,

which also

colnshire for

Tooke, it seems, was struck with this suggestion of if. dinner's; insomuch that (as has been well observed) "this word vas probably the foundation of his whole system."* Believing that f was the imperative of give, " he naturally enough concluded that
-ther particles

might be accounted

for

by the same

process.

Accord-

ingly he expended a profusion of labour and perverse ingenuitv in dejecting imperatives where none ever existed, or possibly could."f

Jamieson conceives that neither the Gothic jabai (as he writes it), Alamannic ibu, ob, oba, nor the Icelandic if or ef can be :>rmed from the verbs denoting to give, in those languages.! Else_ Vhere it has been remarked, " that the great variety of ancient forms
)r.

or the

lakes

it difficult

to determine the precise etymon.
X Scottish Diet.,

Some
f
Ibid.

are not

* Quart. Rev., No. 108, p. 316.
art. Gif.

p2

212
unlike the Sanscrit iva

OF CON JUNCTIONS.

[CHAP. XII

(sicut)

others have the form of nouns.

Th(

old

German

ibu, ipu,

may be
:

resolved into the ablative or instrn

mental of ipa, iba, (dubium) and the Icelandic ef, (if,) appears to b connected with the substantive efi, a doubt, and efa, to doubt, in tha With all due deference to the learned authors of thesi language."* arguments, it appears to me that they are not quite conclusive. I surely does not follow that because a suppositive conjunction in orn language is not connected with a verb of a particular signification it that language, a similar conjunction cannot possibly be connected witl a verb of like signification in another language. It does not follow that because il is not connected with lilufii in Greek, nor si witl dare in Latin, there can be no connection in Ma?so-Gothic betweei the conjunction jabai or yabai, and the verbs and nouns gibai, giba, at giban, gaft, atgaft ; nor in Anglo-Saxon, between the conjunction gi or gyf, and the imperative gif or gyf, the infinitive gifan or gyfan, th
geqf, or the substantives gifa or gyfa, gift o nor again in English between the conjunction if (writtoi or pronounced in old or provincial English and Scotch, yf yiff, yiffe yef yive, geve, gef gyff, giff, gif, gin), and the verbs, nouns, am
preterite

gqf or

gyft, &c.

;

yevours, yevers, given, geven, yeven, yeoven.

participles geve, yeve, gyff, gaff, giftys, yave, yevyth, yeftys,yeft, ytftii It is to be remarked tha

whatever

may be

the origin of the various Teutonic words signifying

to give, they have manifestly undergone
tion both in the consonants
in the

many changes

and vowels

;

and the same

Scandinavian dialects.

Of

the

German

of pronuncia is observabl verb geben, the tw

fink persons present are ich gebe, du gibst, the past indicative is id gab, the conjunctive ich gdbe, and the Imperative gib; and the nou;

In the Prankish and Alainannic, we find as nouns o In the Icelandic verba gaba, geba, keba, fab, ghehin, ghibu, gibu. Swedish, and Danish, gqfwa, gifwa, gifva, gofwa, gaf, gave, give. I is also to be remarked that this variety has been increased by th different force and effect given to the (Jothic letter (J and the Angle MO 3, of which tin- Bret was taken from one form of the Romai
(gift) is gale.
I

the lower empire, and the other from another form of the Ban]

letters have o expressed 8 and /. Hence the Anglo-Saxon fftbott fbom) answers to the modern German yelx>ren, and old Knglisl ///«</•/( tlie Anglo Saxon tla«g to the modern English day, the Frisia jern to th.- An. do Saxon i/enrn and Kurdish yearn, and the Angle Saxon gear |0 tin- English year, and the old Scottish word written (i not pronounced) teir. A third remark is also material, namely, tha not onlv th'- iuij>eraUve of tin- Verb to <;mv, which has been ilsoi
l'-tt.-r.
I

The different powera of theae
by
g,
j,

dill'-rent dialects

y,

;

With a Oonjnnottooal

lorce,
in

hut also the past
I

participle given

of th

view these remarks, proceed to the following exampl''-. ot the connection between the nouns, verbs, and participial led to, With the different forms of the conjunction in question*
verli.

MWe

Keeping

• (JllWt. Ki-V.

lit.

Klip.


CHAP.
i.


OF CONJUNCTIONS.

XII.]

213

Moeso-Gothic.

—Here

the conjunction which Dr. Jamieson reads

jabai (if) being spelt with Q, would more agreeably to our pronunciation be read yabai, and is connected with gibai, giba, gaft, &c.,
just as

our provincial word yate
afletith

is

with the ordinary word gate.
If you pardon men their misdeeds. Matt. vi. 14.
bill

Yahai
Gibai

mannam

missadedins

ize.

izai afstassis boros.

Atbair tho giba theina.

Wato mis ana
not.

—Let him give her a — Present thy fotuns meinans —Water
gift.

of divorce.

Matt.

v. 31.

Matt. v. 24.
to

ni gaft.

me

for

my

feet thou gavest Luke, vii. 44.

Atgaf siponyam seinaim.

—He gave

to his disciples.

Mark,
Matt.

viii. 6.

Hlaif unsaruna thena sinteinan gif uns himmadaga. this day.

—Our constant bread give u«
vi.

11.

Anglo-Saxon. Here the z answer to our g and y
ii.
:

is

equally used for words which
will seek that.

Zif ze that secan willeth.
Se cyning his zife sealde.

—If (prov. gif) ye

Alfred's Bede,

1.

1. c. 1.

—The king presented He forgeaf thone anweald his apostolon. — He gave the power to his
his gifts.

Ibid.

1.

2, c. 3.

apostles.
3, c. 7.

iii.

Old English and Scotch

:


to sende.

Ibid.

1.

Hartely myght thei warry me, That of ther gud had ben so fre,

To
Sir

gyffe

me and

Sir Amadas.

Amis answerd tho

Sir, therof yive

Do

al that

Y nought a thou may.

slo

Amis and Amiloun.

Not Avarice

the foule caytyfe
is

Was

halfe to grype so ententyfe,
to yeue

As Largesse

&

spende.

Chaucer.

And with hys hevy mase
And
to all

of stele
dele.

There he gaff the kyng hys

Richard Coer de Lion.

truely in the blustring of her looke, shee yaue gladnes & comforte sodainly my wittes. Chaucer, Test. Loo.
seid

The remedy by the
hasty remedy.

estatutes is not verray perfite nor yevyth certeyn ne

Stat. 11 Hen. VII.

c.

22,

MS.

He 9 afgyftys
Gold

largelyche

&

syluer

&

clodes ryche.

Launfal Miles.
lede.

For gret yeftys that she gan bede, To londe the schypmen gonne her

Octouian Imperator.

Every
Sandys.

astate,

feoffement,

yeft,

relesse,

graunte,

lesis

and confirmacions
c. 1.

ot

Stat. 1 Rich. III.

MS.

Provided that this acte
bad or

made by

extend not to any graunte or grauntes, yeft or yiftis, the kinges letres patentes to the same Anthony.
Stat. 11 Hen. YII. c. 31.

MS.

Ayenst the

sellers, feffours,

yevours or grauntours, and his or their heires. Stat. 1 Rich. III. c. 1. MS.

;

;

214
That no
yever.
artificer
is

OF CONJUNCTIONS.

[CHAP. X]

this estatute

ne laborer herafter named take no more ne gretter wagis then lvmvtted, upon the payne assessed as well unto the taker as to t Stat. 11 Hen. VII. c. 22. MS.
slet

Which lawe bv negligence ys disused, and therbv srrete boldnes ys goven to Stat'. 8 Hen. VII. c. 2. MS. and murdrers. "
Teoven under our signet.
If the seid lessee or lesses within the seid justices of the peas.
viii daies

Q. Elizabeth, Let. to Sir

W.

Cecil.

warnyng

theym yeven by any Stat. 11 Hen. VII. c. 9, MS.
to

Or

yit

gewe Virgil stude well before.

Gattin Douglas.

Eorthliche knyght, or eorthliche kyng Nis so swete in no thyng Kyng Alisaunder. Oef he is God, he is mylde.

He askyd

at all the route,

Gyff ony durste com and prove A cours for hys lemannes love.

Richard Coer dc Lion.

For giff he be of so grete excellence, That he of every wight hath cure & charge, Quhat have I gilt to him, or doon offense ? A". James I.

The King's Quair.
then,

The domes and law pronouncis sche The feis of thare laubouris equalye
Gart distribute.

to

thaym

Be
Ich

Gif dout fallis thareby cut or cavill that plede sone partid was.

Gawin Douglas.

hider to day, For to sauen hem, yiue Y may.
says,

am comen

Amis and Amiloun.

Tef thou me louest ase mon Lemmon as y wene Ant yef hit thi wille be

Thou

loke that hit be sene.

MS.
Wurthe we never
for

Harl. No. 2253,

fol.

80.

men

telde,

Sith he hath don us thys despyte, Richard Coer de Lion. Tiffe he agayn passe quyte.

He thought
M..
.:

The The lawe of

yif ich com hir to, than i> 1i.uk- ydo, abbetse wil souchy gile.

Lay Le

Freine.
i

the land ys that yf eny taken, the township)' w!rr the detli or

man

be slaync in the day, and the felon murder is done shal be amerced. Stat. 3 Hen. VII. c. 2, MS.

living

worth cou'd win

my

heart,

You wou'd na
It can hardly
]»•
<

sjxiak in vain.

Scott Song.

l<.ul.t--<

I

lmi

tliat

gif, y««». y«f> !/if«, yff, yi/\ .'//'i ii' -noiw, the same in origin

those words geve, gef, gyff, g\ which in the last eleven examples a

y*. $#«•
i:i'-t<l\-

with the preceding ram gm we "' boom giftys, yftys, y./K yjfh orf* ya«». ynyHi, "" seem, -,111] plainer that the conjunction ///*'/< it jj.mui., 7.1.7 .in.
;
1

t

1

;

I

I -hti.ivni implication
is

..I

the partieiple
this

govm, yemvit, or
in

i/rre

uh'li
if,

tin-

uuxlera ^iwn.

Hut

change

the

u.se

of the

won

gif, g'in,

&c

causes

them

to express a

new "

posture, stand, tur


chap, xn.]
or thought of

;

OF COXJUXCTIOXS.

215

Mr. Locke speaks), and thus to perform a become a different " part of .speech," Mr. Tooke, therefore, is right so far as lie namely, a conjunction. follows SKIJOrEB, who first showed the connection between if and give but he is wrong, when, trusting to his own theory, he says, " our corrupted if has always the signification of the English impeIn short he is right where he is not rative give, and no other." Nor is his " addioriginal, and original only where he is not right. " As an additional proof," says tional proof" of much relevancy. he, " we may observe, that whenever the datum upon which any
(as
different function in language, or
:

mind "

conclusion depends,

is

a sentence, the article that

if

not expressed
in

is

always understood, and
Hath

may

be inserted after if: as

the instance

My
lotted her to be

largesse

your brother's mistresse,
;

Gif shee can be

reclani'd

gif not, his prey.

Sad Shepherd,

act 2, sc. 1.

The poet might have
But
the article that
is

said,

Gif that she can be reclam'd, &c.

not understood, and cannot be inserted after if not a sentence but some noun governed by the verb if or give. Exam. 'How will the weather dispose of you tomorrow ?' ' If fair, it will send me abroad, &c.' " So far Tooke. Now the whole of this observation turns on the peculiar idiom of the English language, which admits one form of ellipsis and not another

where the datum

is

for all these constructions are elliptical

;

and the word

that,

which

is

a conjunction as well as if, has not the least pretension in such sentences to be called an article. I shall have occasion hereafter to notice some other uses of this conjunction, when I speak of the phrases 0! si 01 gin, an if as if, &c. 369. Of the disjunctive conjunctions, I will here only instance Though, a word of the class which Harris calls inadequate adversatives that is to say, conjunctions uniting two sentences, one of which states an event or circumstance, and the other states another event or circumstance as inadequate to prevent the former ex. gr. " Troy uritt be taken although Hector defend it," where the conjunction although serves to show that Hector defends Troy with a view to prevent its being taken but that this preventive is inadequate to produce the intended effect. may, however, observe that the same conjunction is used, and by a just analogy to mark an apparent incongruity of qualities, where the possession of the one does not, in fact, preclude the existence of the other, as, " though brave, yet pious ;" though

Though. AltUou * lu

;

:

;

We

yet polite." But a more forcible illustration of the true nature of our adversative conjunction, though, cannot be given than in the daring speech of Macbeth
learned,

Though Birnam wood be come

to Dunsinane,

And

thou oppos'd being of no
I

woman

born,

Yet will

try the

last.

216

OF CONJUNCTIONS.

[CHAP. XII.

If we examine the real force of the word though in these and similar passages (and although is merely an intensive form of the same conjunction), we shall find that it does not imply an absolute inadequacy to produce a given effect, but such an inadequacy as may be thought It might have been thought, for instance, that Troy could to exist. It might have been thought, not fall, if it was defended by Hector.

that a particular individual distinguished for bravery was therefore unlikely to be very pious ; or that one absorbed in the pursuit of

learning

would pay

little

attention to

the

minutiae

of politeness.

might have been tJiought, that when events apparently miraculous, and on whose impossibility a man of strong feelings like Macbeth had staked his rank, his honour, and his life, did really come to pass, he would have been utterly prostrated with terror, and unaHe to strike a blow in his own defence. Judging from the ordinary course of human affairs, such thoughts would not have been unreasonable. The conjunction though, therefore, merely indicated an and being unexpected difference between truth and probability directly connected with the probable, it required another conjunction, such as yet, or nevertheless, to denote the true. Mr. Tooke says, " Tho' or though is the imperative thaf or thafig, from the verb thatian, This is one of the few instances in which he or thafigan to allow." ventured on an original etymology it appears indeed at first sight The proper plausible, but I fear it will scarcely bear examination. meaning of the verb thafigan, thafian, or gethafian is to permit, as by a superior to an inferior. In a charter of William the Conqueror we find, " Ic nelle gethafian thoet a>nig man this abrecan ;" which in the

Above

all it

:

:

ancient Latin version
istud frangat
:"

is

thus rendered,

"Ego
in

and the same clause occurs

nolo consentire utaliquis two other charters, one

of Henry
is

I.,

the other of
i.

Henry

II., in

the latter of which the verb

spelt gethauian,

e.,

gethavian.

If this had been (ho origin of our

conjunction,

thaf; but there

should find an Anglo-Saxon conjunction thafig, or no such conjunction in that language; the correspondent Anglo-Saxon conjunction is ttwah, a word plainly connected witli the Anglo-Saxon substantive theaht, as our conjunction though Neither do we find i, with our rorrrs|>onding substantive thought. tin-/, or v, of thafian or thavian, in tho analogous conjunctions of any Scandinavian. c.l tli.- other Gorman dialects, Teutonic or DNO, under the Gorman word doch, says, " In bow Saxon this particle is
is

we

Am

i

dnli, in
.

sounded doch and dog, by Ulphilas, than, by Xtfriod thoh, by Willorarn Anglo Saxon thmh, in hutch <li>ch, in English though, in Danish in Swedish dock." In old English and Scottish wo find it written very varioii.dy, thah, Ihiiuijl,, tlinij,-, thof, t/iix-ht, ami thought: i,
<

inl Ih'ih tli.m

I

u.i
ii.

tiiihanl

In"

Imii lhalt

Hum

fay

,„,

Battk '/ loom.


CHAP.
XII.]

:

OF CONJUNCTIONS.
Ant

217

for ir feimesse, thau ho be comen of threlle, Hire wedlac ne seal ho nout lesen all. Vita Sanctce Margareta.

Though me slowe feole of heom, They slowe mo of the kyngis men.
Thoffe

Kyng Alisamder.
Sir Amadas.

Y owe

syche too.

Thof men wolde
Bot thocht
Forgif

alle the londc seche.

MS.
I failyeit

Earl. 1333, fol. 125.

me

for

my

of rhyming, will was gude.
Scottish Horn, of Alexander.

Thocht be na reson persaue I mycht but fale Quhat than the force of armis coud auale. Gawin Douglas.

Thocht he remission Haif for prodission,

Schame

:ynl

suspission

Ay
The king

with him dwells.
possession

Dunbar.
veste
in the

—woll — that suche — and be—holy other persone — wise thought he had never be
in like

as

enfeoffed.
c.

Stat. 1 Bic. III.
It is to

5,

MS.

spell

be observed that Gawin Douglas and other Scottish writers thocht, the past tense of the verb, to think, exactly as they do this
:

conjunction

So that

To de
But

we thocht maist semelye, in ane fechtand ennarmed vnder schield.
sound thair
retreit,

field,

Gawin Douglas.

said they sould

Because they thocht them nae ways meit Conducters unto me.

Alex. Montgomery.

Anglo-Saxon athoht, or gethoht, the Dutch gedocht, and the German gedacht, all answer to our substantive thought; and upon the whole it may be reasonably concluded that our present conjunction though is not derived from the Anglo-Saxon verb thafigan, or thafian ; but comes to us, through various modifications, from the Anglo-Saxon conjunction theah, connected with the AngloSaxon substantive theaht, which we have in like manner modified
to this that the

Add

into thought.

word

In confirmation of this etymology, it may be observed, that the suppose is often used in the Scotch dialect for though

Yone

slae,

suppose thou think
satisfie to

it

sour,

May
Thy

slokkin

drouth now.

Alex. Montgomery.

Stories to rede ar delectabil Suppois that they be nocht but fabil.

Barbour.

370. The instances here given of and, if, and though, may suffice ordinate., to show how the part of speech called a conjunction, has arisen, in the development of the powers of language, out of more circuitous modes of expression, by whole sentences or phrases. In another part of this work, the same principle will be illustrated by tracing histo-

:

;

;


[chap. XII

218
ricallv

OF COXJUXCTIOXS.

There is a class o the growth of our other conjunctions. words, however, which demands notice here, and which Mr. Harris says " may be properly called adverbial conjunctions, because the} of conjuncparticipate the nature both of adverbs and conjunctions tions as they join sentences ; of adverbs as they denote the attributes Such are when, where, whence, whither, whenever. of time and place." Upon the principle which I have adopted, these are wherever, &c. but the nam< to be called conjunctions when they conjoin sentences adverbial is not at all distinctive, because many other conjunctions have occasionally an adverbial use ; and many prepositions wher The scheme o: used conjunctionally serve to mark time or place. arrangement which Harris has followed, is principally directed to the logical connection of sentences; but the connections of time and plaa Th< are merely physical, and should therefore form a class apart.

;

term ordinative, which Vossius applies to deinde, postea, &c, may 1101 improperly designate the whole of this class. Thus, among ordinatives of time we should reckon whiles, till, o that
or, be

His Lord nold he neuer forsake Whiles he ware oliue.
Full ofte drinkes shce,
Till

Amis and Amiloun.

ye

may

see

The

teares

run down her cheeke.

Gammer
Al the day and
Sathanas
the nyht that sprong the day lyht.
al

Gurton's Needle

Geste of

Kyng Horn.
to Hell.

bvnde the, her shalt thou lay, Christ's Descent that come Domesday.
dedly foo schal abeyen it or he goo.
it is

Y

He He
Put

my

Richard Coer de Lion.

Your madynis than
in glide

sail

haue your geir
cU'eir

ordour and

Ilk

morning or yow

ryse.

Philotits.

The supper done than vp ye ryse, To gang ane quhyle as is the gvse

Be ye haue
It is

row-mit

run- iilh-v

thrysc
/'/./.

ane inyle almaist.
in tin-

So, where

is

an ordinative of place
liv.-u

following passage:
rails
I

Ho

HiM|

"

'"

"

Hi-

1. Ii.int

.

in..

.1

;,'IV;.;;itr.

S/i.i/.Sj.r.nr.

The
;i.l|.
|

ordinals,
.-.ii'li
1

wlii<h

I

haw

ttfM,
1 1

:iW//-7, ,,,,„„/,
u.lvi il..

the class of pronominal \.., n.r, -.sank imply mniii-rtimi, am
in

Included

HBieqii'

1

\

ill.-

I..HH..1 Irniii tin-in, arc easily

employed
a1
..I'

will:
thj lh,

• conjunctional
|

force, as primb, eecundo, tertib,
'

when pkctd
Iii,
I,

.ymnili:.
,i\,,l,,

Ol

Ok
i.

I.'

I

.

'I'll.'

..i

I

In
i,t
.,

..I.

.IV.

.1

.

BMdai

-laiiv

.

tM

lli.--..-

ant.T,.,!,

as delude,

Item,
v.vl»c

puiu, next, syne, lastly, 6tc.

" Delude," says Vossius, " aim


CHAP.
XII.]


219

OF CONJUNCTIONS.

jungitur,

conjunctio autem,

ad circumstantiam tempons indicandum, adverbium est: cum tantiim ad orationis juncturam pertinet."
;

Accepit conditionem

dein
;

quantum

occipit.

Terentius.
Cicero.

Pergratum mihi

feceris

spero item Scseroke, &c.

lis font estat d'aller a

Orleans, a Blois, puis a Tours.

Diet, de I'Academie.

First ae caper, syne anither.

Burns.

some conjunctions are used Thus we may singly, and others in a succession of two or more. " both John and William came," say, " John and William came," or " It is ordained or both John and William, and also James came. that proclamation be made, and that the judgment be recorded, and furthermore that the record be transmitted." Where two or more succeed each other with a mutual relation, there is sometimes that:" so" "so a fixed order in the succession; ex.gr. "as
371.
It remains to be observed, that

£^

p ""

Vossros thus speaks " Conjunction etiam accidit ordo secundum quern aliae sunt prapositivw, aliae communes, ut et, nam ; aliae postpositive, ut quoque, autem
&c.
this subject
;
;

" when

—then"

On

ut equidem, itaque.

Igitur saepius postpomtur.

ticula prsspositiva, Terent. Phor. act. v. sc. viii.

Enim etiam est parEnim nequeo solus.
his,

Ad

postpositivas etiam pertinent encliticae.

Ex

alteri

verbo jungitur
lib.
ii.

quam
:

nativus verborum ordo exigebat

que interdum ut apud :

Horat.

od. 19

Ore pedes

tetigitque crura.

These however are matters depending on the particular idiom of each language, and not governed by the philosophy of general grammar. 372. The case is different with the pleonasms and cumulations of conjunctions. These occur in all languages, and they therefore clearly

Pro cruraque

tetigit.^

Cnmuiatiom.

arise

out of principles

common

to the

human mind

in

countries.

Hence Vossius speaks of

expletive conjunctions

— " Extantum

different

pletive sunt, quae nulla necessitate sententiae, sed explendi
gratia

metri vel ornatus caussa inseruntur. Sallust. in Catil. Verum enimverb is demum mihi vivere, etfrui animd Virgil, in xii: videtur; ubi veriim redundat."
usurpantur.

Ut

quae

Equidem merui.nec

deprecor, inquit.

equidem tollas." referred such expressions as " an if:"
fuerit sententia, licet

Plena

To

this

head are to be

The

clerk will ne'er

Well I know wear hair on's face that had

it.

He

will an' if he live to be a
;

man

:

where either an or if is redundant for they both signify the same, and Johnson is wrong in supposing that an' in this instance is a conVossius refers these redundancies to the custom of traction of and.
ancient writers, "
rent voces

Nempe

is

veterum

mos

fuit,

idem

significantes."

But they

are not peculiar to

ut interdum conjungeany age


220
or nation
:

OF CONJUNCTIONS.

[CEAP. XJI «

they are the result of hasty and inconsiderate habits of speech, which, it is true, are more common in the first formation of a language, than in more cultivated and civilized periods of history. Cumulation, however, is not always redundancy . When we find a " but nevertheless if" the conjunction but sentence beginning thus connects it with what goes before, and if with some subsequent sentence, and the word nevertheless alone may be called redundant, and

adds a great force and emphasis to the In the Greek language, this cumulation of conjunctions is frequent; and it is sometimes explained by an ellipsis. The Hoogeveen " Hoc modo aXAa vvvyt redditur nunc maxime, suppressa per says
yet not
strictly so, since it

word

but.

ellipsin vocula e'inoTe.

Ita Sophocl. in Electr. v.

413

:

*0

Diipatrii, aJest c nunc maxime, vel nunc saltern!

Plenior structura est

vvvyt avyyiveadel !" nunc adeste saltern

"ft,

Qeol

7rarp<j3ot, tiiroTt

ovyyivtoOi
alias

[tot,

dXXa

Dii

patrii, si

unquam

mihi adfuistis, at

And so much for the conjunction, which receives its grammatical character neither from the form nor position of the word, but from its office in connecting sentences with each other, enunciative or passionate, according to their different

modes of relation.

(

221

)

CHAPTER

XIII.

OF ADVERBS.
373. Different grammarians have arranged the Adverb in different Order of Apollonius, followed by Priscian, treats of them"8 parts of their systems.
after the preposition and before the conjunction and interjection. Scaliger also places it after the preposition. Manutius places it between the verb and the participle Harris after the participle and
it
;

before the article.
it

Most of

the ancient grammarians, however, rank

as next preceding the preposition, conjunction,
:

tins order

may

and interjection. In they are followed by Vossius and I am not sure that it not be the best arrangement but in our own language, and per;

haps in others, there are many words used as adverbs, the explanation of which may appear more obvious and intelligible, when they are employed as prepositions or conjunctions. In this view, therefore, it may not be amiss that the consideration of the adverb should be postponed to that of the other two classes; but as there is no absolute dependence of any one of these classes on either of the two others, the order of their arrangement is comparatively unimportant. 374. Mr. Tooke advanced a far more serious objection against the Tooke> obj*ctlon prevalent doctrines concerning this part of speech, when he asserted, " that neither Harris, nor any other grammarian, seemed to have any clear notion of the nature and character of the adverb." After this he proceeded to give his own notions, not of the adverb in general, but of a number of adverbs in particular, from which, and from what he had before said of the conjunctions and prepositions, he left his readers to collect that knowledge which, in his opinion, no grammarian beside himself had ever acquired. As this does not appear to be a very fair way of treating the grammatical student, I shall endeavour to pursue a more satisfactory method, even at the hazard of adopting, from the ancient grammarians, some of those notions which appeared to Mr. Tooke so obscure,
375. The adverb was originally so called, because it was added to its force and meaning ; hence the Greek writers denned it thus YLiripprifia tori fxipog Xoyov ukXitov, Itti to piifia ttjv avatpopap i\ov. " The adverb is an indeclinable part of speech, having relation to the verb." The question of its being indeclinable or not, is unimportant in the present investigation, since this circumstance depends on the idiom of a particular language ; but the relation which the adverb bears to the verb depends on the Science of Universal Grammar: and this relation is stated by most of the ancient grammarians as the peculiar property of the adverb. Doxatus makes it
the verb, to modify
:

-

Definition,


222
OF ADVERBS.
:


[CHAP.
XIII.

the only characteristic of this part of speech
orationis, qicce adjecta verbo signijicationem ejus

Adverbium

est

pars

aut minuit.

" The adverb is a verb, either completes, or diminishes, or alters its signification." Vossius, however, observes, that the adverb is added not only to and, consequently, that its name verbs, but to nouns and participles must be understood to have been given to it, not from the use to
;

aid complet, aid mutat, a part of speech, which being added to

which
serves.

it is

always applied, but from that for which
solis adjicitur

it

most generally
et participiis
:

Non

verbis, sed

etiam nominibus

nomen

non ex eo quod semper, sed quod plurimum fit. By the word nouns, Vossius, as he afterwards explains it, means adjec" tives, both nominal, pronominal, and participial. say," adds he,
igitur accepit

We

" bene

disserens, as well as

bene dicere, and bene doctus."

And

so

we

propemodum suus, et magis nostras, as well as, prorsus amicus, propemodum liber, magis Eomanus, &c. For want of a clear and intelligible definition of the adverb, some writers have unsay, prorsus meus,

may

doubtedly exposed themselves to the sarcasm of Tooke, who thus Omnis pars orationis, " every word," translates a sentence of Servius quando desinit esse quod est, " when a grammarian knows not what to make of it," migrat in adverbium, " he calls an adverb." It is impossible to avoid these errors, unless we first establish a definition of the adverb, to which, as a test, the various classes of words properly comprehended by different grammarians under this common designation may be applied. I venture therefore, with all becoming diffidence, to An adverb is a part of sjyeech added to a propose the following perfect sentence, for the purpose of modifying primarily the conception expressed by a verb, an adjective nominal or pronominal, or a participle ; or secondarily, tliat expressed by another adverb. In explicating this definition, I sliall consider, first, the sort of sentence to whieh an adverb may Ihj added; secondly, the modifications which may eliii and, thirdly, the modes by which such modifications may
:
:

it.

t

;

M

expn
'<7('k

adverb is added t.. a perfect sentence, con:i pure into a modal one: and by a sentence 1 heiv mean one which either enunciates some truth, or •llie passion with its object. Therefore, even to n simple iijijM-r.it i\ the adverb may be added, since a perfect sense is expressed without it, and its addition only serves to modify the verb. Thus the
I.

First,

I

say, the

verting
i

it,

If

Categorical,

fan

«•

word "
an
act,

llv I"

is,

iii

ofii c.t,

ii

p' rfec*t

sentence, for
act

il

implies an agent and

and

it

couples the conception of the
it'

of (King with the con-

ception 0# thl p'-rson address, d,
least in In. Volit

not in the perception of the spi

To
with
,,f

this sentence, therefore, an

added consistent

I

\

nr definition,
the |u
i,
,

and
\
1

we may
it
j . i •

say,
,

adverb ma\ bl " fly quickly !"
necessary
r

aliou

H. ite

.eiiteiice,
.

s s -lively
.

plain the eniineiative.

When
thus
I

the

1

x

i.
j

;\<\\

passion,

there

csui

be no diihcnhv

:

when Macbeth

lys:

Afterlife'*


CHAP.
XIJI.J

"


223

OF ADVERBS.
difficulty in

understanding that the adverb well modifies there can be no question, however, may arise, where the verb the verb sleeps. merely expresses existence ; as, in the line just quoted, if the expression had been " he is well," it might be questioned whether icell was an

A

similar remark may be made on such adverb or an adjective. It is true that in expressions as " he is asleep," " he is awake," &c. the English language these and many other such words have an adverbial form, and cannot be employed in immediate connection with substantives, as " a well man," an " asleep man," or an " awake man ;" yet where they thus form the predicates of verbs, they are, in eriect, " He is well " corresjxtnds exactly with " he is healthy " adjectives. " he is asleep" with " he is sleeping " " he is awake " with, " he is waking :" and in a question of Universal Grammar, the idiomatic form When I say the senof the words cannot at all decide the question. tence must be perfect, I mean it must be perfect in the mind ; in part expression, a part or even the whole of it may be understood. is understood when the mind evidently supplies what is necessary to complete the sentence, as in the animated lines of Sir Walter

A

A

Scott

:

Were

On Stanley !—On !— the last words of Maraion.

Here the adverb on manifestly

refers to some verb understood in the mind, such as " march," " drive," " rush," or the like. The verb is suppressed, because it is indifferent to the speaker; the adverb is expressed, because it is of the utmost importance; because to the thoughts and feelings of the dying hero the mode of getting at the enemy was immaterial ; but to get at them by some means or other was his most eager wish. The whole of the sentence is understood, when the adverb is responsive as, " Will you come ? Yes." " When
:

you come? Presently." "How often did he come? Once." For these answers mean, " I will come certainly " I will come presently " " He came once" And consequently the adverbs, yes, " presently, and once, are to be taken as modifying the verbs " will come and " did come," respectively. 377. II. The adverb, I say, is used to modify primarily a verb, an
will

ModiUcation.

adjective nominal or pronominal, or a participle

;

or secondarily, another

adverb.

As Harris calls
order," he,

the verb, adjective, and participle, " attributives

parity of reason, denominates the adverb " an attributive of a secondary order," or " an attributive of an attributive."'

of the

first

by

word 'Enipprifia is of the same and meaning as these phrases for I have already shown that the word 'Pij/ia is used by many writers to signify not only what is commonly called a verb, but also what are called adjectives and participles.
Harris, indeed, justly argues that the
force
;

Thus AllMOXlTJS
Kai

says, caret tovto to ar]fLair6p.ivov, to fitv
teat

KAAOS,

XeyeaSai, ra) ovk 'ONOMATA. "According to this signification" (that is, of denoting the attributes of substance and the predicates in propositions), " the

AIKAIOS,

ocra

Totavra

'PHMATA

224

OF ADVERBS.

[CHAP.

XIII.

Of the

verb.

words, fair, just, and the like, are called verbs and not nouns." And so Priscian, speaking of the Stoics, says, " Participium connumerantes "Reckoning the participle verbis, participiale verbum vocant." among verbs, they call it a participial verb." Whatever may be thought of this reasoning, it at least agrees with the proposition, that the adverb is employed to modify the participle, the adjective, and the verb. On the other hand, the adverb is not employed to modify the substantive ; because that is the function of the adjective, or of the article. Let us then consider the parts of speech which are primarily modified by the adverb, viz. the verb and the adjective, taking the latter term in its widest sense. 378. The verb, it must be remembered, asserts or manifests existence, either simply or together with some attribute of action or passion. The adverb, therefore, may either modify the attribute involved in the When it verb, or it may modify the mere assertion of existence.
:

modifies the attribute,

its

operation

is

exactly similar to

what will

pie-

conception of running is modified by the adverb swiftly, in the proposition " he runs swiftly," precisely as it is by the adjective swift in the proposition " he

sently be described in regard to the adjective.

The

The case is somewhat different when the adverb is is a swift runner." If this be done considered as modifying the assertion of existence.
with reference to the corporeal conceptions of place and time,
as to place, such positive conceptions as those

we

have,

marked by the adverbs here and there ; and such relative conceptions as those marked by the adverbs where and whence. If I say that a given event happened here, my assertion is positive and is limited to a certain point of space, and by necessary implication contradicts the assertion not only that it did not happen at all, but tliat it happened at any other place than the one indicated. So with regard to time: if I say that a
happening now, my assertion is positive and is limited time; if I say it happened yesterday, it is equally posiU\e ,unl limited to a certain time past. Again, if I say the event in question happened where some other event had occurred, the local :ih>rhwhere is relative and if I say it happened when some other did, the t'lnporal ailverli when is also relative. It is scarcely necessary to add tliat local and temporal conceptions maj he adverbially expressed The event in question may under an endless variety of circumstances. c»ciir a/xxird, or iLshurr, ah ft, or Inlaw, abroad, or at home; the ship may be cut at/rift ; the army may U marching lunar wards the battle may
certain event
is

bO the present

;

;

cease awhile,

it

may be begun am

w,

il

may

terminate suddenly, &c. &c.

&c.

So, the asv rtion of exi tence contained in a verb may be modified DMntd OOnOtptkPS, and these also may be expressed
.

proiMwitiou, the assertion if not simply affir needs no modification may be modified bj I negative as not, ne, nee; or it inn \ !»• modified as to certainty, if clear, by the adverbs indeed, certain/'/, and If doobtrol by the adverbs psrtapt,

adverbially.

Thus,
i

in a
..

DMtive

(\\ In'

h "!

"Mi

)

Ik,; or, as to mode, by the adverbs mum,

id, as, fee.

:

or the

;

CHAP.

XIII.]

OF ADVERBS.

225

assertion

may be put

when

;

or responsively

interrogatively by the adverbs how, ichy, where, by the adverbs yes or no. The connection of

propositions in an argument, and particularly of the premises with the conclusion, may be marked by such words as ergo, consequently, therefore, which

some grammarians treat as adverbs, though others (and perhaps more accurately) hold to l>e conjunctions; a remark which applies generally to the adverbs called relative. 379. The term adjective, as I have said, is here to be taken in its orthe Adjec,lve widest sense, as including not only the adjective simple, or proper, but

-

and the pronominal adjective. It is manifest that all the attributes which these various classes of words express are capable of modification. Thus, a house which is " lofty," may be " surprisingly lofty," or " very lofty," or " moderately lofty." And in like manner we may speak of " a remarkably intellialso the participle, or participial adjective,

gent youth," an " over indulgent parent," " a truly affectionate friend." So, when we use a participle, or a pronominal adjective, we mav modify it by the aid of an adverb, as " much obliged," "greatly indebted," " wholly yours," " absolutely mine," " nobly born," " well bred," " highly gifted," " universally respected," " little moved," " less affected," " not so energetic," " equally judicious," " how admirable !" " thus far," " no further." In all these instances, it is obvious, that the attribute
expressed by the
adverb.
In truth,
adjective

undergoes some

modification from the

a double conception, as, first, a conception of loftiness with reference to the house, and, secondly, a conception of surprise with reference to the loftiness ; so that the sentence " the

we form

house

is

tences, " the

surprisingly lofty " resolves itself into these other two senhouse is lofty," and " the loftiness is surprising." Mr.

Harris, therefore,
attributive
;

had great reason to

call

for, in

the latter of these

two

the adverb an attributive of an sentences, we find the word
loftiness,

" surprising" represents an attribute of that
prior sentence,

which, in the

was considered as an attribute of the house. It is not the house altogether which excites surprise, but only its quality of loftiness.

A

house

prisingly lofty.
its

may be both lofty and surprising, without being surThese modifications of an attribute may regard either
quality.
Its quantity
is,

quantity or
is,

its

may be

that

simply

;

or relatively, that

comparatively.
in

modified positively, The adverbs thus
as,

used positively in regard to quantity continuous, are such
little, sufficiently,

much,

parum,

satis,

&c.

;

regard to quantity discrete, such

as

ticice, thrice,

semel, decies, &c.

Those used

intension, are such as more, nimis, valde,

such as

less,

positively

vix, &c. The by such adverbs

quality of
as well,
ill,

by way of way of remission, an attribute may be modified
relatively, if

&c

;

if

hv

nobly, bene, male,fortiter, &c.
excessively,

or relatively, in regard to degree,

&e.

and in regard to similitude, 380. Such being the primary uses of the adverb,
;

by such as rather, potius, by as, so, adeb, &c.

ceive that the secondary use

is

similar.

As

it is easy to con- Secondary uso the adjective modifies the
'

substantive,
2.

and the adverb modifies the

adjective, so

may
Q

a second

226

OF ADVERBS.

'

[CITAP. XI

adverb be applied to the former with the same power of modificatk the word admirably may be prefixed to good, so may very be pi and we may say " a very admirably go fixed to them both together discourse ;" in which, and the like instances, the analysis is similar what I have before stated. The discourse is good, the goodness

As

;

impnwr

admirable, the admiration is extreme. 381. To the classes of words which have been properly compi hended under the title of adverbs, some grammarians have add
others which have no legitimate
title

to that appellation.

Hen

twenty-eight classes enumerated by Hickes, the twent seven by Manutius, the twenty- one by Charisius, and those of oth writers, we find enough to justify the sarcasm of Tooke, and explain, if not to justify, the grave designation of the Stoics, who call< this part of speech Wavliicrriv ; because, as Charisius says, " Omnia
the
se capit, quasi col lata per saturam concessa sibi rerum
v.iria

among

potestatt

Thus some reckon as adverbs, the nouns substantive Roma', domi,cas and the like; some the nouns adjective vili, caro ; some the pronoti mecum, tecum, yiobiscum, vobiscum ; some the verbs used interjections!] age, amabo, quocso, and some the mere interjections heus! utinttv
These aberrations from grammatical principle may perbfl ecce! &c. be accounted for, in part from the want of a clear and intelligil definition of the part of speech called an adverb, and in pari fro a mistaken impression of some writers, that adverbs and interjectio are words of too insignificant a character to deserve serious attentio " Interjectio" (says Caramuel) " posset ad adverbinm reduci, aed <|n majoribus nostris placuit illam distinguere, non est cur in ru tern ten " The interjection might be reckoned among adverb ha^reamus." but since our predecessors have been pleased to distinguish it fro them, we need not hesitate about so trifling a matter" However the errors may have arisen, it must be confessed that they have be< Vossius says, " Interje shared by writers of no mean reputation.
ttooea

a

Gneda

Boethius."

Ben Jonson

ad adverbia rereruntur, atque eos sequitur etis says, " Prepositions are a peculiar kind

i

adrerba, and ought to be referred thither;" and Bishop Wilklna sav is is so nice, til; that " the dilierelice between pi v| losit Hi 9 and .u l\
[(
<

1

1

it is

hard

in

some
<'iin

preposition

cases to distinguish them." Yet it is manifest that no more lie considered as a peculiar kind of adver!
I

•! r< .1 n a peculiar kind of adjective than i mbstant verb for the proper function of the preposition is to niodib a eonce] ami the proper function of the adverl) is to modii tioii
:

;

scoiiccptii.n of attribute, either alone, or
but the part of speech winch

combined with an

assertioi

namea

a conception of substance is tr

peeeh which names a conceptions the pari "i noun adjective; ami the part of speech which to interjections, the) do not serve to modify eitb tin- veil but are interjected, as it were, between different Q0o£ DOWl Of Verb iussays, "CHre rerbl opem, wntentiam complenti \

Boon

huI

attribute

ii

1

1

1.

;

; ;

CHAP, xni.]

OF ADVERBS.

227
may, both
in signification

for though, in certain instances, the interjection

and construction, supply the place of a verb, yet

this, in

no respect,

modifies the signification of the following verb, but merely affects its construction in the sentence. Those authors, too, who do not differ in

regard to the characteristics of whole classes, often seem to err strangely word to its proper class. Dr. Johnson, a scholar certainly of great acquirements, designates as nouns substantive
in allotting a particular

ding-dong, handy-dandy, pit-a-pat, and see-saw, examples which he quotes they are used as adverbs and this is the more remarkable because he designates other words, of the very same formation and use, adverbs ; ex. gr. helter-skelter, which certainly approaches as nearly to pell-mell, in its grammatical use, as it does in the mode of its formation, and in its general import. The acute and ingenious De Brosses calls the French chez an adverb. which is most manifestly a preposition, for chez moi, and apud me, are phrases exactly similar in construction. Even the learned Vossius calls the Latin mecastor an adverb, and R. Stephanus terms it " jurandi adverbium." Now mecastor is either from the Greek pa, and Castor, the name of a deity, and then it is literally, "No, by Castor!" or else it is " Me Castor adjuvet .'" So help me Castor and in either case it is an inter jectional oath, used as a common expletive in conversation. Thus

the woi-ds pell-mell,
in the very

when

!

we find in Terence, " Salve, mecastor, Parmeno;" where mecastor cannot by any ingenuity be made to modify the verb salve, or indeed anjf Other word but is truly and properly an interjection, which all words of the same kind must be, such as Gadso ! which though Mr. Tooke distinctly calls an oath, yet he preposterously reckons among the adverbs. Gadso ! and Odso ! were abbreviations of " by God it is so !" or " is
;
'

it

so,

by God ?"

for

men

happily shrink from their
to

own

profaneness,

and rather reduce
to

their

words

unmeaning exclamations, than advert

seriously to their original import.

As

to the obscene Italian expression

which Tooke alludes, it had probably nothing to do with the interjection Gadso, however it may have furnished a hint to the unpolished satire of Ben Jonson, in the passage quoted from one of his plays. 382. III. Having thus considered the various modifications of an j^wrWd attributive, which adverbs are calculated to effect, I come to examine pWos the different modes by which such modifications may be expressed and as I have spoken of prepositional and conjunctional phrases, so I think it advisable here to notice certain adverbial phrases, which in process of time have become, or may become adverbs. By an adverbial phrase, I mean any combination of words, which in a complex sentence may stand in the place of an adverb. Thus we nuiv say " this happened afterwards," or " this happened long afterwards," or " this happened many days afterwards," or " this happened not many

'

days afterwards." In the first case the adverb aftencards modifies the verb " happened ;" in all the other cases the same adverb afterwards is modified, first by the adjective long used adverbially, then by the adjective and substantive many days forming an adverbial phrase, or

Q2


223
OF ADVERBS.
;

[CHAP. XII

and lastly by the adverb, adjectiv standing in the place of an adverb and substantive, not many days, which in liko manner may be said form an adverbial phrase, or to stand in the place of an adverb. So Lord Berners' translation of Froissart, executed by command King Henry VIII., and printed in his reign, the following passac
1
i i

occurs,

fol.
;

cxcix. b.

"

contrary

for he chargeth

Nowe the Duke of Berrey commaundeth me tl me incontynent his letters sene, that I shuk
is

reyse the syege."
the verb reyse
;

In this passage incontynent
it

an adverb modifyir
visis epistolis,)

and

the letters sene is a phrase, (similar in constructk
is

to the Latin ablative absolute, as

termed,
at that

whk

modifies the adverb incontynent, a

word

time used where w

should say immediately. Thus, in the romance of The Foure Sonnes of Aimon, printed

:

1554,

we

find
light

Now

up Ogyer, and you Duke Naymes,

on horseback incontinent.

Adverbial phrases are in another point of view material to the co: By comparing dilleroi sideration of adverbs properly so called. languages, we not only find that a certain phrase in one language CO responds to a different phrase in another language; but that phrases Thus in comparing tl the one correspond to words in the other. French with the Italian we not only find such expressions as a chaud larmes, answering to a dirotte lagrime ; or & gorge deployee, to al smascellata ; but we also find a tatons rendered by tentone, a p«U pf by quasi, &c, &c. The variety of phrases which may be found in d ferent languages corresponding to one and the same adverb, is tin remarkable; of which those answering to our adverb suddenly afford The striking expressions of St. Paul, 'E»' ArtS/jj pregnant example. iv ptnij 6(j)0n\iiov' "in monieuto," " in ictu oculi,"* have, of COtOT bean imitated in most European languages; as the English "tVi moment" "in the twinkling of an eye;' the French "en tin din <l'<ri tba Italian " in un batter d\x'chio ;" and to these ma\ bo added mai analogous expressions, as the Spanish " de in>cutr ;" the Italian" jiriino lancio," and " tuth ad un truth ;" the French " tout d'ltn coup "en un tourne main," >l sur le chump ;" the Latin " c vestigio" the <> English " i'm a trier" "us who suit/i tin's" "at a thought" "in I

space of

a

luke," "all anotie," "all at once," &c.
pies.

&c, of winch

1

slu

ban
ind :jk:i.

of an attributive,

more briefly the modificatii obaerved in certain compound words, whii Of such o unite the principa] conceptions expressed in a plnuse. \ani]iles wliicli have now bocoi old English ui /"' fat, :<>l![hi I and nth. -is .till in 016, a Jnfl'.'urit 'i' h I Ofa Ol '•'.
Tinin
.i

step inwards expressing

m*J

l"'

.

I

peradventure, &c.

The

iri.ii.t. r

Imiitc

.hi. .11,
ill

fotrhote,
nn.tr.
i'/'i,

Willi hit

ii.iin.-

btowa
I

turn's

Dream.

Corinth,

-.v.


CHAP.
XIII.]

——
OF ADVERBS.


229

and so
is,

" Foothot," says Mr. Tooke, " means immediately, instantaneously," far he is undoubtedly right; but whether hot, mama, as lie

supposes, heated, or as

Warton

suggests, hit against the ground, that

" In the twinkling of an eye," space of a look," are expressions used to express the shortest and " a stamp of the foot " may well be suppossible lapse of time posed to convey a similar idea of brief duration. Dunbar, in his Goldin Terge, has the following lines
stamped,

may be

matter of doubt.

"

in the

:

:

And

suddenlie, in the space of a luke,
;

All was hyne went, ther was but wilderness Ther was nae mair but bird, and bank, and bruke.

In twinckling of an
Sothfast
is

ee,

to schip they went.

the substantive sooth,

compounded

(as in the

word

st»l-

fasi) with fast, i. e. firm, and so means truthful, or as sure as truth. In a sort of dramatic poem, probably of the thirteenth or fourteenth century, on Christ's Descent into Hell (Harl. MSS. 2253, f. 55. b.), are these lines, in which it is used adverbially
:

And
In the Pricke

wes seyde to Habraham, That wes sothfast holy man.
so
v.
i.

of Conscience (see Warton,

p. 258),

it

is

used

adjectivally

:

Thou mercyfull and gracious God Thou rightwis, and thou sothfast.
classibus," says Vossius, " ita
fiunt e

is,

Adverbs may be compounded of two or more words. " Ut in quoque in adverbiis, compositorum
duobus, utperdiu, abhinc;
sit,

aliis

alia

alia e pluribus, ut forsitan.

Nam,

ut
in

forsit

exfors et
;

quasi forte

sit ;

acforsan exfors et an, quod et

fortassean English.

ex tribus istis fors, sit, an." And thus it is in have together formed of to and gather; and we have So in French tout a fait, altogetJwr formed of all, to, and gather. " altogether," from tout, d, and fait ; in Italian nondimeno, " nevertheless," from non, di, and meno, &c. ; in German vielleicht, " perhaps," from viel, much, and leicht, easily nimmermehr, ** nevermore," from nie, immer, and mehr, &c. In forming compounds of this nature, all parts of speech (except " Nulla est vocum classis," says Vossius, interjections) are employed. " ex qua non adverbium componatur." Thus a composite adverb may be formed in any of the following ways i. From a pronoun and substantive, as quare, from qua and re. ii. From an adjective and substantive, as postridie, from postero and
ita forsitan

We

;

:

die.
iii.

From
dies,

an adverb, substantive, and adjective, as nudiustertius, from
tertius

nunc,
iv.

and

v.
die.

From From

a substantive and verb, as pedetentim, from pede and tentare.

a participle and substantive, as perendie, from peremptd and


230
vi.

OF ADVERBS.

|_

CIIAP ' XI

From an adverb and adjective, as nimirum, from ne and mintn From a preposition and substantive, asobciam, from obaad via, viii. From a pronoun and adverb, as alibi, from alio and \bi. ix. From a pronoun and preposition, as adhue, from ad and hoc. x. From two verbs, as scilicet, from scire and licet. xi. From two adverbs, as etiamnum, from etiam and nunc. xii. From an adverb and a verb, as deinceps, from dein and capio. xiii. From a preposition and adverb, as abhinc, from ab and hinc. xiv. From a conjunction and adverb, as etiam, from et and jam. Vossius ranks among compound adverbs those which might oth<
vii.

wise be said to be

inflected, that

is,

formed from other words, by

t

addition of an adverbial particle, like our prefix a, or termination h
as tantisper, from tantus and per
;

&c.
Z/a«e,

So we

find

not

only scienter, from sciens and

quandoque, from quando and qv ter, but ev

Word* em-

Actives,

from Catilina ; not only jucunde, from jucundus, but 7i from Tullius. 384. Thus by degrees we arrive at those single words wine whether compound or simple, are called adverbs, and constitute, such, a distinct part of speech. If it be asked what sorts of wor may be employed, as adverbs, to modify other attributives, the prop answer is— all sorts. For the expression of Servius, though ridiculi by Tooko, is literally tine: " Omnis pars orationis migrat in adirrbitui " Every part of speech is capable of being converted into an adverb." From what has already been said, it is manifest that an adjerti may be used adverbially. Let us suppose that it is necessary to cnu
Catiliniter,

ciate these three propositions successively
i.
ii.

:

A

certain quantity exists,

hi.

The The

quantity
largeness

is large,
is

sufficient.
viz.,

We

have

here three

conceptions,

quantity,
;

largeness^

ai

sufficiency.

tderod

the second only considered as a substance as an attribute in one instance, ami as a substance in tl
first is
is

The

other; and the third
,"
ill.

only considered as an attribute.
in

Now,

if

v

unite these three lentences

one, and say there

is

"a

siitlicienfcly larj

we,
In

in

fact,

OOBWl

the

adjective
in

"sufficient"

into

;

some

instances tins dilliTeiue

the

employment of

tl

iled with a correspondent inflection or change in tl form as in Erij lis!) the adjective sujjiciriit is inflected or changed In tin- adverb tvffiamfy but this ue,ther prevails in all languages nor mid is, indeed, a circumstance ol't< nil adverbs of the same lan^ua^c

;

:

sparing

to be perfecth accidental or capricious.

Again, the adje
in

thus empl practice then adjecthv]
.

thai remain unchanged
use,

either

partially

form, but lose The! or altogether.
the:

de|H'iid

but

it

i-t

not the less important to notice
i

on the idioms of particular lai some of them, because
i".
;

lllore

oinmOfl
\\

SOttTi

<•

(

'

raiiuuai ians
is

Hi.

ill

the col
tl

founding of

hat

is

univeis.il

in

language with what

particular,


CHAP.
XIII.]

OF ADVKRDS.

231

scientific rule with the accidental exception.

This will appear from many instances in the class of words now under consideration, namely, the adjectives proper, when used as adverbs and in order to consider them the more distinctly, I shall notice first the simple uninflected adjectives, then those which have been inflected or changed in form, and lastlv those adverbs formerly employed as adjectives, but which at In the first class present have wholly or partially lost that character.
;

mav be reckoned such words as much, full, right, scarce, &c. ; in the second such as aloud, around, along, wisely, prudenter, male, &c. ; and in Many of these will hereafter receive the last such as very, well, &c. at present it may suffice to consider one of each particular notice
:

class.

885. Much, which in old and provincial English and Scotch appears Kadi under the forms of moch, muche, moche, mochell, mochil, muchele, mychel,
mei/nll, mickle,

muckle, received, in those dialects, a larger adjectival
in

construction than

is the modern authorised usage, as may be seen 3ome of the following examples Whan the Abbot soeth ham flee,
:

That he holt

for

moch
is

glee.

Descript. of Cokaygne.

With muche Ost he
live and

comyng.

Rom.

of

Kyng

Alisaunder.

low louyd
to

Moche honoure

hym alle, hym was falle.

Lyfe of Ipomydon.

Ther nas nother old neyynge
So mochell of strength.

Rom. of Octovian Imperator.
Descript. of Cokaygne.

Undir heuen

nis loud iwisse
ioi

Of so

mochil

ant blisse.

And

yeld here servise ofte,

mid

mitchele

wowe.
Life of St. Margaret

Dieu mercy, to mychel harme ilany knighth there gan hym wime.

Rom. of Kyng

Alisaunder.

And
The

gif ye will gif
meikill devill

me

richt nocht,

gang wi' you.
mickle.

Peblis to the Play.

Mony

a

little

maks a

North Country Proverb.
Burns.

The muckle

devil

blaw ye south, If ye dissemble.

Earnest Cry.

In the present use of the word much, it has considerable analogy to tne Latin multus and multum, the Italian molto and molti, the old

French moult, the Portuguese rfiuito and muita ; but though they may all flow from one common source, yet, if so, the channels have manifestly been divided at an early period the ch, which distinguishes our much and the Spanish mucho, marking one branch, as distinctly as the It, which characterises the other. Hence it happens that our idiomatic use of much differs in many points from the use of multus or multum. Though we use much as an adjective, in connection with an ideal con:

ception, such as "

much honour," " much
it

glee," "

much

joy,"

" much

money,"

we

cannot so employ

with a collective term, such as " a


232
OF ADVERBS.
[CHAP.
XII]

much army," " a much sum ;" r.or with a word designating an indi vidual object, as " the much Devil ;" neither can we translate th Latin " multo mane,"* " much morning," or " multa nocte',"| " muc night;" nor can we employ it adjectivally with a plural substantia The adverbial use in English seem as " multi ignes,"| "much fires."

somewhat

adjectives in the comparative or superlative degree, as

Though much may be always combined wit "much wiser, "much the bravest," and also with some in the positive, as " muc like," "much unlike," we cannot say "much brave" or " much wise. In regard to position, too, there are some differences. The adver much is placed before a present or past participle, but genera] (though with some few exceptions) after a verb Sad, from my na.tal hour, my days have ran,
capricious.
1

:

A

much

(Jjflicto/,

nwck enduring man.
Ruth,

Popt,
i.

It grieveth

me

much, for your sakes.

13.

He

doth much keep the statutes of

Omn.

Micali, vi. 16, marg.

this word much has "exceedingly gn our etymologists," derives it from the Anglo-£axon ver mawan, "to mow," of which, he says, the regular pneterperfect mow, and the past participle mowen. " Omit the participial termini

Mr. Tooke, who says that
all

veiled

tion en," continues he,

"and there will remain mow, which meal simply that which is mown; and, as the hay, &c, which was mowi was put together in a heap, hence, figuratively, mowe was used Anglo-Saxon to denote any heap; and this participle, or substantiv
call
it

i

which you please

— for
;

however

was pronounced, and thereto) word, and has the same signification written ma, mo,kc, whicli, being regularly compared, gave ma, man maest, mo, more, most, &c. and much is merely the diminutive of m
pissing through the gradual changes of mokel, mykel, mochill, muchel Such is the substance of an etymological disquisitioi moche, much"
in

classed, it is

still

the BSD

the coins.' of which .Mr.

conn-nipt of Junius,
re

Tooke takes upon him to speak with grei Wormius, Skinner, ami Johnson, and pretends
I

move

all

tho.se

drfflcoltiet

which have so " exceedingly gravelled
is
£

Other etymologists! ordinary one.

It

The leading principle in this disquisition Mfomei that, in the formation of langu

conceptions of distinct action mori necessarily have obtained a nan [ndeed, it is not ver\ clear that Mr. Tool those Of quality,

ad ever

t.>

hare acqttfnd conceptions of quality

al

al

the basis of bis argument in the present b I M amen arbitrary assumption, neither confirmed by histor plnlosopliv. The reasonii nor wip|H>rt"-d b] UIJ rational ^>lr pe*and*most" would beat least equally sati relative to the premises made tl i^.'.l, ami the
thai
I'

However

maybe,

• Al ( multo mano mihl dedit. Oiett, Quint, '2, 8. f Mnii,', soctt ftnl :i'i l'"iii|"'iiiin. ih Ciar. ,v. lanqM (to, ildtra), I
|

'<•

•'''

Att<

l<

mdH

/>.

-,

no.

; ;

CHAP.

XIII.] It is

OF ADVERBS.

233

probably true that more is the comparative and most word ma or mo, which we may admit to have might argue, therefore, been used as an adjective signifying much. that when much of anything was heaped together it was adjectivally said to be mo ; and thence a heap was substantively called a mom but as hay, when it is cut down, is, in the very act of cutting, heaped
conclusion.

the superlative of an old

We

together, "to cut hay said to be mowed.

that

all

was called to mow, and the hay that was cut was These opposite trains of reasoning agree in this, names must necessarily be supposed to have been given to the

that is to conceptions of the hitman mind, in some one certain order say, either proceeding from the more general to the more particular, or the contrary. I do not know that this can be positively asserted ; but,
if it may be so, still I should incline against Mr. Tooke's etymology. According to him, our rude ancestors could not have informed each other whether a thing was much or little, until after they had invented the art of making hay, had regularly conjugated their verbs, added the participial termination en, taken it away again, and compounded the word (thus unnecessarily prolonged and curtailed) with a syllable implying diminution, which was subsequently dropt and after all, they could never alter the signification of the word but if they talked of much money, or much wisdom, much acuteness, or much absurdity, Such is his the word much would only signify the cutting of hay! theory: as to his facts, it would be difficult to discover where or when ma was used for a hay-mows or a barley-mow and when we come to derive mokel, muchel, or michil, from mo, we shall be "exceedingly gravelled" to account for the unlucky k and ch which happen to be inserted before the syllable said to be expressive of diminution. That there may be some affinity between mo and much is probable but it is not probable that much is an abbreviation of muchel. On the At contrary muchil has the appearance of being derived from much. least, it is certain, that we find much, or mich, as early as we do Wachter, speaking of these words, says, Simplicissimum est muchil. " The MiCH,(/iwcZ in antiquissimis dialectis ponitur pro magno et multo. most simple is mich, which, in the most ancient dialects, signifies Thus, in the old Persian, mih was great, mihter great and much." whence the sun was called Mithras. The greater, mihtras greatest aspirate h was easily converted into the guttural ch, and the palatine k and the Latin mag, in magnus, or g. Hence the Greek pty, in fxiyag and as that which is great is usually powerful, we have magister, &c. fin infinite number of words from this radical, signifying power, as the Ma?so-Gothic and Anglo-Saxon magan, to be able, which supplies our auxiliaries may and might, the old German machen, and Anglo-Saxon makan, to make, &c, &c. Again Wachter, speaking of the ancient word mich, says, postea invaluit michel, eodem sensu. "Afterwards Hence the Gothic mikils, micliel came into use, in the same sense." the Anglo-Saxon micel, the Alamannic mihhil, the Icelandic mihill, and, There is no ground for supposing that possibly, the Greek ptya\r).
; ; ; ;

;

;


234:


OF ADVERBS.
[CJHAP. XIII

the final syllable el or le is meant, in any of these words, to express diminution miichel is no more the dimininutive of " much," in signifi cation, than handle of " hand," or spindle of " spin ;" but much an(
;

inflected.

muchel are used eodem sensu, and so were anciently lite and litel. have at least shown, that much is to be found in English as early a muchel, and that these two words were used indifferently by our mos And upon the whole, it is clear, from these authori ancient writers. ties, that much is the name of a conception of greatness in quantity and that when this conception is viewed as th quality, or power attribute of any substance, the word much is an adjective ; when a the modification of an act or quality, it is an adverb, 386. Certain adjectives are found in our own and other languages which when combined with or varied by a particle, as our prefix a our termination ly, the Latin termination ter, or e, or the Italian mente lose their adjectival, and receive an exclusive adverbial charactei Vossius ranks these among compounds, and perhaps (as I have befor observed of inflections in general) further research into the origin of th particles so employed may show that all such adverbs ava true com pounds: for the present, however, I shall consider them as inflected and of these the class formed by our termination in ly may afford The particle ly is an abbreviation of the adje( sufficient illustration. tive like; and the words wisely, gratefully, judiciously, &c, wer
;

originally the

compound

adjectives wiselike, gratefullike, judiciouslik<

&c.

The

termination lyk or Itch

Kyng

Alisaunder,
(strange,

we

ferliche

is common in old English. Thus, 1 have the adjectives eorthliche (earthly, mortal' wonderful), and the adverbs gentiUche (gently

sikerlyk (securely, certainly), theofiiche (like a thief), quyldirh-:
lv), stilliche (quietly), skarscldiclte (scarcely), apertelic/ic

(quid

(openly).

So, in Syr Launful,

He

gaf gyftys largehjche, Gold, and siluer, and dodos rydic.

And

again, in the

same poem
Tin'
l;i'lv

VU

bryjrt as

blosmo on brere,
1,,11,-li/c/i

Willi

c-yi'ii

gnjf with

rh.iv.

This wort! louelych
Of the BMMl ancient
1mI.1v
altout.
I," b

is

the

year

the identical word Irjlich which occurs in 01 now existing in English, composed pn The sen 1200. "l.low, Northen

and the lover describes his mistress
Witii lokktt
irjiir/,,-

an. I longt.

Chaucer writes our word, "early,"
And
In th
|)
I.

vrlich-

;

;i

.

in

the h'uiyht's Tale,

Hiii

li.i' rrlir/it'

and

Into.

lion

of ('"kaygno 0000X1 the adverh mtkHoh (meel.lv
//
..

In the (;

a
:

lind evndiche (evenly, Btralghtly)

oat

a* an adverb

Tli'.u
St

art fair
eih'llii'

St

eke ttre&f,

okc

hr

lolij^.


CHAP. XIII.]
Ot ADVERBS.


235

"

This termination, therefore, is not Jes.s distinguishable in the old English than it is, as Mr. Tooke observes, in the ;.ister languages German, Dutch, Danish, and Swedish. The connection of meanings seems to be this: first a substantive conception of the body, then an adjectival or attributive conception of likeness to the body, and lastly an adverbial use of the conception of likeness applied adverbially to another attributive.

The body

(particularly the corpse) is in Ma?so-

Gothic leik ; ex. gr. " usnemun leik is " " they took away his body." * In the Anglo-Saxon version of the same text it is lie, " hys lie namon." In Frankish and Alamannic a dead body is lidie, and lih ; in Icelandic lijk; in German leiche ; in Dutch lyk; in Swedish lik; and in old Scotch lylm, whence lykewake, now corrupted to late wake, the watching of a
corpse.

the

old
;

The German adjective gleich (like) is, as Wachter observes, compound ge-leich, abbreviated; in old German it is lick,
Anglo-Saxon
lie,

gelich

in

gelic; in

Swedish lik; in Danish lig ;
lyk, as liefyk ; in

in Icelandic

likr,glikr; in

Dutch
lifiig ;

lyk.

The

adjectival or adverbial termination is in

Swedish and Danish and ligt, as lieuflegr, frithsamlegt. That the name of the conception which we have of " body " should be
ftc/i,

German

as lieblich; in

Dutch

lig,

as Uujiig,

in Icelandic legr

transferred to the conception of " likeness,"

is

not at

all

surprising; for
thing, or

what

is

so like any person or thing as the very

body of that

Hence, Shakspeare, meaning to intimate that the use of the drama is to represent the exact likeness of living manners, says, it is " to show the very age and body of the time, its form, and pressure ;" as if he had said, " the drama holds up a mirror to the present time, exhibits its age of manhood or decrepitude, represents its Very body, the shape which it bears, and the impression which it produces on the mind of the observer, as a seal does on wax, or a statue on the plaster from which a cast is to be taken." Keither is it surprising that the adjective " like " should enter into composition with a Beat number of other adjectives; for if any attribute could not be exactly predicated of a particular substance, something like that attribute might be so; if a person or thing could not be said to possess exactly a certain quality, it might be said to possess a quality similar, or nearly the same ; if it was not great it might be greatlike ; if not good, godlike, &c. In the Anglo-Saxon we find the termination lie used both adjectively and adverbially, as in the translation of Bede's Ecclesiastical History (book iii. c. 3;, " tha lifigendan stanas thaere
of that person?
cyricean, of eorthlicum setlum, to

tham heqfonlieum timbre, gebaT
from earthly
seats, to

!

| the

living stones of the church,

the heavenly

building,

it bore." And again (loc. cit.), " tha cyricean wundorlice heold & rihte " " the church he wondrously held and ruled. The use of this termination extends indeed much further ; for it contributes to the formation of our pronominal adjectives such, each, and which; the original signification of these being so-like, one-like, and what-like ; as
:

I shall briefly

show

:

* Mark,

vi.

29.

——
236
i.


OF ADVERBS.
is

;

——
[CHAP. XIL
sica leik is

In the Maeso-Gothic swa
it is

"so," and
sioylc, in

" such."

I

the Anglo-Saxon

contracted to

the old English to

sicytt

And the same is found in th swiche, and thence to sich and such. cognate languages in the old English and Alamannic, it is sdich sulich ; in the Dutch zulk ; in the Swedish slyk ; and in the moder
and
:

German

solche.

In the romance of Richard Coer de Lion,

we

have

:

Kyng Alysaundre ne Charlemayn Had de neuer swylke a route.

And

Chaucer says

:

In swiche a gise as
ii.

I

you

tellen shal.

The words
exist in the

ilk

and

ilka are

to

be found
Ilk

in our old writers, an

was sometimes written ilich and has been abbreviated to each. The following lines occur in satirical poem entitled Syr Peni; or, Narracio de Domino Denar (MSS. Cotton. Galb. E. 9) :—
still

Scottish dialect.

Dukes,

erles,

and

ilk

To

serue

him

er thai ful

barowne boune

Both biday and nyght.
In another part of the

same poem

are these lines

:

He may by both heuyn and hell And ilka thing that es to sell
In erth has he swilk grace

wlierevve see swilk used for "such," and ilka for "every," as

it

is

I

Bukns,

in his

"Twa

Dogs:"
friends in ilka place.
in
leilis,
;

His honest, sonsie, baws'nt face

Aye gat him
iii.

Whkh
it

is,

in

ftmWb, from
Alamannic
in

funis,
is

the Anglo-Saxon, facile; or lur\ "whom," and
:

the

Mavo-Goth
In
t!

"like."
the

huuielich

in

the

Danish huilk

iu

Dutch

M»fib

the (icrman welcfie.
in

The word

whilk, anciently written

</u/iil/;,

w:

common

ind perhaps still exists in son It is uniformly used in the" Disputation lemote parts of tin- country. as, " I niieht. pn>duce monio siclyk place Of Nil "I BUBNB, A. i». 681 ijuliill: never hard /it cited he zou ;" that is, "I might produce raai Scripture), which never heard yet cited by you." such
Scotland to a
late period,
1 :

I

I

|

It.

Agreeing with those is tl :, and pTODOODOed
:

Id

tin'/;,

English thilke, for "that."

still

retained

in

tl

Tims

Sri [NSKB,

liitf

" May," says

lilmikrl

I-

II

t

xi

i«l,
\i

li. <•

name neiuon,

whn

til

wl

id

In pluuiuico.

Cliaucer, in
in flood
|

In*

translation

of lloHhius, says, "Certea yet

live*

it

(Mi

DCtOkMII honour of mankind."


CHAP.
XIII.]
in the


OF ADVERBS.

——
237
:

And

poem on

Christ's Descent into Hell are these lines

The smale fendes that broth nout stronge He shulen among men yonge
Ichulle he hahben

Thilke that nulleth ageyne hem stonde hem in honde.

That is, " the small fiends that are not strong shall go among mankind, and those persons who will not stand against them, I am willing they should have in hand." Thus have I traced a substantive (signifying body) through its transitions, first into an adjective proper (like), thence as part of the compound adjectives proper and pronominal (lovelike and solike), and, lastly, into the termination (ly), which is still used both in adjectives and adverbs, though with idiomatic differences in respect to particular words, some being only considered as belonging to the one class, and some to the other. Goodly, for instance, though not much used in the present day, and rather as an adverb than an adjective, is employed by Bhakspeare in the latter character, through all its degrees of comparison
i.
:

In Hamlet:


saw him
once, he

I
ii.

was a goodly

king.

In AIVs Well that

Ends Well:—
much
goodlier.
:

If he were honester he were
iii.

In King Henry VIII.
She
is


woman
that ever lay by man.

the goodliest

So the word
uses
it

kindly

is

commonly considered

to be an adverb,
:

but Burns

as an adjective in

Poor Maine's Elegy

Thro' a' the toun she trotted by him ; A lang half-mile she cou'd descry him ; Wi' kindly bleat, when she did spy him, She ran wi' speed.

On

the other hand, the
;

word

lonely is treated in the

English dialect as
it

an adjective

but Burns,
Our

in the

same poem, employs

adverbially

:

bardie, lanely, keeps the spence
Sin' Mailie's dead.

and some other such words, are for the most part employed in modern times, as adjectives but it is observable that godly has obtained by custom a different meaning from the identical adjective godlike. We have, too, some of these words in one form of composition, and not in its correspondent compound. Thus we say ungainly for awkward though the word gainly, formerly in use, has become obsolete. Dr. Henry More, a very learned writer of the seventeenth century, says, " She laid her child as gainly as she could, in some fresh leaves and grass." (Conj. Cabal.) 387. Of the words formerly in common use as adjectives, but now V«fi employed almost exclusively as adverbs, the word very is an obvious instance. Very is correctly stated by Mr. Tooke to be the Latin
Godly,
lovely, portly,
; ;


233
adjective verus,

.

OF ADVERBS.

[CHAP. XIII

old English,

" true," changed, in old French an< which, in modern French, is vrai. Th adjectival use of this word still remains in the Nicene Creed as renderec in the Liturgy of the Church of England, "very God of very God. Chaucer uses it as an adjective both in the positive and comparativ In his translation of Boethius, On the Consolation of Philc degree. sophy (b. iv.), " It is clere and open that thilke sentence of Plato very and sothe." And again (b. hi.), " which that is a more veri thinge." In these instances it retains the signification of mere truth but in a secondary sense it expresses eminence in degree, and is even this respect employed as an adjective positively, comparatively am
and
Italian vero,

into veray,

i

ii

sujxnlatively.

My

faithfulness shalt thou establish in the very heavens.

Psalm

Ixxxix. 2.

Was
The verier wag o' Were he the veriest

not my love the two?
antick in the world.

Shakspeare,
Ibid.

The secondary

sense alone of the adjective survives in the moder:

use of the adverb ; nor is it surprising, that an adjective primaril; signifying "true," should, in a secondary sense, form an advert expressing eminence of degree, as applied to all other qualities for thing that is very good or bad, t. e., good or bad in an eminent degret may be said, k»t Qo\i\v, to be truly good or bad. The Italian express the same modification of qualities by molto, " much," th Fnnch by fort, "strong," the Latins by mtdtum, " much," and val<i<
;

from validus, "strong:" and our ancestors by a variety of attributive*
as swyt/ie, sothfast, right, full, strong, well, &c.

From

the old adjectiv
obsoli
I

veray
'

we have
(the

also our inflected adverb verily,

and the

modern French vraiment),

Kyuy Alisaunder:

as in the above-quoted

romance C

By

He him

the steorres and by the firmament taughte verrainmt.

And

again

:

Ther ros sothe cry verrement,

No
Partiriptoi.

acholde

mon

ylniv

t

lie

thoBfUf dent.

not only the adjective proper which serves to modif The participle performs the .same offloi Other idjective8, or verbs. and in the same manner; and this (in English) either by a partupl nt' pies,. tit <n- of past time. Of the former class we have "*<•<//<//« hot," "staring mad," "roaring drunk," and, in Shakspeare, mOl
It
is

388.

elegant

u

.

" loving jealot

Warm
tiirncmr.

cutaphuoM may dUcuu, but
utarlc,
I

scaMiii

/

1ml m:i\ rnnlinii

tin-

\hnot,

In came Squire South,

flaring mil.
Id
Hi. in
iiiii,.
III
1.
i

Rid,

1
i

li.'ivi'
:i

th

And
win.

\.i
I.-I-.

no
ii

luiili.
ini|i
)l|
I

wanton'* Mid,
)

;i

Im
i

ii.ind,

|l.lil|
:i

IHH'I

III'.

I

«

And \s illi -.ilk tin. So (winy jealoiiii of hie

1

pull
1 1
1

|
t

il

I,. i,

I.

.i

.mi,

--i

\

S/ta/tsjHunt.

'


239

;

CHAP.

XIII.]

OF ADVEKBS.

Of

prefix a, answering to the

the past participles some are used without, but more with th» Anglo-Saxon and German ge. Bums thus
brent,

employs

from the Scotch bren
Nae

to

burn

:

cotillons brent-new frae France.

Milton has adrift from drive ; Ben Jonson, agone (now written ago) from go ; Chaucer, a/ret, either from the verb freight, or, more probably, from the verb fret
:

Then
With
all his

shall this

Mount

Of Paradise, by might

of waves, be mov'd,

Down

the great river.

verdure spoil'd, and trees, adrift Milton.

Is he such a princely one

As you speak him

long agone f

B. Jonson.
Chaucer.

For round environ her crounet

Was
In
all

tulle of rich stonys afret.

specifically characterises the participle

however, the notion of time which does not attach to the same word when it becomes an adverb ; because it either modifies a verb, and then the time is expressed by the verb itself; or else it modifies an adjective, and then no expression of time is necessary. 389. The pronouns adjective supply, either with or without some slight change of form, many adverbs of frequent use ; especially those pronouns which I have called demonstratives, partitives, distributives, general and numeral, subjunctives, and interrogatives but as the words constituting these several classes are in all languages among the simplest and most ancient that exist, we must not be surprised to find some difficulty in tracing the pronominal adverbs to their proper origin. In this respect, very great praise is due to several recent German philologists, particularly to Professors Bopp, Pott, and Jacob Grimm who have thrown important light on a part of the science of language previously quite dark, and still involved in conthese

and the

like cases,

p«>nonn»
rtnlwe. &r,

;

;

siderable obscurity.
tion, the

I shall consider together the classes just specified,

reserving only the numerals for a separate notice.

With

this excep-

most languages, a number of adverbs connected together by various relations, and for the most part of an elliptical construction. The words here and there, lience and thence, hie and illic, hinc and illinc, for instance, are manifestly in their origin demonstrative pronouns, equivalent to the words this and that ;" but, by use, they have come to signify " at this place," " at that place
words
in question furnish, in

" from

" from that place ;" the substantive " place " being understood by the mind. Neither can it be doubted that the Latin adverbs quum and quo are the subjunctive proiioun qui, with the terminations of the accusative and ablative case; which wr ord qui is probably the same in origin with the Gothic hioo, the Saxon hwa, the Scottish quha, and the English who. It happens, that the English language is not perfectly systematic in
this place,"

clearly


240
OF ADVERBS.
[CHAP. XIII

Kgard to the pronouns which it has adopted for adverbial purposes and the same may be said of most other languages. We have th< simple adverbs just mentioned, which form three distinct classes, witl reference to place, distinguishing the place where we are, from anodic definite place, and supplying an interrogative for the place which w< know not, which interrogative is also a subjunctive. The first of these is here, the second there, and the third ichere. I happens too, with regard to place, that each of these three forms hai three varieties to express " at a place," " from a place," and " to place ;" and all these are variously compounded with several othe: words or particles, fore, ever, soever, &c. Some of the words wlucl form adverbs of place, also become adverbs of time, manner, cause, «.^e. but these latter ideas have a few adverbs which are peculiar to them selves, agreeing nevertheless, in principle and derivation, with tlu adverbs of place. Hence may be formed the following table of th<
i

simple adverbs of this kind

:

Ihere
hence
hither

.

.

. .
.

there

.

. . .

.

.
.

thence
thither

.
.

where? whence?
whither?

Time
.Manner

then thus

.

.

.

when?

.

.

.

Cause

how? why?

The

three classes into which I have distributed these adverbs, have

not always been thus accurately distinguished. In our old language, w< shall find the prepositive forms here, and there often interchanged witl
the subjunctive or interrogative
that these distinctions
tion,

form where; yet must have always existed

it

is clearly

evident

in

point of significa-

however inaccurately or imperfectly expressed.

890. The word here is not only used in its simple form, but in f variety of compounds, as, hereafter, herealtout, Itereat, hereby, Aera'n,
liereinto, hereof, hereon,

heirfrir, heirintill,

&c

hereupon, hereto, hereunto, heretofore, herewith^ In the simple form It is principally confined t<

the

signification

of "this
hier, in

rally signifies " this

place;" whereas, in the compounds, it time," " this thing," " this event," or the like
[loth

Tin- cognate

word

variations of meaning,

(ierman, docs not follow cxactlv in its simple and compound

tin-

sam. firms il
hierin-

piiiiripallv refers to place, a. hiernn, hieraux, hierdurch, hie rein,
r,

/n.fuiiter,

Sim

compound,

m

&c.

;

and
:

so, herau, herein-//, herein,
in

&c; though
as,

Bloi'e

n. r.il

their

application,
il.

hieruni.
that,
I

hiervon, hia.tt.

In

1... ih

languages, however,

is

manifest,
''

In

\\"id h$r$t A"/', or her, intrinsically

10

soch supplied by the mind, acoidiii"; t<i •ntext. It an hardlv be doubted but that, the elements of die word A«r» are to be di red in he and er, which occur anj <>l the Northern u linages, as sieap r on or these [* rsons, thfl
that

nd

the

othtr

significations,

u

the won! " place," M thaeJ

than

"i'.i "ii," or the like, are
(

I

I.

or

thtn

things

;

so tint

tlie

radical conoeptioo

li

what we ozprai


CHAP.
XIII.J
this.

:


2-t
I

OF ADVERBS.

by the word
cases.

The element

he occurs, in

English, in the words signifying he, she,

Anglo-Saxon and old they, and their respective
;

The Anglo-Saxon pronoun personal is lie, heo, hi, he, she, they and the very word here occurs for the genitive plural, as heam does for them. The same or similar words are frequent in old English writers. In the Vision of Piers Plouhman

Hermets on a heape with hoked staues Wenten to Walsingham, and her wenches

******
in hour,
:

after.

Cokes and her knaues cryden, hote pyes, hote
is, " their wenches," and " their knaves," or " boys." In Chaucer's Parsotts Tale, " Certes this vertue makith folk vndertake hard and greuous things by her own will ;" that is, " their own." In an ancient ballad, probably of the thirteenth century, beginning " In May, hit muryeth," (Harl. MSS. 2253. fol. 71)—

that

Ynot non so freoh flour Ase ledies that beth bryht

With

loue

who mihte hem bynde

That

is,

"

to those

know no flower so fresh as ladies who are bright in bowers, who may bind them with love." In a dialogue between a
I
spirit,

body and a
satirical

for " they will."

of the same date (ibid. fol. 57), " he wolleth " occurs This word was sometimes written heo, as, in a
fol.

poem

against the ecclesiastical lawyers, (ibid.

71)

Heo shulen in helle on an hok Honge there fore.

And sometimes
(No. 2277,
fol.

hi,

as in another manuscript in the Harleian collection

195)—
laste
:

Tho hi dude here pelrynage in holie stedes faste, So that among the Sarazyns ynome hi were atte
that
is

" they did their pilgrimage, so that they were taken at last." In the Lai le frain, which is a translation from the Norman-French «of the celebrated poetess Marie, we have he and hye for " she ;" and him for " her :"
The maiden abode no lengore, Bot yede hir to the chirche dore
*

;

*

*

*

Lord, he seyd, Jesu Crist, &c. * * * *

Hye

An

asche,

loked vp, and by hir seighe by hir, fair and heighe. * * * *

A

litel

maiden childe

ich founde,

In the holwe assche therout,

And
in

a pel him about.
er, is
is,

found in the modern German er, he, and and who as in the Edda of Snorro, " Feyma " Feyma is heiter su kona er ofram er svo sem ungar meyar eru." called the woman who modest is, as the young maidens are." In the
the Icelandic er, am,
;

The other element,

2.

r.


242
OF ADVERBS.
[CHAP. XII
<

Frankish and Alamannic, the demonstrative and relative pronouns Thus, in the Frankish of Otiri the third person are er, her, and ir. the Monk, " Er gibot then uuinton," " He commanded the winds ;"
that of Tatian,
4i

i

Er quam

in sin eigan,"

"He came

to his own."

I

Dhaz IR Jhesus uuardh chvtennt" " Thf These two elements, then, viz., lie and er, ai identical in signification; and are only redoubled for the sake c emphasis, winch is a habit common to barbarous nations, and to th Hence it is, that the French have their ce-< illiterate in all countries. and ce-Ia, and even ce-lui-ci and ce-lui-la ; and that our own rustic commonly say this here, that there, thick there, &c. From this soun undoubtedly come the Gothic, Anglo-Saxon, Danish, and Icelandic he, the Frankish and Alamannic hier, hiar, Jiiera, the modern German an Dutch hier, and the English here, all used to signify, "at this place, although the simple and radical meaning of them all is simply " this, The various explanations which are given of the adverb here h Dr. Johnson only serve to show that the conception of a distinct an particular place is no necessary constituent in the meaning of the won Thus here is opposed to a future time, as well as to a different plaa Bacon, in his advice to Villiers: " You shall be happy here an more happy hereafter:" which might be paraphrased " in this life an in a life after this" " in this world, and in a world after this" " r/u's state of existence, and in a state of existence alter this" alwa\ retaining, however, the conception expressed by the word this, a when the words -M\d there are explained by Johnson " dispersed!] M in OIM place and another;" as in another extract from Bacon: would have in the heath some thickets made only of sweet-briar, an honeysuckle, and some wild vine amongst and the ground set wit violets; for these are sweet, ami prosper in the shade; and these The words h the heath here and there, not in order."
he Jesus

the Alamannic of Isidore, "

was named."

i

i

km

;

t

.

are

still

to

1

xplaincd this and that

:

for

the imagination form
itulete:

conceptions

ol'

places separate from each other, although quite

i.iinatelv as to
it

any specilic external situation, and even as to numbel that the place signified hy the word here is in imnginatio The indistincl proces ite tVoiii tli. |u-es-,ed >\ the u old there.
1 1
,

I

of the Imagination, therefore, in the passage above cited, may explained by supposing un individual carelessly wandering over
.

I

tli

will

v. I, h is to In- ornamented, and occasionally stopping to say, Tli have a thicket planted in this place and another ill Hint plaa H-.itit it'ti) sonnet of Shakspean si-s in a
. 1

Afi

I

baft gone htr«

nn.l

Mi
in

which com
VOTHcH

-ih the expression "ranged,"
A*
encic

the precedifl

nu-M

I

.

irblch

iii

tii\
ll
I

brat doth
ll

une.

——
CHAP.
XIII.]
tliere


OF ADVERBS.

;

243
;

Here and

more

are doubtless used indefinitely in such phrases I ait not indefinitely than the pronouns this and that might themselves be

used, as in the song
This way, or that way, or which way you will

and

in

Drayton's pleasing description of a winter evening's chat with

his friend

Now

talk'd of this, and then discours'd of that, Spoke our own verses, 'twixt ourselves, &c.

is sometimes used with the same as in Chaucer's spirited description of a tournament, in the Knyght's Tale

Nay, even the pronoun personal
;

uncertainty of application

under foote, as dothe a ball, foyneth on his feet with a tronchoun, And he hurleth with his horse adoun, He through the body is hvrt and sith ytake.
rolleth

He He

lie ;

In none of which instances is there any certain antecedent to the word and yet it stands first for one man, then for another, then for a third, and lastly for a fourth.

may be considered as cases of the word here ; but would be more accurate to treat these three words as aifierent compounds of the element he, with er, an, and der. Hence is the Anglo-Saxon heonan, and the Frankish hina. It seems to be connected with the Icelandic han, he, and km, it; and with the syllable hin, which, in various German compounds, signifies " from this place," " from this time," " at this time," " to that place," &c. and which is
Hence and hither
it

Perhaps

;

used alone to signify anything that is " gone hence;" " hilated ;" as in the Leonore of Burger
Verlohren

lost," or

" anni-

mutter, mutter, hin ist hin ist verlohren !

!

say er ist hin for " he is dead :" hinrichten is to execute justice any one, to put him to death hindag is " this day ;" hinfort, " henceforth," " from this time forth ;" which is also expressed forthin. Jmmerhin is an exclamation answering to our " let it go," and meaning " be it ever thus, I care not ;" as, er mag imnierhin schreyen, " he may bawl as long as he likes." So hinauf and hinab, " above and below ;" hinein and hinaus, " witlun and without," mean ^respectively above this place, below this place, witlun this place, out of this place. Hinfahren is to go away, to go from this place and, in ithe Frankish, hinafahrt is " death." "Our English word hence, in old
0:1
; ;

So they

writings,

is

hen, han, hin, hennes.

In the romance of The Setajn Sages,

we

find

A fend he is, in kinde of man Binde him, sire, and lede han.

;

Chaucer, in the Knyghfs Tale, says The fires whiche on min rater brenne
Shal declaren er that tin This auenture of lone.

r2


244
OF ADVERBS.


[CHAP.

;

XIII.

So

in Christ's Descent into

Hell—

Bring vs of this lothe lond Louerd henne into thyn hond.

liegis

In the Scottish Act of Parliament, A. D. 1438, " that all the kinge'f be vnharmyt & vnscaithit of the said house & of thaim thai

inhabits theirin fra hyn furth."

Hither
too
it

is

the Anglo-Saxon

and Gothic

hidre.

In the old English

was

often written with

ad;
in

as in Chaucer's Monk's

Tah

And

if

you

list

to herken hidencard.

two manuscript poems 2253, fol. 64 and fol. 124)—

So

in

the British

Museum

(Harl.

MSS,

Herketh hidcward, and beoth
*
* *

stille.

*

Herkneth hidetrard horsmen

A
And,
in the

tidyng ichou

telle.

poem on
Then

Christ's Descent into Hell, Satan says
do,

Ne may non me worse
ich

haue had hiderto.
1

Tn.re.

thence, thither, are manifestly constructed on tin same and applied in the same manner as here, hence, anc hither and as we suppose the first element of here to be fie, so w< suppose the first element of there to l>e the, which, in the Anglo-Saxon was prefixed as an article to substantives in all cases, and in l>otl numbers; and which appears in various dialects under the forms o Tim is the Gothk thei, thy, tlio, tha, all relating to the pronoun that. conjunction " that." Tliy, in the old English compound forthy, signifies " for that," viz. cause. Tho is explained by Junius, qui, ////, and tutu;

391, There,
;

principles,

viz.

" that
Ik;

jM-rson," in the

plan!

;

and "

that place" used adverbially
tlia

and

adds,

that

the Anglo-Saxon

admits

all

these

signili-

cations.

Tho

for

" then" (see Warton, vol.

i.

p.

161)

The messengers

tho

home went
fol.

Tho

for

•«

when" (Harl. MSS. 2253,
Tho Jhesu was

37)—

to hell ygan.

Tha

for

" those" (T/te Seuyn Sages,
Al tht wui.lr.
II.'
I'nl

v.

3901)—
.

wll

wm

so ferd liim
tl"'

knew, changed In u
lir

Tlute for
*.l

" those."

See

second volume of Tlie

A»/i</it<tn/, (on.

tli"

iiov.U whi'li so accuratt'lv d.'lincaU' tho maimers and liuiguagi

ad,) p. '-"•»7—
vour landward and linrrowatown notions.
/

lor-tl,

*(H«L MSS.
h

2258,
no

i,,i.

;,:,,

;,.;)_

bold
'!'

M
\uiic.

All (4c

'!' 'i

bn

i"'i


CHAP.
XIII.]

J; ;

OF ADVERBS.

24.

There seems to be compounded of the and er ; as here of he and er but however this may be, there manifestly agrees with the German der, which is a demonstrative and relative pronoun, as well as an article, and consequently answers to our the, this, and who. In like manner, the Anglo-Saxon thorre or thcer formed the genitive of the article, and also the demonstrative and relative adverb ; as in the 4th chapter of Joshua, " Nyman twelf stanas on middan thcsre ea, thcer tha sacerdas stodon, & habban forth mid eow, to eowre wicstowe, & wurpan hig " Take twelve stones from [the] midst [of] the water, where thcer" the priests stood ; and have [them] forth with you, to your abidingplace, and cast them [down] there ;" in which passage we see thcere and thcer, answering to the, where, and there, successively. So in the old English, there is often used in two connected sentences, for there and where; as in Chaucer's Wife of Bath's Tale

There as wont to walken was an elfe, There walketh now the limitour himself.
It might not unreasonably be surmised, that where the operations of the mind are so distinct, as those indicated by a demonstrative and a subjunctive pronoun or adverb are, they would necessarily require expressions equally different; but a careful attention to the history of language will show us that it differs very widely in this respect from
its philosophy. It is for want of having sufficiently considered this circumstance that we find grammarians so often at a loss to account for different idioms, and giving reasons for them which are purely

It is, no doubt, a great excellence in a by distinct expressions, the distinct operations of the mind, and the more nicely this is done, the more accurate and expressive does a language become but this is generally the result of time and of an undefinable sense of inconvenience, which induces men to inflect and vary words, as it were, insensibly, and to assign to the various inflections, though of similar origin, different effects. In no

imaginary, not to say absurd.

hmguage

to mark,

;

language, however, has this principle been carried into

full

operation

and hence

and the different parts of speech which it constitutes, passing into each other by gradations, which, at first sight, it is not always easy to explain. Thus, in Greek, the subjunctive pronoun, or, as some call it, the subjunctive article, oe, is sometimes said to be used for the prepositive 6 sometimes for rig interrogatively and sometimes for awroc. Again, *Oari(, sometimes answers to the Latin relative quis, and sometimes to qxrisquis. The adverb "Oirov, besides the common signification " where," answers to " whither ;" and, in argument, to " since ;" and in description, to " in this place," or " in that place." So, ore, " when," signifies also " since," like the Latin cum and the examples of this kind
see the different meanings of a word,
;
;

we

:

are infinite.
instances

We shall

not, therefore,

be surprised to find considerable

diversity from the
:

modern idiom

in the following,

and many

similar


246
OF ADVERBS. them;
that

:


therwhile

[CHAP. XIJI.

Tlicr is used for the, that, or
for the while
:

as, in

The Seuyn Sages,

Therwhile,

sire,

I

tolde this tale,

Thi sone mighte

tholie dethes bale.

Gawin Douglas
for

has " thare aboue" for "above that;" and "tharon"

" on them."

In the old Scottish dialect thir was used for these or them ; as in the act of 1424, " thir ar taxis ordaynt throu the counsaile of Parliament."

So

in

Dunbar's Gddin Terge, written about a century afterward
Full lustiely thir ladyis all in feir Enterit into this park of maist pleseir. * * * * *

And every ane of thir in grene arrayt And harp and lute full mirreyly they
In the same dialect

playt.

we

find

thairto

and

thairfra, thairfoir

and

thairefter, tharapone, thaimntill, &c.

Chaucer uses therto in the sense of " moreover," or " in addition to that" as in the Rime of Sir Thopas

He couthe hunt at the wilde' dere And ride an hauking forby the riuere
With grey goshauke on honde Therto he was a good archere.
llierefore,

which,

in

modern times,

is

commonly used

conjunctively,

occurs in a rude old English poem before quoted (Had. ful. 71), as signifying/or that

MSS.

2253,

Heo shulcn in belle on an hok Honge therefore.
In short, comparing the different authorities, ancient and modem, find that the word tliere, how ever variously spelt, did not originally

WQ

relate to place exclusively, lmt

was equally applied

to time, to persons,

and to events: and the .same may be said of thence and thither. Thenceforth, which we use with reference to time, agrees with the old
li

Of 1608, which

phrase fru thin I'urth, as in the following passage is, on many accounts, worthy of notice:
l/iin

in

the

Act

It in stntuto nnd onlanit that fru quhilkn ar within am- liiindnili iikj

firth na hnroun, frehaldar, DOT tent thai now i*, be oompeUH to cum pcmoiialy to tin- parliament, bot jifil bo that our •oturane Lord write specials mil bl mil.iuit I'm- than I'l'i'MHi •;, ami thai .nl (hair And faal) for tlliUllr. procurntour* to an*«o for thaim-, with the baroni* of the schire, or the maist |mt»oiiIh. And all that nr ibotM tin- OStOBt of nne liundivlh morkl to cum tli<< nidd \ nlaw. to the parllanx nt, \ mb-r the |.a
i

M

I

/

ihc
oit.-n (juoti'd

Anglo-Saxon and old English,
r>">)
im.<

thi\/,r,

as in the

poem

(Hail. .Mss. 2268, fbL
for
||
1.
i

<i.,.|

looo,
-nir.

Ll't

And

ns they

hud hideuard

I'm

" hitheiward," or " toward

this

place,"


CHAT.
XIII.]


OF ADVEIU)-.


247

" toward that place so they had thederwart for " thitherward," or
in

&e

ludicrous

poem

called "

The Hantyng of the Hare:"
t/n-<lrr>nirt.

:"

as

Thci toke no hede

But euery dogge on oder

start.

Where, whence, and whither. These words have also a similar Where analogy, together with this further peculiarity, that they serve inThus in the interrodifferently for interrogatives and subjunctives.
392.
gative
:

They continually say unto me, where

is

thy God

?

Fsa.
;

xlii. 3.

And

he said, Hagar, Sarai's maid, whence earnest thou

and whither
cri. 8.

wilt thou

go?

And

again in the subjunctive
Let no
I

man know
out, not

where ye be.

Jer. xxxvi. 19.

wist not whence they were.

Josh.

ii.

4.

He went

knowing whither he went.

Heb.

xi. 8.

We have already seen that the subjunctive force of the word where was not peculiar to it, but was sometimes expressed by the word We do not find this to be the case in English with the interthere. but in Greek the relative pronoun We rogative force of the same word
;

is also

an interrogative; as in St. Mark's gospel,

c.

ii.

v. G, 7

:

"Hirav

?e

TINES

Twv ypa^nre'wv
el

em

KaOi'ifievoi Ktil

EiaXoyt^cfievoi iv rale
;

Kupciuic

avroV

TI' ovtoc, ovTb)

\a\u
;

afiirat auapriae,

p)

els 6

Qeos

— " But

fiXaafTi/jiag

TIS

cvvarai

there were certain of the

scribes sitting there,

thus speak blasphemies

and reasoning in their hearts, why doth this man Who can forgive sins, but God only ?" ?

Hence

it

is

clear,

that the interrogative effect of a

require a peculiar form, any

more than the subjunctive.

quidam, which means " a certain person," " some one," are reciprocally connected with the interrogative qvis, and the subjunctive qui. Scaliger was of opinion that the Latin quis and qui were the Greek ical 6g and mi o and Tooke, probably thinking He to improve on this etymology, has only gone further in error. says, "As ut (originally written uti) is nothing but on; so is quod
;

word does not So the Latin and " aliquis," wliich means

(anciently written quodde) merely
Quodde,

ical 6tI

:

tuas laudes culpas nil proficis hilutn.

Lucilins.

" Qu in Latin being sounded not as the English, but as the French cat, by a change of the cha; pronounce qu, that is, as the Greek racter, not of the sound, became the Latin que, used only enclitically Hence ical uti became in Latin quotti, indeed in modern Latin.

K

quoddi, quodde, quod."
.

—The only foundation
;

for all these conjectures

seems to be, that

in the very nature of a subjunctive

pronoun some-

and as to the assertions thing equivalent to a conjunction is implied It respecting the Roman pronunciation they are perfectly gratuitous.
is

same as of

not very probable that the ancient pronunciation of qu was the on the contrary, it more probably resembled that of

K

;

—— — ——
248
X,


.

;

OF ADVERBS.

[CHAP.

XIII.

or rather of the Gothic O, which our Anglo-Saxon ancestors expressed by hw, the old Scottish writers by qiJi, and we by ich. Scaliger and Tooke forgot, that if their explanation might be thought to account for the subjunctive pronoun, or conjunction, it left the inter-

seems and other northern languages in employing the articulation marked by the JEoWc digamma, where the softer Greek dialects omitted that articulation thus the Greek otvoe. was the Latin vinum and Gothic wein the Greek ol was the Latin vce and Gothic icai ; and lastly, the Greek aspirated pronouns ij, o, were the Latin quae, quo, and the Gothic hwa, hwo. It is manifest that where did not originally refer to place alone, any more than here or there did; but, like those words, was originally a pronoun signifying this or that ; for in its composite forms it often signifies no more than those pronouns, the substantive to which it refers Thus we have being usually expressed, but sometimes understood. " wliereabout, for " about which business Let no man know any thing of the business whereabout I send
;

rogative pronouns and adverbs quite unexplained

and the

fact

to be, that the Latin language originally agreed with the Gothic

;

thee.

1

Sum.

xxi. 2.

Whereto, for " to which thing"
It shall

prosper in the thing whereto

I

sent

it.

IsaiaJi lv. 11.

Whereby, for
There
is

"by

which

name"

Wl must be

none other name under heaven given among men whereby saved. Acts iv. 12.

Wherefore, for " for which cause" What is the cause wherefore ye are come ?

Acts

x. 21

All these compounds may be employed interrogatively, (ami indeed the subjunctive use of some of them has at present become rather >>'>solete,)
11

bat

place."

—Thus
he

in this

wherebi/

form also they are not necessarily significant is osed (or "by what mean?

ot

Eeflherku Mid unto the nngel, whereby shall

1

know

this?

Luke

i.

18.

Wherefore, for " for what reason?"

Now
to

is

dead wherefore should

I

fast?

2 Aim.

xii.

28.

be observed, however, that there are certain adverbs oon> It is jxMinded with where, which cannot be used interrogatively, such as
whereas, wherever, wheresoever
a,
in
1

but the reason is, that in these, as well ; whensoever, whithersoever, &c., the pronoun as and so, and the
i

M 00

ever, necessarily give tin u

a relative force

and

eilect

:

ye not spoken a lying divination, whereat ye sav,

Ths Lord
xiii. 7.

Mithil?
tfi

Exek.
th» poet with

you always: and whensoever ft

will ye

Jo
I

tliinn

good.

Murk
'_'

xiv. 7.

M

Lord I'rworvtd David whithersoever ho went.

Sum.

viii. 0.

Ii

would be impossible to OX]

w

passages interrogatively,


CHAP.
XIII.]

OF ADVERBS.

249

" whereas say ye?" " whensoever will ye?" " whithersoever did be go?" not on account of the meaning of the words "where," "when," or " whither," but of the others with which they are compounded. From what has been said, it is abundantly clear that the adverbs
here,
there, where,
lience,

thence,

whence,

hitfier,

thither,

and whither,

although in their modern and uncompounded use they principally express a conception of "place," yet did not really include the name ot any such conception in their original signification, but were the mere pronouns he, this, and what, diversely compounded, and assigned

by use
393.

to separate

and

distinct significations.

is to be observed of the adverbs Then and ^Wn. When, which have been above noted, as principally signifying time. We have not, indeed, the word Hen for "at this time," though it Thus, in the occurs in old English for hence, i. e., from this place. scoffing ballad made on the defeat of Henry III. at Lewes, in 1264, and which, from its tenor, must have been composed very soon after

The very same

the event,

we

find the following lines

He

The gold ant the

hath robbed Engeloud the mores ant the fenne selver ant yboren henne.

" he," and hun is " she ;" and StierxUlph. Goth., p. 85), speaking of the Gothic word hand, as in hana hrukida, "the cock crew," (Matth. xxvi. 74,) says, Omnia avis rnascida dicitur hana, ab han, Me, et famina hoxa, ab hox, ilia ; " every male bird is called hana, from han, he ; and every female Hence we may infer, that the element en bird hbna, from lion, she." was compounded in some of the northern dialects, as we have already seen that er was, viz., with he, the, and who, producing /ten, then, and when, as well as here, there, and wliere, all of them originally pronouns, and all used in a restricted sense by an ellipsis of the words

Hann,

in the Icelandic, is

iiei.m (Gloss.

time, place,

&c,

as adverbs.

In the Gothic, used for " now."
manifestly

Than is both "then" and "when," and yuthan is Than is also used for autem, tit, " but ;" and it is nothing more than the article or pronoun thana, or thami,

answering to the Greek rbv, or bv, as Seimon
~Lip.u)va

thana

haitanan Zeloten,
called

TO N
v

KaXovfxevov
vi.

ZtjXwtj/j',

"Simon, who (was)

;

15); thaxei wildedun, "ON ifiikov, "whom they would," (Matth. xxvii. 15). Than, for "those," is still used in manv parts of Scotland thynfurth we have seen in the old dialect of that country, for "thenceforth," which, in the parliamentary articles of 1461 above quoted, is written " thensforth :" and as henne was used, in old English, for " hence," so thenne was used for thence, i. e., from
Zelotes,"

(Luke

;

that place; as in Christ's Descent into Hell

Nas non

so holy prophete,

Seththe Adam & Eue the appel ete, Ant he were at this worldes syne, That he ne moste to helle pyne Ne shulde he neuer thenne come, Nere Jesu Crist Godes sone.
:


250
OF ADVERBS.

— ——
[CHAl.
XIII.

is the Gothic hican, which is used for the Latin quando, quo quantum, quam, and is manifestly the same as JucaiHi, quern, "whom;" as hwaxa soh'ith, " ichom seek ye?" (John xviii. 4.) As the Gothic than and hican, and the old English there and where were often used convertibly, so were then and when ; and in the Harleian MSS. (No. 2253, fol. 55, b.) we find the for when

When

niain,

The he com
«''>>

there, tho seide he.

394.
identity

It will

not be necessary to use

of origin between
;

Why

much argument in proof of the and the words before mentioned,

where, when, &c.

it is

who.

In modern usage

manifestly only another form of the pronoun we do not oppose thy (in the sense of this

cause) to

why ; but
iciththy.

this

mode

forthy and
the

Forthy occurs

of expression occurs in the old words in the Scottish Act of 1424, in

two

Bruce

senses of

"because" and "therefore."

So

in

Barbour's

But God

that most is of all might Preserved thame in his forsight To ven<re the hfirm and the oofitrair That those fell folk and pnntener Did to simple folk and worthy, That couth not help theniselven forthy They were like to the Maccabeis.
;

The same author seems to use nought for thy " nevertheless," as
And nought for th;i, thoeht they ba feil, God may rirht weil our werdiv. deil.
* *
not for
th>/

in

the sense of

*

*

*

And

thair faes then w. re

Ay twa

for ane that they

had that.

So he

uses with thy for " provided," or
AihI
\\'it/i
I

"on

this condition"

n]
thy

I'e

iii

your helping

y

'_i\e

DM

all

the lolld

That ye have
in all

neii into
is

your bond.
reason, or con-

which instances

/////

.simply this, viz., cause,
1

dition,

those substantives lx»ing underst

h\

the sort

of

ellipsfi

already explained.

805.

How

is

simplv the pronoun

ir/io,

or hwa, sometimes written
L"J77,
fol,

ii

old English ho; as In the HarhaUffi
!

MS.
.-nte,

1—

among

All''

other dnyo* goda fbrto bold* heghe
iiini

iio so

radsntod*.

And

as

we have
we

vcrtiblv, ho

aeon the pronoun that, and the adverb as, used confind hem In the old Scottish dialect used where if

.should i-m|.l.iy to^ov

as; e.g.housone, for ''so soon as"
RJVhte,

Thnt houMorw ony

001 ckms, Of 0MSH) happyiiiiis

to bl

!tum,

itc.

BoottiiA ioff,

A.i'.

156**

;

CHAP.

XIII.]

OF AUVERBS.

251
'

have thus traced, at some length, the English adverbs of GNaml mterfcnte place, time, &c, have shown them to be no other than the demonstrative and subjunctive pronouns, appropriated by custom to certain distinct significations but though the particular applications are matter of mere idiom, and vary, as has been seen, considerably in the same
396.
I
;

country at different periods

;

yet in most,

if

not

all

languages, the

same general principle is to be traced. In most, if not all, the words which are employed as adverbs of time, place, manner, and cause, are
pronouns with little or no variation of form. In Latin, from the pronoun is, ea, id, come the adverbs
ibi, alibi,

ibidem, inch, proinde, ita, itaque, ideo, iccirco, eo, adeo, eorsum, uspiam,

nusquam, &c. From hie, hcec, hoc, come hinc, hue, adhuc, huccine, horsum, hodie, antehac, posthac, hacpropter, &c. From ilk, ilia, illud, come illic, illico, illuc, Mine, olim, &c. From qui, qua?, quod, come quo, quoque, quam, quando, quia, quamvis, quare, quin, quidem, cum, cur, and probably ubi, ubivis, alicubi, &c. It is needless to trace the pronominal adverbs in Greek but it
;

curious to observe the same principle in the Persian language, in which the pronouns are een, this ; aun, that ; he, who
che,

may be somewhat
which.
een,

From From
•then."

"

this," are

aun,
he,

"that;"

derived eenjd, " here," eensii, " hither." dnjd, "there;" dnsu, "thither;" anqdh,

^

j

;

"which;" chun, "how, or when?" chend, "how "wherefore?" hemchun, "so as," &c. (See Sir William Jones's Persian Grammar and compare pages 32 and 33, with 93, 94, 95, and 96.) 397. The numeral pronouns supply a class of adverbs, which are not very numerous in any language. Verbs of action represent conceptions which may be often repeated. If it be meant to limit the action to a single instance, the conception of the number one must be expressed, and so of any other number, and to this is added, either expressly, or, at least, in the mind, the conception of time. Thus we 8By " he marched six times through Spain ;" he conquered more than twenty times in pitched battles ;" " he was twelve times crowned with laurel." In most languages it is unnecessary to express the conception
che,

From From many?"

"who;" cu

or cujd, " where," "whither."

chera,

;

Numeral*.

of time in connection with the lower numbers, the numerals themselves supplying an inflection, by which that conception is perfectly
understood.
.are

Thus are produced our adverbs once, twice, thrice, which no other than the old genitives onis, twyis, threyis. The Latin

language is more felicitous in this respect ; it has decks, vicies, centies, and millies, to express ten times, twenty times, a hundred times, and a thousand times. In a poem of the time of Henry VI., entitled, " How the wyse man taght hys son" (Harl. MSS. 1596), is the line
For and thy wyfe

may

owjs aspye.


252
In

OF ADVERBS.
Alisaunder
T"->ics is

[CHAP. XIII.

Kyng


somer
*
in that londe.

#

*

*

Ye haveth him

twyes overcome.

With
one
is

respect to the adverb once, however, it is to be noted, that as not always opposed to two or three, or any specific number, but

sometimes merely to many ; so once does not always signify " at one time," as opposed to two, three, or any other number of times, but merely " at some time " different from the present. Thus, when the
poet Wordsworth says of Venice,
Once did she hold the gorgeous East
in fee,

he means to contrast the greatness of a former time with the degradation of the present. As if he had said, although at this present time she lies so low, there was one other period, at least, in her history,

which presented a far different and great, famous and powerful

picture.

At

that time she

was

rich

—————
And none

Koto

lies

she there,

so poor to do her reverence.

Nor is this signification confined to the time past. means some uncertain time as applied to the future. Merry Wives of Windsor

Once Thus,

e<[uallv

in the

I

pray thee, once to night, give

my

sweet

Nan

this ring.

Nearly the same

effect is given in Latin to the

adverb

olim,

which

means someone point of time, cither pastor future; and seems tfl have the same connection with the relative article, as our word once
has with the positive; for olim appears to be derived from die, which

Qged fbf JBf, and which, in the plural, was written Boyal Law Si jiirrntis puer vcrlterit, ast olok phrastint. The numerals here spoken of are those called cardinal: but the ordinals also supply a certain class of adverbs, as thirdly, fourthly, JiJ'hly, ^c, which are tunned from the adjectives third, fourth, Jifth, &c, by adding the termination ly, before explained. In the Latin language, the correspondent words tcrtio, quartb, &C., are manifestly the adjectives lectins, ,/imrtus, ke., with the termination of the ablathe early
doe, as
,n
tli-:

Komans

In English, too, we use the adjective first, adverbially any alteration. It has been observed above that the first of the ordinal DUinbei ...eiierallv appeal' not to be taken from the names of the cardinal numbers; thus we do not say in English the i<nith the tiKH-th, nor in Latin unitus, iluitus, nor in (ireek l roror, tive case.

without

,

t


;

but in these languages respectively, first, second, primus, secun-

dux, mpAlVtt CivrifHn;: and wlnn we look to the etymology ef these shall be inclined to suspect that the) are in their origin
.inipler, and then fore, the ordinal inimlicrs.
_//<•, lh.
In
p'

ihap

,

earlier than tin- adjective, taken
first is

from
all

The word

manifestly the superlative of
"I
tlial

t.l.iii',..!

...in.', to!

//</.

U

111'

h

I

;

A.y.Vc

CHAP.
others.

XIII.]

OF ADVERBS.
is in like

253

The Latin primus

word
est

pri.

Scaliger, speaking of the

manner the superlative of the old word primus, says, Superlativum
:

; nam pri vetus vox fuit, sicut ni postea latiore vocali fusa? sunt nk, vrje, wide Adverbium, pridem ; comparativum, prius superlativum, primum. So the Greek ttpwtog is the superlative of the prepo;

formed thus, 7rporaroe, TtphaToq, and (the 6a shown to be contracted into w) irpdroc As to the preposition irpo, it answers exactly to the Latin pro?, before, primarily with regard to time or place, and secondarily to order, or what we call preference. The word irpui, indeed, is used for the first dawn of day but this appears to be merely a contraction from irpwi, which, however, is undoubtedly connected with icpd nor can there be much doubt that the three radicals to which I have alluded, viz., pri, pro, and for, have all one common origin. 398. If there be a doubt whether any one particular class of words Vert*, can be used adverbially, that doubt must apply to the Verbs. In English, the words to which this doubt applies are either of uncertain etymology or else their use is rather conjunctional or interjectional than adverbial. The adverb Yet has been considered to be the imperative mood of the Anglo-Saxon verb gytan, or getan, to get ; but it is not very evident how this imperative can be applied to the different senses in which the word get is used. The adverbs ado and together have an obvious affinity with the verbs do and gather ; but it is not easy to trace them directly to any particular part of those verbs. Ado is well known in English from the name of the popular drama, Much Ado
sition 7rpo, being

by the circumflex accent

;

;

;

about Nothing.
preface to
pression "

Gawin
it

In the Scottish dialect too it is very ancient. In the Douglas's translation of the .<Eneid we find the exhas nathing ado therewith." The adverb Together has a

manifest relation to the verb gather, which, however, we now use with some diversity of meaning. The adverb and the verb rather seem to
refer to

pears in a
een
,

some common origin, which does not exist in English, but apmore simple form in Dutch, in which gade is a consort, as dug/ en haare gade, " a dove and her mate ;" gadeloos, matchless
;

gadelyk, sortable, &c.

399. Yes and No may be referred to the class of verbal adverbs, if Affirmative they properly belong to this part of speech, which I am inclined to Native, think they do ; though a very able philologist considers them as " referable to none of the current parts of speech," but requiring by accurate grammar to be placed " in a class by themselves." * Doubtless they stand alone in construction, and are equivalent, each of them, to a whole sentence ; but that sentence is elliptical, and, I apprehend, that the verb understood in it is modified by the adverb expressed. In the language of gesture nothing can be more*simple, more universal, or more frequent than the expressions of assent or dissent, the former by a nod of the head, the latter by a shake of the head. In the words
* Latham, Eng. Lang. § 259.

254

OF ADVERBS.

[CHAP. XIII.

of our Saviour, too, the verbal expressions are as short and distinct as possible "Erw Be b Xoyoe vfiiLv Nat, vat, Ov, ou. " Sit autem " Let your communication be Yea, sernio tester, Est, est, Ndn, non. In the Gothic, " Siyai than icaurda izwar Ya, ya, yea, Nay, nay."
:

Ne, ne." Yet it is remarkable, that in classical literature generally such simple expressions of assent or dissent seldom or never occur, at
least in

the plain

and

direct

mode

in

them.

One would expect

to find frequent use of them, if

which we constantly employ anywhere,

where the reasoning of Socrates is so generally canned on by interrogation. But, on the contrary, the answers are tor the most part given in such terms as"Eort ravra, " These things arc so;" Ovk iotiv, "it is not;" IIwc oov, "how not?" tL ^n)v, "what ;" else?" Ilavv fiiv ovv, "wholly so;" Ev Xe'yetc, "you say well oiJrwe, "just so ;" oi/ca/iwc, " by no means;" "Eoike ye 7rw<;, " at least 'tis rather probable ;" ovk toiicev, " 'tis not probable ;" (paai yovv, " so Some^oyov, " why, 'tis reasonable." at least they say ;" tL
in Plato's Dialogues,

"&x

"Y^P
is

times, indeed, the answer

by the short word Nat
implying,

;

but

this,

though
respon-

translated "yea," in the text above quoted, conveys to a classical car,

somewhat of a
sively, rather

less positive assertion;

when used

a submission to the person addressed than a confident assertion of the party using it: ex. gr. Qvkovv 6p§Cos,l<pr)v, w .\ctl(tavrt; Nai, $ 3' oc, * Certainly,' said he."*
I not right,' said I, 'O Adimantus? understand the nature of the responsive words yes and no, we must advert to what has before been said of The interrogative sentences, and the interrogative mood of verbs. interrogator states a fact as unknown to or doubted by himself, in its pinral existence, or in some of its circumstances and he requires from pmident an assertion affirming or denying that which he has

"'Was
To

;

<ir unknown. The question proposed is simple oar Simple, the answer may be in the same words, mutatis The Greeks and mutandis, as the question: if complex it. cannot. Romans called the simple question 'Epwrrma, iiiterm/atio, and the

stated as doubtful

complex.

It'

complex, UitwuOfPtroontatioi which distinction maj be illustrated by Comparing the proceedings on a criminal trial by jury with those on a The simple question put to the jury in the former coroner's inquest. Case is an TipArsJiW. " ft 'he prisoner guilty?" and the answer mas-

be given in the very same words transposed, "The prisoner is guilty. The complex question in the other case is a II ixrfia. HoV) aid the Which ,d\ von an- to examine, come by his death? petSOn, who..* h :IS *'"' '"' dto by the act ox ran< h into II bj bin bj the bands of another? Qod? "i i.\ biaown
I..
i

i

own

hi
i|

he

at

the time sine, or insane?

If

by the hand,; q|
if

another.

that psflMO

known
h of
in

01
?

unknown
I.

?

If

known, was
i

A.,

I'.,

them
lii

And whatever
pi

the state of the lads
lie

an iweivd by

.iiiv

other
i.

simple

response,

With

• IMmI.., Stp,

i.

— —
CHAP.
XIII.
j

; ;


255
;

OF ADYEBB8.

complex questions, the words yes and no have nothing to do but supposing a simple question to be put, and answered affirmatively, by transposing its terms, as " Is there peace at present between France and England ?" " There is peace at present between France and England," it must immediately occur to any one that the answer would be perfectly intelligible, if all the words after " there is " were dropt an superfluous and equally so if the answer were " there is not." So, if it were asked, " Is it true that A. B. is guilty of the felony of which he stands indicted?" the full answer would be, " It is tme that A. B. is guilty of the felony of which he stands indicted," but it would be


;

The superequally intelligible to say briefly "it is," or "it is not." fluous words then would not long be retained in use and the brief
;

answers given would be exactly equivalent to yes or no : hence it is probable that these two words may have had some connection, historically, with the assertions " there is" and " there is not," or "it is" and " it is not." have in modern English three forms of the affirmative Tm 400. word in question, viz., Yes, Yea, and Ay; which last, from its imme- a>\" mortally exclusive use in Parliamentary voting, may probably have been at an early period of our history the most prevalent form. Be this as it may, I shall first examine certain explanations which have been given of yes, the word at present used on all ordinary Mr. Tooke labours to derive yes from the occasions, for affirmation. French ayez, " have it," " enjoy it." This is not the happiest of his etymologies, at least it is not one of the best supported for he quotes Chaucer's Romaunt of the Rose very much at random, in support of his

We

;

conjecture

:

And

after,

on the daunce went

Largesse, that set al her entent For to ben honorable and fre Of Alexander's kynne was she Her most joye was ywis, Whan tiiat she yafe, and sayd haue this.

Where Mr. Tooke
been translated
:

says, "

Which

might, with equal propriety, have

When

she gave, and said yes."

could not well have missed the spirit of his author more completely. Largesse, or liberality, is personified, like Timon, scattering her gifts on all sides, and not waiting for anv demand, to which she might answer, " yes." So we find, from the admirable scenes with Lucullus and Lucius, that Timon had been in the habit of surprising them with unexpected presents
frigid critic
:

The most

LUCULLUS. One of Lord Timon's men ? A gift, I warrant. Why, this hits right I dreamt of a silver bason and ewer to-night. Flaminius, honest Flaminius, vou are very respectively welcome, sir. (Fill me some wine.) And how does that
:

honorable, complete, and free-hearted gentleman of Athens, thy very bountiful

good lord and master?


256
OF ADVERBS.
[OTAP.
XIII.

Flam. His health is well, sir. Luccl. I am right glad his health
thy cloak, pretty Flaminius
?

******
is

well,

sii

— and what hast thou
much

there, under

Serv. May
Lucius.

it
!

please your honor,

my
?

lord hath sent
I

Ha

What hath he

sent

am

so

endeared to that lord
?

ever a sending.

How

shall

I

thank him, thinkst thou

—And what

he i* hath he sent
:

now?
In like manner, Largesse set
all

her pleasure in free, spontaneous,

and unexpected acts of bounty, with the munificence of a mighty monarch, another Alexander, surprising those whom she benefited by If our yes were derived from the sudden exclamation, " Have this !" ayez, we should find the latter word used in that sense in some of the French dialects but this circumstance nowhere occurs. Nor is it very clear, that the word ayez was used in French before yes was used since it appears to be a corruption of avez ; which was in English
; ;

taken from havez, or habez, part of the very ancient verb haben, of which the radical hab, in the sense of our word have, was common to for the Latin verb was the Latin with all the Gothic languages habere, the Majso-Gothic haban, the Anglo-Saxon habban and furhban, the Frankish, Alamannic, and modem German haben, the Icelandic
;

hafa, the Danish haffne, the Swedish hafwa, the Dutch hebben ; and it even seems to have been used in one dialect of the Greek language lot
:

Hesychius and Phavorinus prove that fi/3ctc was used for c^ctc, pe* ticularly by the Pamphylians, and from this root an infinity of nouns
are derived in the northern languages, as well as in the Semitic from It would therefore require some diligence of the Hebrew nin havah.
investigation, to discover at

what period
it

in the history of the

Frankish

or French language, the distinctive b or v of the radical

word was

dropped

in

the imperative ayez; and
all,

that ]>eriod, if at
use, inU) an

that the imperative
;

could not have been long after was converted, by common

adverb among the l-rench

and again, at a much

later

period, that this adverb was adopted from the Norman-French into the Norman-Saxon, from whence it must have descended to the

modern Knglish not one of the steps in which supposed progress has nor is it probable that the attempt, Mr. Tooke attempted to verify if made, would have led to any confirmation of his conjectural I>r. Johnson derives yes from the Angloetrmologj of the word yrs. ptf, and indeed the word is found in that language written Supposing then that our yes may yite, yeac, yyse, with the Saxon 3. remains to lx> seen whether the 01 num. di.itels defiV*d fifOfl) (MM, >uree should lie and here latter word can be traced
;

;

it

;

I

dlepceed to avail myself

ol the
1,

JAContraet
,'ii,

:

,

\ plains yej suggestion of Junius (wl ,,i.u .it least as to derive the Saxon yese

uhieh seems to have lieen a ven ancient afiirmative in that Mr. Tooke indeed language, and is Identical with our present ,'/'''/. -ei, that //' and yen a very dillcreni origin, the one being -eil, avoir, the other from Borne northern verb (he from ti
;i
t

:

CHAP.

XIII.]

OF ADVERBS.

257

Now, does not exactly determine which) that signifies " to own." Verbs of this signification are also very numerous, as well as the adjecThus the Gothic verb is tives and substantives derived from them. the aigan, the Anglo-Saxon agan, whence our verb to owe is derived Icelandic eiga, the Swedish a>ga, the Alamannic eigan, and with these Nor is the adjective less probably the Greek i\tiv has some affinity. In Gothic it is aigin, in general, with the sense of own, proprius. Anglo-Saxon agen, whence the old Scottish awin, and old English owen, the Alamannic eigan, the Danish eget, the Icelandic eyga, and the Dutch eygen. It does not, however, happen in these languages generally, that the affirmative adverb, or interjection, has the form of any Our yea is part of the verb, or indeed much resemblance to it. undoubtedly the Ma>so-Gothic ya, yai, old German ya, yo, AngloSaxon ya, yea, Icelandic, Swedish, Danish, German, and Dutch, ya ; from which various words are derived in several of those languages, as the Gothic yaithan, to approve, and frayethan, to disapprove ; the
;

Icelandic yaord, consent,

leyahen, to affirm

;

the Swedish beyaka, to
It

affirm; the

German

yaher, a comply er; yawort, a consent, &c.

seems also to be connected with the Sanscrit affirmative particle (as it has been called) ya, yai* Some grammarians derive it from the Hebrew jah (or yah) Jehovah; but this can hardly be taken in its plain and literal sense. The Hebrews surely would not have profaned the name of the Almighty by introducing it into common and trivial discourse and the heathens, who could learn the sacred appellation only through the Hebrews, can less probably be supposed to have adopted it. The only way in which it seems that this etymology can be at all supported is by reference to the verb rpfl hayah, to be, with which the name of the great " I Am" has no doubt a connection, as the Being of Beings, He who alone is of himself, and the cause of being to all things that exist. In the Moeso-Gothic there is an evident connection between ya and the pronouns and adverbs of pronominal origin, so, it, this, and that
;

Ya-ins Ya-ind Ya-thau

(iHe)
(illuc)

(forsan)
(si)

Ya-u

Yu

(jam)

" this man," " to that place," " it may be so" " be it, that," " at this time."

In point of signification ya or yea agrees with the Greek ovruQ, and the Latin sic ; both which are connected with pronouns, and both

employed as words of responsive affirmation. Thus Socrates, arguing with Alcibiades that the soul, and not the body, is the true self, says, Oarig apa t&v tov o-w/mroe ri yivwaKei, ra avroii, a\X' ov% avrov tyv(x)K£v " Whosoever then knows his body, knows what belongs to himself; but does not know himself f\ to which Alcibiades replies, OtJrwe as if he had said, " it is so ;" " it is as you say." The Latin

;

* Bopp, Comp. Gram. §§ 371, 385.

t plato »

*'

irst Aloib. c»

26.


258
sic,

S
[CHAP. XIII

OF ADVERBS.
like the

modern Italian si, was used as we employ yes. The gra by which it reached this power of expression, may be collected from the following passages in Terence, to be sic est factum sic e&
dations

sic.
i.

ii.

iii.

" Quid narras ? Sic est factum!'' What (tale) do yo The fact is so.* tell ? M Daturen ilia Pamphilo hodie nuptum ? Sic est." Is sh It is so."j" given to Pamphilus to be married ? " Itane ais Phanium relictam solam ? Sic." What d

you say
(t. e.

that

Phanium was
so)4

left

by

herself?

yes, I say

The Greek ovtwq
"
this

person
se,

pronoun

is a mere adverbial form of the pronominal ovrot and the Latin sic is in like manner connected with th which in the dative is siJri, and with the verb sit, whic
:"

was

anciently written

si-et.

Besides the mere expression of acquiescence in a question or d( mand, yea has, in its modem use, a particular force which answers t the Latin imo ; and irrio, it is to be observed, is really the pronou im, which occurs constantly for eum in the remaining fragments of th Laws of the Twelve Tables ; as, " si im aliquips occisit, pure ccesu
esto," sativo, sed

where Macrobius says ab eo quod est is, non eum, casu acci im dixerunt. In this sense of the word yea, Milton says
:

They durst abide Jehovah thund 'ring out of Sion, thron'd Between the cherubim yea, often plae'd
Within his sanctuary
It
is

itself their shrines.

somewhat remarkable, in the English idiom, that the word na would think, of yea) is used in the \< try sam Thus Dry den say: sense as that which we have just described.
(the antipodes, as one " This allay of Ovid's writings
excellences;
is

sufficiently
is

recompensed by

his otlu

not without its beauties." Wht more singular, lien .lonson uses both yea and nay with th is still goo same augmentative force in one and the same sentence: " man always profits by his endeavour; yea, when he is absent; nat

my,

this very fault

A

when dead, by his example and memory." In all these passages, |fV seems still to l>car its relation to the pronoun thu for the meaning " they dmt abide JeboVlh thundering out of Sion this they did an " A good man prolits by his endeavours this he dot often more." when present, and even when absent:" and the word nay only scrv< still further to complete the same sense for, in the iustuiic.es ubo\ quoted, the meaning is, " the alhn "i Ovid's writings is recompense this is the ea.-.e, and nut only this, but ihever DJ '.tli'i excelled* <^ fault has its beauties." "A good man profits ns by his endetVQH when ibfttJ '/" b* does, and w>t only this, but even when he dead, we profit by his example aud his memory."
; ii
;

;

;

:

:

• A<le!|>hi,

a. 3, «c. 4.

f And., ». 2,

»c. 1.

J IVV.nn.,

2

so. 2.


CHAP.
XIII.]
is still


OF ADVERBS.

;

259

one more use of yea, which confirms the view here taken of its import as in the third chapter of Genesis " Yea ? Hath God said, ye shall not eat of every tree in the garden ?"* Here the word yea has an interrogative force and means " is this so Do vou say this namely, that God hath forbidden you to eat of every tree ? In fine, the conception always expressed by yea is that of true and affirmative existence. Hence Dr. Hammond, explaining the passage I all the promises of God in him are yea and amen" (2 Cor. i. 20), says, " that is, they are verified, which is the importance of yea ; and confirmed, which is meant by amen." Now, the conception of positive

There

;

;

V

existence, as applied to a particular thing or event, is expressed by the words " it is," or " this is ;" and if there be an ellipsis of either word, the same conception may be expressed by the other word. In this view of the subject, it seems not unreasonable to conclude that the word ya may have been originally used either as a pronoun, or as a part of the verb of existence and it is to be remembered, that in many, perhaps in all languages, the verb of existence is merely expressed by a pronoun.
;

m and nay, are derived from some more ancient common
fias

Ay appears to be merely yea, a little varied in pronunciation, Dr. Johnson, indeed, suggests that it may be derived from the Latin aio but it is more probable that the Latin aio and nego, and the English
origin.

Ay

from yea, as yea has from \ies ; but this is no more remarkable than the different force and effect which, as we have already seen, is given in different cases to the same word, yea. In the following passage from Shakspeare's Henry VI. ay expresses somewhat more of passionate and proud reproof, than if the word yea were employed Remember it and let it make thee crest-fall'n
slight differences of application
: ;

some

;

Ay, and abate
A.s

this thy abortive pride.

T;

yea appears to have been a variation of ay, so was ay varied into but without any change of meaning
:

Hath Romeo

slain

himself?

And that bare voivel, I, shall Than the death-darting eye of cockatrice.

Say thou but I; poison more
Borneo and Juliet.
it is

With

respect to the other adverb aye, "always" (for

a totally

have occasion to consider it hereafter. 401. Our No and Nay belong to a very large class of negatives, n vhich are found in almost all the languages which have been called "** ndo-European, ex. gr. the Sanskrit and Zend na, Persian ne, Latin
lifferent

word),

we

shall

.

10,

Id

non, Russian, Polish, and Bohemian ne, nie, neni, Gothic and German ne, Anglo-Saxon na, ne, no, Low Saxon neh, Icelandic, push, and Swedish, ney, Dutch neen, German nein, nie, Italian no, on, French non, nenni, Spanish ne, &c, with all their compounds and .erivatives. The conception which enters into the signification cf all
to,

* Genes,

iii.

1.

32


260
these words
being, as
it

OF ADVERBS.
is

[CHAP. XII
in

an universal and primary one
all

the

human mind
Tl
1

were, the bound and limit of

other conceptions.

Brasses on this subject " Man, in order to communicate his perceptions, has occasion express, not only existing objects, and the manner of their existeno but also in what manner they do not exist. And so with regard
1

following are the remarks of the President

De

feelings,

he has occasion to make known whether they are agreeab
it.

to his will, or not agreeable to
classes of objects,

It is necessary then, that besid<
differs!
1

the different radicals serving to express positive ideas, and

he should have another radical, which may serve express a negative idea ; appropriated merely to indicate that what 1 describes is not in what he wishes to describe. One single radic will always suffice for that effect, to whatever object it may be applie< Negation being an absolute and privative sensation, a mere counte assertion, it is quite enough that we have one vocal, sign, one organ articulation, to advertise the hearer, that what we say is not iu tl subject of which we speak." Having already adverted to the concej
tion of negation generally,
child, in the first
it is

sufficient here to observe, that ever

glimmering of reason, must necessarily form such conception, and that it does in fact acquire, among its first articulal sounds, the sound which expresses that conception. The child has i
distinct a conception that its nurse
is

not present, or that

its

food
]

not agreeable to

its

palate, as

it

has of the opposite circumstances.
is

may

]ierhaps

lie

urged, that this negative conception
;

in

its

ver

nature adjectival
attribute to

that

it

some other conception which

can only be applied in the manner of a is of a substantive natim
Brasses, " de former un Norn absolumei

" JI

est

impossible" says
e'est

De

privatif;
positive."

a

dire,
is

une

locution,

qui ne contienne pas une idee vraimei

"
;

privative

impossible to form a noun (substantive) absolute! that is to say, an expression which does not contain a
It

least the adjectival conceptio other conceptions of the sain class, to modify substantives, adjectives, verbs, and adverbs: thus w may apply the negative words or particles no, not, and un, to modii the substantive man, the verb fe, the adjective wise, or the adver

idea really positive."

Be

it

so

;

but at
all

may

be applied,

in

the

manner of

always, in the following phrases

J

No man
Man
.Man
is

is

always wise.
wise always.
uiiwi'm.

is tint

always
never wi

Man
Tindill,

is

«

(

Lei at HO

time wise).
in

nut forms of negation are confounded

most languages*

dkdecta.

Tha

Latin ne, non, and ncc woro in early tunes used indi
tin-

v,
th"
find
'"'«

and so weiv
f'»r

Law* of Numa
ne
:

I'oiiipilm:;,

Knglish ne, no, not, nor. In a fragments preserved by I'ulvius Ursinus, W

fw\ It

..

<

'

•,.,

,;-|

t.infn


CHAP.
XIII.]


26
Tribunitian

1

OF ADVERBS.
first

Again,

in

a fragment of the

Law,

nee

is

used for ne
:

Sci quis aliuta faxsit aim pequnia familiaq sacer estod im oxcisit paricida NEC estod.

sei quis

Again,

in the

Laws

of the Twelve Tables

Patris familias quei en do testato moritor quoique sows heres
escit.

NEC

In old English ne was used for not and for nor. i. For not in the Harleian MS. 2253, fol. 70,

b.—
same

Ne mai
ii.

no lewed lued libben in londe.

For nor
fol.

in the

Prophecy of Thomas
shal this be ?
in thine

De

Essedoune, in the

volume,

127—
Whenne
Nouther
tyme, ne in myn.

No was
i.

used

in the

For not

in

same two senses. the romance of Alisaunder



and nor
for than

Alisaunder and his folk alle No had noght passed theo halvendall.
ii.

For

nor, in the Description

of Cokaygne
no bench.
is

Ther

nis halle, bure,

In the Scottish dialect nae or no

used for

not,

They're nae sae wretched's ane wad think. Tica Dogs. Burns. Compleitly, mair sweitly Scho fridound flat and schairp, Nor muses, that uses Alex. Montgomery, circ. 1597. To pin Apollo's harp.

The particle ne, which forms part of our modern words none, never, &c. was anciently incorporated with many verbs, as, / not, for " I ne wot," or " know not ;" / nabbe, for " I ne have ;" / nvlle, for " I ne will ;" / nolde, for " I ne would;" it nis, it nas, it nere, for " it ne is," " it ne was," " it ne were :" The hors vanisheth I not in what manere.
Chaucer.
I

Sq. Tale.
fol.

nul soffre that no more.

Ibid.

55, b.

Uch a srewe wol hire shrude Tha he nabbe nout a smok, &c. Whil God wes on erthe And wandrede wyde, What was the reson

Ibid. fol. 61, b.

Why

he nolde ryde

?

For he nolde no grome To go by ys syde.

Harl.

MS. 2253,

fol.

124, b.

Ther

nis londe vnder heuenriche.

Harl.

MS.

913.

that he nas

wenemyd anon.

Lyf of Seint

Patrik.

Wymmen

were the best thing That shup our heye heune kyng Yef feolc false nere.

Harl.

MS. 2253,

fol.

71.

402.

It

is

sufficient for

the general purposes of communicating

262
Double
Negative.

OF ADVERBS.

[CHAP. XIII.

thought, that the negative conception should be once expressed in a simple sentence but we generally find it redoubled in old English, a circumstance derived from the Anglo-Saxon idiom, as, Ne om ic na The same idiom prevails Crist, " I am not the Christ" (John i. 20). in the modem French, although it was not always observed in that
;

In the sixteenth century they said, language at an earlier period. " Vhdbit ~sy:faict le moyne :" at present the same proverb is expressed It is difficult to account for the thus, " T habit NE/a# pas le moine." reduplication of the negative upon any other principle than that of the eager desire, which we commonly see in barbarous and ignorant people, to give utterance to their strong feelings and imperfect conceptions, and which usually leads to much tautology in their discourse. Tint genuine result of barbarism, however, has been sometimes mistaken and critics have dignified it with for a proof of extraordinary learning the title of an Archaism, a Hellenism, or some such pompous appella" The editor of Chaucer," says Hickes, " knowing nothing oi tion. antiquity, asserts that the poet imitated the Greeks in using tut negatives to express negation more vehemently whereas Chaucei was entirely ignorant of the Greek language, and only used the fcwc negatives according to the prevailing custom of his own times, when the language had not yet lost its Saxonisms, as, " I ne said none ill.'
;

;

In the Saxon writers, indeed, three and even your successive negatives NE yeseah i\\v.i m: nan man (iod :" And again, " Ne nan nk i. 18). dorste of tham dxvge hyne nan thing mare axiyean, ;" " and no man
are sometimes to be found, as, " "710 man ever saw God" (John

durst from that day forth ask him any more questions" (Matth. xxii, It is to be observed, however, that some of the besl of these 46). writers, and particularly the royal translator of liede's Keclesiastieal and such also is the History, generally employ but a single negative
;

uniform style of that venerable
Cdde.v
SuIhUiUiy*.
Art/niitfiis.
last

monument of Gothic

literature

tin

adverbially, are

class of separate words, which I shall notice as used nouns substantive. It is manifest that substantive! may be used in the formation of compound words to express the attributes of attribute!. Thai stone, in its primary sense, is a substantive, and blind is an adjective; but in the compound stone-blind, the former pari of the word modifies the latter, as much as if we were to say, "a

408. The

al'"a y,

or stonelike blindness."

In

[Ike

manner, substantives standing
modifying either a verb or an

alone

maybe
00
ui
1

taken
latter

adveri/ially,

ai

adjective.
init
it

The
11.

mode

is

the

less

common

in
:

modern English,

is

common

in

tmfreqoeodv in the older dialects the former mode most languages. The adverbial use of the substantive
i

I
I

verb, so

wh.it
It

1

.

..

1

1

1

1

.

1-

>

the

ulilidive

absolute,

of the

11

eramiiianiuis.
it

aaatrtin^
elliptical,

to

ad
th.
I

and
.11.

conception simply, without The construction is consequently i of ooi t" exist. ense mil) always be mON I'ullv expressed l>v adding
expresses

a

ii. ill

illustrate this

by a

tingle example,


CHAP.
XIII.]

— —
OF ADVKlIliS.

263
While.

is the Gothic and Anglo-Saxon hwila, and Alaniannic a certain space of time, which seems to be of the same origin as our wheel, in the Anglo-Saxon hxceol, Danish and Swedish hiul, Icelandic hiool, and Dutch wiel, which are derived, by J. Davies, from the Welsh chicyl, turning, and seem to have some affinity with nor is there any more the Latin volvo, and Gothic walwyan, to roll apt or more common symbol of time than the continual rolling of a Be this as it may, the word while in English and weile in wheel. German is used substantively for a space of time, as in German es ist So in the eine gute weile, " it is a good while," or " a long time." relation of the meeting of Joseph with his father Jacob (Gen. xlvi. 29), " he fell on his neck, and wept on his neck a good while" find the English adverb while used to modify verbs with reference to various

404.

While

uuila, time, or

;

We

portions of time, ex. gr.
i.

:•

ii.

During the whole continuance of a given time. During a certain time to be terminated in future.

iii.

At

different intervals of time.

iv.

For a short space of time,

"I will sing praises unto my God, while I have any being," (i. e. during the whole time that I exist), Psalm cxlvi. v. 2. In the Scottish Act of Parliament, 1587, the enactment is ordained So in Alexander to last " Ay, and quhil His Hienes nixt parliament."
Montgomery
:

Cum
The

se

now,

in

me now
fyrt.

butterllie

And

and oudli) as scho flies quhyl scho be

In this sense, which at present exists only in provincial usage, while .states a time with a definite future termination, ex. gr. until the meeting of the Parliament, or until the insect be burnt.

The

third use

is

also provincial,

times," as in the well-known anecdote of an English traveller,

been confined at a village
rain,

in

and answers to our word " somewho had Scotland several days together by the

rain here replied with a smile, " Hoot, na it
!

and who, at length, tishly, " What does it

losing his patience, asked the landlord pet-

always?" To which the other snaws whyles." The fourth use occurs often in our translation of the Scriptures, as when Samuel said to Saul, " Stand thou still awhile that I may show thee the word of God" (1 Sam. ix. 27). The same idiom occurs in the Goldin Terge of Dunbar
! :

Acquentance new embrasit me a quhyle, And favourt me till men micht gae a myle, Syne tuk bir lief, I saw hir nevir mair.

In a very ancient English love-song, whyle is used in this sense without (Haii. MSS. 2253, fol. 63, b.) the article.
Betere
is

tholien whyle sore

Then mournen euermore.


204
It is

OF ADVERBS.

[CHAP. XIII

in the German language the not used adverbially in the same senses as ichile h in English, yet it has the same adverbial, or rather conjunctional sense, Thus the German wei< that we give in matters of reasoning to since. implies the consequence or dependence of one fact on another, at Weil ers verlanget, so soil ershaben: "since he desires it he shal have it." The word since has the primary signification of time, from the Anglo-Saxon sith, and old English sitlie, as in Chaucer

somewhat remarkable that though
iceile is

substantive

And such he was

iproved ofte sithes.

The word
the obsolete

season

is

also used

by old authors

to signify time, as

\i

word

stound.

we

In the Morale Proverbes of Crystyne, printed by Caxton, A.D. 1478, find the expressien long saison for "a long while," or "a long

time

:"—

A temperat man
May

cold from hast asseured not lightly lonj saison be miseured.

So in the Dictes and Sayings of PhilosopJiers, printed 1477, " Then was that season in my company a worshipful gentleman called Lewis
de Bretaylles." Stound occurs adverbially
in

Octouian Imperator


re-

Men hlamede

the bochere oft stoxuvlys For his sone.

The compounds of
quire no explanation.

while

still in

use such as meanwhile, erewhile,

They

plainly express the conception of time,

and signify "in the meantime," "sometime before," &c. Kivwhik was anciently written whilere, and so we find in the different old dialects whilom and umquhill, which both agree with the old word
sometime for M formerly."
KwapitoU-

405. Thus are the considerations exhausted, which aviso out of the above proposed. I have shown that an adverb is properly to ho reckoned among the parts of speech that it is a word added to a sentence perfect, in the expression or mind of the speaker; lad that, it serves to modify an attributive that is to sav, primarily a verb or an adjective (taking the latter term in its widest I have endeavoured to reduce sense), and secondarily another adverb.
definition of an adverb, as
;

modifications systematically to certain classes (a task hitherte
cor|M>rcal

thoughl of) referring the modifications of verbs first to the relations of place and tune, positive and relative, and then to the mental relations PrOpoaitional OT argumentative the lormei
1/ut
little

applying either to affirmation or
;

doubtful, or else to intei rogation and n iponso and the latter to the connection of pro. The particularly of the premises with the conclusion. Modifications Of the adjective I have considered as allocting either
their

ds| ation, clear or

quantity

or their quality.

The

positive

quantity
relative,

is

either eon-

tiniioii.,

or discrete]

tot

rektin admit, of intension or remission:
and the
latter

modificatiOM of quality are also positive or

:

CHAP.
regard
(viz.,

XIII.]

OF ADVERBS.
or
degree.

265
modifications

either similitude

The secondary

those of adverbs

by adverbs) follow the course of the primary

and I have here noticed certain classes of words, which, as effecting no modification of an attribute, are in my opinion improperly admitted I have next considered the methods by into the class of adverbs. which the expression of the modification of attributives is effected in language, viz., by an adverbial phrase, a compound word, or a single word, which constitutes the part of speech we call an adverb. And lastly, I have shown by examples, that the words which may be employed to perform the function of adverbs, with or without inflection, are such as have been or may be employed to perform the function of any of the necessary parts of speech, viz., adjectives proper, participial and pronominal, verbs (particularly as to the responsives Yes andiVb), and even nouns substantive. And so much for the adverb, which, with the parts of speech before examined, completes the list of those
necessary or accessorial to the formation of enunciative sentences.

(

2GG

)

CHAPTER
The

XIV.

OF INTERJECTIONS.
inter-

{»rt ot

u*

406. Certain words or sounds are generally known by the name Interjections but in proposing to examine them with reference to tl science of language, we are met with an objection in limine, that the are not parts of speech, and therefore do not deserve the attention The learned Sanctius says " Interjectionem nc a grammarian. quod naturale est, idem est apu esse partem oration is sic ostendo omnes sed gemitus et signa la?titiae idem sunt apud omnes sui igitur naturales. Nat Si vero naturales, non sunt partes orationis. eae partes, secundum Aristotelem, ex instituto, non nature debei constare." The error here arises from giving too great a latitude to
i

;

:

i

:

:

:

proposition
significant

which within
ex
instituto
;

certain limits

is

true

;

viz.,

that

words

ai
1

for in truth this proposition applies only

nouns (i. e., names of distinct conceptions) and to words derived froi them. But in the nature of the human mind, intellect is mixed u with feeling, the will is often confounded with the reason ; and oi desires, or fears, unconsciously modify our conceptions or assertion express in speech the transitions and mixed states of the mind, and hence tr well as its clear, fixed, and determinate distinctions interjection rises, as will presently be seen, from a scarcely articulat sound to a passionate, and almost to an enunciative sentence. Whj we learn from Mr. Tooke on this part of our subject is as inconsisten "The brutish, inarticulate Intel as it is vague and declamatory. jection" (says he), " which has nothing to do with speech, and is onl the miserable refuge of the speechless, has been permitted, becauf beautiful and gaudy, to usurp a place among words." How can an modes of utterance be at once beautiful, gaudy, brutish, and inm And what, is meant by saying that the interjection, whir ticulate? somehow or other has been enabled to orrupy a place anion; has nothing to do with sjxech, and is only the miserable refuge of th

We

;

;

speechless?

Uunlxwmlly
""
:

407. Mr. Tooke himself uses such expressions as
'

"Oh!" "01
M
1

'

W'.dl your humble servant Whv! COOM IW., which assert nothing, and have no coiinectio either with the ])receding 01 following sentences; but are mere Intel ms, or Interjectioiial pln.i-.es, 7rnpi^o\al,asthe Greeks calls then Yet, he say.thrown in Ix'tween the main parts of tin' discourse. "where speech can be employed, they are totally useless and ar

"Oh, my den
I

Sir!"

M Oh,

Sir,

;

in iiII'k 'lent fot tfat pUrpOM of cominiinicatinjr OUT boughtfc nlwa\ " And indeed," adds he, " where will yOU look for the interjection Will you find it anion:;,! laws, Off in books of civil institutions, il
t

I


CHAP. XIV.]
history, or in
it

OF INTERJECTIONS. any
treatise

267

of useful arts or sciences? No: you must and poetry, in novels, plays, and romances." ]\Ir. Tooke has forgotten one book, in which interjections abound, and fill the mind with impressions of the highest sublimity and pathos But if the interjection had only to do with that book is the BlBLE. " rhetoric and poetry," surely its sphere would not be narrow. If a knowledge of it only led us properly to appreciate the lofty mind of Demosthenes or Cicero, to read with true relish the immortal wi of Homer, Virgil, Tasso, Milton if it were only to be met with in the "plays" of Sophocles, Plautus, Moliere, Shakspeare or in the "romances and novels" of Sidney, Cervantes, Le Sage, Fielding, or Scott, how lamentable must be the taste, how blind the philosophy, which would decline the examination of this interesting And is the interjection confined to books ? No, it part of speech is heard in private and in public, from each sex and every age, in tones of the tenderest love or the most malignant hate, in shouts of joy, in ecstacies of pious rapture, in deep anguish, remorse, despair; in short, from the impulse of every human feeling. Nay, we are taught to believe, that it exists in the Hallelujahs of angels, and in the continual Holy ! Holy ! Holy ! of the cherubim and seraphim. Now, as a botanist would but imperfectly teach his science, if he were to tell his scholars that certain large portions of the vegetable world were beneath their notice, as xceeds ; or as he would be a poor mineralogist who should disdain to cast an eye on pebbles ; so he is a miserable grammarian who affects to disregard the numerous interjections and interjectional phrases which give such force, tenderness, variety, and truth to the works of the rhetorician and poet, and contribute so much toward rendering language an exact picture of the human mind. 408. Assuming, then, that there are many sounds or words, more Definition, or less perfectly articulated, which occur in human speech, evincing actual feeling, but not reducible to any of the parts of speech above discussed, I say, they form the part of speech called an Interjection. Its definition, indeed, is differently given by different grammarians. According to Charisius, Comminianus briefly defines the interjection thus, " Pars orationis significans adfectum animi." Caius Julius
geek for
in rhetoric

;

!

Romanus Palamon
ficant

thus,

" Pars

orationis

motum

animi

significans ;"

and
defi-

thus, " Interjectiones sunt, quae nihil docibile habent, signi-

adfectum mentis adsignificans voce incondita." Vossius, however, observes that apage ! euge ! and many others, are not voces incondita;; nor is the signifying an affection of the mind
peculiar to the interjection, for even" adverbs
irridenter, timide,

nition

tamen adfectum — " Pars

animi."

Diomedes gives the following

orationis

do

this, as iracunde,

&c.

He

also censures the following definition, Dictio

ad declarandum animi affectum; " interjections are not always thrown in between the parts of a sentence ; since we may properly begin a sentence with an interjection." His own definition is, " Vox affectum mentis significans, ac
for,

invariabilis quo? interjicitur orationi

says he,

2(38
citra verbi

OF INTERJECTIONS.

[CHAP. X1Y
tli

opem

main with that which

This definition agrees in sententiam complens." of is to be gathered from the words

thi

passion excellent oldcrrammarian,Priscian;viz.,"Voxqu£ecujuscnnque

"*and on a full considerate animi pulsu per exclamationem interjicitur following definition—^ these authorities, I would propose the of all any human feeling, mtho; interjection is a part of speech showing forth
:

asserting
Feeling.

any thing concerning it. necessary to expla 409. To illustrate this definition, it may be term " human feeling," and to state tl the import here given to the may be shown forth in langua different modes in which such a feeling First, then, it is to be observe,!, th its existence. without asserting " human feeling," as comprehending all those n I use the term our bodi or painful, which we receive through
S

pressions, pleasurable

spiritual constitution: ai frame, our intellectual faculties, or our In this view, so i modifications. these in their several degrees and a "brutish" thing, that the nice ai is the interjection from being practised in the difieW philosophical examination of it, as it has been furnish matter lor a be* languages and ages of the world, would on the sensibilities and sympatn treatise than was ever vet written Mr. Tooke declares that " the dominion o. spee of human nature. If so, the dominion of interjections." is erected upon the downfal minds of ail never was erected, nor ever will be, till the speech acti incapable of being moved or incited to are "a standing pool," exclusive, hateful selfisnne even by the naked calculations of a cold, infinite variety of hum 410. I do not pretend to reduce the Their arrangement. The only attempt of the ki arrangement. to a systematic feelin attention, is thai oJ the v. relation to grammar, which deserves

m

~

in

but it is a mere outline, and is meant ingenious liishop Wilkins sounds," the "natural signs 0, include only "rude, incondite " several of which are common w mental notions 0C passions," and It is as follows :— creatures." us to brute surprised I. Solitary, the result of a
;
i

I.

judgment, denoting
i.

tutiiiinitioii,

I..

ii.

iii.

douht OI n.nsid. ration, html amtrmpt, pish! shy! tysh!

hm

1

hy!
evil,

ii.

or amotion morel by qnwheoiitan of good mirth, ha! ha! be! )nst '• l oh! oh! ah! 1 sorrow, hoi
)

1

ii.

present

f^
j

low and
;inl

pity, ah!
,„,,,.
•!

alack
\

!

alas!
\

v;lllll!
!

im

I

u

ilui
\

'"•./"'" r<5

[aversion, V h }

us,*/*,
I.

y„v
I.

nliiuj

exdaimii"j,
'
,

difOOBTM, oh loho!
I

/,

t

!

In.

'

,!i

hnt. (irmn. L. 15,

c. 7.

. .

!

!

!

CHAP. XIV.]
II.

OF INTERJECTIONS.

269

beginning discourse,
i.

to dispose the senses of the hearer,
1

bespeaking attention, ho

!

oh

2. expressing attention,
ii.

ha
! !

to dispose the affections of the hearer,
1

2.

Though

this

by way of insinuation, eja now by way of threatening, vae wo scheme in its primary distinctions
!

refers to the different

uses of interjections, its ramifications are determined

by the sound of

These considerations should the words employed for this purpose. Therebe kept apart, as their intermixture leads only to confusion. fore, before I examine the different methods which men have followed
otherwise than in enunciative proper to say something of the feelings themthough, for the reason already intimated, my notice of them selves must be brief. I have already observed, that in the opening of our faculties, the earliest conceptions which we form are those of bodily existence but even our conceptions are preceded by bodily feelings,
in giving utterance

to their feelings,

sentences, I
;

deem

it

;

each sense is pleasurably or painfully affected by external impressions, and these are soon distinguished from each other, and their existence When signified to other persons by different modes of expression.
the mental faculties begin to expand, they connect feelings with con-

and so with external objects, at first by present sensation making us joyful or sad afterwards by memory causing regret or pleasing recollection and lastly, by foresight, creating in us hope or fear, desire or aversion. As we advance in the exercises of reason, we feel doubt or confidence, we are surprised at anything new or strange. Again, the social nature of man opens to him new trains of feeling, affectionate fondness, rivalry, enmity we approve or disapprove the conduct of others, we applaud or censure, admire or despise them. Every such state of mind is evinced by a peculiar interjection, distinguished not so much by articulation as by tone, by length or shortness of utterance, or by the look or gesture with which it is accompanied by the abruptness of violent and sudden passion, or the prolonged and gentle murmur of tender affection. Such feelings belong to mankind by their general constitution others are of a local or temporary nature, and connected with particular objects or events, with religious doctrines and practices, with military ardour, with political party, or personal attachment and these add to the boundless variety of interjectional cries, and words, and phrases. 411. It remains to be seen what modes of expression, independently Mo(les „ f of sentences clearly and fully enunciative, language affords for those ^prvsston. different feelings and these will be found to rise by imperceptible gradation from sounds scarcely articulate to clearer articulations, thence to words formed from these incondite sounds, so to broken
ceptions,
;
;

;

;

:

;

;

phrases,

and,

lastly,

to

short sentences interjected without direct

relation to those

by which they are preceded or followed.


270
Incondite Consonants.


OF INTERJECTIONS.
[CHAP. XIV

may observe among the interjections noticed by Bisho] some which not only are not words, but not even syllables being designated by consonants alone, such as km ! which he state as expressive of doubt or consideration, and 'st ! which he calls ai For my part, I own I should scarcely rani interjection of silencing. such half-uttered sounds among parts of speech; but when they come t< be more clearly pronounced so as to be audibly distinguishable, an< when we find the one written in Latin hem! and the other in Frencl
412.
\Vilkins

We

chut
are

t

or in Italian zitto

!

I

think they

may be

fairly called (as the;

by most

philologists) interjections.

The mere orthography, how
i;

ever, will help us

these, or indeed
true,

may

but little as to the feeling meant to be expressed bj any other, truly incondite interjections. Hem ! it be sometimes taken as expressing doubt or consideration

Occepi
sine ilia ?

mecum

cogitare,

hem! biduum
4, 2, 8.

hie

manendum

est soli

Tcrcntiits,

Etm.

But

it

is

as often taken to express surprise, or exhortation,

or

com

of mind, or joy, or anger, or othe: feelings which can only be collected from the context if in writing or from the look, tone, gesture, or manner, if delivered viva voce Of the imperfect articulation 'st, R. Stephanus says " ST [or] voj
mist ration,

or perturbation

est silentium

indicentis.

Ter. Pliorm. v.

1.

16.

Quit C. 'st S. quern semper te esse dictitasti ? has metuis fores?" The Italians use the word zitto! ami tlu French say chut ! Varchi, in his Ercolano, or Dialogo sopra le lingue, printed at Florence in 1570, says of this word, " II quale zitto, credl che sia tolto da' Latini, i quali, quando volevano, che alcuno stesst
obsecro,
es,

Quid?

Non

is

queste due consonant! V. used substantively for tin Thus Boccaccio says, " Senza far motto, C slightest sound possible. zitto alcuno;" "without ottering a word, or sound, the slighted kIc." It is also used selectively, with the variation of gendei
cheto,

usavano profierire verso quel
noi zitto!"

talc,
is

quasi

come diciamo

It

and Dumber,

ex. gr.

:

E
Si

J

buon

mildati, in

QHOpo,

in ritadolla,

Manno

zitti in Cur In .sciitiiiflla.

Allojri,

the Frencl) chid! the " Chut, particulc donl 00
II.;.
is

Of

Dictiomiaiiv

</<•

VAvademie merely
silence."

says,

N
;

nrtpoiU ImpOMf

When the incondite sound is that of a vowel, the articulation but, on the Other hand, it may lie the somewhat, more distinct mors easily adapted by the Bexible organs of the voice to express a slight degree of elevation or depression, diiTerenl states of tin- mind ol length or shortness, of weakness or force, serves to mark a very Hence hie diHerence iii the emotion meant, to be expressed. \arjatleiii cui lio thus BjM'uks of the Italian ah ami <////:-" ijiie t.i in H v/ione nli ed ahi sono [>iu di venti ma v'abbisogna
: 1

I

.

i

•.

.

1.

1

;

d'nii

a\ vertmiiiito

;

Uono

'|uei

lanto obe,

obs Dill ssprimeriJ seni|iie diversificano il suono, prmo i.auni, «/< pnhl oh I vet! htil
.'
I

1

— —
CHAP. XIV.]
OF INTERJECTIONS.


271

;

Ma questa e parte spettante a chi pronunzia, che sappia papce ! &c. dar loro l'accento di quell' affettto cui servono e sono—d'esclamadi svillaveggiare di pregare di gridare minacdi dolersi zione

— ciando —

di

d'incitare

— — dsegno —
minacciare
di

;

di sospirare

di raccomandazione

di desiderare

— —

di

BglMTO

di maravigliarsi

di reprendere

di

commovimento per

allegrezza

di vendicarsi di lamentarsi

Vossius observes of the Latin ah, that in ancient books it is often written a without the aspiration as pro is also written for proh ; and indeed the Greeks write d without the
di beflare— ed altri varj."
;

breathing.

Thus the 739th and the 746th

lines

of the Philoctetes are

T both written A, a, a, d. So in the Plutus of Aristophanes, the old woman, alarmed lest her face should be burnt, cries

———
ft*i
!

T
ir(>oatyip

A, a,

.

»

T»iv

SiSa
!

fid

Oh and

oh

Don't put the torch near
is

me

!

Priscian, too, says that a
also an interjection.
I

and a preposition, need scarcely observe that both ah! and
the
letter,

name of a

oh! are used by English writers as interjections of pain and sorrow.
In youth alone unhappy mortals live, But ah ! the mighty bliss is fugitive.

Dryden.
Shakspeare.

Oh I

this will

make my mother

die with grief.

Dr. Johnson says " Ah, interjection a word noting sometimes dislike and censure sometimes contempt and exultation sometimes, and most frequently, compassion and complaint." He also says " Oh y interjection an exclamation denoting pain, sorrow, or surprise." The Greek 'lib and Latin Jo, varying but little in sound from O, were also sometimes used to denote pain or sorrow. Thus Philoctetes, in the agony of his bodily torture, cries tw, tw ; and Polvmestor, in the

Hecuba of Euripides, uses the same exclamation.

Thus Tibullus
ii.

says—
Uror, to! remove, sa:va Puella,faces
!

Lib.

Eleg. 4.
:

And

in Claudian, Jo

seems to express the agony of grief

Mater to! seu te Phrygiis in vallibus Idse Mygdonio buxus circumsonat horrida cantu , Seu tu sanguiueis ululantia Dindyma Gallis Incolis. De Rapt. Proserp.

2. 267.

tender and affecting force of the interjection oh ! as an expression of deep-seated grief, was nevermore strikingly shown than in those lines of my old and ever-honoured friend, Wordsworth :—
She lived unknown, and few could know When Lucy ceased to be ; But she is in her grave and oh ! The difference to me.

The

as

ah, and oh, aspirated and unaspirated, are constantly occurring marks of slight and transient feeling sometimes of contemptuous irony, as in the interjectional phrases of Mr. Tooke, above quoted
;

Yet


272
OF INTERJECTIONS.
in

!

[CHAP. XIV.
Sidrophel's indignant

as and sometimes of grave remonstrance, reply to Hudibras r * sir,
:

Oh!

Agrippa was no conjuror, Nor Paracelsus ; no, nor Behmen Nor was the dog a Cacodsomon.
words
,orm

;

^

anc from these mere incondite consonants be ac formed from them is simple and easily to vowels' to words to name the cause from the eflect counted for, since it is natural Latin «*, used only as have an obvious example in the Of this we in many other, in that language, but found mere vocal interjection tram c also as the root of a numerous as an interjection and both find as intei and adjective, verbs, &c. Thus we nouns substantive the Welsh gwae Mons, the Greek Oval the Maoso-Gothic^j; in most of the, And Anglo-Saxon wa ; the German weh! {he becomes an interject.onal noun, as languages the same sound Frank* " den gotten!" woe to the ungodly

414 The

transition

i

;

i

wehe GermaTi, « «ue themo man!"

!

man! in English, woe is me! Hick< intorj.rt.o, warn me ! among the Anglo-Saxon reckons wa is me! and « wo the be !"-<' woe worth In old English we find grief. of " wae's me " and « wae s my heart in Scottish

woe

to the

!

fa.

;

and

!

:

Wales wo the

be

1

the fende the confound

1

R. Do Ih-unm:

Where ar those they were about any kyng

worldlyngs now?
!

Wo

wo-th them, that

.«r

A

\Tmt^Zy7o^l
my
is

BalMofLor*

Gregory.

Wte's

heart tint we shou'd sunder

Scottish Song.
<

welhulay. came waileway, welaway, and comity .,,,,,,, walawa! heu! proh dote Hickes expounds the An^Stton " hlM tatwjectio frequenter tropica point in a note, and he adds,

From wae

it

from WOtU probable came the verb wail, and

pro dolore, pnedptM
W.4,'

'» xsriptia

Satyrograph.,
is

ut:—

....

wyght what war
Is

tlicr tli.it |«'rtce

rrinoth

Ne what

witcrly wealc

till

Wfwwyi

him U«flhV
\

We
awaie

find

it

waih-w,,y, written variously, weylaway, wayhway,

:—
1',,-tr,,.

hrll.

utronde, Thao torw moIm ntnunynh i>y tlu m« liuv lu.n.le, Whororoutli inoiii hmish wyf wiyng.'th Ant niiigeth IPWKHMy.

WW «

I""""

i"

,,, "'

1V l0B

™l

.

Battle of

Bmget

Sche «eyd vxiyleway,

Wh«nhyeli«rdltwMio: To her matatniM •<*• gan say,
Thai
.

l.>.

«o.

StrTmtrcm

|,|
'

linn in hi

K1»

'"an.,

A..

I

i)1m ho g«n

mini.

!


I set

:

——

!

CHAP. XIV.]

OF INTERJECTIONS.
hem so a worke, by my faie, That many a night they songen url uwaie.
is

273
Chaucer.

Connected with woe and wail
uses for lament
:

the verb waiment, which Chaucer

The swalow Proigne with a sorrowful lay Whan morow come gan make her waimenting.
Troilus,

book

ii.

Lastly, the

Anglo-Saxon wala
waly
!

(in wala
:

in the Scottish interjection

wa) seems to be

still

retained

waly

waly up the bank, And waly waly down the brae
!
! !

!

Scottish Song.

Of

the numerous other nouns and verbs flowing from the ancient
interjection vae,

and simple

signification they

with their derivatives, and the changes of have undergone, there will be a fitter opportunity

to speak hereafter.

415.

A

different class of interjections is

sentences.

" rude incondite sounds, the natural signs of our origin, mental notions or passions," will aflbrd an illustration. This word was manifestly adopted into the English language from the French Mas ! which is only a corruption of the Italian ahi lasso, " ah weary ! " It does not appear to have been known in England much before the time of Chaucer, who frequently uses it
:

Of this ranks among

kind, alas

!

formed from fragments of Fmmf-nfsoi sentt; " lt s which Wilkins, ignorant of its true
'

-

How
1

shall I
!

doen

?

whan

shall she

come againe

?

note alas

why
:

let I

her go.

Troilus,

book

v.

So

in

the early romances

Tliurch the bodi

him pight, With gile
'

To deth he him dight
Alias that ich while
Alias that he no hadde ywite, Er the forward were ysmite,

Sir Tristrem.

That hye ond his leman also Sostren were and tvinnes to.

Lay Le
?

Fraine.

Quhat
Sail I

sail 1

think

?

Allace quhat reverence

mester to your excellence

The King's Quair.
Peblis to the Play.
is
:

Evir allace ! than said scho, Am 1 nocht cleirlie tynt ?

sensation of weariness, expressed in ahi lasso, in the Scottish interjectional phrase " weary fa' you

The

also to be found

"

Weary fa' you Duncan G ray

!

Old Scottish Song.
Sentences condensed -

from the abbreviation of whole sentences, by condensing them into a single word. Thus the perfect sentence, " I pray thee to do this or that," or " not to do it," or 1 1 pray thee to tell me," is condensed into the single interjection,
pritJiee

416.

Some

interjections result

9

1

1

;

— —

274

OF INTERJECTIONS.

[CHAP. XI\

Tooke ranks prithee! among adverbs. Johnson does not decid what part of speech it is, but merely calls it "a familiar corruption c pray thee." This corruption, however, becomes in use a real intei
jection.

In
:

the

following

instance

the

request

is

merely cor

temptuous

Poh But

prithee ! ne'er trouble thy head with such fancies ! rely on the aid thou shalt have from St. Francis.

Old Sang.

In the next, the request is more serious, but the phrase marks a degree of familiarity
: !

still

the abbreviation

(

why comest thou, at this dreadful moment, Alas To shock the peace of my departing soul ?
Away !
I

prithee leave

me

!

Howe.
it

Again, in these well-known sarcasm of a friendly adviser
:

lines,

marks the good-humoure

Why
where
an
inJ«jectional
it is

so pale

and wan, fond lover ?
so pale
?

Prithee,

why

Suckling.
tell

manifest, that the full sentence " I pray thee to

me
hit

entirely loses its grave
interjection.

and formal character by being converted

417. Lastly, a short sentence, or clause of a sentence, is ofte thrown into discourse in the manner which the Greeks call irapinfioXi and Quintilian and others interjectio, and which may be called a interjectional phrase, and often answers to a real interjection in anothc Thus, in old English, the Bentence afterward language or dialect.
furnishing the interjection forsooth was inserted at full length (In :" parenthetically) " for aothe ywis," /. g, " I know it for a truth
Tin-

pauyloun was wrouth, for sothc ywis,

All of Wcrk of sarsynys.

Syr Luunfal.
;

the Latin amain, the future tense of the verb amo, I love, often introduced interjectionally as an exclamation of fondness:
Vide, amabo,
Vidipliius,
i.\

So

si

non,cum adspichw,<>s hnpttdwu
Termt., Ban.
5.
I.

22.

an old ion
blandii'ittis

ntator on this passage, says that,

amabo
joeti

th*>jpoati

without, any
|tt,

meaning; but on
otiosum
<>-,.•

this

Voaaius

Ifkl,

" Si

in-quit,

cum

tnultui

hlanditia- ft

pttOM
tin.

Valcunt."

No

«i».iui4

4

k.

Prom
fei

review of

tin-

different
u age,

modi's of expression

b

which
!•

wo

at once perceive that, n

ilit.-

line can >e drawn lK>tween interjections consisting of " im-m ns" of mental emotion, and exi-lamatidi Hounds," the " n
I
• l

the

from a partial mis enumerated
I'll

i

I

the

reasoning faculty

;

foramen
ahi lasso
!
|

hy VVilkius we find
i

alas!(i.e,
I.

Latin
«

adjective

is.

us

-

alarl;

from

t,|

to

hawyan

— and

Uwh, and
/

I

>i

1 1

1 1

lurr/cni

txc

identical with

the English

hush! from the Gothic noun woi. Thai

vet
tl


CHAP. XIV.]
OF INTERJECTIONS.

5
;

27

noun and the mere incondite sound are used as equivalents, and with the same sort of grammatical construction, we see in the following
lines of Butler
:

Intrust

it

Of mum ! and

under solemn vows silence, and the

rose.

Hudibras.

And

these are necessary consequences of the fact, on which I have

often dwelt, that in the constitution of our

human

nature the active

and perceptions, are closely intertwined, and pass into each other by gradations too fine to be perceptible. The expressions of mere sensible pleasure or pain, or of passion or emotion, as such, are either effected with some degree of volition, or they are extorted by a physical necessity but on the one hand it may be doubted whether pure physical necessity can
principles,

and passive

the

feelings

;

operate so as to produce speech properly so called, that is, with anv the slightest degree of articulation. To take a striking instance, that

of the Philoctetes of Sophocles we find him at one time exclaiming T A, a, a, a, at another AT, al, al, al, and again TLaira, iraira, nanai but it is manifest that some power, beyond that of mere mechanical
:

intervene to give even the slightest of these articulations from the rest. On the other hand, if we admit that some degree of thought enters into all those " voices," which express the emotions of the human mind, then it becomes difficult, if not impossible, lor us to arrange them grammatically in classes each marked by distinctness of conception to distinguish, for instance, in this respect, between O lw euge evax papa? fie harrow pax hush hurrah alas bravo &c. &c. for such words may form an ascending gradation from that which is but just above mechanical impulse to that which is but just below the assertion of a proposition. Where, indeed, such an assertion takes place, that is (speaking as a grammarian) where a verb is connected with a noun, there is formed a sentence, which may be resolved grammatically into its separate parts of speech. But this is not all the same difficulty which is found in the ascending scale of expression, occurs in the descending scale. whole sentence is sometimes suddenly interposed in a discourse, by the mere effect of passion or strong feeling, without any direct connection with what goes before, or with what follows. Some such sentences become popular and common, they constitute interjectiorial phrases, expletive parts of the daily conversation of particular sects, parties, or classes of men they become habitual ; and then again they are abbreviated, contracted, corrupted and so remain in language as words, sometimes with little more articulation or distinct meaning than those other sounds which are ascribed to the effect of mere natural impulse. Here then is a wide field for interjectional forms in speech, comprehending the almost involuntary exclamation, the word more or less significant, and the phrase more or less imperfect and obscure. 419. Hence, too, the grounds of that relation, to which I have Relation to before adverted, between the interjection, the imperative mood, and^£cland

impulse,

must

its

difference

!

!

!

!

!

!

!

!

!

!

!

!

;

A

;

;

t2


276
the vocative case,

OF INTERJECTIONS.

[CHAP. XIV.

be easily perceived. The interjection, indeed, as such, neither asserts, like the verb, nor names a conception, like the noun. It manifests the existence of a feeling to the sympathies of mankind, but it does not declare that existence as a fact addressed to judgment. In this respect, therefore, it differs generally from the verb. Again, it shows actual feeling it does not merely name the conception of a feeling, but gives to that conception a vital energy as it were it shows the speaker to be affected by its impulse, and is thus distinguished from a noun. The limits between an interjection and a noun or verb, however, are not always very easy to be observed in practice. The imperative mood, and the interrogative form of a verb have so much of animation about them, that they easily pass into mere interjections, and the same may be said of the vocative case of nouns. In practice, I should be inclined to say, that so long as a noun or verb (distinguishable as such) enters into construction with other parts of a sentence, or admits of grammatical inflection, according to its particular application, it is to be considered as not having assumed the whilst, on the other hand, the simply character of a mere interjection articulated exclamation, or the noun or verb which has lost somewhat of its original form and signification, is entitled, so long as it shows Wilkins's scheme, forth an actual feeling, to be called an interjection. short as it is, helps to illustrate the connection between these parts of Wo ! which he properly ranks among interjections, is also speech. used as the vocative case of a noun. Hush! (like hark! lo oyez
their
: ;

may

;

!

!

The interrogative is in imperative mood of a verb. some degree implied by hem ! or km! which he considers as interjeoIt is more distinctly marked in French by the word tions of doubt. " On dit, par puis, as explained in the Dictionnaire de VAcademie.
&c.)
is

also the

ellipse,

et

par interrogation,

et ?

puis!

pour

dire,

eh

bien!

quen
qu'en

arrivera-t-il ?
arriva-t-il ?
irhh

que sVnsuivra-t-il que s'ensuivit-il ?"

que

fera-t-on apros ?

Ou bien,

420.

Though
-,

MMMilim

wt
j

jJ

fln as8( r tj 0nj

the Interjection itself does not assert, it may be coupled aa one mbordinate sentence is coupled with another
I

have already exemplified in the passages dove !" "Oh! that this too solid in both which, the verbs (had, and would melt) llesh would melt!" the inteijection O! lire put in the subjunctive mood, us dependent on ju t that wotiM lu\e been had die place of 01 been supplied bj In a union of this a verb, such a-;, " wish," " desire,* or the like.

— "O!

is

in a laflnr

sentence.
I

that

This had wings


I
i

like a

u

I

kind the Interjection
lor
it

.

i

-c.

<!,

,

the

seii ei ice
i

i

\

.ins,

that

with which it Is connected though the name interjection
;

given on account of
i

its

being tlinnrn

in hettevcu

the parts of

n

this It

not essential
btOSSJSS
i

to the character
'"it

no named,
placed.

DOl

it

I

It Is of an Interjection. because h is generally so

" lnt'if in non quod id pi-ipHuuui
-|U!.i ;ib
.

dictii'

sunt, quia ssaps Intsmertntur orationi,
Intel y ctio ihui
-

sit."

—"

semper
tarn, n

inlerjicil

m

«

a

.|iio<|ii.

'uiir."

" Nee

de ovaln ejus


CHAP. XIV.]
est,

OF IXTERJKcriONS.
;

1^77
eft

ut intorjiciatur

cum

per se compleat sententiam. nee raro ab

incipiat oratio."

421. The learned Wall is was in error, when lie said there were Intawewai True it is, that with but few interjections in the English language. various contexts and accompaniments, the same interjection may expi. find Wilkins describing oh ! as an very different emotions. expression of sorrow, as an exclamation preceding discourse, and as These variations depend not on bespeaking attention in discourse. that is, not on the letters the articulation, but on the intonation which go to form the word, but on the elevation or depression of voice but this is not peculiar to the interjection oh ! or to in pronouncing it the " incondite" interjections generally for the same may be observed Thus we say, impatiently, of any nouns or verbs used intorjectionally. "well! and what of that?" or, with patient acquiescence, " well!

We

;

:

;

never mind

:

it

can't

be helped."

So there

is

great difference between
!

the affected gravity of Falstaff's imprecation, plague

and the same

imprecation seriously uttered against
Falst.
a bladder.

Apemantus
It

:

Aplagw

of sighing and grief!

First

blows a man up, like Part JItnry IV.

Caph. Stay, stay, here comes the fool, with Apemantus. Serv. Hang him He'll abuse us. Ism. A plague upon him Dog
! !

!

Timon.

422. Thus have I shown the propriety of ranking the interjection as a separate part of speech, not " brutish and inarticulate," but employed by all mankind in all ages to express feelings, from the most slight and evanescent to the deepest and most overpowering. I have proposed a definition of this part of speech, and in developing it have proved that it shows forth and expresses feelings, without asserting their existence. I have given a short view of those nice shades and gradations, by which our various feelings pass into distinct conceptions and assertions, and of a corresponding gradation in the modes of their expression, from incondite sounds, consonantal or vocal, to words either growing out of those sounds, or adopted from mere fragments of sentences, and finally to interjectional phrases, approximating in part, or whole, to sentences purely enunciative ; whence we may easily

comprehend how the interjection rises to a noun, a verb, or a phrase, and the phrase, verb, or noun sinks into an interjection. And with this
discussion I conclude the survey of words, as distributed into those, which are named by grammarians, from their respective uses in the

communication of thought and

feeling, the Parts

of Speech.

(

278

)

CHAPTER
Parts of

XV.

OF PARTICLES.
words.

Why called

423. Having treated of sentences ami words, it remains to be seen whether the grammatical analysis cannot be carried still further, by examining the constituent parts of words. It has been stated above, that words, as to their sound, may, for the most part, be divided into syllables, and syllables into articulations but these divisions having no necessary relation to their signification are not here to be considered. The question is, whether, and to what extent, words, taken as significant integers, may not, in certain instances, admit of fractions (so to speak) which go to make up those integers, and are also themselves significant ? and this question is to be resolved, as I shall presently show, in the affirmative. 424. The science of grammar, as hitherto cultivated, has, like most other sciences, obtained as yet but an imperfect nomenclature. have seen that even the appellations "noun" and " verb," which are on all hands admitted to be applicable to the most necessary parts of It is not speech, are differently understood by grammarians of note. surprising, therefore, that the term Particle should be misapplied, as I think it is, when intended to signify those words which aiv at the same time recognized as accessorial parts of speech. To say, " there are eight parts of speech, but four of them are particles" is much like laying, there are eight planets, but four of them arc satellites, or eight The commissioned officers, but four of them arc wmroommissioned. word particle, according to all analogies of derivation, ought to mean
;

We

OmetniSg

less

than the word part, a subdivision of a division,

a

part

of a part: and as words have been called parts of speech, particles should be deemed parts of words, in which sense, with reference to signification, I shall here u„. the term }<article. s|K>ak ! a divisible word as an integer, in point of 425. When speak of it with reference to its possible effect in the signification, speak of a portion of that WOld net inn of a sentence; but when
1 I
|

difying the signification or as a particle, I allude to its effect In and some such Character of thi integral word in laii-ii.ee generally iiec,-,,.uilv have, whether or not it has any known ellect it inn
; t

when used separately. Thus each of the sentences, " Fneiid hip is delightful," contain I," "JohntOfl Was lear MPttiKt, throe, and only three significant Integers, via., a subject, a but if we copula, and a predicate, each of winch inu-gers is a word take anv OM Of the four dm iible words in these sentences, and inquire Into iti .ciiilicition in the Kn-hsh language generally, we shall find primary portion is modified tiiat this depends on the wa) in which
.

;

il

J


OF PARTICLES.
portion.

CHAP. XV.

279

by the other
portion John
tion,
is

In " Johnson," for instance, the primary modified by son each portion has a known significa:

and the union of both produces a third
in the

signification relating to

two former. Again, friend and ship, and the
the

word friendshij) there are two portions, relation of the word friend to friendship is

but the relation of ship to friendship is not equally so at though it may be discovered by study and reflection, as will hereafter be shown. The word learned may, in like manner, be divided into two portions, learn and ed, of which the former has a clear meaning of its own but the latter, if it ever had a distinct and separate meaning, has long since lost it, and serves only to mark that
very obvious
first
;

sight,

;

learned

The word delightful mav is a participle of the verb to learn. be divided into delight and fid, both which are intelligible enough in English, or into de, light, and ful, of which the two former cannot be The words separately understood without reference to the Latin.
Johnson, delightful, friendship, and learned, therefore, are in efiect com-

pounds, each consisting of a primary part, which is modified by a serondary part. John is modified by son, friend by ship, learn by ed, and delight by ful. The primary parts in such compounds are words, that is, when used separately, they have a plain and distinct signification of their own. The secondary parts may or may not have such separate signification in present usage ; and their signification, if any, may be more or less obvious. These secondary parts I call particles, when so used in composition. Thus, I say that, in the word Johnson, son is a particle ; in the word friendship, ship is a particle ; in the word delightful, ful is a particle ; and in the word learned, erf is a
particle.

426. Particles modify words in three different ways, and with
three different effects
i.
:

Three kinds.

In the ordinary compounds, such as Johnson, overtake, forewarn,

erewhile, elsewhere, there is

no alteration of the principal word, either class to which it belongs, or by varying the grammatical construction of the sentence in which it is used. ii. In such compounds as friendship, bisyhed, avette, masterless, blaunchard, sweetly, &c, the grammatical class of the word is more or less altered thus, from the personal substantive, friend, we form the ideal substantive, friendship ; from the Latin appellative apis, was formed the French diminutive avette; from the common adjective blanche, was formed the diminutive adjective blaunchard; fiom the adjective busy, was formed the old English substantive bisyhed; from the substantive master, we form the adjective masterless ; from the adjective sweet, we form the adverb sweetly, and so forth. iii. In such compounds as growen, beon, mahede, walked, monethes,

by changing the grammatical

;

children,

&c, the

principal

word
;

is

varied in

its

construction

by the

and thus are formed those inflections which grammarians call declensions and conjugations. Of each of these kinds I shall give one or more examples.
particles en, on, ede, ed, es, &c.


280
nas«and.
nmlterad.

OF PARTICLES.

[_CHAI\

XV

in Johnson,

427. The class and construction of the word John remain unaltered which was manifestly in its origin nothing more than Thus in all languages have been formed patronymics, the John's son. most ancient of all family names. The Greeks did this in several but instances, whence such names as JEacides, Pelides, Atrides, &c. the Romans adopted it generally at aver)- early period of their history. " Remarquons sur les noms propres des families Romaines," (says M. de Brosses), " qu'il n'y en a pas un seul chez eux, qui ne soit termine en ins, desinence fort semblable a V vIvq des Grecs, c'est-a-dire
;

filius

par oil on pourrait conjecturer que les noms des families, dti moins ceux des anciennes maisons, seraient du genre patronimique."

Thus

Caecilius

was

Cceculce v'we, Julius,
says,

Juli vide, JEmilius,

iEmili

not unworthy of remark that, whilst the old patronymical termination of our northern ancestors was Thus whom the son, the Sclavonic and Russian patronymic was of.
vioq, &c.

Mr. Tooke

" 1 think

it

English and Swedes

named

Peterson,

the Russians called Peterhqf.

and foreign affectation afterwards induced some of our ancestors to assume Fitz (i. e. fils or filius) instead of son, so the Russian affectation, in more modem times, changed of to vitch (i. e. J fitz, fils, or filius), and Peterhqf became I etrovitch, or J'dwwitz." The Irish patronymic 0' may possibly be of the same origin as the The Welsh 'P is well known to be ap, an abbreviation Russian of. The of mab, a son, as Price for Ap Rhys, Powell for Ap Hoel, &c.

And

as a polite

use the cognate word mac, a son, for their jmtronvmical prefix, as in Mac JJonald (i. e. the son of Donald), Mac Kenzie (i.e. the son of Kenneth), &c. while the Lowland Scotch used still a different mode of expressing the same thing, by prefixing to the son's name the genitive case of the lather's, as Wall's Uvliu, I'mRobert the son of Walter; Sim's Will, for William the son of
Scottish Highlanders
;

Simon, whence arose such family names as Watts, Sims, and the like: and so much for the particles son, ius, fitz, of, vkh, mac, (>\ '/', The proper name, /album, is no less obviously a compound tnd '8, tlian tra/r/tmaii, sj/eannan, boat-Iiook, and thousands of similar words in common use. There are also many that have fallen into disuse,
Ihoogfa still perfectly intelligible; ex.gr. nonnnetr, a meal formerly eaten i'\ artificer! al noon, mH which seems to be distinguished from
1

dinner:
iiboreri reteyned to wcrko and torve, waste mod) par) of the dny, and deserve not their waght, nummc tym.' in late <mmivn;; unto their it thtr brakfat, at we* dyntr, tad wtrke, erly depart iter none. twnmnete, and VII. 0. ndl. M.S. ft. 9 Em.
« I

tirmrtt:,

i.

e.

noonnwat

,

so

we have

the

forenoon, aftmiimii, ODO., for as noon modifies .miliar principles nouns c<»ni|>c miih !••• ill and thus noon, „„,/', i./'./A/, and .i h>rr modities vowi mid modili' hive in:. lances <>n\ are equally to lie considered in these mill, and
\\oid-i
//."(.//</.,

MOMty,
I
-

viii/i/ai/,

initiiiiif/it,

<

.i

i

;

:

J

I


2HAP. XV.]
respectively as particles.


OF PARTICLES.
So, in the
;

:

281
overtalte, over is

compound verb

and in the compound noun overseer, over is a particle modifying seer ; and this particle, over, is sometimes corrupted mtojyr, as in the word orlop, which is a platform of planks laid over the beams in the hold of a ship-of-war, so named from the Dutch overloopen, to run over, and anciently written in English overlopps
a particle modifying take
:

Somuche
telles

as they shall put greater

and ouerlopps of their

nomber of people in the casshypps they shalbe the more oppressed.
Nicolk's Thucydides,
fol.

191, a.

In Danish also this same preposition over, written ober, is used as a particle in compound nouns, as oberdommer, the chief justice.

428. The grammatical class to which the word friend belongs is cu*. that of a general appellative, and it expresses a person possessing a certain moral quality ; but the grammatical class to which the word
friendship belongs
is

altered,

ception of that quality.
effected.

that of an universal, and expresses the ideal conIn compounding the primary word friend,
is

then, with the particle ship, an alteration of the grammatical class

In some such

analogous to that

compounds the particle retains a signification which it has when used separately but in this
;

particular instance, the particle ship signifies

something very

different

from the ordinary English substantive ship. To understand its modifying power, therefore, we must have recourse to those cognate
languages in which a particle of similar origin occurs. The Germans use the termination schaft, the Dutch schap, and the Swedes skap and these are manifestly from the Gothic skapan, Anglo-Saxon scapan y or scyppan, Frankish and Alamannic scaffen, Dutch scheppen, Icelandic skapa and skipa, Dani