aue

d

a*?.-

-•

/o

m***^-m

i

t

i l in

r m

»

!

T

HE

PREFACE.
HAjingfer
dijlike

a long time cbfervd, that mo(l of thofe that take in hand the Elements Euclid, art apt to

of

them,
to

becaufe they cannot prefently
thofe feemingly

difcern

what end

incon-

fiderabk) and

yet difficult Propofitions, can
accepta-

conduce
ble piece

.•

/ thought I fhould do an

of Service, in not only rendring them as eafie as pojjible, but alfo adding to
tach Proportion a brief Account offbme TJfe that is made of them in the other Parts of
the

Mathematicks.

In

profecuting

which

Dejign,

I have

been obligd to change fomz

that feenid too intricate and perplex d, and above the ordinary Capacity of Beginners, and to fubflitute others

Demonftrations,

more

intelligible

in their (lead.

For

the

fame

reafon,

I have

demonflrated the Fifth

Book, after a Method much more clear than that by Equimultiples, I formerly nfed.

A

2

would

PREFACE.
r

would not
ZJfes that

of thefe Proportions: that^ would have obliged me to have comprised the whole Body Mathema-

be thought to may be made

have Jet down

all the

To have done

of

ticks in this one Book^ 3 which would have render* d it both too large, and too
difficult.

But I have contented my felf with the choice of fuch as may ferve to point out fome of the Advantages they afford us, and are alfo in themfelves moji clear, and moji eafie to be I have diftinguifh' d them by apprehended, * Inverted Comma's, that the Reader may know them not defiring he [hould dwell too
s

long upon them, or labour to under{land them perfectly at fir ft, fince they depend on the
Principles

of

the other Parts.

This therefore being the Defign of this fmall Treatile, 1 voluntarily offer it to the Publicly in an Age whoje C cuius fee ms more

addiBed

to

the

Mathematicks, than any
it.

that has preceded
*

Inftead

of the Author's

Italian

Chara&er.

Eight

[I]

Eight Books
OF THE
Elements of
The Ufe of
..^^ ¥
,

EV CLIT>.
the Propofitions:
-

Together with

ll,

n

.i

|

-rill

MB"

'

_^^__——^«

THE FIRST BOOK.

and the Explication of the moft Terms. To thefe he adds fbme ordinary
Definitions,

TH
:

E Defign of m this Book, is to lay down the Firft Principles of Geometry ; and, to do it methodically, he begins with

EUCLID

Toftitlata

And then propofing

thofe

known

Maxims
us
;

which Natural Realondoesinftrucl: he pretends not to advance a ftep farther
in

without a Demon/Oration, but to convince every Man, even the moft obflinate, that will grant nothing, but what is extorted

from

treats

him. In the firft Propofitions, he of Lines, and the different Angles, which are fornAJ by their Concourfe ; ana having occafion to compare divers Triangles

A

'

5

toge-

3

Tke Elements of Euclid,

^together, in order.. to. demQaarare^-ihe Proof Angles, he makes that the Bufif perries nefs of the eight firft Then folt Propofitions.
«
c

low»fome
vide"

Practical Inftrugion?,

how

to di-


4

an Angle and a Li»« into two Parts, and to draw a Nex% he (hews the

c
1

Perpinjku\ar. Properties of a" Triangle, together with thofe cf Parallel Lines ; and having thus ftni(h 3 d the

1
'

Explication of this firft Figure, he pafles on to the Parallelograms, teaching the manner

*
*

* angle the Square of the Bafe Square of both the other Sides.
*

of reducing any Polygon, Multangular Figure, into one more regular. Laftiy, He finishes the Firft Book with that famous Propofirion of Pythagoras, That in every Retlangular Tri*
"

is

equal to the

He

calls that
i,

the Bafe, which

is is

commonly

call'd

the Hypdtemft,
right Angle,

*, che Line that

oppofice to the

DEFINITIONS.
I.
'

J\
this

Point

is

that

which hath no Parts.

*

c
c

*
4 *

This Definition muft be understood in Senfe : That Quantity, which we cor* ceive without diftingui thing its Parts, or to much as confidering whether or no it has any , is a Mathematical Point ; which is therefore very different from thofe of

Zm%

which were fuppos'd to be abfolutely 4
indi-

The Firfi Bo6%.
1

3

'
1

'

indivifible, and therefore fuch, that we may reafonably doubt whether they are poffible ; but the former we cannot doubt of, if we conceive them aright.

c

\

'
1

' 6 c
'

Length without Breadth. this Definition is the fame with the former : That Quantity, which we conceive as Length, without refle&ing on its Breadth or Thicknefs, is that which we underftand by a Line ; though it be impoffible to draw a real Line, which will not be .of a certain Breadth. 'Tis commonly that a Line is produc'd by the Motion (kid, of a Point Which ought to be carefully ob2.
'

A Line

is

The Senfe of

:

' *

ferv'd

;

for

Motion

may on

that

manner

c
c 1 c

produce any Quantity whatfoever : But here, we muft imagine a Point to be only Co mov'd, as to leave one Trace in the Space through which it pafles, and then that Trace will be a
Line.
3.

The two Extremes of a Line are Points. 4. A right Line is that, whofe Points are qually placed between the two Extremes.
i c

e~

Or

thus.

A

right Line

is

the (horteft that

4 €

can be drawn from one Point to another. Or yet ; the Extremes of a right Line may call a Shadow upon the whole Line.
5*.

which
6.

or Surface, is a Quantity to attributed Length and Breadtb 9 ivitbout the Consideration af any Thicknefs.
Superficies,
is

A

The Extremes of a

A

Superficies are Lines.

4

7.

A

^
7.

The Elements of Euclid.

A

Tlane or right Superficies

,

is

that,

whofe
;

Lines are equally placd between Or that, to which a right Line
apflfd.

its

two Extremes
be every

may

way

A
i

D
i
^
and that
that
c

have before obferv'd, That may produce any Quantity whatfoever Accordingly we fay, when one Line moves over another, it produ
I

*

Motion

:

ces a Superficies, or a Plane

;

Motion has a kind of

Affinity

with Arithmetical Suppofe Multiplication. then the Line A B to pa/s along the Line BC, retaining ftill the fame S'tuation, without any Inclination to one fide or other : The Point A will defcribe the Line AD, the Point B the Line B C, and the intermediate Points the Lines parallel to thofe, which will make up the Superficies A BCD. I add further,

That

this Motion anfwers to Arithmetical Becaufe, did I know the Multiplications Number of Points that are contain'd in both thofe Lines, A B, and by Multiplying

them together,

find a Produ & , which would give me the Number of Points which conftitute the whole Superficies A B C D. As for Example ; If A B contain'd four Points, and B C Six, by faying, four
1

DC;

mould

times

fix

whole Superficies
four Points.

make Twenty four, I find, that the A B C D confifts of Twenty-

Now

by a Mathematical1 Point,

may

The Brfi Book*
c

5

may
e.


<

g>

be underftood any Quantity whatfoever ; a Foot, provided it be not fubdivided
is

into Parts.
8.

A Vlaln

Angle,

the

*

Diftance or opening

each of two Lints touching
one Line". pofe only
*

other, fo as not to

com-

Overture. Gall. is$U aAAHActj fcAi^K. Eucl.

c
1
*

9.

betwixt the As the Diftance Lines A B, and BC; which are not Parts of the fame Line. c Retlilineal Angle is the Di-

D

A

*

fiance betwixt
'

two Right
of

Lines.

'Tis chiefly

this

fort

of

A

C
-

c
'

'

Angles that I would be underftood at prefent y which I define by Difiance or Opening, becaufe Experience teaches, that the greateft part of
Beginners deceive themfelves in Mea faring the greatnefs of an Angle, by that of the Lines within which it is contain'd. * The Angle that is more

c

c
c

^
/

«^^

1

open,
'

is

is,
'

when

the greater ; that the Lines of one

\

/

*
c

Angle lie more apart from [?>. each other than thofe of
another,
taking

them
is

at
greater than

* "'**"

*
'

the fame Diftance
courfe, the former
ter.

rrom the Points of Conthe lat-

'
<

*

Accordingly the Angle A is greater than the Angle E ; becaufe taking the Points and B as remote from the Point A, as the

D

4

Points

6
Points
Points
other,

G

D

The Elements of Euclid. and L are from the Point E
and

;

the

B

lie

than the Points G and L: From whence I infer, that ifthe Lines EG and EL were produc'd farther, the Angle E would be always of the fame Largenefs, and always lefs
than the Angle A.
ufe three Letters when we fpeak of an of which the Middlemoft denotes the Angle, Point of Concourfe: As the Angle is the Angle which by the Lines B A and is formed at the Point A The Angle B A is that made by the Lines BA and AC The Angle C A is compriVd by the Lines C A and A D. * A Circle is the Meafure of an Angle. Therefore to know the Magnitude of the Angle BAD; I place the Foot of the Compafs upon the Point A, and defcribe the Cir4

farther apart

from each

We

BAD AD
C

:

:

D

cle

BCD

:

The Angle

is

fo

much

the greater,

by how marry more Parts of a Circle the
f
*
<

Arch, that meafures it, contains : And becaufe a Circle is ufuallv divided inro %£o Parts or Degrees, therefore an Angle is faid
to have Twenty, Thirty, Forty Degrees, according as the Arch, compris'd betwixt the Lines that form it, contains To many. So the Angle is the greater, which contains more Degrees, as the Angle is greater than the Angle GEL. The Line divides

*
*

c
-

BAD
;

c 4

the Angle

BAD

CA

in

Arches

BC

and

CD

the middle, becaufe tht are equal and the Angle

'BAG

The
*
*

Firft Book.

7

becaufe part bf the Angle is pare of the Arch B D. Arch B the io. When one Line falling upon another makes
is

BAC

C

BAD,

two equal Angles, they are both right Angles

;

and
' c
1

Line AB, placed upon the Line CD, and makes the Angles

the Line Perpendicular. As for Example: If the

_-A
E<

ABC
is,

*
1

ABD

j

equal

;

that

if

ha-

'CAD from the Centre B, the Arches A G and A D are equal The Angles ABC and ABD are called Right Angles, and the
c
:

ving

defcrib'd

a

Semi-circle

c

L

c

4

*
4

c
* 1

Line AB Perpendicular, Therefore becaufe is a Semi-circle, the the Arch are each of them a Arches C A and quarter of a Circle, that is the fourth Part

CAD

AD

of three hundred and
Ninety.

fixty

Degrees, that

is

1 1. An Ohtufe Angle is that which is greater than a Right one. 1 is an Obtufe or Blunt As the Angle c becaufe its Arch E contains more Angle ; s than a quarter of a Circle; <

EBD

AD

12. An Acute Angle is that which is lefs than a right one. c As the Angle is an Acute; becaufe the Arch E C, which meafures has lefs it, « than ninety Degrees.

EBC

13.

A

Term

is

the extremity

or

end of any
,.

Quantity.

A

8

The Elements of Euclid.

14. Figure is a Quantity comprehended by one or more Terms,
c
c

A

limited
If.

That which is call'd a Figure, ought and inclos'd on every Side.

to be

A

Circle

the encompajjing

Circumference ; from the middle Point,

a Thin Figure, terminated by of one Lin?^ which is calFd the and is every where equally remote
is
<
c
« c c

The Figure
;

RVSX
all

18

a

Circle

becaufe

the

Lines

TR, TV, TS, TX, drawn from the Point
to the Line
equal.

RVSX,

%
is

are

*

16, The middle Point caird the Centre.

1 7. Circle, is any Line pafof the Centre, and terminated at the Cirfing through cumference) dividing the Circle into two equ.il

The Diameter

a

Parts.
6

*
c

VTX

As the Lines V T X, and R T S. But if any (hould doubt, whether the Line

*

c
'

does indeed divide the Circle into two equal Parts, fo that the Pare VSX be equal it to the Part V ; may on this manner be

RX

prov'd.
c

Suppofe the Part

VRX

to be p!ac d

s

upon
c

c

the other

VSX:

Ifav, they will not exceed

one

The Firji Book.
1

*

C
4

<
1

c c

one the other. Forifonefuppofe V S X exceed the other VRX, the Line T R will be lefs than TS ; and inlikemanthan TY, which is V ner contrary to the Definition of a Circle, which affirms all the Lines drawn from the Centre to the Circumference to be equal.

TZ

1 8. Stmt- circle is a Figure terminated by the Diameter j and half the Circumference.

A

19. Rectilineal Figures are fuch as are terminated by right Lines, having Three, or Four, or Five, or as many Sides as you pleafe.
'
*

Euclid divides Triangles with refpect either

to their Angles, or Sides.

20.
that

An

which has

Equilateral Triangle is its three Sides equal,

A
B

ABC.
2T.
angle,
qt*al
* :

An
is
'

Ifbfceles,

or

Equicrural Trie-

that

which has two Sides

AC
an
22.

As if the two Sides A B and be equal, the Triangle
Ifofceles.

ABC

*

is

A

Scalenum

is

a Triangle

having

all the three Sides unequal^ as

CHI.

:to

A

D
E

The Elements of Euclid. 23. A ReB angle Triangle

is

that

which has one Right Angle. E F, fiippofing the Angle :;* As ' to be a right One.

D

E

24.

An

Ambligone,
Triangle,
is

or

Ob~
that

tufe-angle

which has one
as

IGH.
is
;

An?U *
or

ObtuCe\ J

2f.
all

4n Oxygone,

Triangle^

Acute

Acute-angle that whofe Angles an as A B

C

ReB angle ( properly 10 a Figure out confining of f Sides, and having all its Angles Right.
26. caird )
is

A

27.

A Square has all
and
its

its
;

Sides

EB,

B

qual>

Angles Right

as

A

D
28.

An

Oblong

ReB angle
its

has

its

Sides unequal\ but as D.

C

Angles Right ;

F

Rhombus, or Lofange , 29. has equal Sides hut unequal An,

A

gles

;

as

E F.

go,

A

Rhomboides,
hath
;

or

Obits

long

Lofange,

both
<jj

and Angles unequal

GH,

'

%i % Other

The
caU'd Trapefia.
3
2. Parallel

Flrfi

Book

H
B

31. Other Irregular

Sides are Figures of Four

Lines are

A
_

as being in the fame fucb, Plane, will never con-

q

q
A B, CD.
a

cur, keeping fiill an equal the other) Difiance one from

%%>

A

Parallelogram

is

A
I

H
j

B
I

Figure, whofe are Parallels
'

two
'

oppofite

Sides

:

gure
1 *

A BCD,

As the Fiwhofe Sides,

c"G

f^fe

^-<L/

D

AB,

CD;

and

AC, B D,

are parallels.

34. The Diameter of a Parallelogram is a right Line drawn from one Angle to another ; as BC.

The Complements are the two fmall ParaU which the Diameter does not lelograms, through as AFEH, and GDIE. pafs;
g

U

DEMANDS,
1.

or

SUPPOSTIONS.

>HTMS
JL

drawn from any Point

fuppos'd that a right Line may be vrhatfbever to

another.
2. That a Right Line may be cominu'd to what Length you pleafe.

3.

That

11

The Elements of Euclid.

3. That from a Centre given, a Circle be defcrib'd at any Diftance whatfoever.

may

MAXIMS,
1.
/

or

AXIOMS.
third,

are equal betwixt themfelves. 2. If equal Quantities be added to thofc that are equal, the Produfts will alfo be

that are equal to a ""pHofe Quantities

JL

equal.
;. If

thofe that

equal Quantities be taken away from are equal, the Remainders will be

equal.
4. If you add equal Parts to Quantities unequal, they will remain unequal. y. If from equal Quantities you take away unequal Parts, the Remainders will be une-

qual.
6. Quantities that are

druple,

&c.

in

Double, Triple, Quarefped of the fame, are equal

among
7.

themfelves.

Thofe Quantities are faid to be equal, which being apply'd one to the other, neither
exceeds.

Equal Lines and Angles being plac'd one upon another, do not furpafs each other.
8.

9. The 10. All

Whole

greater than its Part. right Angles are equal to one anois

ther.

Let

The Firjl Book?
L

*3

Let

the

two

*
< 1 1
<
c

right Angles pro-

pos'd be
I

ABC,
**

EFH, fay, they are equal. For 11 two equal Circles

'

CAD, HEG, be defcrib'd from the Centres B snd F the fourth Parts of thofe Circles C A, HE, which are the Meafures of the Angles, ABC, EFH, will be equal:
;

!

c

Therefore the Angles ABC, E equal Meafures, will be equal. The eleventh Maxim of

F G,

having

Euclid is to this EtFeft. If two Lines A B, C D, being cut by a third E F, make the Internal

A B, being right Angles; the Lines will at length concur towards the produced,
two
Points
c

Angles, BEF,

DFE,

lefs

than

CD

B and D.

c

Which, though it be true, is notcleirenough to be receiv'd for a Maxim; ther^foie I have fubftituted another in its Place. n. If two Lines be parallel, all the Perpendiculars contained betwixt them will be equal. c As for Examples If the Lines
:

c

AB,
c
4

are parallel, the Perpendicular Lines FE, HG, are equ-tl.
if

CD,

AE

G

B

For

c
c

the Lines

*

were greater than GH, C F H D would be and C more remote from each other towards the Points E and Fj than towards G and H; which

EF

AB

D

B

c

would

14
*
4
*

The Elements of Euclid.
where, \\$

would be contrary to the Definition of Parallels,

fnid, they are fuch as always the fame Diftance, rneafui'd by keep Perpen-

*
>

diculars.

12.

Two
;

Space
jt

that

Right Lines cannot enclofe any is to fay, they cannot encompafs ic
.

en allSide c
ig.

mon

Right Lines cannot have one comSegment. 4 By which I mean, That two
4
c

Two

C

4 4
4

PJght Lines, fuppofe A B, and B, meeting at the Point B, cannot together make one fo!e LineBD; but cutting one ano-

other, feparate again immediFor, if you deately after their Rencounter. fcribe a Circle from the Point B as a Centre,

AFD

will be a Semicircle; becaufe the Line ABD, palling through the CenRight tre B, will divide the Circle into two equal will be alfb a The Segment Parts. will be alfb a Semi- circle ; becaufe

CBD

CFD

Right Line, and will pais through the Centre B Therefore the Segment will be to the Segment AFD, the Part to the equal whole ; which is repugnant to the ninth
:

CFD

Maxim.

APVE R«

The Firjl Book:

1 5

Advertisement.
*
c '
'

'"T^Here are two forts of propofirions. In Tome we have nothing but rhe bare Speculation ofa Truth without defcending to Prain others fomedice, which we call Theorems is proposed to be done, and thofe are thing

X

;

*

CalI'd Problems,
c

The

flrft

Number of the Quotations

denotes

c
1

As by the Propofitions, the fecond the Book. the 2. of the 3. trm is, by the fecond PropofiBut if only one Numtion of the third Book ber occur, it flgnifies fuch a Propoficion of the Book you are then upon.
:

c 1
*

PROPOSITION
A

I.

Problem.
Line given.

To draw an Equilateral Triangle upon any
/

be propos\i for the Bafe from the Equilateral Triangle Centre A at the Diftance A B defcribe the Circle BCD; and likewife from the Centre B ac the Diftance BA defcribe the Circle AC, cotB z ttn^ of LET
the Line

AB

an

;

D

1

The Elements of Euclid. Then draw the ting the former at the Point C. Lines A C and B C, and all the Sides of the
Triangle

6

ABC

will

be equal.
Demonfiration,

A

Lines A B and C, being drawn from the fame Centre A to the Circumference of the

The

being drawn from the Centre B to the Circumference of the Circle and B C beLa%, The Lines ing equal to the fame Line A B, are alfo equal between themfelves. All the three Sides therefore of the Triangle are equal.

Circle ly the Definition of a Circle and B C are likcwife equal,

BCD,
;

are equal, the Lines B A

CAD.

AC

ABC

The
'

USE.

The Defign of Euclid

m

4

placing this Problem here, was only to demonftrate the

1 c
'

two following
But
it

may

be

Propofitions. alfo further

ferviceable'for the

an inacceffible Line

measuring

A
a

B, which by cannot be approached.

as for Example, the Line reafon of a PJver or Precipice
;

In fuch a Cafe make fmaJI Equilateral E either of Triangle B Wood or Copper, or the like ; and having

D

placed

it

Horizontally upon B, obferve the ' Point

The Fir ft Book.
Point A, by the Side C, by the Side B E.

*

TJ

angle along the divers parts Of the fame Line; 'fill at length vou find a Point C, upon which placing the Triangle you mall fee rhe Point B, bv the Side

B D, and any other Point Then transfer your TriLine B C, and place it upon

C G,

and the Point A by the Side C F. I fay, CB and CA for AC) are equal; fo that by meafuring the Line B C, you may know the Line A B. I might further demonftrate, that the Lines AB and BC are equal

The Lines

7.

;

but let it fuffice, that in this Propofltion, you are taught the way of making an Inftrumenc proper to take the Dimenfions of an inacceffible Line.
v..

PROPOSITION
A Problem.
From a Point given,
to

II.

C*

-

draw a Line equal

to
A~'

another Line given.

LET from which
B,

the Point propos'd be a Line is to

be drawn equal to the Line A.

Take with the Compafs the Length of the Line A, and at that Interval, making B the Centre,
defcribe the Circle

A~
the

CD.
B
3
*

Drawing then from

U.
3»>

£>

5k

\

Ss

yr

v

Cf

(*X

hf%

o

The Elements of Euclid. the Point B t ) which Side you pleafe, a Line B I or B D, 'tis evident it will be equal to the
1

8

Line A. ' Euclid propofes a more myilerious and in* c tricate Method of demonftrating this Propofi1 tion but in Pra&icft we alwavs make ufe e of this: Inafmuch as, having taken with the * Compafs the Line A, 'tis as eafie defcribing c a Circle from the Centre B, as from the Cen;

c

tie A.

PROPOSITION
A Problem.
From a Greater Line
to

in.

take a Part equal to a Lefs.

a Part SUppofe B I,

you were to take from the Line B C Take beequal to the Line A.

twixt the Points of the Compafs the Length of the Line A, and at the Diftance from the Centre B defcribe a Circle, which (hall cut the Line

BC
'

at the Point

I.

*Tis certain the Lines

B

!>

and A, are equal.

The
is

* *
c *

ons

of thefe two preceding Propofitiforafmuch as we fufficiently evident ;
life

are frequently oblig'd in Pratlical Geometry to draw one Line equal to another, and to take a Part of a greater Line equal to a Line
that
is lefs.

*

PRO'PO-

The Firfl Ebok.

*9

PROPOSITION
A Theorem.

IV.

If two Triangles have two Sides equal, each to and the Angles alfo , the other r effectively,

formed by

thofe

two Sides equal
"will

;

thtir Bzfes

and

other

Angles

be equal.

the

LET have two Sides DEF,
equal

Triangles

ABC,

each to the other
;

refpe&ively

that

is

to fay,

Let

and

AB AG

be equal to
to

D E,
lee

F

E

C^~>&
v
EF

DF;

and

DEF,

the Augles B A C, EDF, form'd bv thofe Sides, be alfo equal : I fay, The Bafes B C, arc and the Angles ABC, equal; ACB, are equal; and Jaftly, The whole Tri-

DEF;

angles are equal in all refpeds.

Demonfir a' ion. E F to be plac'd, upon Suppofe the Triangle the Triangle ABC; the SideDE being upon A B, they will not exceed each other, becaufe they are fuppos'd to be equal ; ib that the Point E will be upon B. and the Point upon the Pbint A. For the fameReafon the Line will

D

D

DF

fell

upon AC.

JF^r

if it

(hould

fall

on the Outfide

B 4

20*

The Elements of Euclid.

fide of it, the Angle E the Angle BAG; and

DF

would be greater than
(hould
Jefs
;

if it

fall

within

A C, the Angle E D F

would be

and yet they

are fuppos'd to be equal. Therefore fin ce the is F Point upon the Point A, and the Line falls upon the Line A C, to which it is equal,

D

D

not exceed each other, but the Point F upon C. Laftly, Since the Points E and F of the Line EF, fall upon B and C; the Line EF will fall upon BC; becaufe it can neither fall higher, as in BHC, nor lower, as in for then two Right Lines would enclofe

they

will

will fall

BGC
Space

;

is contrary to the twelfth Therefore the two Triangles do not at all exceed each other. But not only the Bafcs BC, EF, but aifo the Angles ABC, DEF,
;

which

Maxim.

and

A C B,
An

and

D F E,

are equal.

CoroU.

Equilateral

Triangle hath

all

its

Angles equal.

The

USE.
c

Suppofe
l c

I

were to meaj ^ fure an inac'ceflible Line
{ *

AB.
ferve

I

ob-

from

c'
c *

the Point

C,

rneafure the Angle C.

the Points A and B ; and then This done, placing a
fucceffive-

Board horizontally, and obfetving

Tfe
ly

Firjl Book.

2i

A and B, I draw two to the Rule, which make the Lines according G ^ and meafure with a Yard the Lines
by a Rule the Points
Angle

A G, and B C, which are fuppos'd acceflible. Then going into an open Field, and placing my Board again horizontally upon the Point F, and obferving the Lines that I drew upon it,
make an Angle DFE equal to I make Jikewife FD, FE, equal
the Angle C.
to

CA, C

B.

Then, according to this Propofition, the Lines B B, and E, are equal. So that meafuring by

D

Yard the acceffibie Line A B, which is inacceflible.
the

D E,

I (hall

know

Another
i

USE.
to hie

The fame Propofirion may
teach

ferve to

how

a

Bowl

at Billiards

by Re-

flexion. Suppofe one Bowl to be at the Point A, and that

which you would hit at the the Billiard-Table. Imagine Point B, and then a Perpendicular BD E, and take the Line

CD
A

D E equal to B D.
trorn the Point

I fay, If

you

direct the

Bowl

to E, the Refle&icn will car-

ry it to B. For in the Triangles B F D, EFD,' the Side being common, and the Sides B and E equal ; as alfb the Angles B F and EDF Right Angles, the Angles BFD>EFD are

FD

D

D

D

The Angles AFC equal, by this Propofition. FB, being oppofite, are alfb equal, as I (hall

D

'

demon-

12
* *

The Elements of Euclid.

c
c

demonftrate hereafter. Therefore the Angle of Incidence AFC, is equal to the Angle of Reflection BFD; and by confequence the Refle&ion will be by A F B.

PROPOSITION
A Theorem.

V.

In Ifofceles, or Eyuicrural Triangles^ the Angles that are above the Bafe are equal ; as alfo thofe
that are below
it.

the

LET ABC,
let the

Ifofceles
is

be

that

to fay,

Sides
I

AB and AC
Anare
that

be equal.
gles

fay, the

ABC, ACB
;

G

equal

as alfo the An-

HI

KglesGBC, HCB,
B C.

are below the Bafe

Suppofe another Triangle DEF, having the Angle equal to the A and the Sides DE, Angle equal to A B,
;

D DF

AC.

Since the Sides A B, A four Lines A B, AC, DE,

C

DF

are equal,

all

the

will be equal.

Demonftration.
Since the Sides

AB, DE; AC, DF,

are
the

equal

;

as alfo the Angles

A

and

D

;

if

Triangle

The Firjl Book.

23

be plac'd upon ABC, they Triansle E exceed each other, but the Line will not and EF upDF upon AC; will fall upon AB; C (by the 4 ri. ) therefore the Angle on B And becaufe one part of will be equal to I E falls upon A B, the whole Line the Line otherwife two Right Lines will be upon AG; therefore the would have a common Segment; B C. Suppofe then be equal to Angle I E F will E F turn'd, and apply'd another

DEF

D

DEF
D

ABC

D

G

the Triangle D

way

upon AC. upon AB, and AC, DE, are Since the four Lines AB, DF, A and D: The Trithe Angles equal; as alfo and the Triwill likewife agree this way,

to the Triangle

ABC;

that

is

DF

mav

fall

DE

to fay, fa as

angles

angles

ACB, DEF, HCB, IEF,

will

be

it apNow, by the comparing them, equal. was equal to the pear'd, that the Angle to IEF: Therefore and Angle ACB, being equal to the the Angles ABC, and GBC, HCB, alfo equal to fame themthe fame IEF, they are equal among

ABC

DEF;

GBC

DEF;

felves.
1

I
'

was unwilling to make ufe of Euclid's
;

Demonftration
it

becaufe being very

difficult,

[

might difcourage Beginners.

PROPO-

24

.

Tie Elements of Euclid.

PROPOSITION
A Theorem.

VI.

If two Angles of a Triangle be equal\ the Triangle will be an libfceles.
the Angles
that

LET an
is

ABC, ACB
is

of the Triangle
I

ABC

be equal: (fee Fig. preced. )
;

fay,

it

Ifofceles

AG, which
equal.

to fay, the two Sides A B, are oppofne to the equal Angles, are

E F to have a Suppofe the Triangle Bafe EF equal to BC, and the Angle DEF equal to ABC, as alfo DFE equal to ACB: finee the Angles ABC, ACB are fuppos'd to be equal, all the four Angles ABC, ACB, DEF, DFE, will
be equal. Suppofe again therefore the Bafe E F to be plac'd upon the Bafe CB, fo that th£ Point

D

E

equal,

B, the Bafes being fuppos'd evident they will not exceed each other. Further, The Angle E being equal to the Angle B, and the Angle F to the Angle C; the will fall upon the Line B A, and F Line E
lie
it is

upon the Point

D

D

upon CA:
meet
:

So that the Lines

at the Point A. is equal to B A. that the Line E F be turn'd to the Let then the Triangle other Side, and applied another way to the Tri-

ED

and will From whence it Follows,

ED

FD

D

angle

The
angle
lie

Firfi Book..
is

25

E upon C, and F will perfe&ly agree, being fuppos'd to be equal: And becaufe the Angles F, and B, E, and C, are aifo fuppos'd to be equal, the Side FD will fall upon B A, and E upon C A ; and the

ABC;

that

to fay, fo that the Point upon B: the Bafes B C, F

E

D

Point D. upon A. Therefore the Lines will be equal. Whence it follows, That the Sides

AC DE

AC,

AB

equal to the

are equal between themfelves, being E. fame Side

D

The
f
c c 1

USE.
may
ferve

This Propofition

p^

for taking the Dimensions of any fort of inacceflible Lines.
%

Tis faid that lhales

was the

*
c

firft

that meafur'd the Heighth of Obelisks by their Shadows :
It

JJIb ^^
the Sun be ele-

c

c
1

For if this Propofition. were to meafure the Height of the Obeyou

may be done by
A
B;

lisk

do but expe&

'till

*
1 1

vated 4? Degrees above the Horizon ; that is ? to fay, cill the Angle A C B be 47 Degrees ; and, by this fixtb Propofition, the Shadow B C

1 * *
' *

for fince will be equal to the Obelisk A B. and the is a right Angle, the Angle half a Right one, or of 4? DeAngle will be half a Right grees ; the Angle

ABC ACB

CAB

I

Therefore one, as I (hall prove hereafter. the Angle B C A, B A C, are equal : and (by
1

the

26
;

the
I

The Elements of Euclid. 6. ) the Sides A B, B C, are alfo equal

1

:

making
:

tan alfo meafure the fame Height without life of the Shadow, by taking a Stand
far

for

;

;

A C B may be half a Right Angle may be known by a Quadrant.
1

from the Point B, as that the Angle which ,

;

Thefe Proportions are of frequent U(e in Trigonometry, and in all other Tra&s. 1 The Seventh Ptopofition may be omitted, ? becaufe cis ot no other life but to demonftrate the Eighth, which may be done without it.

PROPOSITION
A Theorem.

VIII.

their Sides equal, their If two Triangles have all will alfo be equal. cfpofete Angles

L
LV

!

ET
I

the Side

GI
LT;
to

be equal to
;

HI, to VT,
Angle
equal

GH,
will

GIH
to

fay,

That the
be

the

Angle
to the

LTV- IGH,

From to the -Angle V. Angle L; and the Centre H, at the Diftance I, defcribe the Circle IG; and from the Centre G, at the I. Diftance G I, the Circle

IHG

H

H

Demon-

7he Fkfi Book.
Demonftratlon,

*T

Suppofe the Line LV brought upon HG; they would not exceed each other, becaufe they are I add, That the Point T fuppos'd to be equal. For ic will fall precifely upon the Point I ; to reach precifely to the Circumference of ought the Circle i G/ becaufe by the Suppofition the
Lines
Circle
equal.

H I and V T
I

manner

Ic ought in like are equal to reach to the Circumference of the are and H, becaufe the Lines will light upon the Point I, So then it

GI

LT

Circles cut' being the Point where thofe two each other. Indeed, if it fell any where elfe, as would upon O, the Line HO, that is to fay, VT, I ; and the Line G O, that is be greater than LT, would be lefs than GI ; which is againft Whence I conclude, That the the Suppofition. AnTriangles will exa&ly correfpond, and the

H

gle

GIH

be equal to the Angle

LTV.

The

USE,

* This Proportion is neceffary for the Proof of thofe that follow. And further, When we cannot take the Meafure of an Angle, becaufe,

the Lines meeting in a Solid Body, we cannot apply our Inftruments to it ; we rnuft take the

three Sides of the Triangle, and make another upon a Paper, whofe Angles we may meafure.

This

is

a very ordinary Praftice in Gnomonicks,
'

or

28
1

The Elements of Euclid.

c

1

or Dialling ; and in the Treatifes concerning cutting Precious Stones, fo as to fit the Pannels, and to retain the Waters.

PROPOSITION
A Problem.
To divide an Angle
into

IX.

two equal

Tarts,

T the Angle of S T be propos'd to be divided into two equal Parts. Take the Compafs, and from the Centre

LE

R

Lines T. Then draw S, the Right Line ST, and {by the i.) defcribe an Equilateral Triangle S T V. I fay, The Line V divides the Angle into two equal Parts ; that is

^

R, at any Diftance, draw the Arch ST, cutting off two equal

R

R

R

to fay, the Angles

VRT, and VRS,

are equal.

Demonfiraiion,

Side

V R S, and VRT, have the V R common and the Side R T was taken equal to the Side RS The Bafe alfb S V is equal to V T, becaufe the Triangle S V T is equilateThe Triangles
;
:

ral.

Wherefore
?

V RT

( by the 8,

) the Angles S

R V,

are equal.
I

Tic

7k
«

'"
Ftrfi Book,

ZB

The

USE.
:

the This Proportion is very ufeful to divide of a Circle into Degrees For cis Fourth part an Angle the fame thing to divide an Arch as does into two equal Parts; and the Line Arches ST, the both; that is, It divides both and the Angle SRT. Having therefore apof 'd the Semi- diameter to the fourth Part

RV

an Arch of 60 Degrees* which divided equally, gives an Arch of *o; makes one of 15 Deand that

ply a Circle,

you cut

off

a^airhdjvjded,

muft divide an Arch into three equal Parts, but Pilots that is not to be done Geometrically. Winds by the alfo divide the Compafs into $2
help of this Propofition only.

grees.

'Y is trueTtoHanUh

this Divifion,

we

P R

OPO

S

IT

ION

X.

A Problem.
To divide a Right Lint into two equal Parts.
the Line

divided SUppofe into
lateral Triangle

AB was to be two equal Parts;
(by the

<5

upon the LineAB defcribean Equi-

and divide the Angle ACE into two equal Parts by the Line DC, (by the 9 .) I fay, The Line A B is
divided equally at the Point

ABC,

iJ A /

j

\
\
.

:E

\n
*

/

E

\j/

;

D

C

that

go
that
is

The Elements of Euclid. to fay, The Lines A E and E B

are

equal
Demonftration.
.

E have the The Triangles A C E and B A and CB E common, and the Sides Side is equilaare equal, becaufe the Triangle teral ; and the Angle being divided

C

C

C ACB

and are alfo equally, the Angles Therefore ( by the 4. ) the Bafes A E equal. and B E are equal.
The
*

ACB ACE BCE
USE.

*

*

f

*

*
'
1

Great Ufe is made of this Propofition, ordinary Pra&ices frequently requiring us to divide a Line in the Middle, which Geometriclans require (hould be done exa&ly at the firft Da(b, by a Method that is infallible, and This Praftice is likewife not by EfTays. ufeful for dividing Meafures into principally
lefs

Parts.

PRO-

The Firji Book:

3*
•**»

PROPOSITION
A Problem.

XL

To drajv a Perpendicular to a Line gvvm^ upon a given Point ef the jame Line.

you were

to raife
A\
t

a Perpendicular upon SUppofe the Point A in the Line B C Take two equal Lines, A B and A C, on both Sides the

_
'il

Point A, and

make an Equilateral Triangle B D C upon the Line B C, {by the 1 ) I
.

%,

is

BAD

Perpendicular; that is to fay, and are equal.

CAD

The Line A D The Angles

.

.

Demonfiration.

The
Side

A

D

Triangles

BAD
BD

and

CAD
A

have the
:

common,
,(

the Sides-

equal,

and the Bafes

and

Therefore

G and A B are DC alfo equal
BAD,
and
ic. defin.) the

by the 8. ) the Angles
;

Line

CAD, are equal and {by the A D Perpendicular to B C.

:

.

»

C

2

£RO-

32

The Elements of Euclid.

PROPOSITION
A Problem.
To draw a Perpendicular
Toint which
it

XII.

to

a Line.given^ from a

out of the Line*

A

"

F you would

draw

a Perpen-

'

J^
E

dicular to the Line

B C, from

N>*..L*>*'

X/ the c

Point

A

:

foot of the

\T>'

Having fet the Compafs upon A,

defcribe the Circle
fhall

cut the Line BC, at the Then divide the Line B C Points B and C. I (ay, the into two equal Parts at the Point E. Line A E is Perpendicular to B C. Draw the

D

BC, which

Line

AB, AC.
Dimonftration,

The
Side

AE

Triangles

BE A,

and

CEA,
Sides

common; and the

EC

have the and EB

equal, the Line B C having been equally divided at the Point E ; the Bafes A B and A C f being drawn from the Centre A to the Circumference BC, are likewife equal : Therefore the Angles are equal, {by the 8.) and the AEB, and A

EC

Perpendicular, {by Defa. io.) in Pra&ice, of dividing the Line in the Middle, is to defcribe two Arches at ID, ar the fame Interval, from the

Line

AE

The Method

BC

Centres

B and C.

7h

The Firft Book.
The
4

33

USE.

«
<

need of a Plummet or SquaringNo Angles : line almoft in all our Operations but the Right; and all are in life in Building

We have

<

1
« <

and other Chairs, Benches, Tables, Buffets, framed by the Square. NoSurMoveables, are Ufe ot Land can be taken without making
vey
Dialling of Perpendicular Lines : Nor s without them. The Carpenter performed and the lame is Level contains a right Angle, other, efpecially by the preferr'd before any
French,
in

can

be

*
«
«

*
«

«
'

Laftly, Not only Fortification. alfo the greateft part Mathematicians, but that we (nould of practical Artifans, require

know how

to

draw a Perpendicular.

PROPOSITIONA Theorem.
One Line falling upon two right Angles,
Right
ones.

XIII.

another,
or

makes with

it

either

two Angles equal

to

two

ther two right Angles, or two Anand the other Agles, one Obtufe,
(hall be cute, which join'd together, of equal Value with two Right ones.
jj

L
,

ET
i

the Line

AD fall
make

upon
with

EC
it

;

^
»

fay, 'Twill

ei-

j
j

£>

c

C

;

Demon-

34

The Elements of Euclid.
DemonftWaticn.

1

...

t

i,

Suppnfe the Line

AD
and

to fall perpendicularly
dtfin,

upon EC,
the Angles

then

'tis

A

D B,

evident (by

ADC,

10.) that are equal, and

by confequence

right Angles.

Or,

Secondly, Suppofe the Line not to fall perpendicularly upon B C, then having draw^ a Perpendicular A Angles right Angles equal -Value

ED
the are
or

E

A

D (by the 1.) ADB, and ADC,
1 ,

*r

which
with

are

ADE, EDB.

the three Angles ADC, But the Obrufe Angle EDC, and the acute Angle EDB. are ot equal Value with the three Angles ADC, ADE, and EDB: Therefore the Angles EDC, and EDB, are of equal Value with two Right ones. This Propoficion may be more eafily demonftrated, by defcribing a Semi-circle from the Centre upon the Line B C. For the Angles and EDC, will require a Semicircle EDB, for their Meafure, which is the Meafure of two right Angles, as I have flhown before ( in the

D

8.

Dtfn. )
Corollary i. If the Line
right

AD falling upon BC,

other Cor oil.

Angle ADC; ir is evident, the be alfo a right Angle. B C, 2. If the Line ED, falling upon make the Angle Acute ; the Angle Ibe will be Cbtufe.

make one

ADB

will

EDB

EDC

The Firfi Book.
The
«

35

USE.

«
<

of the means, when we know ore is made by one Line falling upAngles which we know alfo the other. As tor on another, be one of 70 If the Angle Example

By

this

:

EDB

<

Degrees, taking
will

away 70 from

180,
in

there
ihis

1
<

regain

no

for the Angle

EDC.

occur Operation does frequently
metry,

Trigone

'
'

and

alfo in Aftronomj, for finding the

which the Excentricity of the Circle through
paffes.
.

Sun Annually

PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
Jf two Lines meeting
another Line,
to

XIV.

together

at the

make with
j

it

two Right ones the fame Line.

they

will

fame Voint of two Angles equal make hat one and

the Lines

C A,

and

D A to SUppofe meet at the Point A of the Line A B ; and that the Anand BAD, gles adjoining, CAB, are equal to two Right ones. I C A and DA are fay, The Lines but one and &e fame Line ; fo that
continued, will
fall precifely

CA

being

upon. A P*

C

4

Imagine

56

The Elements of Euclid.
if

J

Imagine,

you

pleafe, that

will pafs on to E, fcribe a Circle.

and from

continued, the Centre A de-

CA

Demonftration.
If

vou

CBE

fay that

will"

is a Right Line, the Arch be a Semi-circle. But 'tis fuppos'd,

CAE

that the Angles CAB, and B A D, are equal to two Right ones, and that therefore their MeaTherefore the Arches fure is a Semi-circle.

C BE

and poflible, one being
fore the Line

CBD
CA

will

be equal

;

which

is

irr>

a part ot the other.

being continued, will

Theremake but

one and the fame Line with

A D.

PROPOSITION
A Theorem.

XV.

cut each other, the Oppcfite If two ?Jght Lines * he equal. Angles at the Top will
*

jg

1

M\v%\iJ* Eucl.

au fimmet. Gall;

the Line

Poinr

LET E:
cut

AB and C each other at the
I

D

fay,

A E C, and

D E B,

The Angles
which are

are equal. oppofite at the Top,
Demonftration. upon the Line

The JJne

C E falling

A B, makes
the

Ihe
the Angles
falling

Firfi Book.

37
two Right

A

EC
i ;.)

and

CEB equal to

ones, (by the

upon

and

BED

equal

In like mannelr the Line B the Line CD, makes the Angle to Right ones. Therefore

E CEB

wo

taken together, are ethe Angles A EC, therefore taking \ qual to the Angles CEB, from both,the Angle away the Angle CEB will remain equal to DEB, ( by the ;. Maxim.)

CEB

BED

AEQ

two Lines DE, and EC, concurthe fame Point E of the Line AB. form ing at equal, with it the oppofite Angles A EC, make but one Right- Line. and
Coroll. If

DEB

DE

EC

,

Demonftration.

TheLine

two Right the Angles A E C, and C E B equal to iikewife that ones, {by the 13O Tis fuppos'd is equal to the Angle A EC. the Angle to Therefore the Angles DEB, BEC, are equal the 14.J the Lines And ones. two

EC falling upon the Line AB, makes

D EB

Right

and E

D

{by

CE

make but one Right
The

Line.

USE.

1

The two preceding Propo- g

fitions
*

'

are made life of to make prove, that two Lines but one Total. As for Exam: In Catoptricks or Perfpepie
ftives,

D

*
*

where that is required to prove, that of all the Lines C that can be drawn bv Reflexion from the Point
t

A

§8
1

7he
to

Elements ef Eticlid.
thofe

A

the Poinc B,

c
*

are the fborteSi

which make the Angle of Incidence equal to the

'

*
? *
*

Angle of Reflection. As for Example: If the be equal, the Lines and Angles and EB, are (horter than AF, and FB. AE,

BED

AEF

'BED
«

«
'

c *

B D, and and make the Lines equal ; then draw EG, and FC. Firft, In the Triangles and CED the Side D E is common ; and BC being equal, as and the Sides alfo the Angles BDE, and CDE; the Bafes BE and C E will be equal ; as alfo the Angles B ED, and DEC (by the 4 J In like manner, I may prove that B F and C F are equal.
From
the Poinc

B

d«"?w a Perpendicular

BD

CD

BD

Demonftration.

'-

The Angles

c

!

1 '

the Angles to be equal; therefore the oppofite Angles will be equal ; and (by the and one right Line ; and the is-) Coroll. of is a Triangle, of which

BED and DEC are equal, and BED and AEF are fuppos'd likewife

DEC

AEF

by confequence
the Sides

AEC AFC
FC

AF
is

and and
;

f
f
c

AEC,
A
F,

that

to fay, than

muft be longer than AE, and EB. But

the Lines

AF
FB

FC

are equal to the Lines

and
fince

therefore the Lines

*

FB
And
pen

are longer than the Lines

A F and A E and E B.

c
c

(horteft Lines, the Reflection will
in

« *

Natural Csufes always -aft by the always hapfuch a manner, that the Angles of Re-

fleftion

and Incidence

(hall

be equal.
'

Fur-

The Firfi Book. 39 Becaufe we can eafily prove, that Further, all the Angles that can be made upon a Plane
*

about the fame Point, are equal rr> four right Angles, ( forafmuch as in the hrft Figure of and A E this Proportion, the Angles A E are equal to two Right ones, as alfo BEC and to two more) we make a general Rule B to determine what Polygones may be join'd in

C

D

ED

paving a Hall. Accordingly we

fay, that

Four

Squares, Six Triangles, and three Hexagones, may beufed for that Purpofe: And thar therefore Bees are always obfcrv'd to make their
little

Cells of the iaft

;

that

is,

of Figures con-

fifting

of hx Sides.

PROPOSITION
A Theore
M.

XVI.

The External Angle of a Triangle is greater than either of the Internal Ofpolite Angles.
the Side B C of Triangle A B C PRoduce
:

1 fay,

is greater than either of the Internal Op-

ACD

the External Angle

B

B A C.
angle

pofite Angles,

ABC,

or

Suppofe the Tri-

ABC to be mov'd along the Line B f and carry'd inco the Place of C E D. Demon-

D

40

The Elements of Euclid.
Demonfiration.

'Tis impoffible that the Triangle be fo mov'd, but the Point A mutt

ABC mould
come
'twill

into

the place of the Point pear, that the Angle is lefs than the Angle
ternal Angle

F

;
;

and then
that
:

ap-

£CD
is

is

ACD
lefs

to fay,

ABC,

ABC

Therefore the Inthan the External

ACD.
is lefs

'fis likewife eafie to prove, that the

having
equal angle

than the External Angle prolong'd the Side A

ACD:

Angle A For
F,

C

as frr as

the oppofite Angles

BC

F,

and

ACD,

arc

FA I to Aide along the Line A the Angle F to be greater fhall demonttrate

ABC

( by the if. )

Therefore caufing the Tri-

C

BC

than the Angle A.
The
*

US$.
this Propofition

We may

draw from

many

e

ufeful Conclufions.

c
*

As firft, That from a Point given, anly one Perpendicular can be drawn to the fame Line. For Example: Sup'

pofe the Line
I fay,

AB

to be Per-

*

pendicular to the Line

B

C

;

\
*

That

AC
;

will

not be

Perpendicular
c

becaufe the

right
1

Angle A B D
than

muft be

*
\

Angle

ACB

;

greater therefore

the Internal

ACB

cannot be a

nor right Angle,

AC

a Perpendicular. * S:cond-

The
•«

Firft Book:

4*

«

the fame Point A Secondly, That from two equal Lines ; cannot be drawn more than and if you for Example, AC, and AD;

*

draw a

third as

AE/it
For
fince

will

«
i

to the former.

AC

"
i « «

4

equal, the Angles in the Triangle A EC, equal, (by the c.) but A C B is greater than the External Angle therefore litethe Internal A E C : And is greater than the wife the Angle A E D. Therefore the Lines A E, and

A CD,

not be equal arc and are and

AD ADC

ADE
;

Angle

4

A D,

are not equal

nor by confequcnce

AC

*

«

*
«

AC makes the ^Thirdly, That if the Line and ACF Obtufe, the Acute, Angle from the Point A will Perpendicular drawn For it the acute Angle. fall on the fide of

ACB

*

you
ele

«
«

that

AEF a Right Angle AEF would be greater
is

fay that

AE

is

a Perpendicular, and
;

the Right A nthan the Obtufe
ferviceable

* < *
*

and for maturing Parallelograms, Triangles to reduce them into RettanTrapefia, and gular Figures,

ACE

Thefe Conclufions are

PRO

42

The Elements of Euclid.
MB

PROPOSITION
A Theorem,
Any two Angles
of

XVII.

a

Triangle are
ones,

lefs

than

two Right

fay, That any two of its Angles taken together, as B A C, and B C A, Proare lefs than two Right ones. duce the Side C A to the Point D.

LET

the Triangle be

ABC;

I

Demonftration.

The Internal Angle C is lefs than the External B A D, {by the 16. ) Add therefore to both
the Angle B A C; the Angles BAC, and BCA, will be lefs than the Angles BAC, and two Right ones, ( by yet thofe are but equal to Therefore the Angles BAC, and the i%.) BCA, are Ms than two Right ones. After the fame manner I can demonstrate the than two Angles ABC,. and ACB, to be lefs Side B C. Right ones, by producing the

BAD;

Cor oil. If one Angle of a Triangle be a Right, or Obtufe Angle, the other are Acute.
1
f This Propofition thofe that follow.

is

necefiary to demonflrate

i

PRO-

The

Firfi Book?

43

PROPOSITION
A Theorem.

XVIII.

In every Triangle whatsoever, the greatefi the greatefi Angle. offosd to

Side

is

B C of the Uppofe the Side
Triangle the Side greater than

ABC,

to

be
I
is

AC;
that

The Angle opposM to the
fay,

BAC,

Side B C, is the Angle B, greater than which is opposed to the Side

j-g-

A C.

Line B

C

in

D,

fo that

C D may
A D»

Cut the be ecjual to

AC;

then draw the Line

Demembration.
Since the Sides Triangle

ACD

AC, and CD,
will

be an

the *.) the

Angles

CD A,

are equal, the and ( by Ifofceles,

and

C

A D,

equal.

Now
is

the whole Angle

BAC

is

greater

than

the Angle

CAD:

Therefore the Angle

BAC

which yet of the TriInternal B, angle A B D, is greater than the Therefore the Angle B A C is ( by the 16. ) greater than the Angle B, 6
greater than the Angle
;

CDA

being an External Angle

in refpeft

PRO-

44

The Elements of Euclid.

PROPOSITION
A Theorem.

XIX.

In every Triangle, the great efi Angle
the greatefi Side.

is

oppos'd to

A

T ET
I
j

the Angle

A

Triangle B A

C

er than

^ fay,

The

the Angle Side B C, to

ABC.I
which

of the be greatis

"oppos'd
greater than the Side the Angle B.

AC,

Angle A, is that is oppos'd to

the

Demonfiration.
If the Side

AC,
and B

'tis

be not greater than the Side and then the Angles A ; would be equal ; {by the <;.) which is coneither equal

BC

trary to the Suppofuion : Or iefs, and if (b, the Side A C being greater than B C, the Anwould be greater than the Angle A, gle B

C

though the contrary be fuppos'd.
therefore, that the Side

It

remains
ttie

BC

is

greater than

Side

AC.
the

USE.

'

We may

'

only that i

prove from thefe Propofitions, not no more than one Perpendicular can I

The Firji Bdohf

45

can be drawn from the fame Point to the fame Line ; but alfo that it is the fhorteft of As for Example If the all. r be Perpendicular to Line S T, it will be iefs than R S : Becaufe the Angle being a right Angle, the Angle R S V will be an Acute, (by the Corolt. s of the 17. J and the Line R V will be left than R S, (by the preceding.) Therefore Geometricians do always make ufe of a
:

RV

RVS

when they take the Dimenof any Thing, and reduce irregular Figures to fuch. as have one or more right
Perpendicular,
fions

more than

it being impoffible that three Perpendiculars fhould meet at the fame Point, it cannot be imagined that

Angles.

I

add, That

there mould be more than three Species or Kinds of Quantity, a Line, a Superficies, and a Solid Body.
'

By

thefe Propofitions

we

likewife proved

That a Bowl exactly round cannot reit, but For Example: upon fuch a certain Point.
fent

Let the Line A B reprea Plane, and the

C

Centre of the Earth, and that CA be drawn Perpendicular to the Line A B ; I fay, That a Bowl being

placM upon the Point B, cannot reft there. For a heavy Body cannot it may reft, when

D

defcend.

46
*

The Elements of Euclid.

*

'
* 1
mi

the Bowl 8 moving towards A, continually defcends, and approaches C becaufe in near the Centre of the the Triangle CAB, the Perpendicular
defcend.

Now

Emh

;

CA

* *

B C. 1 In like manner we dy muft flow from B
is

Shorter than

prove, that a Liquid Boto A, and that its Super-

ficies

muft be round.

PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
Any two
Sides of a Triangle

XX.

takm

togethtr, art

greater than the thirdy

That the two Sides

T L,
the
this

LV, ISav,
Side

are

greater

than

TV.

Some Men prove
Definition

Propofition by the

of

a

which is the fhorteft that can be drawn from one Point to another Therefore
Right
Line,
:

the Line

TV

is

lefs

than the two Lines

TL

and LV. But it may alio be demonftrated another way. Continue the Side V L to R, Co that the- Lines L R and LT be equal ; then draw
the Line

R T.

Demons

7he Firji Book?
Demonstration.

4?

Sides L T, and L R, of the Triangle are equal ; therefore the Angle R, and But the Angle are equal ; ( by the j , ) : Thereis greater than the Angle than the Angle is fore the Angle greater R: And (by the 19.) in the Triangle V, the

The

L T R, L T R,

RTV

RTL

RTV
is

Side

RV,

that

to fay, the Sides

RT LT and L V

are greater than the Side

T V»

PROPOSITION
1

XXI.

A Theorem.
If a fmall Triangle be defcriPd within a greater upon the fame Bafe, the Sides of the fmall one will be lefs than thofe of the greater ; but they
will form a greater Angle*

LET
ACB,

defcrib'd within

the fmall Triangle the

ADB

be

Triangle

upon the fame Bafe AB* I fay, Firft, The Sides AC and BG are greater than the Sides AD and BD. A
Continue the Line

AD

to E.

Demonftration. In the Triangle ACE, the Sides AC, and are greater than the Side A E alone, (by the 20.)

CE

D

z

There-

48

The Elements of Euclid. Therefore, adding to them the Side E B
Sides

;

the

AG, and CEB, are greater than the In like manner in the Sides AE, and E B. B E, the two Sides BE and ED are Triangle greater than the Side B D alone ; and adding the Side AD, the Sides ADE, and EB, will and B D. be greater than A B is That the Angle A I fay further, than the Angle ACB: For the Angle greater

D

D

D

ADB

is

an external Angle,

Triangle
Internal

DBE, and
Angle
the Angle

in refpect of the therefore greater than the

manner
Angle

DEB, (by the 16.) DEB, being an ACE;

In like

external

in refpecl:

of the Triangle

er than the Angle

ACE, is greattherefore the Angle

A

DB

is

greater than the Angle

ACB.

The
'

USE.
this

By

the help
in

of

monftrate Opticks , viewed from the Point C, will appear than when it is beheld from the Point

Propoiition we dethat the Bafe A B
lefs

D;

\

according to that Principle, That Quantities viewed under a greater Angle, will appear Therefore 'tis that Vitruvius adgreater. vifes, not much to lelfen the Tops of veryhigh PHlars; becaufe they being fo remote from our Sight, quickly appear (lender enough without being diminifhed.

PRO-

The Firjl Book,
.

49

PROPOSITION XXII. A Theorem.
To
to three

a Triangle, whofe Sides [hall be equal Sides given, provided that any two of them be greater than the third,
defcribe
it

a Triangle, whofe Sides ihall be equal to three Lines given, AB, D, and E. Meafure with the

LET

be propos'd to defcribe

B,

Compafs

D, and fetting jy one Foot thereof upon the Point B, make an Arch. Then take the Line E, and placing the Foot of your Compafs upon the Point A, make another Arch, cutting the former at the Point C Which done, draw the Lines A C, and* B C. I fay, That the Triangle ABC
the Line
:

is

fuch a one as

you

defire.

Demonfiration.
it
is equal to the Line E, becaufe reaches to the Arch which is drawn from the Ce tre A at the Diftance of the.Line £ ; and for

The

Side

AC

C is equal to the Therefore the three Sides AC, B C, and A B, are equal to the Lines E, D, and A B. I added a Provifo, That the two Lines (hould be greater than the third ; becaufe otherwife,
the

fame Reafon the Side B

Line

D

:

D

3

if

$o
if the

The Elements of Euclid.
Lines

D

and

E

were

lefs

than the Line

A B,
1

the Arches could not cut each other.

The

USE,

This Propofition may be ufeful for defcribing a Figure equal or like to another:
that, which is proposed be equalled, or imitated, into Triangles ; and made other Triangles, having equal Sides with the former ; we Lhall have a Figure But if we defire only one exa&Jy equal. that is like, but lefs, as when we would defcribe a Plain, or Country, upon Paper :

For having divided
to

Having divided
fur'd all
their

Triangles;

it into Triangles, and meaSides, we muft make fimilar (6 giving to each of their Sides

Parts of a Scale, or Line divided into equal Parts, as the Sides of the Triangles proposed have of Yards or Feet.

many

PROPOSITION
A Problem.
To wake an Angle equal
Line given.

III.

to another at a Toint

of $

you were make an Angle at SUppofe
Point

to the
e-

A of

the Line

A B,

/eF^X

F. Dequal to the Angle E the Points fcribe from

D

A

and

%\ Firjl Boo\. two Arches B C, and E F, at the fame Wf3enefs tyf the Compafs ; then take the Diftance E F, and having meafured as much in B C, draw the Line AC. I fay, The Angles BAC, and EDF, are equal,
and

The

D as Centres,

.

Demonfiraiion.

Sides

BC and EF were defame Widenefs of the Compafs, the Bafes alfo B C and E F are equal ; are therefore the Angles and
DF;
fince the Arches

The Triangles ABC, and D E F, have the AB, and AC, equal to the Sides DE, and

fcribed with the

BAC

EDF

equal, ( by the 8. )

The
This Problem
is

USE.
in

fo necefTary

Fortifications, Ptrfpeffive, Dialling,

and

Gxode/ia, all other

Parts of the Mathematicks, that the greateft Part of their Operations would be impoffible, if we did not know how to make one Angle

equal to another, or of fuch a
grees as

Number

of

De-

we

pleafe.

D4

PRO

52

The Elements of Euclid.

PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
Of two

XXIV,

Triangles 5 having each two Sides e\ual to. the other ; that which has the greateft has alfo the Jingle, Bafe.

two of

greateft

AC

L' have the Sides AB
and

ET

the Triangles,

ABC, DEF
and DE, and let the

DF

be greater than the Angle EDF. I (ay, The Bafe BC Angle is greater than the Bafe EF.

BAC

equal

;

Make
the Line

the Angle

EDG

equal to

DG

the Angle equal to

BAC,
AC
;

(by the

23.) and

then draw the Line

ABC and JD EG, haFirir, the Sides A B and D E, A C and DG, equal, ving and the Angle EDG equal to the Angle BAG their 'Bales BC and EG will be equal, (by the 4.) and tint Lines F)G and p F being both equal
EG.
The Triangles
;

to

AC,

will

be equal betwixt themfelves.

uemonft ration.
In thQ Triangle DGF, the Sides and will be and beingequal, the Angles is lefs equal, ( by the $•.) But the Angle is thr.ii the Angle DGF, %nd the EF Angle than the Angle Therefore in greater the

DG

DF

DGF,

DFG

EGF

G

DFG,

The

will be EF the Triangle E F And therefore greater than the Angle the 18 J the Line oppos'd to the great{by will be greater than EF. Thereer Angle EFG, fore B C, being equal to EG, is greater than EF,

Firfi Book. G, the Angle

55

G

EGF:

EG

PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
Of two

XXV.

each two Sides equal to Triangles , having the other ; that which has the great?ft Bafe t has likewife the great eft Angle.

two of

LET D
E,

DEF, have and AC,
the Bate

the two Triangles the Sides

ABC,

D

A

A

D
BC
F.
I

B,

F,

and

Jet

equal ; be greater
fay,

than the Bafe
the Angle the Angle

E

That

e"

A

will

be greater than
Demonstration.

D.

gle

be not greater than the Anbe either equal, and then the Bafes.BC, EF, will be equal, {by the 4.). or it wjll be lefs, and the Bafe E F greater than the Bafe BC, (by the 24.) but both are contrary to
If the

D

Angle

A

;

it

will

the Suppofirion, ' Thefe Propofitions are neceffary to
[

demon-

ftrate thofe chat

come

after.

PRO-

54

The Elements of Euclid.

PROPOSITION
%

XXVI.

A Theorem,
has one Side, and two Angles, equal to thofe of another Triangle ; 'tis equal
to it in all Refpefts.

If one Triangle

LET ACB,DF£, of the
ABC, DEF,
Sides

the Angles

ABC, DEF;
Triangles

be equal; and the

C Da.^
i

C^\ / ^y^
'greater

B C, and E F, which are between thofe Angles, alfo equal. I other Sides are equal ; fay, That the F Imafor Example, AC, and

D

:

F

E g me

be

you than AC; and cutting
>

if

pleafe, the Side

DF

to

GF

equal to

AC, draw

the Line

G E.

Demonflration. the Sides The Triangles ABC, GEF, have the Angle C is alfo EF, BC, AC, GF, equal;

to F. Therefore (by the 4. ) fuppos'd to be equal in all the Triangles ABC, GEF, are equal and ABC are Refpefts: and the Angles GEF, But we fuppos'd the Angles ABC, equal. E F, to be ^qual : And fo the Angles DEF, to E f! would be equal that is, The whole Therefore the the Part, which is impoffible. E will not be greater than the Side Side

D
G

;

D

A

d,

Firfi Book. 55 than F, becaufe the greater fame Demonflration may be made in the Tri-

Tht

A

B, nor

AC

D

|

D F be greater than AC, cut E. and draw the Line

angle ABC. and Again, Suppofe the Angles A and D, F to be equal ; and alfo the the Sides B C, and EF, oppos'd to the Angles A and D, to be I fay, The other Sides are equal. For if equal.

C

GF

G

equal to

AC,

A and D were equal, therefore the and EGF, muft be equal ; which is Angles D, impoflible, fince the Angle EGF, being the external Angle in refpeft of the Triangle EGD, muft be greater than the internal D, (by the
the Angles
i\5. )

The Triangles ABC, G E F, having the Sides EF, BC, FG, CA, equal, will, (by the 4.; be equal in all Refpe&s And the Angles EGF, But we fuppos'd, that BAC, will be equal.
:

Demonflration,

therefore

the Side

DF

is

not

greater

than

A

C.

The
i

USE,
b

1

of this Propofition, to meafure inacceffible Diftances. Fof Example :

Thales

made ufe

* 4
*

The

Diftance

A

D

being propofed, he would draw from
the

^A

' ' *

Point

A,

the

Line
cular

AC
to

Perpendi-

AD

:

Then

defcribing

a

Semi-

J

circle at

the Point

C, would meafure the
I

Angle

j6 Angle

7he
AC

Elements of Euclid. D, and take another equal to

it

on

the other Side, prolonging the Line C B 'till A at the Point B ; it meet with the Line and then demonftrate the Lines and

D

AD

A B to be equal fo that rneafuring the Line A B, which was acceffible, he could know the
;

other which was not.

For the two Triangles and ABC, have the right Angles CAD ADC, and CAB equal, the Angles ACD, and ACB are alfo taken equal ; and the Side A C is

common to both: Therefore {by the ±6.) Sides A D and A B are equal,

the

A L
A Line which
is

E

M M A.
to one

"Perpendicular

of tivo Pa"

rallelsy is alfo

Perpendicular

to the other.

LEand CD, and
C
c

T

the Parallel Lines be
let

AB

EF

be Per-

I fay, 'Tis pendicular to C D. alfo Perpendicular to A B. Cut F equal to F D, and the Line

upon
c

the Points

culars to
rallels,

c
*

Lines

EC
FE

raife two Perpendiwhich, by the Definition of Pa' will be equal to F E ; then draw the

C

and

D

CD,

and

ED.

'Demonfi ration,
c
1
1

The Triangles CEF, and

Side

and the

D E F, have the common, the Sides CF, FD, equal, Angles CFE, and DFE, Right, and by
;

'

confequence equal

therefore (by the

4.
4

J

the

Bafes

The
?
1 '

Firjl

Book
;

tf

f
c
c

BafesEC, ED, and the Angles FED, FEC, and FCE, FDE, will be equal the two laft of which being taken away from the right Angle ACF and BDF, leave the two Angles
equal: Therefore the TriDBE, will have (by the £.) the angles Angles DEB, C E A, equal ; which' being added to the equal Angles CEF, DEF, make the Angles FEB, and FEA, equal ; therefore the Line E F is Perpendicular to A B.

ACE,

and

BDE,

CA&

1
1

1

PROPOSITION
A Theorem.

XXVII.

If a Lint, falling upon two others, makes 'with them the Alternate Angles equal, thofe two

Lines are parallel.

the Line

LET the Lines AB and upon
CD, make
equal.
I

EH,

falling

with them the

alternate Angles
fay,

AFG, FGD Firft, The Lines

C D, will never concur, tho' continu'd as far as you pleafe For (uppofe them to concur in I, and that FBI, and are two right Lines.
and
:

A B,

CDI

Demonfiration.
If

FBI, and

GDI, be two

right Lines,

FIG
is

The Elements of Euclid. 59 is a Triangle; and (by the 16.) the external Angle AFG, is greater than the internal FGI. They cannot therefore be equal, if the Lines AB and ever concur; 1 But becaufe we have Examples of fome c crooked Lines, which never concur ; and yet ' are not Parallels, approaching (till nearer and * nearer to each other. I fay, Secondly, That if the Line EH, fall-

GD

ing upon the Lines AB, and C D, makes the alternate Angles AFG, and equal ; the Lines A B,

FGD,

C D,

or in all Reremote from each fpe&s equally
are Parallel,
other, fo that the Perpendiculars

between them
the Point lar A, to the Line equal to A F, draw F

will

G

be equal.

From

G

draw the Perpendicu* A B and taking G D D.
;

Demonfiration.

The
Side

is alfo taken common; the Side to the Side A F, and the Angles AFG and equal fuppos'd to be equal: Therefore (by and are equal, and the the 4.) the Bafes F is equal to the right Angle Angle C

FG

Triangles

AGF,

and

GD

D F G,

have the

FGD

AG

FD

D therefore FD
the Line
Parallel

CAB;

is

AB

is

Perpendicular. Parallel to

Line that can Point F to the Line G D, ought

add, That For the only be drawn from the to by the
I

CD

:

pafs

4

Point

f

The

Firfi Book.

59

Point A, according to the Defin'nion of Paralthe Perpendicular lels; which requires, that
Lines

AG

and

FD

be equal.

PROPOSITION XXVIII. A Theorem.
makes the exIf a Line, falling upon two others, to the internal ternal jingle equal oppofite Angle on the fame Side ; or the two internal Angles on

fame Side equal to two Right two Lines will be Parallel,
the

ones 7 thofe

IN
firft
I

EH,

the precedent Figure, fuppofe the Line and CD, to make falling upon

AB

ternal oppofite

E F B equal to the in: Angle on the fame Side are Parallel, fay, That the Lines AB and C
the external Angle

FGD

D

Demcnfiraticn.
is equal to the Angle AFG, being oppcvs'd to it at the Top, (by the 15-. ) and 'tis fuppos'd thst the Angle is alfo Therefore the alterequal to the Angle E F B nate Angles AFG, FGD, will be ecmal ; and will he ( by the 27. ) the Lines A B, and C

The Angle EF8

FGD
D

:

Parallel.

fecond Place, That if the Angles are the internal Angles on the fame Side, be equal to two Right ones, the Lines A B and will be Parallel.
I

fay, In the

BFG, and FGD, which

CD

Demon-

€o

The Elements of Euclid.
Demonflration.

The Angles

AFG

and

BFG

are equal to two-

right Angles, (by that the Angles B F

the

G

13.)
;

y

and F G

to

two

right

Angles

'tis fuppos'd are alfo equal therefore the Angles

and

D

AFG, BFG,

FGD;
AFG
the Lines

which is and

are equal to the Angles BFG, and therefore taking away the Angle BFG, common to both, the alternate

FGD

Angles

will

A B and C D

be equal

the 27.) will be Parallel.
;

and (by

PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
cut two If a Line
Parallels,

XXIX.

the alternate Angles

will be equal ; the external Angle will be equal to the Internal Oppoflte Angle ; and the two
Internals on the fame Side will be equal to

two

right Angles.

the Line

two LET

EH

[/e« Fig. preced.~\ cut the

Parallels

AB, and

CD;

I

fay,

Firfl:,

The

alternate Angles From the Points equal.

Perpendiculars GA, Definition of Parallels are equal.
Demonflration.
In the Reftangle Triangles

and FGD, are F and G draw the and FD, which by the

AFG,

AFG,

and

FGD,
the

4

The Firji Book*
the Sides

6t

FIG is an Acute, an Angle, the Angle an Obtufe, (by the i;.) Therefore (by the 18J in the Triangle F I G, the Side F opposed to the Obtufe Angle, is greater than FI. -ThereI

being equal, as alfo the Side F common to both I fay Firft, That the Side be greater having is equal to A F. For if cue the Line DI equal to AF, and drawn the and FDI would Line Ft; the Triangles and FI equal, which is have their Bafes is a For fince the Angle righc impoffible.
the Right Angles

F

D

and
:

AG
,

A and D, and

G

GD

GD

;

AFG

GF

D

FID

G

fore

DG equal AFG and FGD,
is

to

AF;

and the Triangles

will

Sides equal, having and have the alternate Angles as being oppos'd to the equal Sides AG, equals and FD.
ail their

AFG

FGD

I is

fay again,

That the external Angle
the
it

EFB

equal to (by the if,)
gle

external

FGD;

becaufe

FGD.

AFG,

equal to its oppofite An* which is equal to its alternate
is

and F Laftly, Since the Angles to two Right ones ; taking away equal and fubftituting in its place its alternate
the two internal Angles F 8, andbe equal to two right Angles.

A G

GFB

are

A FG*

FGD,
will

G

FG D*

The
*
-

USE,
E
cum*

Eratojihenes found out, by thefe Propofitions, a way of rneafuring the Circuit cr Cir^
f

62
*

The Elements of Euclid.

*

1
*

cumference of the Earth. In order to which, he fuppos'd two Rays, proceeding from the Centre of the Sun to two Points of the Earth, and alfo that ac to be Phyfically parallel
;

Syene, a

*

*
*

higher Parts of Egypt y the Sun comes exa&ly to the Zenith upon the Day of the Solftice, obferving the Wells there to be then illuminated to the very Botin the

Town

* ' 4

torn ; and likewife computed the Dittance between Alexandria and Sytne, by Miles or

Furlong.
c
4 4
4

4

Let

us

therefore

Syene to be at

fuppofe the Point A,

and Alexandria at B, where

we eretta Style Perpendicular to the Horizon ; and

BC

*
4 *
4

let the two Lines and two Rays proceeding from the Centre of the Sun upon the Day of the Sol-

1

EG

DF

reprefent

*
*

4 '
*

* * *

*

which are parallel to each other. which paiTes by Syene, is PerpendicuDA, lar, that \$, it pa (Tes through the Centre of the Earth. Having obferved by the Perpendicular Style the Angle GCB, made by the Ray of the Sun EG ; I fay, The Rays and being parallel, the alternate and B F A are equal : By which Angles means we have got the Angle A F B, and its which gives us in Degrees Meafure A B the Diftance between Alexandria and Syem.
ftice,

BC

DA

EG

GCB

;

*

And
r

having fuppos'd

it

to

be known in * Miles

Tke Firji Book.
'
4
4

63

Miles, the Circumference of the Earth may be found by the (Imple Rule of Three dire£ • faying,

bow many

If fo many Degrees give fo many Miles9 will 560 give ?

PROPOSITION
A Theorem.

XXX.

Lines faralUl to a third, are alfo parallel
tbemfelves.

among

QUppnfe

the Lines

AB

and F

E

to be parallel

1 fay, to the Line C are parallel betwixc they
:

D

themfelves.

CAL

Let the Line cut them all three.

Demonjuration*

A B and are the alternate Angles A HI, and HID, parallel, are equal, ( by the 29. ) and becaufe the Lines and are alfo parallel, the external
Forafmuch as the Line

CD

CD
AB

EF
I

Angle

H D
I

will
)

( by the fame:

AH

I,

and

L

and'

FE

be equal to the internal I L E, Therefore the alternate Angle* E, will be equal, and the Lines

parallel,

(by

the 27.

;

£

2

PRO*

$4

Tie Elements of Euclid.

PROPOSITION
A

XXXI.

Problem.
by a Point given,

To draw a Line TaraUelto another

C
'~P\
/

D T ET
,

it

j^

a Line
("hall

be requir'd to draw by the Point C,
be parallel to the the Line C E, rhe Angle

/
E

/ which

Line AB.

Draw
I

A
is

Band make

ECD

equal to the Angle
Parallel to

CEA

:

fay,

The Line C

D

AB.

Demonfiration, alternate Angles equal; Therefore the Lines

The

DCE and AEG CD and AB
/.

are
are

Parallels.
c

The eleventh Maxim,

e.

If a Line fall-

t

e 5

two others makes the internal Angles ing upon than two right Angles\thofe Lines will concur, lejs

may

alio

now

be^afiiy dernonlkated. Let the Line AG, falling upon the Lines and

AB

C^,

make

the

internal

the Line

A CD, and G two right A B arid CD will
and

CAB,
Angles concur.
:

Angles lefs than
I

fay,

Let the

AngWs
"Angies

ACD
:

G AE

The Lines A E' and

be equal to two right will be Paral-

CD

k!s>

m
lels,

Firji Boo\.

&$

( by the 28. )

as

you
as

pleafe,

Take the Line AB as long and by the Point B draw FE

Parallel co
oft
is

CA.

Then take the Line
to

EB

fo

necefiary,

make
;

ic

reach lower

than the Line CD; as in the prefent Figure I have taken it only twice fo that E.B and BF are equal. By the Point F draw a Parallel F 1 fay, B. to AE, and join the Line equal That the Line A B G is only one Line and that

G

G

;

therefore the Line

A B concurring
ic

in

FG,

if

rW

Line

CD

be

continued, fince
ic

Parallel

F G,

will

cannot cut its cut the Line B G between

B and G.
Dcmonfiration.

and BFG have the Sides and BF, equal; as alfo the alternate' Angles AEB, and BFG, (by the 29.) therefore they are equal in all Refpe&s, ( by the 4.) And the oppofite Angles AB E, F B G, and by confequence (by the Coroll. of are equal the 15. ) A B and BG make but one right Line. The USE. 1 The life of Parallel Lines is very common ; ' as in V effectives, forafmueh as the Appear'

The

Triangles

A

EB

AE

and FG,

BE

;

c '
c

ances or Images of Lines parallel to the Picture In or Table, are parallel among themfelves.
Navigation, the Lines of the fame Rhomb of Polar the Wind are defcribed by Parallels. The Dials have the Hour-lines Parallels.

* 1
6

Compafs of Proportion
Parallels.

is

founded aifa upon

*

>A

E

5

PRO*

66

The Elements of Euclid.

PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
The external Angle of a Triangle
the internal

XXXII.

and
to

cppoftte Angles, are all the three Angles of a Triangle

to both is equal taktn together ;

equal

two

right Angles.

ET

the Side

BC
I

of

Triangle be produe'd to D.

L'

the

ABC
fay,

That

the
is

3
f cken

CD

AC

D
A

external Angle equal to both the

internal
B.

Angles

A

and B
the Line

CE

By together. parallel to the Line

the Point

C draw

Demonftration.

The Lines A B and C E are Parallels thereEC A fore, (by the 29. > the alternate Angles BAC are equal; and (by the fame) the and
;

is equal to the interexternal Angle nal B: And by confequence the whole Angle ACD, being equal to both the Angles ACE,

ECD

of which it is compos'd, will be equal to both the Angles A and B taken toge-

and

EGD,

ther.

and In the fecond place: The Angles A C are equal to two right Angles, (by the 1 3.) ACB
and

D

The Firfi Book.

67

to and I have demonftrated the Angle A be equal to both the Angles A and B taken totherefore the Angles ACB, A, and B,

CD

gether
that

;

is

ABC,
is all

to fay, All the Angles of the Triangle are equal to two right Angles, or, which one, to 180 Degrees.
All the three
all

Corollary 1.

Angles of one Tri-

angle are equal to ther Triangle.

the three Angles of ano-

Cor oil.

2.

IF

two Angles of one Triangle be

equal to two Angles of another Triangle, their third Angles are alfo equal.

Cor oil ;. If a Triangle has one right Angle, the other two will be Acute; and taken together, will be equal to one right Ang e. Coroll. From a Point given, only one Per!

4.

bependicular can be drawn to the fime Line ; caufe a Triangle cannot have two right fin-

§ !es

-

Perpendicular is the inorteft or all the Lines that can be drawn from the fame Point to the fame Line. Coroll. 6. In a Rectangle Triangle the right
Coroll. e.

A

Angle

is

pos\i to

it

the greateit Angle; and the Side the greateft Side.

<

p-

Coroll. 7.

angle contains 60 Degrees third Part of 180.

Every Angle of an equilateral TriThat is to fay. The
;

The
*

USE.
is

This Propoficion to determine the

1

of

Parallax.

Ufe in Aftronom^ Suppofe the

E 4

Poim

6B
;

The Elements of Euclid.

Point

A

to be the
X)
\

that

Centre or the Earth ; and from the Point A upon
Superficies

c
*

the

be
is

taken

the

1

'

c

of a Scar from the If rhe Earth was the Star would ap«. rranfparent,
Zenith D.

D itance

Angle

DBG,

that

to fay, the

* *
*

*
%

pear remote from the Zenith D, according to the Bignefs of the Angle CAD, which is lefs than the Angle C.BD. For the Angle the external Angle in refpect of being

CBD

*
* *
s * *

the Triangle ABC, it is (by the 52.) equal to both the oppolre Angles A and There* w »li be equal to the Excels fore the Angle

C

G

of

the

Angle

CBD

above the Angle A,

Whence I infer, That if I can know by the AJhonomkal Tables how far remote from

the Zenith the Star ought to appear to him that fhould be at the Centre of the Earth, Vand obferve it at the fame time from the
c
*

J

Superficies, will be the

the Difference of thofe

two Angles

Parallax

B C A,

PRO-

The Firft Book*

69

PROPOSITION
A T
Two
L'^nes

XXXIII.

H

B

O R EM.
the

drawn towards
two

fame Parts, from
Lines that
are

the Extremities of

other

equal

and

parallel) are alfo themfdves

equal

and

farallti.

and equal ar.d let the Lines AC and be drawn from their ExtremiB A ties towards the fame Parts are equal I fay, That the Lines AC and and parallel. Draw the Diagonal Line BC.
be
parallel
;

LE

T

the Line

A B and

CD
BD
:

D

BD

Lkmonfiration, Since the Lines AB and

ABC

and will be the alternate Angles the 29. ) Therefore in the Triangles equal ( by and BCD, which have the S\dz com*

ABC

CD

BCD

are parallel,

mon, and the Sides

AB

and

ther with the Angles and alfbj the Bafes

AC

ABC and BCD equal BD will be eqral, ( by
AG

CD

BC

equal, toge-

the 4.)

and

alfo the

Angles

DBC, andBCA;

which being alternate Angles, the Lines and will be parallel, (by the 27. )

BD

The
8

U S E.

This Proportion

is

reduced to Practice for
4

the

70
'

7he

'Elements of Euclid.
lar

DA
71

'^e
c

meafuring the perpendicuHeights, AG, of the vafteft

fc

B J&A
**8fe|

'

Mountairis ; and alfo their honzontal Lines, C G, which are
hid

CFG*
J*'
c
' 1

by their Bulk. Take a large B, and place it fo at Square A

D

the Point A, that the Side B mav fall perthen meafure the Sides A ; pendicularly

D

D

(
'

and

D B.

This done, do the fame again at

the Point B, and meafure

BE

and

EG:

1

1

Sides parallel to the Horizon AD, BE, together, give the Horizontal Line

CG

The added and
;

1

1

1

Meafuring
*

the perpendicular Sides the perpendicular Height * Cult is
call'd

DB
A

and EC, give G. This way of

Mat ion,

Meafuring by piecemeal.

PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
The
oppofite

XXXIV.

Sides
;

and Angles of a
the

are equal

and

Diameter divides

"Parallelogram it into

two

equal Parts.

A B C [See the Fig. of the to be a Parallelogram, that SUppofe Prop. ] preceding is to fay, that the Sides A B, AC, and
the Figure

D

CD;

B D,

CD; AC

are parallel.

I fay,

and BD,

oppofite Sides A B, are equal ; as alfo that the

The

Angles

The Firft Book,

71
;

D ABD and A C D and that Angles the Diameter B C equally divides the whole
A and
Figure.

The Lines A B, and
Parallels
:

and
like

BCD
and

Demonflration. D, are fuppo*'d to be Therefore the alternate Angles

C

ABC

will

be equal,

manner the

Sides

AC

( by the 29.

and

BD

)

la

being fup-

be Parallels, the alternate Angles ftC w ill be equal. And further, The Triangles ABC, and having the fame Side B C ; and the Angles ABC, A C B, anu C B equal, will be equal in all reTherefore the Sides A B, fpe&s, (bytbeiS.)

posM to

ACB

D

DCB,

D

BCD;

CD; AC and
are equal
:

B D, and

the Angles

A and D,

the Diameter divides the Figure And fince the Angles into two equal Parts. and CBD, are equal, joinABC, BCD,

And

ACB

ing together

BCD
c 1

and

Angles

CBD; and ACB, A B D and A C D are equal.
and

ABC

likewife

we

infer that the oppofice

the

USE. A Eg l\ / "1
/

Surveyors have need of this

*

Propofition for dividing Grounds. If the Field be a Parallelogram,

*

c
*

they can divide it into two equal Parts by the Diameter A D. But
if

I

c G

—/ N

/
i

D
E
;

you be

oblig'd to divide

it

by the Point
into

*

divide

firft

the Diameter

4

Parts by the

Point F,

two equal then draw the Line
4

EFG,

72
'
'

The Elements of Euclid.
which
will divide the

EFG,

Figure into two.

equal Parts.

For the Triangles A

c
' c c

GFD, GDF;
and
fince

having the alternate .Angles

E F and E A F,

and

FD
the

AEF,

FGD;

and the Sides
(by
the 26.)

AF
and

equal, are equal

e

c
1
4

'

with the Triangle AEF ; that is to fay, The Triangle ADB, is half the Parallelogram, (by the 54. ) the fame Trapezium with the Triangle F will be half the fa me. > the therefore, Line divides it in the Mid die.

Trapezium

BEFD

BEFD

DG

EG

PROPOSITION
A Theorem.

XXXV.

TarallehgramSy having the fame Bafe, and being between the fame Parallels, are equal.

C

E

F

LE
lels

T

the

Parallelograms

be

ABEC,
and

and

ABDF,
They
-

having the fame Bafe AB, and being between the fame Paral-

A

B

AB

CD:

I

fay,

are equal.

Demonft ration.

The
as alfo

Sides

AB,

FD:

AB, CE,

are equal (by the Therefore C E and F

D

%^
are

equal

\

and adding to them EF, the Lines

CF
and

The Fkfi Book 73 and ED will be equal. The Triangles therefore C FA, andEDB, have rhe Sides CA, EB,
as alfo

CF, and ED,

equal,

together with

one and FCA, (by the 29 being an external, and the other an internal Angle, on the fame Side Therefore (by the 4.) the Triangle ACF and BED are equal ; and taking from them both, that which is comthe Angles

DEB,

J

:

mon, i/is. the little Triangle EGF, the Trawill be equal to the Trapepezium zium CAGE; and adding to both the Triangle A G B,< the Parallelograms A B E C and A B D F will be equal.

FGBD

The
6
*

USE.

made

Scotus, and fome Divines fi nee him, have ufe of this Propofition, to prove, that

1
1

Anghs may
they pleafe.
1 1

1 1

themjelves to what Space For, fuppofing they can aifume any Figure, provided they have not a greater Extenfion ; it is evident, That if an Angle fhould poffefs the Space of a Parallelogram

extend

A B EC,
the
rallels

it

may

iikewife

occupy the Space of
and becaufe Painfinitum^ ( with%r.

r
'

Parallelogram may be continued

ABDF;

*
*

'
*

out end, ) and Parallelograms may be flill form'd longer and longer, which will all be C; an Angle will be able to equal to

ABE

extend

itfelf itill

farther

and

farther.

a.

A

De«

74

The Elemnts of Euclid.
fame Vropejltm by
IndiviJibUs.
thg

A
*

Demonftratiott of the

Method of

*

*
*
c *

This Method was lately invented by Cavahrius ; which has found different Acceptation in the World, fome approving, and others
it. His Method confifts in this That we imagine Superficies to be compos'd

rejecting

;

of Lines

like fo

many

Threads.

And

'tis

cer-

c
' c

tain, that

*

two Pieces of Linnen will be equal, if they have both the fame Number oi Threads, of equal length, and equally compa&ed. * Let two Parallelogram? therefore ABEC, and ABDF
be propos'd, having the fam.2 Bafe A B, and being between
the fame Parallels A B, CD; the Divide Parallelogram into as many Lines as you pleafe, to A B, which continue to the othei parallel 'lis evident, There Parallelogram ABDF. will be no more in one, than in the other and that they will be of equal Length, being all equal to the Bafe A B ; and that they will not be more clofely compared in one, than in the other ; therefore the Parallelograms

ABEC

;

will

be equal.

PRO.

7he

Firfi Book?

75

PROPOSITION
Parallelograms, upon equal Bafes,

XXXVI.

A Theorem.
and between
the

fame of LET
let

Parallels^ are equal.

theBafesCB and
the

OD

A

ACBF, ODEG,
allels

Parallelograms be equal; and
I

both be between the fame Pa-

A

E,

C

D.

fay,

rallelograms are equal,

The Pa- C draw the Lines

C G,

and B

E.

Demonftration.

TheBafesCB, and OD, are equal: OD,and G E, are alfo equal Thet efore C B and G E
:

are equal, and parallel;

{according equal and

to the

;;.) CG and BE will be and CBEG will be a parallel
;

and by confequence

GODE and CBEG will be equal, {by the fame.) Therefore the Parallelograms ACBF and ODEG are equal.
*
1

Parallelogram equal to CBFA, ( by the 55*. ) having both the fame Bafe. In like manner, for the Bafe, the Parallelograms taking

EG

The USE. reduce Parallelograms have Obliqne Angles, as C B EG, or
1

We

ofc

,

which

OD EG,
4

toRe&angles;

as

CBFA:

So that meafuring
the

The Etements of Euclid.
the latter, which
is

eafie, being only to

mul-

Produd being equal to tiply the Parallelogram ACBF, we may by confequence know the other Parallelograms CBEG, or O D E G.
the

AG byCB,

PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
Triangles having the

XXXVII.

fame

Bafe,

and

being be-

tween the fame Parallels, are equal,

IFC D E,
C
C
parallel to the Lines

and the Triangle A C have the fame Bafe

D

the fame

D, and be indos'd between Parallels A F, and

H

,

Draw

they will be equal. the Lines F, B, and

D

D

A C,

and

C E,

and you

will

have form'd two Parallelograms.
Demonflration.

The Parallelogram A
the

equal, {by E, are the Halfs-of thofe Parallelograms, {by the 34. ) Therefore the Triangles A D,

CD

C D B, and ECDF, are and the Triangles A CD, %^.)

C D E,

C

are equal

PROPO-

7he

Firfi Book.

77

PROPOSITION
Triangles,

XXXVIII.

A Theorem.
that have equal Bafes, and are inclos'J within the fame Parallels t are equal.

AC and EGH, I fee Fig. have equal Bafes CD, and GH, and are inclos'd within the fame Parallels A F and C H, they are equal. Draw the Lines B F parallel to the Sides AC, and EG ; and and
the Triangles

D

IF freced.]
H
will

D

you

have form'd two Parallelograms.
Demonfiration.

The Parallelograms A

are equal, (by the and are the Halfs of thofe Parallelograms, the 34.) therefore they are alfo equal. (by

C B, and E G F, and the Triangles A C %6.)

D

H

D

EGH

The
1
*

USE.
Field into

We

have

in this Propofition Directions for

*
4

dividing a Triangular Parts ; for Example,

two equal

the

Tri-

angle
*
*

ABC.
into

Divide the Line
-i

which you
as

will take for the Bafe,

? *
*
*

two equal Parts in D: I fay, The Triangles ABD, and ADC, are equal. For if you fuppofe a Line drawn by A, parallel to B C, thofe Triangles will have equal Bafes, and € bc F

BC,

78
*
*
* c

The Elements of Euclid,

be inclos'd within the fame Parallels : and by confequence will be equal. Other Divifions,

grounded upon the fame Propofition, might be made; but I omit them, that I might not

} be tedious.

PROPOSITION
A Theorem.

XXXIX.

Equal Triangle* upon the fame Bafe, the fame Parallels,

are within

E

TF
Tops

the

B C, having the J[ and lame Bare B C, be equal drawn by the the Line A
;

D

Triangles

ABC,

D

will

Bafe B

BC
A
it

be not parallel
it
;

;

if

For if A D and draw a Parallel by you
C.

be parallel to the

the Point A, D, as A

will fall either

below the Line

O

or above

it,

as*

A

E.

to fall above, and produce the Line A E at the Point E

B
;

D

Suppofe

'till it

meet

then draw the

Line

CE,
Demovftration.

The

Triangles

ABC

and

EBC

are equal.

arc (by the 37. ) fince the Lines A E and Parallel ; 'tis likewife fuppos'd that the Tri-

BC

angles

ABC,

and B DC, are equal: Therefore
the

The Tirji Boo{.
the Triangles DBG and E B C would

79

be equal : which is impofllble, the firft being pare of the fecond. Whence I conclude, that a Line parallel to B G cannot be drawn above AD, ss A E. I add, That a Parallel cannot be below A D, as AO: Becaufe the Triangle would be

BOG

equal

the Triangle ABC, and by confeB C ; that is to fay, quence to the Triangle The Part would be equal to the Whole. It muft
to

D

be confefs'd, that Parallel to the Line B C.
therefore

the Line

AD

is

PROPOSITION
A Theorem.

XL

Equal Triangles, having equal Bafes, if they be taken upon tie fame Line, are between the fame
Varallels.

Bafes

AB and DE, on the fame Line AE; the Line CF drawn by their
Tops,
For,
will
if it

IFand D E

the equal Triangles
F,

ABC

have

equal taken up-

be parallel to A E, be not parallel, hav-

£ A

\r-fc " "

-|

ing drawn by the Point

C

A E,

it

will pafs either

above

below

it,

as

C

a Line parallel to C F, asCG; or

I.

F z

Demon*

Bo
If
it

The Elements of Euclid.
Demonstration*

CG, continue pafs and draw the Mil it meet with in ; would Line EG. The Triangles ABC and and be equal, (by the $8. ) and being fuppos'd to be equal, DEF, DEG, would be alfo equal ; which, one being part of the

above CF, as

DP

CG

G

D EG DEF ABC

other, cannot poflibly be
lel

:

Therefore the Paralit

cannot pafs above CF. I add, that neither can

pafs

below

it,

as

becaufe then the Triangles ABC and DEI would be equal ; and by confequence DEI, and the Part and the Whole : There-* F can be Parallel to A E. fore only C
I ;

C

DEF;

PROPOSITION
A Theorem.

XLL

A Parallelogram will
equal Safes*

be double to

they be between the

a 1V tangle, if fame Parallels^ and have

F

I and between
BC,
Triangle.

the Parallelogram BD, the Triangle EBC, be the fame Parallels

AC

AE

and B C ; and have the fame Bafe
or only equal Bafes; the Parallelogram will be double the Draw the Line A B.
i

Demon"

The Firft
The
Triangles

Boo1{.

81
are enual,

Demonjhation.

A

BG and'BCE
ABC,
B

\{hy the 37. )

But the Parallelogram

AC
)
It

B

D

is

double the Triangle

(by the 34.

It is

therefore double the Triangle

C E.

would

be alfo double a Triangle, that, having a Bafe Paequal to B C, fhould be between the fame
rallels.

The
1

USE.

The ordinary Method of Mea-

furing the Area or Superficies of a Triangle is built upon this Pre-

pofnion.

If
;

the

Triangle

ABC

perpendicular to the Bafe then multiplying the Perpendicular A ; by half the Bafe B E, the Produ& gives rhe Area of the Triangle ; because multiplying AD, or, what is the fame, E F by BE, we have a Re&angle B EF H, which is equal to

be propos'J muft draw

AD

From the Angle

A we

B

C

D

the Triangle
Triangle

A BC.
is

ABC

For (by

the

41.) the

and
*

fo likewife is

We

Reaangle the Re&angle B E F B.
all

half the

HBCG;
Fi-

meafure

forts

of
divi-

Re&ilineal

gures, as

A BCD

E,

by

ding them into Triangles, as
the Lines AD, and the Perpendiculars

BCD, ABD, AED; drawing A

C G,
F
3

ED;

and

B

F,

and

E

I.

For

half of B

D

multiplying by CG, and half of

AD

by BF, and

8x
1

The Elements of Euclid. and by EI, we have the Area of

all

thole

*

<

Triangles: Adding which together, the Surras equal to the Rectilineal Figure

ABCDE.

'

We

y by

that Area of regular Polygones, multiplying half their Circuit by a Perfind
*

pendicular

drawn

from their Centre to one of their Sides. For multiplying

AG by

IG,

we
*

(hall

have a

>L*tL
c

*

1

Rectangle H|LM And repeating equal to the Triangle A I B the fame for all the other Triangles, taking always half of the Bafes, we (hall have a which will have the Side Re&angle
:

*

KO

HKON,


*

compounded of

all

the half Bales,

and

by confequence equal to half the Circumference ; and the Side equal to the Per-

HK

*

pendicular
i

I

G.
this

'Tis

according to

Principle, that

Ar-

t

*
%
1

cbimedes has demonftrated, that a Circle is equal to a Re&angle compris'd under the

Semi-diameter, and a Line equal to half the Circumference.

PRO

The Firfi Book:

;

$$

PROPOSITION
A Problem.
To
wrfi&e

XLIL

a parallelogram equal

to

a Triangle gHfen;
\

having one

Angle equal

to

an Angle given,

LET
gle

a Parallelogram be de-

fired equal to the Trian-

ABC,

to the Angle E. gle equal into vide the Bafe B

and having an AnDi

C

two

equal Parts at the
Line

Point

D

AG

make the Angle C D F equal to E, And Jaftly, Draw the Line C G

parallel to

BC,

and draw the (bytbe %\.) then
;

DF: The Figure becaufe the Lines are Parallels; and
the Angle

FDCG
Further,

(by the 2;.) parallel to

is

F G, DC; F its Angle
'tis

CDF

a Parallelogram, and C,

D

G

E

;

Triangle

AB

and C.

equal to ajfo equal to the
is

Dentonfir atkn.

The Triangle gram FDCG, (by
r

ADC

is

half the Parallelo5

i

ADB

riangle

AB C
A
B

the 41. )

ris

alfo half the

;

fince the Triangles

A

DC

and

are equal

Triangle

C

(bythe%%.)

Therefore the

is

FDCG.

equal to the Parallelogram
'

F

4.

P

R

O-

$4

The Elements of Euclid.

PROPOSITION

XLIII.

A Theorem.
The Complements of a Parallelogram are equal.
the Parallelogram

ABDC,

IN
and

the

Complements A F EH,
are equal.

EGDI,

C

G
The

~D
Triangles

Demonfiration.

and BCD, are equal, (by the ;<t. ) Therefore if the Triangles HBE, and BIE; FEC, and CGE, which are alfo

ABC,
)

equal ( by the fame plements AFEH,

be fubftra&ed, the ComGDIE, which remain, will
•*
.

be equal.
<

.

I.

PROPOSITION
A Problem.
To

XLIV.

defcribe a Parallelogram upon a Line given ,wbicb and have fuck {hall be equal to a Triangle given, certain Angle ; i. e. equal to one given.

H GA
/e

OUppofe you be

required
its

lj

to

make
fhall

a Parallelogram

which

have one of

Angles equal to the Angle E, and one of its Sides equal to the

The Fir Book ft
the Line

85

D, and be equal

to the Triangle

ABC.

M

BFGH, ( by the 42.) F G equal to the Angle E, whidrhas the Angle B and is equal to the Triangle ABC. Produce the Sides G F, and G H, fo that H I may be and draw the Line 1 BN equal to the Line D ; 'till it cuts G F produced to N ; and from the Point N draw the Line N O parallel to G I, and I O parallel to B ; producing alfo the Side F B to K, and HBtoM: The Parallelogram K is that which you defire.
Make
the Parallelogram

H

the alternate Angles MN being and BMO, are equal; therefore the AnFBM, equal to E, and the Side K B gle B M O

GFand HM being Parallels, the alternate are eAngles GFB or the Angle E, ancfFB M, the Lines K B qual ( by the 29. ) In like manner
and
parallel,
is

Demonfi ration.

is

equal to the Line HI,
rallelogram

GFBH,

equal to the Parallelogram that was made equal (by thefreced.) and to the Triangle ABC: Therefore the Parallelois equal to the Triangle ABC. gram
is

MK

orD: And laftly, The Pa-

MK

The
1

USE.

This Propofltion contains a * kind of Geometrical Divifion :

'

For

in

Arithmetical Divifion a
is

Number

propose, which

may

* *

looked on as a Reftangle : For Example, The Reftangle A B,con!

fitting

86

The Elements of Euclid.

lifting of twelve Square Feet, which is to be divided by another Number, fuppofe two ; that is to fay, another Rettangle is defit'd to be made equal to A B, having one of its

equal to two ; and the Queftion is, Feet the other Side ought to contain ; which is, as it were, the Quotient. This is done Geometrically by the Rule and Compafs, thus ; Take B confiding of two
Sides,

B D, how many

D

E F : The Feet, and draw the Diagonal Line A F is that which you feek. For, having compleated the Re&angle DCFG, the Complements EG, and EC, are equal, {by the 43.) and EG has for one of its SicJes EH, equal to B D, of two Feet in length and E I
;

D

equal to

This kind of Divifion is calFd becaufe the Re&angle A B is apApplication, or EH: And from ply'd to the Line

A F.

BD

hence

is frequently cali'd becaufe the ancient Geometricians application made more life of the Rule and Compafs, than of Arithmetic!:*
'cis,
j

that Divifion

PRO-

The

Firfi Book.

87

PROPOSITION
A
To
defcribe

XLV.

PR O

B L E M.

lertain

a Parallelogram, which jhall have a Angle ; and be equal to a Refiilmeal

Figure given,

proposed be B CD, you are required to make an equal Parallelogram, which (hall have an Angle equal to the Angle E.
to

LEgure which

T

the Rectilineal Fi-

AB

Divide the

: And Re&ilineal into Triangles by the Line B {by the 42.) make a Parallelogram which has the Angle I equal to the Angle and and is equal to the Triangle E, L the 44.) make the Paralldogram I (by one Side to the Triangle having equal

D

HG

FGHI,

ABD;

HK

equal to IH, and the Angle LIH equal to the will be Angle E. The Parallelogram equal to the Reailineal A B C D.

BCD,

FGKL

Demonflration.

Nothing need be prov'd, but that the ParalK LI, make up but lelograms FGHI, and and one ; that is to fay, G K, make but

H

H

H

one

right Line.

The Angles

GHI,

and
:

LKH,
LKH,

are equal to the Angle E.

And the Angles

88

The Elements of Euclid.

and K I, are equal to two right Anbecaufe is a Parallelogram: g'es, Therefore the Angles and are equal to two right Angles, and {by the 14. )

LKH,

H KHIL SHI
make one
The

KHI

GH
1

and

HK

right Line.

USE.

The

life

of

this
;

'

the preceding

Proportion is the fame with both ferving to meafure the
re-

* *

Opacity of any Figure whatfoever, by
reducing
it

into Triangles,
like wife

and then making a
them.

*

Re&angle Parallelogram
*
1

egjual to

Tis

eafie

to

make a Re&angular

1

1
*

Parallelogram upon a determinate Side, which may be equal to many irregular Figures. In like manner, having many Figures, a Re&angle may be defcrib'd equal to their Difference.

'

PROPOSITION
A Problem.
To
defcribe

XLVL

a Square upon a Line given.
defcribe a Square

D

>TpO

AC and B and draw the Line
culars

1

upon the

Line

A

B, draw two Perpendi-

D

equal to

A B,

C D.
right

g

Demonstration.

The Angles

A

and B being

Angles,

The Firji Boo\.
Lines Angles, the

89

AC

and

BD are Parallels, (by
C

alfb equal; therefore the are Parallels, and equal, (by the ;;. ) and the Angles A and equal to two as alfo B and D, ( by the 29.) right Angles ;

tbei&)
;

They are

L nes A B
ilnce

and

CD

and

A and B
and

Angles C
irs

the Figure

D will be fo Iikewife Therefore Sides equal, and A D has
:

are both right Angles, the
all its all

Angles, right a Square.

Angles, and by confequence' is

PROPOSITION
/

XLVII.

A Theorem.
the Bafe
the Squares

The Square of
is

equal taken together,

to

of a ReSangle Triangle, of both the other Sides

the Angle

ABC

PAC
to

be a SUppofe

right

that Squares
:

Angle, and were defcribed

upon all the Sides B C, A B, and AC That upon the Bafe
oppos'd to the right Angle, will be equal to the Squares of both the Sides A B, and AC. Draw the Line Parallel to and CE; and join the Lines AD, AE, F C, and B G* I will prove the Square
is

B C, which

BD

AH

AW

The Elements of Euclid.
is

AF
tore

equal to the Re&angle

Square
Squares

A

G

to the

Re&angle
is

the Square

BE

and the and thereequal to both the

BH,

CH;

AF

and A G.
Demonftration.

The Triangles F B C, and A B D, have And Sides AB; BF|BD and B C equal
:

the

Angles

FBC,

and

more than their reTherefore ( by the 4. ) fpe&ive right Angles. and F B G are equal. But the Triangles the Square F is double the Triangle F B C, (by\ the 41.) haying the lame Bafe BF, and being
taining the Angles

ABC

ABD,

the are equal, each con-

ABD
fame

|

between

the

Parallels

B

F,

and

is In like manner the Re&angle B the Triangle ABD, having likewife the farnel Bafe BD, and being between the fame Paraland A H. Therefore the Square le!s

H

C. double

A

1

I

BD

AF

|

is

equal to the Re&angle

Method

and the Triangles may be to be equal, ( by the 4. ) and the Square prov'd and to be double the Triangle

BH, By the' fame GCB, ACE,

1

|
1

AG

GCB;

\

BDEC
c

double the Triangle ACE, is equal the 4.1. ) therefore the Square A (by to the Re&angle C \ and by confequence the Squares A F and A G are equal to the Square
the Re&angle

CH,

H

G

The
'Tis faid,

USE.

that Tythagoras, having found * out this Propofition, facrific'd a Hecatomb, * i. e. a hundred Oxen, to the Mufes, to re1

turn

The Firjl Book.'
turn

I

9

1

them Thanks
if,

poling

Human
thereof
it

for their Affiftance ; fupfeems, above the Power of bare Nor was his Efteem Invention. fb irrational, as to fbme perhaps
it

may appear ; this Propofitiori being the Foundation of a very confiderable part of For in the firft place, the Mathematicks. cannot poffibly fubfift without "Trigonometry it being neceflary to compofe a Table of ir, all the Lines that may be infcrib'd in a Circle, as Chords, Sines, Targents^ Secants ;
;

as will appear

by one Example

:

Suppofe F to be divided into iooooo Parts,

the Semi-diameter

AC

g

and that the Arch

BC

contains

^

30 Degrees. Since the Chord, or Line that fubtends 60 Degrees is equal to the Sine of ;o the Semi-diameter

°C

AC; BD

Degrees,

will

be equal to half

AC, and
in the

there-

fore contain f 0000 Parts,

Now

Rect-

AB angular Triangle is to the Squares of AD, and BD. equal Make therefore the Square of AD, by multiplying iooooo by ioooco, and from the Produd fubftra& the Square of foooo or B ; the Remainder will be the Square of A ; or F B the Sine of the Complement ; and extracting the Square Root of that NumThis done, ber, you will have the Line F B.
B, the Square of

AD

D D

making
*

as

AD

to

will

have the Tangent

BD, fo ACtoCE, you C E then adding to; '

gether

92
c

*
*

gether the Squares of

The Elements of Euclid. AC and CE, and
the

Pro*

duft ( by

47.)

will

give the Square of

AE

:

*

*

extracting therefore from that Number the Square Root, you will know the Length of the Line A E, which is the Secant.
*

4
'
c

By this alfo we may augment Figures as much as we pleafe. For ExTo double the ample;

4

Square A BCD, continue and the Side CD, fo that may be equal ; the Square of A E will be double the fi nee Square (by the 4.7.) it is E. and to both the Squares of A equal

AD

DE

ABCD;

D

D

Making the right Angle A E F, and taking equal to A B, the Square of* A F will be Again, Making triple the Square the right Angle A FG, and taking equal

EF

ABCD.

to

AB,

the Square of

or four times that which I fay of the Square, derflood of all Similar Figures.

FG AG will be quadruple, And the Square of ABCD.
may
be un-

PRO-

The Firjl Book-

93

PROPOSITION XLVIII. A Theor em.
one Side be.*equal to If in a Triangle the Square of the Squares of both the other Sides, taken together ; the Angle offojite to that fir ft Side will be

a Right Angle.

IFbe

the Square of the Side equal to both the Squares

NP
will

of the Sides
together;

NL

and

L P,

taken

the Angle

NLP
Draw

be a right Angle.
perpendicular to

LR
LP
;

drawn the Line
In the

N R.

N L,

and equal to

then

Demonftration,

of

L R> the Square equal to the Squares NL, and RL, or the Square of P is LP, (by the 47. ) alfo eqtral to the fame Squares of L and LP; therefore the Square of is equal to the of and by confequence the Lines Square P, and are equal. And becaufe the Triangles NLR, and NLP, have the Side common ; the Sides LP and LR equal,and their Bafes P and alfo equal ; the Angles

NR

Re&angular Triangle

N

is

Now

N

N

NR

N

NR

NP

NL

N NR N LP and N L R will be equal, the Angle N L R being a right
gle

NLP

{by the 8.) then Angle, the An-

muft be

fo too.

G

THE

C P4 3

THE

Second Book
O
F

THE

Elements of
VCLID
fay5
in

EV CLID.
this

Book

treats

of the

is to ; right of their Squares; comparing the ' divers Rectangles, which are made upon * a Line divided, as well with the Square, as
*
'

Powers of

Lines

that

c

1
*

Tis a the Re&angle, of the whole Line. Part exceeding ufeful, ferving for the Foundation of the principal Operations of AlThe three fir ft Pfopofitions demongebra. itrate the third Rule or Operation of A-ritbmetick, viz. Multiplication'.

*
* c
*

The Fourth

teaches to extract the Square Root of any Number whatfoever<,' Thofe that follow to

the eighth

,

ferve
reft

upon many Occafions

in

c *
'

'

Algebra. This Book feems ac proper for Trigonometry. firft View very difficult ; becaufe Men are apt to imagine there is fomething myfterious

The

inftruci us in Operations

?

contain'd

therein

;

neverthelefs
[

the
-

great-

The Second Book.
greateft pare of
its

93

ed on

this
is

Demonitrations are groundmoil evident Principle, That the

equal to ail irs Parts taken together. ought not to difcourage any, if they (hould not at the fir ft Attempt fully comprehend them.

Whole
But
it

DEFINITIONS.
-

r.

A Rettangular Parallelogram
tivo Lines, that

is

comprised undtf

form a right Angle,

that hencefor-

ward, OBferve,

by a Re&angle,
-

we

lhall intend »fuch

a Pa-

whofe Angles rallelogram are all right Angles, diitin-

naming two of its which contain one of its Angles, as the Lines A B and; B C. For the RedtangJq A B C is compiriz'd under the Lines A B and BC; BG denoting its Longitude, and AB its Latitude; and the other Sides being equal to
Sides,

it by giving guifhing. Longitude, and Latitude,

its

D
it

thefe,
I

will
ajfo

have

Line of to

A

not be neceffary to name them., formerly intimated, that the

and being

A BCD

remaining perpendicular to BC, from one Extremity therethe other, produces the Re&angie and that that Motion has fome re<~ ;

B,

mo/d

G

i

km-

96
4

The Elements of Euclid.
as

femblance
fo that,

c

*
c

C, there are Points
angle

Line

B

Arithmetical Multiplication the Line moving over th< that is, taken fo many times a
to

AB

in

B

C, compofes the

Red
o

c
'
'

ABGD;
I

A B by BC,
As, Suppofe

fo the Multiplication alfo will give the Reftangle A

BCD
It
i

knew

the

1

*

matical Points, that are in 40, and that there were

Number of Mat be A B, for ExampI
60
in

BC:
will

c
*

*

'
c c

there ar and that multiplying 40 b 60, the Produft will be 2400, which is thl Number of Mathematical Points in the Ret I

evident that the Rectangle (b many Lines equal to

A BCD AB, as

hav

Points in

BC;

angle
'

*

Quantity Mathematical Point, provided I

I

A B C D. may take what
it
;

I
I

pleafe for do not afte

* '

wards fubdivide
ferv'd,

it
I

that

when
Point

rauft therefore be ol meafure a Line, for

*

' *

*
* *

take that Meafu which my Occafions ; for E when I fay a Line of five Foot ample, Length, my Mathematical Point is a Line of Foot long ; which I take without confide

Mathematical

I

beft fuits

with

|

ing that

it is

compos'd of any

Parts.

In

me

* *
1

I do the famlc; Turing a Superficies like wife taking fbme known Superficies; for ExampI an a Foot Square ; which I do not afcerwar I make ufe of a Square rath SI fubdivide.

1

'

than any other Figure ; becaufe its Leng and Breadth being equal, there is no need
4

nanair

The Second Book*

9J

naming more than one of its Dimenfions co defcribe it. Accordingly when I would mark the Area of the Re&angle A BCD, I do noc
confider the Sides as fimple Lines, hut as RectFor Examangles of a determinate Breadth :
ple
;

when
is

has the Side

Foot
Point,

I

fay that the Re&angle A B A B of four Foot long, fince a to me inftead of a Mathematical to have alfo conceive the Side
I

CD

AB

a Foot in Breadth,

ABE
the

F.

and to be as the Re&angle Therefore knowing how many times

B
I

eadth
(hall

BE
know

BC
AB

contain'd in the Line how many times the Line
is

contained in the Re&angle that is to fay, multiplying C which has four Foot Square ) by 6, the Produd: will be 24 Foot Square. In like manner, knowing the to be Magnitude of the Re&angle
is

AB

ABCD;

ABCD

24 Foot Square, and one of its Sides A B to be 4 ; dividing 24 by 4, the Quotient will give me the other Side B C, confuting of fix Foot Square. 2. Having drawn the Diameter of ^L a Re&angle, one of the lefler Redangles, thro' which it paffes, together with the two Complements, is {f As the Redcali'd the Gnomon. angle EG, through which the Diameter paffes, together with the Complements EF and
'

BD

GH,

their Figure to; a Carpenter's Square. gether reprefenting
is

cali'd the

Gnomon

G

5

PR O-

98

The Elements of Euclid.

PROPOSITION A Theorem.
If two Lines he
fropos'd,

I.

whereof one

is

divided,

into divers Farts ; the Retlangle contained under thofe two Lines is equal to the ReBangLs contained under the Line which is not divided^

and

the Farts of the Line divided,

5_P_ H D
A E

T ET
I
j

the

Lines

proposed be

A By and AC; and let AB be divided into as many Parts
as

F-

B

vou
jjj

A
is

conta n ^ un(jer the L
i

pleafe.

The Reciangk

AB

and AC,

equal to the Re&angle

AG
Red-

contained under

A

C

angle

E

H
;

contain'd

AE under E G
and
;

to the

equal to

AC

and E F and to the Refiangle F contain'd under FH equal to AC, and FB taken together.

D

Demonftration.

The Re&angle
taken together
;

AD

which

AG, EH,

and F D, the Re&angle A is equal to the Rectangles taken together. and F

equal to all its Parts are the Pvedangles and no other. Therefore
is

AG EH
3

D D

The Second Boo\.
By Numbers.

'99

This Propofition holds true likewife In Numto be fae Foot bers. Suppofe the Line A

C
:

two, long; by confequence contain'd under
to fay,
five,
is

AE

EF

four,

FB

three;

and

AB

nine

The Reftangle

five

and A B nine, that is times nine, which makes forty
five,

AC

or ten 3 four times times n>e, or fiffive, or twenty ; and three teen ; for ten, twenty, and fifteen, make forty

equal to twice

five,

five.

The
i

USE.
-

'

Propofition is demon ftrated the ordinary Operation

By

this

A,

B,

c
c c
1

of Multiplication. For Example:
If

you were

to

multiply

the

*
'

Number A, which is 5*;, by the Number B, that is 8. Divide the Number A into (b many
Parts as there are Characters:
that
is,

* *
6
c

two,

5-0,

and

5

;

which

multiply by 8, faying, eight times three is twenty four ; and fo you make one Re&angle, Then multiplying the Number 5-0 by 8, the

c '
'

Product will be 400. But 'tis evidenr, that the Product of eight times 5-5, being 424, is fo equal to the Produ& 24, and the Product

tata

together.

ioo

The Elements of Euclid.
.

— ———^—
II.

PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
The Square of any Line
contained
Tarts.
is

equal

to the
%

ReEtangles
all

under the whole

Une

and

its

CGHD j ET the I and
,
its

Line propos'd

be
I

A

B,

the Square

FB

AB

Line AB and AE; another under and EF; and a third under AB and FB

Re&angle

is equal to the contained under the whole

ABDC

Square

A B D C.

fay,

taken together.

Demonft ration.'
is equal to all its Parts The Square taken together, which are the Re&angles A G, is contained under EH, FD. Thefirft is The fecond E to A B, and A E. equal to A C or A B, and contained under E equal

ABD C

AG

AC

H

G

is corrain'd under to A B, and FB: But Vis the fame thing equal to be contain'd under a Line equal to A B, and

FE.

The

third

FD

FH

to be contained under

AB

icfelf.

Therefore

the Square of A contained under Parts of AB.

B is equal to the Re&angles A B, and A E, E F, F B, the

The Second Book*

ici

Let the
its

By Numbers. Line A B reprefent the Number 9

;

Let alfo the Part Square will be 81. and FB two; nine times be four; EF three; nine times three, twenty four makes thirty fix
;

AE

leven
plain

and nine times two, eighteen that 36, 27, and 1S make 8r.
;

;

and

'tis

The

1

USE.
AU

This Propofition ferves likewife to prove
;

Multiplication
*

as alfo for Equations in

gebra.
I

— I— PROPOSITION
.
I

—«—

II

»

I

I

III

I——————

III.

A Theorem.
If a Line be divided into two Tarts, tie ReBangle contained under the whole Line, and one
of
its Tarts, is equal to the Square of the fame Tarty and the Retlangle contain d under both the Tarts.

LET C
Point

the Line

AB
Parts

be divided
at

D

E
^

F

into
;

two
and
let

the

a Re&angle be

made
one of
fay,

of
its

Let

A

the whole A B and A C ~B Parts A C ; that is to be equal to A C ; and then if

D

the Reftangle

AF

be compleated,

it

will

be

equal

102

The Elements of Euclid.

equal to the Square of A C, and the Re&angle contain'd under and CB. Draw the Per-

AC

pendicular

CE.
-.

equal to all its Parts, which are the Rectangles A E and C F. The firfl A E is the Square of A C, the Lines A C and A F being equal ; and the Re&angle
is

AD

The Re&angle A F
equal to

Demonftration. contain'd under

A B and

A C,

D

C

is

contain'd under

C B,

and

or

AC.

Therefore the

under A B and A C is equal to the Square of AC, and the Re&angle contain'd under and CB. / By Numbers,

equal to AD, Re&angle contain'd

CE

AC

angle contain'd under A three times eight, or 24 :

C B f the Re&B and A C, will be The Square of AC 3, and the Re&angle contain'd under is nine; AC 3, and CB 5*, is three times or 15". But it is evident that 15* and 9 make 24.
Let

AB

be 8

;

AC

j

;

and

;

5*

The
c

USE.
of
this

A,

The

life

c

ftili
c

to demonftrate

Propofition is the ordinary

c
4

Pra&ice of Multiplication. For Example ; If you would multiply
the

*
'

vided

Number 4; by_£; having dithe Number 43 into 40,
;
:

and

Three times 43

will

a-

mount

to as

many

as three times three, or
*

nine,

The Second Book.

1 05

nine,
1
1

that

is

three

times

the Square of three ; and 40, that is, 120 ; for three

' '

times forty three is 129. Beginners oughe not to be difcourag'd, if they do not prefently

apprehend thefe Proportions
truth, are not difficult,

;

which

4

yet,
1
c

lft

but as they

are conceiv'd to contain
fiery.

fome ftrange

My-

PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
be V a Linewholedivided will

IV.

into two Parts, the Square be equal to the Line of Squares of both the Tarts ; and two Rectangles contain d under the fame Farts.

the

C, and its Square ABDEdefcrib'd;letitsDiain

ded LET

the Line

AB

be

divi-

FD

gonal alfo EB be drawn, and £ a Perpendicular cutting it k C F : And by that Point let L be drawn parallel to A B. 'Tis the Line evident that the Square is equal to

G

ABDE

and LF. of which are the Squares of A and CB: And the two Complements arecontain'd under AC and CB,
the four Redangles
firft

GF, CL, CG,

The two

C

1

Demon*

104

2"fo Elements

of Euclid.

Demonfiration.

The

Sides

half right the Angles L and A B And b^caufe the Lines Angles are Parallels, rhe Angles of the Triangles of the Square {by the 29. *>) will be equal, Therefore as alfo their Sides ( by the 6. 1. )
:

A E and A B are equal A E B, and ABE are

;

therefore

G

GF

GF
is

is

the Square of
:

A C.

In like

manner

CL

the Square of

tained

under

C B The Rtr&angle G C is conAC, and AG equal ro BL or BC
;

and the Re&angle equal to AC, and
Coroll.
If

LF

is

contain'd under
to

LD

FD equal
draw the

BC.

Square, the Squares.
c

Diagonal of a you which ic cuts are Re&angles
Demonftration,

A,
'
1

This

Propofition

teaches

the

Method of extracting the Square Root of any Number propos'd.

Let the Number be A, or 144, reand its Root prefented by the Square AD, by the Line AB. I fuppofe ic known from other Principles that it requires two Cha:

imagine therefore that the Line in C, fo that may reprefent the firft Character, and B C the fecond. Then fearching the Root of the firft Characters.
is

I

AB

divided

AC

racter,

of the Number 144, which is 100, and making it Square I find it to be 10 ; the Square 100. reprefemed by F, I Tub« ftrad

G

The Second Book*

1 05

draft it from 144; and there remains 44 for the Re&angles GC, FL, and the Square C L But becaufe the Figure of a Gnomon
:

is

not proper for

this

Re&angle whole Re&angle
jo, therefore divide

the

FL

Operation,

I

transport
I

unto

KG,
is

making one
44.

KL,

that

know
:

alfb already almotr. the

AC

being

KC

whole Side muft be 20
;

KB
:

I

For muft

44 by 20

that

is

to fay,

Divifor, doubling the Root found ; I enquire then how many times 20 I can have in 44 ? And find twice ; and therefore take 2
for

my

and becaufe 20 was not the but only KC; that two which came in the Quotient, 1 add to the Divifor, making ic 22 ; which Number being found precifely twice in 44, adding 2 to the Root before found, I conclude the whole You fee Square Root of 144 to be 12.
for the Side
intire

Side

B L; KB,

then that the Square 144 is equal to the Square of 10, which is ioo, is Square of 2, that is 4 ; and twice 20, which make the

two
ten.

Re&angles

contained

under two and

PRO-

lo6

The Elements of Euclid.

i

PROPOSITION
A Theorem.

V.

If a Line be divided into two equal Parts, and two Tarts that are unequal ; the Rettangle contained under the unequal Parts, with the
together
;

Square of the

intermediate Part

is

equal to

the Square of half the Line,

F

the Line

i

AB

be divided
in

into

two equal Parts

C,

AD, endDB,

and two unequal Parts in D; contain'd the Re&ang!e under the unequal Segments with the Square of C D, will be

AH
is,

equal to the Square of

CB

that

the Square

fc F. Compleat the Figure as you fee; the and DI will be Squares, (by the ke&angles

LG

CoroB. of the 4.)
'
c

'

c

equal to B equal to the Square

DH

Re&angle

AH,

will prove then, that the contain'd under A_D, and D., with the Square L G, is
I

CF.

Demonfiration. is equal to the Rectangle both being contain'd under half the Line DF, which is equal to ir. and DB, or

The Re&angle A L

AB

DH,

4dd

to both the
will

AH

Re&angle

CH

;

the

be equal to the

Gnomon

C B G.

Re&angle

Add

The Swotid Book.
therefore again to both the Square
;

107

with the Square theRe&angle be equal to the Square C F.

AH,

L G and LG, will

By Numbers.
Let
wife
;

A B be
and
let

10

;

AC

CD

B likewill be f , and the Redbe 2, and B % ;

C

D

7, angle contained under of fay 21, with the Square be equal to the Square of

AD

and

The
1

USE.

CD 2, that G D y, which

DB ;

,

that
is

is

to

4, will
25-.

is

1

*
'

very ufeful in the third Book It is alfo us'd in Algebra^ to demonftrate the manner of rinding tke Root of an' ajfecled or impure Square.
This Propofition
:

is

PROPOSITION
A Theorem.

VI.

and to it If a Line be divided into two equal Parts, the Rectangle contain d un~ another Line added ; der the Line compounded of tbofe two, and that which is added, with the Square of half the divided Line, is equal to the Square of the Line cornfounded of that half, and the Line that
to the Line
is

added.

A B,

divided

IF

two equal Parts in C, be added the Line BD; the
into

Rectangle AN, contain'd under the Line AD, and
equal to

DN A

BD,

with the Square of

C CB,

B~~D
is

equal to

108

The Elements of Euclid.

to the Square of C D. Make the Square of C D, and having drawn the Diagonal F D, draw
alfo

BG

parallel to

FC,

cutting

F

D

at the

Point H, through which pafTes the Line will be the parallel to Square

AD; KG

HN
ol

CB; and BN,

that of

BD.
and

Dentonftration,

The Re&angles
equal Bafes

AC

AK
and

C B,

and E ar< 36. 1.) The Complements equal, (by the ^. 1.) therefore the Re&angle; and are e^jual. Add to both th< : and the Square then th< Re&angle CN,

CH

GH, being upor are equal, ( by th

H

AK

HE

KG

Redangles

AK

and
and

CN,

that

is,

the Re&anglt
th<

AN,

with the Square

Re&angles that is, by
Let

CN

H

KG,

be equal to E, and the Square
will

KG
4

4. 2. the

Square
of 8

CE.
Parts
;

By Numbers.

AB
n.

confifl

A

C

of

.

and

AD

CBof4;BDof;;
be
'Tis evident the

fo that the wholt

Rectangle

AN

h

;; ; which with the Square of KG, (equal to C B 4 ) that is 16 makes 49 , and therefore is equal to th<
that
is

three times

n,

Square of make 49.
1
'

CD

7,

which

is

49

;

for

7 times

7

The
Maurolycbus,

USE.

by the help of this Propofi. meafur'd the whole Earth at one Tingle tion, * 'Obfcrva

The Second Bco{. To effed which, he that from the Top of a Mountain of a known Height A, you obferve the Angle B A C, made
Obfervation.

1

6^

advifes,

A B, touching the of the Earth at B, and the Line A G palling thro* the Centre; And that in the
by the Line
Superficies

Triangle
<'

A

and the right Angle
gonometry, b*cau(e 'tis

knowing the Angle A, ADF, you find, by Trithe Sides A F and FD: And
F,

D

and

FD

Lme A B, and alfo its Square. Now we have demonftrated in the preceding Proposition, that the Line E D, being divided into equal Parts in C, and the Line added to it; the Re&angle contain'd under £ A and with the Square oFCD,' B, is equal to the Square of C A and the Angle A B ;

eafie to demonftrate that are equal, you will then know the

FB

AD

AD

.

( as is prov'd in the third Book A is equal to ) the Square of the Squares of AB and therefore the

being a right An*Ie,

Q

Rectangle under A E and A D, with the Square of B C, is equal to the Squares of A B and B C. Take therefore from them both the Square of B C, and the Re & angle under A E and A will be equal ro rhe Square of A B. Divide therefore the known Square of A B, by the Height of the Moun* tain A and the Quotient will be the Line

C BC;

D

D

s

I
'
*

lb

The Elements of Euclid.
;

1

from which fubftra&ing the Height of ; the Mountain, the Remainder will be the DiaE. meter of the Earth * We have made life like wife of the fame Pro*

AE

D

*
* * c

pofition in

our

sllgebra, to

demonftrate the

thirteenth Proportion of the third Book, to find the Root of a Square equal to a Number,

more a

certain

Number

'
c

that follow

do

alfo ferve for the

of Roots. The two Proof of the

like Operations.

PROPOSITION
A Problem.

VII.

If a Line he divided, the Square of the wholt Line with that of one of its Parts, is equal u\ two Rectangles contained undtr the whole Line and that firfi Part, together with the Square o\
the other Part.

B

; the Square of the Line A B, with tto Square A L, will be equal to twc Re&angles contain'd under AE and AC, with the Sqnare of

LE AD

T

the Line
in

A B be

divided

any where

C

CB

Make

AB, and having drawr and the Lines C F and H G L the Diagonal EB, prolong E A fo far, as that AK, may be equa,
the Square of
tc

to

AC;
is

To

Ill The Second Book? A L will be the Square of AC,
is ebe equal to AB; for is equal to CB, becaufe

and

HK

will

HA

qual to

GC, and

GC

CI

the Square

of

CB

;

(ty the

Coroll.

of

the 4. )

Dcmonftration.
'Tis

evident,

that the Squares

A

D

and

are equal to the and the Square Cl.
is

AL

Re&angles

H L and H D,
e&angle

Now

the

contain'd under

HK equal to

In like equal to AC. is contain'd under HI equal to A B, and Therefore the Squares of equal to AC. are equal to two Re&angles and

HD
HE
AB
of

AB, and KL manner the Re&anglc

HL

AC

contain'd under

AB

and AC, and the Square

C B.
In Numbers.

Suppofe the Line A B to confift of 9 Part?, A C of 4, and CB of j. The Square of A B 9 is 81, and that of AC 4 is 16 ; which 81 and 16 added together make 97. Now one Redfour times 9, make angle under AB and AC, or is 72; and the Square 36, which taken twice, which 72 and *j added togeDf C B is 2? ;
5-

ther

make

alfo 97.

Mi

PRO-

112

The Elements of Euclid.

PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
to

VIII.

If you divide a Line, and add another to
one of
its

it

equal

Square of the whole compounded Line will be equal to four Reft* angles contained under the fir ft Line, and that
fart that
is

Tarts, the

added, together 'with the Square of

the other Tart.

ana

L

tT
!

the Line

A B be

divided

BD equal to CB added to

any where

in the Point

C,
it

tht Square of

AD will
G

be equal

to four Rectangles contained un-

the Square of

A

der AB, and B or BD, and Make the Square of A D, C.

and having drawn the Diagonal AE, draw likewife the Pependiculars BP and CN, cutting the Diaeoial in O and I; and alfo the Lin^s

M O H "and
G

angles Squares, ( by the

Gl R parallel to AB. The RedC, LK, PH, MB, and NR, will be
Coroll.

of the

4. )

to all its Parrs The S }uare and the Rt dangles L B, OD, PM. are contained, under Lines equal to A B and BC and if you add the Red: ingle MI to the Rrdangle PH,
;
;

DemonJuration. A D E F is equal

they

together

will

give

you another Redangle

The Second Book:

113

a Line equal to AB, angle contain'd under A or B D. Befides and another equal to which, there remains nothing but the Square

C

3 C, which
he Square
:ontain'd
)f

is

AD

the Square of A C is equal to four

Therefore

under

A

Re&angles B and B D, and the Square

A C.
In Numbers,

L*t the Line A B confift of 7 Parts, of 3, CB of 4, as alfo BD. The Square of 1 will be in. And one Rectangle under AB7, nd 4, makes 28 ; which taken four times,
id

AC

AD

BD
is

112; and
hich
9,

thofe together with the Square of 3,

make

alfo

121.

PROPOSITION IX. A Theorem.
&

a Line be divided into two equal Parts, and two unequal, the Squares of the unequal Parts will double the Square of half the Line and the Square of the intermediate Part,

ET
4

the

Line

AB

be

divided

into

two
at

|iual

Parts at the Point

and
|e

Point
the

D

two unequal

the Squares ; Parts unequal

A

h

;

pl4 A D and
which
Part.
is

The Elements of Euclid.

D B,
half

will

AB

be double the Squires of A C, the intermediate and

CD

Draw

CE

perpendicular to

A

B,

and

equal to AC; draw alfo the Lines AE and and the Perpendicular DF, as likewife
parallel to

BE,

FG

C D.

Tnen

join the Line

A

F.

The Lines
Angle

AC

Demonstration. and are equal,

CE
:

and

the

C

is

the Angles C AE and C E A are equal, I {j i.J In Jik< and confeqientlv half right Angles. manner, the Angles C E B, C B F, G F E, an< DFB, are half right Angles ; and the Line G F and G E, D F and B, equal, (by the 6. i. and the whole Angle AEF is a right Angh Now the Square of A E (by the 47. 1. ) is t qual to the Squares of AC and CE, whi<J

a right Angle

Therefore ( by th

D

n

double the Square ( A For ths fame Reafon, the Square of E is double the Square of GF, or C D. Now th of A F is equal to the Squares of A Square is a and EF, becaufe the Angle Rig! therefore the Square of AF is doub! Angle; The fame Squai the Squares of AC and C D. of AF is likewife equal to the Squares' of A I
are equal
:

Therefore

it is

C

AEF

r

L
t

or DB, the Angle and being a rigl Therefore the Squares of Angle. B are double the Squares of A C and C D.

DF

D

AD

i|
it:

D

In Numbers,

Ler

AB

be

10/ACy, CD], and

DBilCj.-.

**5 The Second Boo\. is to that ie Squares of A D 8, and D B 2, and 4, which make 68, are double the iy, 64 and of %y that i*, 25of A C qares which is for 2; and 9 make 34, vhich is 9
$-,
;

CD

;

alf of 68.

The
1

USE.
this Propofltion, ex-

I

have not met with

cept \n Algebra; follows.

no more than that which

PROPOSITION
r

X.

A Theorem.
a Line be added to another that

c

two equal Parts

;

founded of thofe which is added, makes double the Square of~balf the Line, and the Square of that which h com* Line that is added. founded of half, and the

is divided[into the Square of the Line corntwo, with the Square of that

ET
be
|aiddle

the
at

Line
in

AB
the

divided

the Point C,

jnd

the Line
it
:

kD
!l

The Squares of -ST
the

and and

BD added BD will be
Draw

louble

C

Squares of

C D.

H

the Perpendiculars

CE
and

4

1

1

$

The Elements of Euclid*

|

and
that

DF
A

jLines

AG

PG
and

and then draw the ; equal to A E F, and producing £,B to G, fo E, may be equal to B D, join the Lines

C

EBG.

pemonft ration. C B, and C E, being equal, and the Angles at the Point C being righc Angles the Angles C A E, A E C, E B, and C B E, will be half right Angles. In like manner, the A^gle being a right Angle, and the Lines B D

The Lines A C,

;

C

and
will

D DG

equal, the Angles
halt'

DBG and D G E
FE
CD,
is

wife

G E F,

therefore

will likeright Angles; -and fo the Angle F being a right Angle ; are equal and the Lines

FG

(by

the 6. i.)

and E F

is

equal to

( £j

the 3;. i. )

Now

EG is alio the Square of AC, double the Square of EF, or CD, (by the 47. 1.) is equal to the Squares But the Square of

the Square of and the Square of

AE

double

AG

of

A E and EG, (by

the

Square of

AG

fame

;

the ) therefore

and

C D.

double the Squares of The fame Square of A G is
is

AC

like-

wife ( by the fame 47. ) equal to the Squares of therefore the A D, and B equal to

DG

D

:

Squares of AD and 1}B are double the Squares pf A C and C D.

By
Let

Numhtr-s.

AB

BD4;

contain 6 Fart, the Square of A

gqijare of

BD

is

16,

and C B ;, ;, 10 is jo^; the which rn^ke together

AC

D

n6.

The Second Book*

"7
:

n6.
j 8,

The Square

alfo

of

AC

3

is

9

The

Square of

49. 7 the half of 116.

CD

is

Now

49 and 9 make

PROPOSITION
A Problem.
?

XI.

7# divide a Line

w
.

in fuch a manner, that the Rectunder the whole Line, and one of its Varts y angle the other Tart. be {hall equal to the Square of

the Line
divided SUppofe in
that

AB
a

to be

fuch

manner

the Re&angle under the whole Line AB and BH, may be equal to the Square of A H. Make the Square of AB (by the in 46. 1 ) and dividing A the Middle E, draw EB, and take EF equal Then make the Square of AF, that to EB. is to I fay, let A F and A H be equal. fay, the Square of A H will be equal to the Redangle H C, contain'd under HB, and BC equal
.

D

to

AB,
Demonftration.

The Line
E, and the
( hy the 6.

AD

is

Lne FA added

divided equally
to
it

in
;

the Point
therefore

) tie Rc&angle

D G contain'd

under

DF,

1

1

8
and
is

The Elements of Euclid.

D F,
A E,

with the Square of E F, equal to E B : now equal to the Squares of and AB, (by the 47. 1.) Therefore the of A B and A E are Squares equal to the RedG. and the Square of A E ; and fubangle

FG equal

to

AF,

AE

equal to the Square of the Square of E B is

D

tra&ing from both the Square of A E ; the Square of A B. that is, AC, will be equal to the Re&angle G Taking away therefore the which is common to both, the Re&angle DH, Red angle will be equal to the Square of

D

:

HC

AH,

that

is,

AG.

The
1

USE.

c
*

4
c

c

This Proportion teaches how to cut a Line according to the extreme and middle Proportion, as will be (hewn in the fixth Book. Tis alfo frequently made life of in the fourteenth Book of Euclid's Elements, to find the Sides of Regular Solids. It is
ufeful alfo in the 11. of the 4. to infcribe a Pentagon in a Circle, as alfo a Pentedecagon ( or a Figure with if Angles. ) You will
fee alfo other Ufes thereof in dividing Lines after this manner, in the 30th of

*
* *

c

*

Proportion

the 6.

PRO

The Second Book*

119

PROPOSITION
A Theorem,

XIL

In an Obtufe- angPd Triangle, the Square of the Side opposd t$ the Obtufe Angle, is equal to both the other Sides, and two the

Squares of Reft angles contain' d

under

the

Line

upon

which a Perpendicular will fall, and the Line which lies vetwixt the Triangle and the Perpendicular.

be obtufe, Triangle be drawn Perpenand let D c * dtcular to BC; the Square of the Side A B is equal to the Squares of the Sides AC and CB, and two Re&angles contain'd un-

LE

T

the Angle

A C B of

the

A *-

ABC

AD

V\

LA—J^

der the Side

BC

and

CD.

Dernonftration.

equal to the Squares of But the Square of and CB, is equal to the Squares of and two Red angles contain'd under and B ( by the 4.) Therefore the Square of A B is equal to the Squares of A D, DC, and CB, and and C B. two Rectangles contain'd under

AD

Tie Square of

AB

is

BD
C

and DB, {by

the 47. 1. )

DC

DC

Inftead of the

two

firft

Squares of A
x

DC D

and

D C,

-

put

I30

7hc Elements- of Euclid.

put the Square of

AC. wmch

equal to the Squares of AC and CB, and two C and C B. Rectangles contain'd under

( by the 47. 1. ) then the

equal to them, Square of A B will be
is

D

The
*

USE.'


1 * 6

This Propofition is ufeful in Trigonometry, to meafure the Area of a Triangle, whole Sides are known. For Example, Suppofe the
Side

c
'
* 1

'
c 1

AB to confift of 20 Foot, of 13, of ii ; the Square of AB will be 400, that of The 121. 169, and that of Sum of the two laft is 290 ; which fubftra&ed from 400, there will remain 110 for the two Rectangles under B and C D. The half of which, 57, will make one
B

AC

C

AC

BC

C

half of thofe

Rectangles
11,

;

dividing

which
for the

Number by BC,
Line

we

(hall

have

$•

*
c
1

c
*

*

whofe Square 25; being fubftradted from the Squire of AC, 169, leaves the Square of AD, 144, whofe Root 12 will be the Side AD; which being multiplied by £{ f the half of B C, will give the Area of the, Triangle AEC that is, 66 Foot Square,
y

CD;

PRO-

The Second Book?

lit

PROPOSITION
A Theorem.

XIII.

In any Triangle whatfoever, the Square of the Side cppos'J to the acute Angle , with two Rectangles contained under the Side which the

dicular falls,

upon Verymand the Line which is betwixt the Verfendicular and that Angle, is equal to the
.other Sides.

Squares of both the

ABC, SUppofe

the Triangle to be and the acute An-

A

gle C, and cular falling

AD

upon

the PerpendiB C ; the

.

Square of the Side A B, oppos'd to rhe acute Angle C, with two Re&angles conrain'J under BC and CD, will be equal to the Square of A C and B C.
Demonftration.

being divided in D, (by the 7.) fhe S iuarcs of B G and C are equal ro two

The Line

BC

D

Rectangles' under

B C and

C D,

and

the

of BD. Adding to boih the Square of A the ; ot BC, DC, and AD, will be equal to Squares

D

Square

two Red ingles under B C, and CD, and the S uares of B D and A D. Inftead of the Squares of CD, and A D, put rhe Square of AC, which
is

equal to them, ( by the 47.

r,

)

and inftead
ol"

ill

The Elements of Euclid.

of the Squares or BD, and AD, iubftitute the Square of AB which is equal to rhem, ( by the fame : ) then the Squires of B C and A C will be equal to the Square of A 6, and two Rectand CD. angles con tain'd under

BC

The
c

USE.

1

*
c
c
*

*
1

Thefe Propofitions are very ufeful in JWgonometry : I have made uffc of them in the eighth Proposition of my third Book, to prove, that in a Triangle the Sine Total has the famr Propoficion to the Sine of an Angle, as the Re&angle contain'd under the Sides, which form that Angle, to double the Triangle.
I

have us'd them likewife

in the fe-

1

venth, and divers other Propofitions.

PROPOSITION
A Problem.
To
defcrlhe

XIV.

a Square equal to a Rectilineal Ft* gure given,

TO
F c
angle
lineal

defcribe a Squareequal

to

the

Re&ilineal

make (by

the 45-. i.J a

A: Red-

BCDE equal to the Re&iA. If the Sides C D and
what

E CB wereequal, we fhould have

The Second Bookwhat we defied
the Line
:

1*5
:

But being unequal, continue

B C,

fo that

C F may be equal to C D
BF
in the

middle at the Point G, defcribe the Semicircle FHB; this to H. The Square of done, prolong Re&ilineal A. Draw the Line is equal to the
and dividing the Line

DC

CH

GH.
Dernonflration.

The Line B F
Parts in
( by the

is

divided

into
in

that is to fay, The Re&angle B D, or C ; with the Square of C Q, is equal to the Square of GB, or GH, which equal to it. Now. f*^ is equal to the the 47. r. ) the Square of of CG, and CH: Therefore the Re&Squares

therefore ; G, and two unequal contain^ under BC f f. ) the Re&angle

C

two equal

C F,

D

GH

CH
1

of C G, are equal to angle BD, and the Square and therefore, the Squares of CG, and ; of CG, which is comtaking away the Square mon to both, there will remain the Square of is the equal to the Re&angle BD, or, which

CH

fame, the Rectilineal A.

the
*

USE.

*
'

c
4

Magnitude
I

This Propofition teaches us, in the firft Place, to reduce any Re&ilineal Figures to Squares ; which being the chief Meafure of all Superficies, becaufe its Dimenfions are bo$h equal, we can by this means cake the of all forts of Re&iiineal Figures.
Again,
it

helps us to find a middle propor* tional

1

24
fee in

The Elements of Euclid.
two Lines given, as we fhall the thirteenth Propofition of the fixth

tional betwixt

Book.
Arifiotle brings this Propofition as an Inftance or a formal Definition : For, in bis 2d Book, de Anima, § iz. diftinguilliing betwixt
4

a formal and a caufal Definition, he explains If when 'tis demanded, what ic them thus is to fquare a Re&angle ! Anfwer be return'd, That ic is to defcribe a Square equal to a Rec:

tilineal

given

;

this

mal

Definition.

Anfwer contains the forBut if it be faid, That it is

to find a

middle Proportional betwixt two

For Lines, this gives the caufal Definition. to find a middle Proportional, is the Caufe of

making a Square equal to the

Rectilineal

propos'd. c This Propofition may alfb be farther lifeful for the fquaring of crooked Figures ; and ic alfb, as far as is pofllble, even the Circle

of crooked Figures may, felf; for all forts at leaft as far as is difcernible by Senfe, be
redue'd
to Rectilineals.

As for Example:

a Polygon confifting if we of a thoufand Sides, there will be no fenfibJe difference betwixt it and the Circle ; therefore
inferibe in a Circle

reducing this Polygon to a S \juare, we do, as far as our Senfes are capable of judging, fquare the Circle.

THE

C I2 5 3

THE"
Third Book
OF THE
Elements of
1 i

EV CL I'D.

*

*

J

'
* *
'

S Third Book explains the Pro* perries of a Circle, and compares divers Lines which may be drawnwithin, or without, its Grcu inference. It confiders likewife the Circumftances of Circles, that cut each other, or touch a right Line ; and the Differences of Angles that are made either at the Centres, or Circumferences. In

*

11"^

H

I

1

JL

4 ' s

down the firft Principles for Eftathe Pra&ical Part of Geometry ; fot blifhing which the Circle is moft commodioufly made
fine, it

lays

life of in almoft matkks.

all Treatifes

of the

Math*

f

Dfc

126

The Elements of Euclid.
Mfa

DEFINITIONS.
r. Thofe Circles are equal, whofe Da meters or Semi-diame-

ters are equal.

Line is faid to touch a Circle, when, meeting with irs Circumference, h does not cut it : As the Line A B.
2.
3.

A

Circles

touch,
,

when meeting they do not cut each other
:

A, B,

As the Circles and C.

4, Thofe Lines are equally reremote from the Centre ; when the Perpendiculars, drawn from the

Centre to
4
'

the

Lines,

are

equal.

As

for

Example; IfEF, and EG,

*

c
4

will be ebe equal, A B and C qually remote trom the Centre ; becaufe the Diftance ought always to be meafur'd by per-

and

C

D

Perpendiculars to the Lines

A

B,

D

£

pendicular Lines.

f.A

Iht Third Book?
of a Circle is {. A Segment a Figure terminated on one Side
ther

and on the oby a right Line, the Circumference of a by « As LON, Circle:

LMN.

6. The Angle of the Segment is the Angle which the Circumference makes with the right

Line
7.

' :

As the Angles

LNG, N L M.

An Angle is in that Segment which are the Lines that form it : in As the Angle FGH, is in the « Segment FGH.
8.
is
4

An Angle

is

oppos'd, or which
gle
9.

F G H,

is

upon that Arch, 'to which ic As t/je Anis as its Bafe the Arch F I H. upon
:

The

Seftor

is

a Figure con-

two Semi-diameters, and the Arch which ferves * As the Figure them for a Bafe
tained

under

:

;

FiGa

1

%

PRO-

128

The Elements of Euclid.

PROPOSITION
A Problem.
To find the Centre of a

I.

Circle.

Line A B, and divide ic in the middle at the Point C; through which draw tnt Perpendicular

T

O

find the

Centre of the

Circle

AEBD,

draw the

E D,

which

aifo divide into

the Point F, then that Point

two equal Parrs at F wii] be the Centre

G
G

of the Circle. If it be not, fuppofe the Point to be the Centre ; and draw the Lines G A, B, and G C.

Demon'fir at hn.
If the Point

G

GAC
GB AC

and

GBC

be the Centre, the Triangles will have the Sides and

GA

and common, the Angles be equal. (by the 8. i. ) and a not C D, which is contrary Perpendicular, to the Suppofmon. Therefore the Centre rnuft of neceffity be in the Line C D. I ad i, That it muft be ac the Point F, where ic is divided into two equal Pans otherwife the Lines

CG being GCA will

equal, (by the Definition of a Circle:') And and B will be equal ; the Line being divided in the middle at the Point C, and

C

AB

GCB

CG

;

The Third Book*
Lines

129

drawn from the Centre to the Circumference would not be equal. CorolL The Centre of a Circle is in that Line which failing perpendicularly upon another, divides it into two equel Parrs.
The
*

USE.
necefTary to demonftrate

This Propofition thofe that follow.

1

is

PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
A

II.

Right Line dcawn from one Point of the Ch' cumference to another falls wholly within the
»,

Circle.

LET
li

the Point
it

lay,

a Line be drawn from B to the Point will be wholly contained

C

:

within the Circle.
that
it

To

prove,*

cannot

fall

wirhout the
Lines

Circle, as BVC:, having found the Centre of the Circle A, draw the

|AB,

AC,

and AV.
Demonftration.

The IGBC,
[Angles

Sides

A B and A
:

are equal

pe

Angle

ABC and ACB are equal. And fince AVC an external Angle in reis

C, of the Triangle Therefore ( by the 5*. r.) the

I

5

fpeft

j$o
fptd:
fo
it

The Elements of Euclid. of the Triangle A VB, it is greater than

the Angle
will

ABC,

be greater

(bytbt 16. i. ) and then al« than the Angle ACB,

Therefore ( by the- to. i.) in the Triangle V, the Side A C, oppos'd to the greater Angle A V(X will be greater than A V; and by conference A V ought not to reach to the Circurrn ference of the Circle, if the Line B V C was a
right Line,

AC

7be
c

USE.

'

*

*
*

*Tis by this Propofition that they demonftrate, that a Circle can touch a right Line but in one Point. For if the Line touched

f
*

*
*

two Points of the Circumference, it would be drawn from one of its Points to another and by confluence, according to this Pro* pofition, would enter the Circle ; though, by
its

:

E

* *
c

(

S

Definition, the Line that touches ought u not to cut the Circumference. Theodofim \ t makes ufe of the fame Pemonftration to prove, that a Globe can touch a Plane only in M: one Point* for other wife the Plane would snccjr within the Globe,
I

Ho
IE

PRC
Nil

The Third Boo\.

131

PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
If the

III.

Diameter divide a Line, which does not fafs
it

through the Centre, into two equal farts,
cut at right Anghs Angles, it will divide
it
;

will

and
it

if

it

cut

it

at right

into

two equal

farts*

the Diameter

AC

cut the
/

IF
;>afs

Line

which does not thro* the Centre F, into
j

B D,

:wo equal Parts at the Point E, t t will cut it at right Angles. £

Draw

the Lines

FB

and

FD.
'

Demonstration.
In the Triangles F E B and F ED, the Side E F are equal ; and s common ; the Sides

BE
is

ED

Decaufe the Line

B

D

md
ire

their

B ifes F B and F D

Angles B E F and D EF are eq-ial, and by confluence right Angles. I add, That if the Angles B E F and D E F be
( by the 8. 1. ) the

equally divided in E, Thereare equal
:

ight AngI

s,

the Line

BD

will

be divided into

wo equal Parts at E, that is B E and E D will be equal.
Demonftration.

to fay, the Lines

The
gular
:

Triangles

B E F and
1

D EF
1.

are Reftan-

Therefore ( by the 47.

) the

4

Square of

%%%
o\ the Side

The 'Elements of Euclid.

I

the Sides

BF

and

D F will be equal to the Squares of D and E F. Now the Squares of FD are eqtwl, becaufe the Lines are
E

j

equal, therefore the Squares of B E and EF. are equal to the Squares or. E and EF; and

D

|

taking away the Square of E F, which is comwill be equal, inon, the Squares of B E and

ED

and by confeqnence the

Lines.

PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
Xwo
Lines

IV.

;

drawn within
two equal

other into

a Circle, cannot cut each Parts,' unlejs they both fafs

through the Centre.

C and B each other at the Point I, which is not the Centre of the Circle, they will not equally divide each Fir it. If one of thofe other.
F the Lines A
cut

D

I

Lines,
'tis

as
it

fhe Centre, vided but at the Centre. -But and as through the Centre, tine AIC through the Centre,

evident

AC, pafs through cannot equally be diif

BD

EG, draw

neither pafs the

If the Line

AC

Demonstration. divide the Line
in
I,

BD
AID

into

two equal Parts

the Angles

and

The Third Book.
Al B
will

*33
;.

be right Angles, ( by the

)

In like

manner, if the Line EG was equally divided in I, the Angle A I E would be a right Angle ; and eonfequently the Angle A I B and A E would be equal, which is impoilible, one being but It a word, The Line AIC, the other. pare of which paffes through the Centre, would be perand EG^, if they to the Lines
1

pendicular were both equally divided at the Point

BD

I.

/The
1

USE.

Thefe two Proportions are us'd in TrigoThat rhe Half of a nometry, to demonftrate, Chord oi an 'Arch is perpendicular to the and confequently, that it is Semi diameter
;

the Sine of half rhe Arch.

By

thefe alfo they

demonftrate,

That the Sidts of a Triangle

have the fame Proportion as the Sines of the We alfo make life of it to oppofire Angles. find the Eccentricity of the Circle, which the Sun defcribes in his Annual Motion.

PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
Circles that cut each ether,

V,

have not

the fame Centre.

and ACD, rip HE Circles ABC, other in A which cut each

£

JL

and
tre,

C

?

If they

have not the fame Cenhad the fame Centre,
fuppofc

The Elements of Euclid. would be fuppofe E the Lines E A and

134

ED

equal, ( by the Definition of a Circle

;

) as alfo

the Lines K

B : Therefore the Lines and would be equal; which is impofc fible, one being part of the other.

A and E

ED

EB

PROPOSITION
A Theorem.

VI.

Tivo Circles that touch each other on the inner Side, have not the fame Centre,

on the inner Side at the Point B, have not the fame Centre. For t'houla' the Point A be fuppos'd to be the Centre of both the Circles, the Lines AB and AC, AB and AD, would be equal, ( by the Definition of a Circle ; ) and confequently the Lines AD and AC would be equal, which is impolfible, one being part of
£he other.

T

>HE

and B C, Circles B which touch each other

D

PRO-

The Third Book?

135

PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
If many Lines be
in the Circle,

VII.

drawn from any

one "Point with-

which is not its Centre, to the Cir: 1. That which the fajfes through cumference 2. The Remainder of Centre is the great eft : the Circumit, continu d to the offofiue fart cf is the leaft : That which is neareft 3 ference, more reto the greatefb exceeds thofe that are mote : 4. There can be no more than two of them equal to each other.
.

many
drawn S'lppofe from

Lines to be

the Point A, not the Centre of the being Circle, to the Circumference ;

and

to pals the Line A I will through the Centre B
:

C

demonftrate, greater than any of the ocher ; for Example, that Draw F B. greater than A F.
it is

that

it

ia

Demonfiration*

A B and B F of the Triangle A B F, are greater than A F alone, {by the 20.1.}. But BF and B C are equal, ( by the Definition of a Circle ) Therefore A B and B C, that is to fay, AC, is greater than AF. \ add
1.

The

Sides

:

136
2.
I

The Elements of Euclid.
add, in the fecond Place, That A tor Example, that it is lefs than ;
4

D

is
j

the

leaft

A E:

Draw BE.
Demonflratiott.

and A B are greater than B E is alone, but equal toBD; therefore and A B are greater than B taking therefore ; from both that which is common AB, will

The

Sides

EA

BE

AE

D
is

AE

remain greater than A D. A F, which 3. Further,

nearer

AC

than

AF

3

is

alfo greater than

A

E.

De?nonftration.

The
Sides

Triangles

BF
:

to both

FB A, and E B A, have the and BE equal, and BA is common Bat the Angle A B F is greater than ABE:
Therefore,
( by the

the Angle

24.

1.

)

AF

is

greater than

AE.

That no more than two 4. Laftly, I fay, Lines, that are equal to each other, can be drawn from the Po^nt A to the Circumference,

Take the Angles ABE and A B draw the Lines A E and A G.
Demonstration.

G

equal

;

and

The Triangles A B G and ABE, having the
Sides BE and equal to both, and the Angles therefore rhur Bifes
qual, (by
the 4, i. )

BG

;

the Side

AB common

ABE
and
all

and

ABG
will

AE

AG

equal;

be

e-

But

the Lines that can

be

The Third Book*

l%f

be drawn either on one Side o the other, will be either nearer A C, than A E and A or ;

G

more remote from

it;

and accordingly

will

be

either greater or lefs than

;

Therefore there can be no more than two Lines equal betwixt themfelves, drawn from the Point A to the Circumference.

AG.

The
1

USE.
tifes

Tbeochfius, advantageoufly

this

Pro-

pofition to prove, That if from any Point of the Superficies of a Sphere, which is not the Pole of any certain Circle, divers Arches of

greater Circles be drawn to the Circumference of that Circle, that which pafles through its

Pole will be the greateft. For Example; If the Pole of the World, which is di^rom ftincfc from the Pole of the Horizon, ( for the

Zenith

is its

Circles be

drawn

Pole, ) divers Arches of greater to the Circumference; the

Arch of the Meridian, which pafTes through
Propofition
the Zenith, will be the This greateft Arch. is alfo brought to prove, that the
his

Sun, when in

Afogaum

}

is

mcft remote

from the Earth.

P Pv O-

138

The Elements of Euclid.

PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
drawn

VIII.

If from a Point taken without the Circle
Lines be
that
:

man

to its

Circumference

:

I.

Of a

thofe that extend to the

Concave Circumference
is

the great paftes through the Centre 2. Thofe that lie near are great e eft eft to it, than thofe that are more remote .4 % . Among thoj

which

that fall upon the
:

Convex Circumference, tht which being continud fajfes through the Centr is the lea (fr 4 The nearer to that, are lefs th& thofe farther off: f There can be but two equ,
.

drawn from the fame Point, Concave or Convex Circumference,
Lines

either to

ti

many

Lines

wei

drawn SUppofe from the Poinc

A

1

the Circumference of the Circ

GCDE.
The Line AC, wh| through the Centre B, paflJes the greateft of all thofe tto reach to the Concave Gircun ference; for Ex^mole, it is greater than AL Draw the Line B
Firtt,

D

Demon/Oration. the Sides AB and B] In the Triangle alone j but the Sides A are greater than A

ABD,

D

4

ar

1 The Third Book. 39 B C are equal to A B and B D Therefore and AB and BC, or AC, is greater than AD. 2. A D is greater than A E.
:

Deinonftration.

and A B E have the Side The Triangle A B A B common to both, and ths Sides B D and BE equal, and the Angle A B D is greater than
the

D

Bafe

therefore (by the 24. 1.) the greater than the Bafe A E. A F, which being continued, pa (Tes through 3. he Centre, is the leaft of all thofe Lines thac

Angle

A

D

ABE;

is

ire

drawn

to the

Convex Circumference LF1K ;
than

or Example, It

is lefs

A I.

Draw

I

B.

Demonfiration,
In the Triangle A 1 B the Sides A I and I B are reater than alone, (by the 24. 1* ) thereore taking, from both, the equal Lines Bl and

AB

;

F,

AF

will
is

4.
\\

AI
and

lefs

remain than

lefs than A I. A K. Draw the

Line

B

K»-

In the

K
3,

B,|ie

the Sides are greater than the Sides A I and ( by the 21. 1. ) therefore taking, from both, equal Sides BK.and B I, A I will remain lefs

KB

Demonfir at ton. Triangles A I B and AKB,

lan
j.

A K.

There can be but two Lines equal betwixtfl drawn from A. Take the Angles j\jiemfelves BL, and ABK; as alfo ABE, and AUG, equal,
Demonfiration.
dj

The Triangks
eir

ABL

and

Bafes

A L and

AK

ABK,

will

have
)

equal, (by

the 4. 1.

ar4

140

The Elements of Euclid.
1

and by the fame alfo A E and A G will be but no other Line can be drawn, that equal
will

not be either nearer to, or more remote AC; and confequently, that will not be either greater or lefs than and AL.| A E and A G.

from AF, or

AK

P

RO

P

O

S

I

T

I

ON
E M.

IX.

A T
drawn
Centre,
to the

H

E

6 R
three,

That Voint from whence

equal Lines can bi 'Circnmfh ince of a Circle, is it.

the Point wers not the Centre of a Circle

IF

there could be bu«
it

two equal Lines drawr

from

to the Circumference, (by the 7, and 8/

PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
Two
*•

X.
E

Circles cut each other only in

two

Points.

r,_JUA ^\v

T FA twr BF
J[
ther in

'

Circles

AEBD, am
1

D, mould cut each o

\
/

D;

three Points, A, B, an(l find (by the 1.) the Centre C[

of the Circle
the Lines

AEBD;
4

C A, C B,

and draw| and C D.
Dtrnon

^Me
the
the
cle
alfo

Third BookDemonstration.

f4t
drawn from

Lines,

Ontre C

C A,

CB, and
:

CD,

to the Circumference of the Cir-

are equal But the fame Lines are drawn to the Circumference of the Circle Therefore ( by the 9; ) the Point C ABFD So will be the Centre of the Circle A B F D. two Circles which cue each other, will have ijthat :he fame Centre; which is contrary to the fifth

AEBD,
:

Proposition .

§4*
The

The tHentents of Euclid,

Lines Centre of the

D E,

Demonstration.

leffer

and D G, drawn from the Grcle to its Circumfe-

i

D

rence, would be equal : And adding the Line and DC, would be equal; the Lines and DC, are greater than to CG.

CD,
EC

Now

ED

ED

alone, ( by the 20. 1.)

and

fo

CG.

will

E : Yet greater than the greater Circle,
therefore

C

CG

being the Centre oi| and are equal will be greater than CB, which u\

G

CE

CB

impoflible.

PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
If two

XII.

Circles touch each other on the OutfiJe,

t

Line drawn through both their Centres^ will paj through the Point where they touch.

F

the Line

1 where
to be

AB, which does no
the Point

fid

pafs

through

(|»
Ian

the Circles touch, be fak

drawn rrom rhe Centre A t< the Centre B: Draw the Line IP A C and B C.
Demonfiration, In the Triangle A

C B,

the Side
greatei

AC

and

BC

would not be

k
Jt

than the Side A B alone, (which is contrary t< the 20. 1.) becaufe and AC, as a!fo Bl

AD

and BC, are equal.

PRO.

The Third Book?

*43

PROPOSITION
A Theorem.

XIII.

"wo Circles can touch each other only in one "Point „
J*

If two Circles touch each other on the infide, they will Mich but in one Point only, viz. |ie Point C, which is mark'd out y the Line paffing through
Irft,

F

I

BAG

Dth their Centres,

A and

B.

For

they (hould touch likewife in the Point D, raw the Lines A D, and B.

D

Demonftration.

The Lines A C and
entre of the

A D,

drawn from the
it

leffer Circle to

Circumfe-

nce, are equal ; and adding A B, the Lines \ and AC, and BA and AD, would be equal, ow B and B D, drawn from the Centre of

C

:

e greater Circle to its Circumference, equal ; therefore the Sides B A and

will
will

AD
is

equal to the Side ary to the 20. i.
)

B

D

alone, which

con.

Secondly, If two Circles

uch each other on the oute; drawing the Line AB !>m one Centre to the other, 2

K

it

1 44

The Elements of Eaelid.

it will pafs through th e Point C, where the Cir But if you fay, Thai cles touch, ( by the 12.)
; having drawi they touch alfoatthe Point and the Lines B C and B the Lines A ; and AD, being equal, the* two Sides of Triangle taken together, would be equal to th<] third, which is contrary to the 20. 1.

D

D

BD

D
«

AC

the
1 t
1

USE.

*

Thefe four Proportions are very clear and and alfb neceflary in Jftronomy y when we make life of Eft cycles, to, explain the Mo tions of the "Planets.
evident,

PROPOSITION
A The
Equal
Lines

XIV.

n
SO
1C

o r em.
Circle^

F;

drawn within a

their Centre; and remote from the Centre, are equal. equally

remote

from

are equall thcfe that ar\

the Lines

AB and C

I

to be equal: I wilIprove,thatth< SUppofing

Perpendiculars EF and EG, drawr from the Centre, are a!fo equal and EC. Draw the Lines

EA

Demonfiration.

The Perpendiculars E F and E
Lines

G

divide eh<

AB

and

CD in

the middles at the Point;

F

anc

The Third Eooh^

145

and G, (by
tes
:

the 3. 5.) therefore

AF and

GG

The Angles F and are right AnTherefore (by the 47. 1.) the Square of and FA; )A is equal to the Squares of is equal to the Squares 5 alfo the Square of and f But the Squares of E A and ;C are equal, becaufe the Lines E A and re equal : Therefore the Squares EF and F A
re equal.

G

EF

EC

EG

GC

:

EC

re

iking

and C: equal to the Squares E away the equal Squares A F and »ere will remain the Squares of E F and
]ual
;

G

G

And

C G, EG

and confequently the Lines E F and which are the Diftances of the Lines A B G, id from the Centre, are equal. But fuppofing the Diftances, or Perpendicurs EF and EG to be equal; I will prove xer rhefame manner, that the Squares of EF id F A are equal to the Squares of E G and C and taking away the equal Squares of F and EG, there will remain the Squares of F and G equal. And therefore the Lines F and CG, and their Doubles AB and CD,

CD

;

C

e

equal.

K

;

PRO-

14^

The Elements of Euclid.

PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
The Diameter
in a Circle
;

XV.

\

is

and, of the

the greateft- of all Lines infcrifi is reft, that tbegreatejA

which

is

neareft the Centre.

Lines that can be draw in the Circle

THE

Diameter

AB
of
a

C

the greateft

GlDC:
it
is

for

Example,

gre£*
tl
1
1

than
Lines

CD; for draw EC and ED.
EC

fit

Demonftration. In the Triangle CED, the Sides and E are greater than alone, (by the 20. 1. ) b and EB, or AB, is equal to and EI

H
tit

CD

of,

AE

EC

therefore the Diameter

AB

is

I be more remc Secondly, Let the Line from the Centre than the Line CD; that is to fa Let the Perpendicular be greater than t is I fay, That C Perpendicular EF. great

G

greater than

C

1

b

EH

D

than

GI

:

Draw

the Lines

E C, and E G.
F E (by
the 47. 1

Demonstration.

The Squares of

CF and

are equal to the Square of

EC

:

But the Squa

the Third

Boot{.

H7

and the EC G H and EG E Therefore the Squares of C F and F E arc \ and HE; and of B[ual to the Squares from one Side the Square of HE, and •king i)m the other the Square of E F, which is r GF s than the Square of H E, the Square of G H. than the Square remain
J

of EG, is equal to the Squ*r to the Squares of equal |uare of
:

GH

|;

ill

greater

lerefore the Line

CF

will

be greater than the

ne
"

GH

;

and the whole Line

CF,

will

CD, the double be greater than GI, the double
The

GH.

USE.
life

of thefe two Propothat in a Sphere the fitions, to demonftrate, Circles are more remote from the CenlelTer tre. I have alfo made ufe of them in my Books
c

Theodofius

makes

of Ajtrolabes. To thefe Propofitions may likewife be referr'd that Mechanical Propofition of Arifiotle , by which he ftiows, that the Rowers at the middle of a Gaily have greater are at either the force, than thofe that thereof ; becaufe the or hinder fbre

part Sides of the Gaily being crooked, the Oars of the middle part are longer, i. e. reach farther than the
reft.

The Demonftrations

re-

do alfo fuppofe lating to the Iris, or Rainbow, the Truth of thefe Proportions .

K
#

4

PR°"

14$

Th Blemttft of

Euclid*

PROPOSITION
?;

XVI.

A Theorem,
drawn ferpendicularly nfon the Extremk the Diameter, falls wholly on the Outfide o 4 pf But any other Lin the Circle, and touches iu

'A Line

drawn betwixt
I

that

and

the Circle, enters within the Circle,

the Circumference Oj and cuts it<

Extremity of th« 1 fay ,Firft, That a! the other parts of the fame Line for Example, the Point C, fall 01 Draw the Line C $he Outfide of the Circle.
is

L' be drawn upon the which
_j

ET

the Perpendicular A 5 the Point A

piameter AB:

D

Dempnjiratio?}.

A( A C of the Triangle Since the Angle Am will be an Acute a right Angle, is will be greater thar {by the 19. 1. ) the Side reache Side DA; therefore the Line $he r €umference of the Circle. the beyond

DCA

D

D
:

DC

DC

add, That the Line CA touches the Circle becaufe that meeting with it at the Point A, does not cue it, but all its Points are on tht Outfide of the Circle.
I
ii

1 fay

aKo, that no pth,er Line car) be drawn

from

The Third Book.
from the Point cut the Circle.

149
does not

A below GA, which
If there could,

to be fuch an one ; a Perpendicular to

fuppofe and from the Point draw

EA

it,

D

D

I.

Demonfiration. Since the Angle DI A is a right Angle, and an Acute, will be the Angle A I greater than E) I : Therefore the Line I does not reach to the Circumference, but the Point I is within the Circle,

D

AD

D

The
'

USE.
ufe
this

Some

Philofophers

Propofition,

but altogether in vain, to prove that Quantity is not divifible in infinitum^ or that there
in the World fuch really are Ztnonical, i. e. abfolutely and in nature indivifeble Points. For the

things
their

as

own

Propofrion does not, as they would have if, pro^e, that a Circle touches a right Line in a Zenonical, but in a Mathematical Point, which is nothing c\Cq but a Quantity confider'd without Diitin&ion of Parts, that is to without
fay,

Quantity which being once ; eftabliuYd, our Circle will confift of fuch Points, and will be Mathematically perfe&r, provided it touch not a right Line, but in a
for a Mathematical Point
'

conceiving them diftinft and feparate one from the other, whether in Reality it has fuch Parts or not, making no Matter. We can therefore take any whatfoever

P ar t

1

50

The EtetnenU tf Eudid.

part equal to that quantity vhich we have raken for a Point. But if we afterwards take a Jefs part for our Mathematical Voint,

the Circle which was exa&iy perfect accordthe firft Supposition, will be imperfect in the fecond, and degenerate into a PoI lygene. believe, 'tis as impoflible to defcribe a Circle, that according to any Suping to

pofuion

perfect, as

whatfoever (hall be moft exactly it is to conceive the Je: ^offible

Quantity.

Secondly, Thofe Confluences , which fbme Men draw from this Propofition relating to the Angle of Cont&ti> which they take to be lefs than anv Rectilineal Angle, are grounded upon this Miftake, That they imagine an Angle to be a true Qjanary* ; the contrary of which may appear from hence, That
the Lines, that contain an Angle, being produced to any Length, the Angle becomes not at all the greater. Further, It ought to

4

be duly confider'd, what

we mean, when we

fay, that one Angle is greater than another ; for this is all we underftand, That a Circie be-

ing defcrib'd from the Point ot Concourfe at any Diftance whatfoever, the Lines of that we call the greater Angle will contain betwixt them a greater Arch of that Circle, than thofe of that we call the lefs; which is the fole meaning of the Excefs of one Angle above another. From whence I infer, that the An-

'gk

The Third Book.

M*
<

gle with a Reftilineal Angle, than a Superficies fame time both q<ial and a Line, being at the

of Conta& no more can be compar'J with

greater, and for Example

lefs
;

chan a P.edtilineal Angle. From he
j

As

Point

A draw

the Line

AD.
fay,

making with

AE

a Re&ilineal

n
lefs

is

Angle ; I both greater

and

qual to,

than, and e* the Angle of

Contact

For
divers

if

we
defcrib'd

fuppofe Poiut A, as the Centre,
fure thofe Angles ; it cording to the Arch

Circles

from
to

the

wheieby

mea-

is

the Angle of Point D, that is, the Contad: is greater than the Re&ilineal Angle.
1

drawn Arch F F,

evident that, acbeyond the

But,
;

on the contrary, according

to the

Arch

1

1

c

'

1

CB, the Reailineal Angle is the greater of And laftly, according to the Arch the two. DG, paffing through the Point in which cuts the Circumference, they are both From whence it follows, That the equal. of Contaft is at the fame time both Angle

AD
lefs

5
1

the

I

1

* •

and greater than, and equal to, Re&ilineal Angle: And confequently, they ought not at all to be compar'd togeIn a Word, Angles are no Quantities; ther. nor are they call'd lefs or greater one than
another, but

with

refpeft

to

the
*

Arches which

152
f

The Elements of Euclid.
:

*
c

*
*
*

which they contain So that all the Difputes about the Angle of Contact, and all the Paradoxes, conclude nothing either for or againft the Divifibility of Quantity ; an Angle being no Species, but only a Property
thereof.

PROPOSITION AProblem.
From a

XVII.

Point given, to draw a Line that touch a Circle,

may

TO
cle
its

draw a Line from the

Point

A

B D, draw

defcrib'd

Centre ; draw a Perpendicular B E, which may cut an Arch of a Circle, from the Centre C through the Point

touching the Cirto the Line A and at the Point B

C

A, at the Point E.

Draw

alfo the Lines

and A D.
Circle in

I fay,

The Line A

D

E C,

touches the

D.
Demonstration.

have the Triangles EBC and fame Angle C and the Sides C D and C B, CE and C A, equal ( by the Defin. of a Circle : )

The

ADC

;

And

therefote they are equal in
1.

all

Refpe&s,

( by the 4.

)

and the Angles

C BE

and

CDA
are

4

*

The7hirdBooht

X

153

.But. the. Angle _C B E is a right are equalA will be fb therefore the Angle Angle, will the 16. %.) the Line too, and ( by

CD

AD

touch the Circle.
-

-

1

1 54

The

EkpHMi of

Euclid.

PROPOSITION
A Theorem.

XIX.

If a Line perpendicular to the Tangent, be drawn from the Point of Contacl y it will faff through the Centre of the Circle.

DC be perpendicular to AB.
paflfes

LET

the Line

the

C rcle

I fee Fig. freced.'] at the Point D, and the Line
I fay,

AB

touch"

That

DC

through the Centre. For if it did not, drawing a Line from the Centre to the Point D, it would be perpendicular to AB, {by the f receding, )

culars

and Co there would be two Perpendidrawn to the fame Point of the fame

D

Line
1

mon
it is

CB, which cannot be. The USE. The life of Lines Tangents
in
;

is very comupon which account Trigonometry that I have made a Table, whereby to

meafure
rical as

all forts

of Triangles, as well SpheIn

Re&ilineal;

my

Optickt likewife

are divers Propofitions founded upon Tangents ; as when it is determin'd what part of a Globe is enlightenU The Phafes or Apparitions of

the

Moon

are eftabiifh'd alfo

tame Do&rine ; and that famous Problem of Hipparchus, by which he

upon

the

found the Diftance of the Sun, by the Diffei
*

rence

The Third Book,

155

rence of the true^and apparent Quadratures.
In Dialling, the Italian and Babylonian Hours are frequently defcril/d by Lines Tangents.

We take the Dimenfions of the Earth a Line that touches its Superficies ; and in by ithe Art of Navigation, take a Tangent Line
Laftly,
'

for our Horizon.

XMI

PROPOSITION A Thboum,
The Angle at the Centre
the Circumference,
its

XX.

is double the Angle at which has the fame Arcb for

Bafe.

at IF the Centre,

the Angle

ABC,

which

is

and the Angle

ADC, at the Circumference, have the fame Arch for their the firft will be double the Bafe,

AC

fecond. This Propofition has three
different

Cafes

:

The

firft

of which

the Line
the Line

the Line

A B D pafles through the Centre B, A B in one Triangle concurring with B D of the other.
Dernonftration.

is,

when

The Angle
32. i.J
it is

aped of the Triangle

an external Angle in reTherefore (by the and C, equal to both the Angles which
is

ABC

BDC:

D

I

$6

The. Elements of Euclid.

which being equal, (bythe$. j.) becaufe their" Sides BC and BD.are equal, rhe Angle ABCis

the double of either.

The Second Cafe

is,

When one
El er

Angle inclofes the other , but none of the Lines that form them concurr in one ; as you fee in the
Figure annexed. The Angle B I D at the Centre, ard the Angle at the Circumference, the Line A IC through the Centre.
is

BAD

Draw

Demonfiration. is double the Angle I and is double the ( by tfo Angle is : Therefore the Angle B I preceding Cafe ) double the Angle

The Angle

B1C

BAG
D

C D

CAD,

BAD.
is,

happens that nor do any of the Lines that form them, concurr in one. Which Cafe is wholly omitted by my Anic

The

third

neither

Cafe one Angle

When

inclofes rhe other,

tbor, but
plied.

for the Readers Satisfaction

is

here ftp-

U
I

Let the Angle at the Centre be BED, and the Angle at the Circumference

oi

'I

BCD,

having the

Draw

fame Arch for their Baft B D. I fay, the Angle BED is double the Angle BCD, the Line E G, and continue it to the
Demon*

Point A*

The Third Book^
Demonftration,

1

57

The Angle

AED
;

is

double the Angle A

C D,

( by the 1. Cafe

AEB

is

) and ( by the fame ) the Angle double the Angle Therefore the

ACB:
is

Remainder of che one mainder of the other BCD,
The
1

BED

double the Re-

US£.
is ordinarily proto defcribe an Horizontal

That Problem, which

pos'd, fnewing

how
fole

Dial by one
is

opening. of the Compafs ?

built

again,

And part on this Propofition. When we would determine the Apoin

g&um

of the Sun, or the Excentricicy of his by three Obferrations, we fuppofe the Angle at the Centre to be double that ac the Circumference. Ptolemy makes frequent life of this Propofirion, to determine both the Excentric Circle of the Sun, and the Epicycle of the Moon. The firft Propofition of the Third Book of Trigonometry is grounded sAfc
Circle,

upon

this here.

fe

PR&

158

The Elements of Euclid.

PROPOSITION
A Theorem.

XXI.

The Angles that are in the fame Segment of Circle^ or that have the fame Arch for then
Bafe, are equal.

IF

BDC ment of

the Angles B an< are in the fame Seg

AC

a Circle,

which

i

greater than a Semi-circle they will be equal. Draw th Lines B I and C I.
Demonfiraiion.

The Angles A and D are each of them th half of the Angle B I C, ( by the preceding,
therefore they are equal.

the fame Arch

BC

They have

likewi

for their Bafe.

Secondly, Let the Angles A and ] in the fame Segment BAD, whic is lefs than a Semi-circle wi ; they neverthefefs be equal.

be

Demonftration.
All the

equal to
{by the
r.

all

and

DEC

ai Angles of the Triangle the Angles of the Triangle Cor oil of the 32, 1.) but the Angles A E

ABE DEC

Angles

E C D and A B E

are equal, (by the 1 y. 1. ) Alfo tf are equal, ( by the pr cedk

The. Third Book,
in.

i$9

the fame Segment A ECO, ceMngCafcJ being than a Semicircle ; therefore the Aagreater are equal; which, the and
gles

BAE
at

EDC

Angles

( by the Corell.

equal, and confeqiiendy Lines AE and of the if. i. ) the £C, making but one right Line, as likewjfe and EB another, are the Angles A and D, in the fame Segment A BCD, and having the

E

being

DE
"
c

Arch B

C

for their Bafe.

The

US£.

c *

*
c

This Propofition is produced in Of ticks, to will appear of the prove, that the Line B C fame Greatnefs, when 'tis view'd from A, and D, becaufe it is feen in both Cafes under equal
Angles. * Trie fame Propofition
is

us d to defcribe

?

*

1

f
c

large Circles without having their Centres: for Example ; If we would make large CopBafbns of a Spherical Figure, fuch as we

per

4

*
c

'

might work upon in Poliihing Spe&acles, and GlafTes to fee at a great D<ftance. For equal having made in Iron an Angle to that which is Contair/d in the Segment ABC, and at the Points B and C ftrongly

!

BAG

*
i

faften'd

two

fmali Iron Pins
fo,

;

if

the Triangle

1
1

B AC be mov'd ways touch the

that the Side

5

1

Pin B, and the Pin C, the Point A will defcribe an Arch of This manner of Dethe Circle A B C D. a Circle may alfo be us'd in making fcribing great dfirolabes.

A B may alSide A C the

f

L

*

FRO-

1

60

The Elements of Euclid.

PROPOSITION
A Theorem.

XXII.

Quadrilateral Figures, infcrib'd in a Circle, have
their ofpcfite

Angles equal

to

two

right Angles.

gure, or a Figure of four Sides, be infcrib'd in a Circle, in fuch fort that all
its

L

ET

a Quadrilateral Fi-

the

Angles may terminate at Circumference of the

Circle
polite

A BCD

Angles BAD and BCD

: I fay, The opare equal to two

right Angles.

Draw

the Diagonals

AC, and B0.

Demonfiration. are ethe Angles of the Triangle qual to two right Angles. Inftead then of the Angle put the Angle A C D, which is equaf

AH

BAD

ABD

in the fame Segment Andiniteadof the Angle ADB, put the Angle ACB, which is in the fame Segment of the Circle B C D A Therefore the Angle BAD, and the Angles ACDandACB, that is to fay, the whole Angle BCD, are equal to two right Angles. The USE. ' makes life of this Propofitioti Ptolemy V to frame the Table of Chords, or Lines fub-

to

it

ABCD:

(by the 2 j.) being

:

4

tending

The Third Book?
tending Arches.
ray third
I

161
in

have alfb us'd the fame

Book of Trigonometry, to prove, that

the Sides of an Ob.tufe-Angle Triangle have the fame Proportion among themfelves as the
Sines of the Oppofire Angles.

PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
Two

XXIII.

9

Similar Segments of a Circle, defer 1 1?
the

d

uf.n

fame

Line, are equal.

Call

thofe

Similar
Circle,

which contain equal Angles ; and I fay, that if fuch be defer ib'd upon the fame Line AB, they will fall one upon the other, and not exceed each other in any Pare. For if either did exceed the other, as do the Segments ADB, and ACB, they would not be Similar: To demonftrate which, draw the Lines ADC, and BC. ments of a

I

Seg-

BD

Demonflration.

The Angle
the
1

ADB

is

refpea of the Triangle
6. i.)
it is

DBC:

an external Angle, in Therefore {by

greater than the Angle

^nd by confequence the Segments

ADB
I

ACB
fay,

;

and
is

ACB

conrain unequal Angles* which,

to be D'tjfimilar.

L

;

PRO-

1

62

The Elements of Euclid.

PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
Two

XXIV.

Similar Segments of a Circle dfcriVd upon equal Lines, are equal.

IFAEB andC
and the Lines
qual, the

the Segments of the Circles,

AB

F D, be limUar and C D ealfo will

Segments

be

equal.
Demonftrallon,
to be Suppofe the Line plac'd upon the Line A B, being fuppos'd to be equal, they will not exc^d each other; and then the Segments AEB and C F will be de-

CD

D

icrib'd

upon

the
the

fame Line, and therefore
preceding.)

will

be equal, (by

The

USE.

Crooked Figures are frequently redue'd to \ As for ExRe&ilineals by this Propofuion. If two Similar Segment? ample of a Circle A E C and A D B, be
;

defcrib'd
c ',

upon A B and A C,
that,

the

equal Sides of the Triangle
'tis

ABC
A DB
Figun

evident,
is

tranfpofing

the
the Triangle

ABC

Segment A

EC

unto

AD8CEA,

equal to the

PRO,

The Third

BooJ{.

1

6%

PROPOSITION
A Problem.
ccmpleat a Circle of which

XXV.

we have

but a Fart.

the Arch

ABC

HAvjng given,
:

to compleat the

find its Cenwhich end, draw the ,ines A B and B C, which haing divided in the Middles at he Points E and D, draw their two PerpendiI ulars E I and which will meet at the 'oint I, the Centre of the Circle.

jrcle
1

we muft

:

to

D

;

Demonftration.

The Centre
fthe
ore
'

is

in the

Line

D

I,

(by

the CorolL

i,

it

EI, ( by the fame) theremuft be at the Point I.
)
it

is

affo in

S El The This Proportion occurs very frequently ; but (bmetimes it is exprefs'd in other Terms
or
to
:

U

:

As to inferibe a Triangle
defcribe a

in a Circle;

Circle three Points githrough ven, provided they be not a right Line. in plac'd

Lee

the

Points

propos'd
pla-

be A, B, and

C; and

cing the Foot of the

ComL 4

'****'
i

pafs

164

The Elements of Euclid.

defcribe two Arches F pafs at the Point and E, at any Diftance whatfoever. Ther

Q

remove the Foot of the Compafs to the Poiqt B, and at the fame Diftance defcribe twc
other Arches cutting the former in E anc F; alfo from the Point B, as the Centre defcribe at any Diftance the Arches anc H, and at the fame Diftance from the Cen-

G

tre A two other Arches cutting them in G and H. Which done, draw the Lines through F and E, G and H, which (hall cut each

the Point D, the Centre of th< The Demonftration is obvious e for if you had drawn the Lines A I nough and BC, you had, by this Operation, divided them equally and perpendicularly. Thi;
Circle.
;

other at

Propofition
fcribe

is

exceeding

neceflary

to

de<

Aftrclabes,
in

which we have
pofition to find

Circles, ol but three Points. That Pro.

and compleat

the
this.
it

Afironomy^ which teaches how the -Jpogaum, and Excentricity oi Circle of the Sun, virtually contains

And

I alfo

have made frequent Ufe

oi

in

my

Treatife concerning the cutting oj

Stones,

pro;

The Third Book,

165

PROPOSITION
A Theorem.

XXVI.

whether at the Centres, or the CirEqual Angles, Circles y have equal Arches cumferences of equal

for their Bafes.
the Angles

D and
;

I,

at the

IF
BC
For
or

Centres of equal Cicles

ABC,

and EFG, be equal
and
if lefs

the Arches

FG

will

be

equal.

the Arch

BG

than

was greater the Arch FG,
are meafur'd

fince the Angles

by Arches, the Angle
be
greater
I.

D

would
the

or

lefs

than

Angle But

if

the equal Angles be

fuppos'd to be at the Circnmfe* rences of equal Circles, as A and E ; the Angles which they inclofe at the Centres, as

D and

I,

being their Doubles, will be likewife

equal, and confequently require equal Arches
for their Bafes,

BC,

are likewife

the

and FG; which Arches Meafures of the Angles A

and E.

PRO-

l 66

The Elements of Euclid.

PROPOSITION
A Theorem.

XXVIL

Angles, whether at the Centres or Circumferences

of equal

Circles,

having equal Arches for

their

Bafes, are alfo equal,

and I (Fig. preceJ.) at the of equal Circles have equal Arches Centres for their Bifes, they will be ebC and a*e" and becatife their Meafures qual, And if the Angles A and E, at the equal. Circumferences of equal Circles, have equal Arches B C and F G for their Bafes, fmce the. Angles they inclofe at the Centres will be equals they alfo that are the Halves of thofe Angles
the

IF

Anpes

D

FG

BC

FG

(by

the

io.)

will be equal.

PROPOSITION
Equal Lines, within equal
equal Arches.

XXVHI.

A Theorem.
Circles,

anfwer

to
j

F the eqjal and EF be ap.

I

Lines
to

BG
and

C

Er

J?

plied

equal

Circles,

ABC,

The Third Book*
id

167

DEF,
B

rches,

they will be the Chords of equal Draw the Lines A B, C, and E F.

D,

DE/DF.
Demonfir ation.

the Sides are equal, being le Semi-diameters of equal Circles; and their afes BC and E F are fuppos'd ecual ; therefore the 8. 1.) the Angles A and wiil be by equal ;

In the Triangles

ABC
and

and

Band AC,

DE

DEF,

DF,

D

nd (by the 26.) the Arches e alio equal.

BC

and

EF

will

PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
Lines

XXIX.

that fubtend equal Arches Circles are equal,

of equal

BC and EF (feeFig.preced. Prop.) [ fubtend (or are the Chords or ) equal Arches the
TF the Lines
Circles, they will be equal, DemGnfiration. The Arches B and E F are equal, and Parts rf equal Circles ; therefore ( by the 27. ) the
I

C and E F in equal

C

Angles

:he Triangles

A and D will be equal: Therefore in A B C, D E F, the Sides A B, A C,

D
'

E,

and

D F,

being equal, as alio the Angles

h and

D;

the Bates

BC, EF,

will

be equal,

by the 4. 1. )

The
*

USE.
'

Theodojius,

by

the 28 and 29, demonflrates,
that

1 68
'

7he

Elements of Euclid.
Iff

that the Arches of the Circles of the Italia

1

*

<
1

and Babylonian Hours, contained betweei We have alfo de two Parallels, are equal. monftrated after the fame manner, that th«
Arches of the Circles of the Afironomica Hours, contain'd between two Lines parallc to the Equator, are likewife equal. Thefe Pre are almoft of continual life in Sphe pofitions
rical Trigonometry*

*
*

* *

and

alfo in Dialling.
II

-

PROPOSITION
A

k

XXX.

Problem.
t

To divide an Arch of a

Circle into

two equal

Part.

ife

K

the Arch

AEB

to be SUppofe divided into qual Parts ; place the Foot o the Compafs at the Point A, am defcribe two Arches F and then removing it to the Point E at the fame Diftance defcrib other two Arches, cutting the former in F am F will cut the Arch A B equal the Line ; Draw the Line A B. ly at the Point E.

wa two c

Q

G

G

G

iw

n
it

Demonftration.

By this Operation we have divided the Lira A B into two equal Parts. For fuppofe the«
were
k

The Third Book.
'ere

169
;

drawn the Lines A F, B F ; AG, and B G
I

which

have not done,

left

the Figure fhould

ppear confus'd, ) the Triangles

F

GA

and

GB

would have
by the
8. 1. )

all tkeir

>re (

ould be equal.
id
ides

DFB

A F D and B F D The Triangles D F A Again,
the Angles

Sides equal; there-

A F and B F
:

DFB equal Therefore {by the 4. i.J the ifes A D and B D are equal, and alfo the We have therefore ngles A D F and B D F.
id

have the Side F common, the FA equal, and the Angles

D

D

A B equally, and perpendicuat the Point Therefore (by the 1.) rly e Centre of the Circle is in the Line F G. Supvided the Line

D:

)fe it

CA and CB; all the Sides of the Triane9 A C D and B C D are equal therefore ( by
;nes
;

then to be the Point C, and draw the

) the Angles id {by the 26. ) the
t.
1

«8,

ACD

and BCD are equal, Arches AE and EB.

The

USE.

Having frequent Occafion to divide art Arch into two equal Parts, the Exercife of this *Tis Propofition is very common. thus that we divide the Mariners Compafs
into

%i Winds: For having drawn two Dia-

ameters cutting each other at right Angles, we divide the Circle in four Parts ; and fub* dividing each Quarter in the Middle, we have
sight Parrs;
:wice,
sion

and again,
32.

we make

We

fubdividing

thofe

have
in

alfo

Occa-

for the

fame Operation

the dividing c a Semi-

170
'

The Ekmettts of Euclid.

'
1

a Semi-circle into 180 Degrees ; and, becaui to compleat that Diviiion we are oblig'd t divide an Arch into three equal Parts, a
Geometricians have fought afcer a Method c doing that Geometrically, but have not y<
'

c *

*

been

To

happy

as to find one.

PROPOSITION

XXXI.

A Theorem.
The Angle in a Semi circle is a right Angle th* which is in a Segment greater than a Sen circle is an Acute ; and that which is in a lejj Segment is an Qbtufe,
;

IFSemi-circle,
it

the Angle

BAC
I vyill

be

in

prove th

a right Angle. A. Line
is

Draw

i

D

Demonfiration.

being an external Angle AC, is equal to bo regard of the Triangle A C and C A (by the 32. 1 the Internals and thofe being equal (by the $\ 1. ) becaufe fl are equal, it will be dout and Sides

The Angle

ADB

D

D D

DA
is

the Angle

ADC
the

DC D A C.

In like

manner the Ang

double the Angle

DAB:

Therefo

two Angles equal to two
1

ADB

and

ADC,

right Angles,

which a are double tl whc

The Third Book,
whole Angle
gle

*7*

BAC,

and confequently the An-

BAC

is

a right Angle.

is in the Secondly, The Angle A EC, which lefs than a Semi- circle, is an A Segment For in the Quadrilateral Figure Obtufe Angle. the two oppofite Angles E and B are ABCE,

EC

equal to
the

two
is

right Angles,

{by

the

22.) but

Angle B

an Acute; therefore the Angle

E

[will

be an Obtufe.

-/Thirdly,

ment
Acute
gle

ABC
;

B, which is in the Seggreater than a Semi-circle, is an becaufe in the Triangle ABC, the An-

The Angle

BAC

is

a right Aogle.

.

The
1

US
life

E.

Mechanicks make

of

this
:

Proportion to try if their Squares be juft ; for having

1

defcribtta Semi-circle

1

they Jay
'
i

down

the Point

BAD, A of

their

upon the Square and one of its Sides A B upon Circumference, the Point of the Diameter B ; and then the other Branch ought to pafc precifely the Point D, which is the other Exthrough treme of the Diameter.

BAD

AD

Ptolemy ufes this Propofition to compofe> his Table of Chords or Subtendents, of which he has occafion in his Trigonometry. ' There is alfo a Method of railing a Per4

*

pendicular

*

t

ijl
c
1

The Elements of Euclid.

e c
'

pendicular at the end of a Line, grounded For Example ; Tc upon this Propofkion. raife a Perpendicular at the Point A of the Line A B, I place the Foot of the fcompafi

upon the Point
fcribe a Circle

1
1

taken any-where, and dethrough the Point A, cutting

C

the Line

AB
is

at the Point 6.

Then

I

drav

c
1

the Line

Line

AD

BCD;

and

fo 'tis evidenr, that th<

in a Semi-circle.

PROPOSITION
A Theorem. A

XXXII.

||

Line cutting a Circle at the Point of Contact :: makes, with the Tangent, Angles equal to thoj I in the alternate Segments,

L

ET
is

the Line
at

Circles

which

cut th the Point B that where the Lin

BD

A B touches ir. I fay, The Angl C BD, made by the Line B E
and the Tangent ABC, is equj to the Attgle F in the alternate Segment B is equal to the Angl and that the Angle A E in the Segment B E.

FD

BD

D

Firft, If the Line pafs through the Centn as the Line BE, it will make, with the Tar

genr,

two

right Angles,

Angles of the
i

Serni-circles

(by the 18. ) and th would be alfo rigli
Angle

the Third

Book,.

173

Angles, (by the preceding-,) therefore in this Cafe the Propofition would be true. But if the Line do not pafs through the Centre, as B ;

D

draw the Line B
join the

E

Line

D E.

through the Centre,

and

Demonftration.

The Line
right

Angles;

angle
\be

BDE
C
and

makes with the Tangent two and all the Angles of the Triare equal to two right Angles, (by
and

BE

%2. 1. )

therefore

Angles
wircle,

BE,

D

taking

away
is

the right

which
Angle

in

the

Sem>
is

likewife the

EBD

which

pmmon
\K

B

D

to both, there will remain the Angle equal to the Angle E.

I

*Vngle

is equal to the B Again, The Angle F ; becaufe in the Quadrilateral Figure BFDE, which is infcrib'd in a Circle, the op-

C D

>ofire

Angles

E and F

are equal to

two

\ngles,

ZB

D

and the 2i. ) but the Angles are alfo equal to two right Angles, ( by (by

ABD

right

he 13.

u) and

the Angles

ABD

and
;

£

are

1 :qual, as I have he Angles C B

now demonftrated
and

therefore

D

F

are equaL

I
c
I

The
this Propofition

USE.
is

neceflary to prove that

which follows,

M

PRO

§74

The Elements of Euclid.

PROPOSITION
A Probl
Upon a Line given,
E M.

XXXIII.

to defer the a Segment' Circle capable of an Angle given*
it

of

LET
cle

be propos'd to de-

Segment of a Cirupon the Line A B capable

fcribe a

of the Angle C.

draw AE perpendicular to AD make alfo the Angle A B F equal to B A F And in fine, from the Point B F and AE concur, at the diftance B
;
:

BAD equal to the Angle C, and

Make the Angle

the Ang! F, whet F, or Fi
is

defcribe a Circle.

The Segment

BEA
C.

cap*

ble of an Angle equal to the Angle

Lines FA and FB are equal, (by the 6. j.) an the Circle, which is defcrib'd from the Centi A. F, by A, pafles by B: Now the Angle a right Angle, the Line touches th te<ng Circle in A, ( by the 16. ) therefore the Angl contained in the Segment BE A, as the Angl

The Angles B

Demonft ration. AF and ABF being equal,

th

DA

D

JE,

that is, th equal to the Angle Angle C, ( by the preceding,) But if the Angl given be an Obcufe, we muft take an Acute It Complement to 180 Degrees,
is

DAB;

PRO

The Third Book?

m
XXXIV.
from
it

PROPOSITION
A Problem*
A

Circle being given, to cut a Segment capable of a certain Angle.

cut a Segment of the B C E capable of the Angle A, draw (by the 17.)

TO

Circle

the

Tangent

the Angle

DBC
'Tis

BD, and make
equal to the
evident

Angle A.
the

(by

32. ) that the an angle equal to
the Angle A.

Segment

BEC

is

capable of

DBC,
The

and .consequently to

USE.
of
this

c

I

have made

life

Proportion to
of the
his

find

Geometrically

the

Excentricity

Annual Circle ot the Sun, and
likewife in Opticks, to find

Apogaum,
'Tis ufcd

having three Obfervations given.

a Point where two

unequal Lines proposed, may appear equal, or under equal Angles, by making upon each Line Segments which will contain equal An*
gles«

M

*

PRO

176

The Elements of Euclid-

PROPOSITION
A Theorem.

XXXV.

If two Lines cut each other within a Circle, the ReBangle contained under the Tarts of one, is d under the Tarts equal to the Rectangle contain

of

the other,

If the

Flrft, Centre, they

two Lines cut each other in the will be both equal, and both

equally divided ; fo that in this Cafe it is evident, the Re&angle contain'd under the Parts,

of one, will be equal to the Re&angle contain'cf under the Parts of the other. Secondly, If one of the Lines pafs through the Centre F, as

Line

BD

AC, and
into

divide the

two equal Parts

at the

Point

E

:

I

fay,

The

Re&angle contain'd under A E and EC is equal to the Rectcontained under BE and E D, that is to angle The Line AC is perfay, to the Square of BE. f pendicular to B D, ( hj the 3. )
Demonfiration. Since the Line A is divided equally in F, and unequally in E, the Reftangle contain'd unde A E, and E with the Square of F E,

:

C

C

Q

.

is

The Third Book*
is

177

equal to the Square of FC, or FB, (by the f. 2.) the. Angle E being a right Angle, the Square of FB rs equal to the Squares of BE and

Now
FE;

Re&angle under A E, EC, F E, is equal to the Squares BE and FE; and taking away the Square of EF, there remains the Re&angle under AE, EC, equal to the Square of B E.
therefore the

with the Square of

Thirdly, Let the Line pafs through the Centre F, and divide the Line

CD

into unequal

Parts at the Point

E

:.

Draw
and and

GD

perpendicular to ( by the 3. ) the Lines will be equal.

FG

CD, CG

Demonftration. Since the Line A B is divided equally in F, and unequally in E, the Re&angle contain'd

under AE, EB, with the Square of EF,

is

equal

to the Square of F B, or F C, ( by the <f. 2. ) Inftead of the Square of EF, put the Squares

of
47.

FG

and

G E,

which are equal to

it,

(by the

1. )

being divided the Re&; E, ED, with the Square of E, ngle under equal to the Square of GC. Add the Square of F ; the Redangle under C E, ED, with the Squares of E and F, will be equal to
In like

^ually in

manner the Line C G, and unequally

D

in

E

C

G

5

G

G

the Squares of
( by the

CG

and

G G F,

that

is

47.

1.

) to the Square of F

C

to fay,

Therefore

in 3

178
fore the

The Element* of Euclid.
Redangle under A

I

Squares of angle under

LG and G F,
C E, ED,

B, with the to the Redequal with the fame Squares :

E,

E

is

And

confequently taking

away

the fame Squares
B, will be

from hoth, the Re&angle

A E, E

equal to the Reftangle CE f E D. and HI cut each Fourthly, If the Lines other in E, neither of the two palling through the Centre: I fay, The Re&angle CE, For to the Re&angle HE, EL is equal

CD

}

ED

drawing the Line A F B, it is plain the Reck angles CE, ED, and HE, E I, are both e
qual to the Re&angle
ing Cafe ; ) themfelves.

A E, EB, ( by the frece therefore they are equal betwix?
[

The
c

USE.

We are taught by this Propofition a Method of finding a fourth Proportional tc three Lines given, or a third Proportional tc two,

1

I.

PRO

The Third

Bool{.

179


PROPOSITION
XXXVI,

A Theorem.
he from a Point taken without the Circle a Line irawn to touchy and another to cut. the Circle :

the Square of the Tangent will be equal to and Retlangle contain d under the whole Secant,
the

the external Line,

lUppofe the Line
I

AB
B

to be

the Point A, ten without the Circle, to

drawn from

uch the Circle
e Line
;

in

;

and

AC,

or

AH

The S ^uare of AB

cutting will be

ir/d
.0

ual to the Rectangle conunder and AO, as

AC

and contained under A the Secant pafs through the Centre, as C, draw the Line LB.
to the
If

Redan gle

H

F.

Demcnflration,

Since the Line is divided in the mrdLe at the Point E, and the Line A added and !>it; the Reel: ingle containM under C, with the Square of OE, or E B, will be

OC

O

AO

lual to the Square of A E, {by the 6. 2. ) low the Line AB is fjppos'd to touch the Itrcle at the Point B: Therefore ( by the 18. )

M

4

the

j8p
the Angle

The Elements of Eudid*

B is a right Angle, and (by the 47, the Square of A is equal to the Squares 1, j of E B and A {3 ; therefore the Re&angle under

E

AG

and AO, with the Square of EB, is equal to the Squares of E B and A B : And taking away the Square of E B from both, the Redwill be equal to the Square angle under AC,

AO

of

A

B.

not Suppofe the Secant pafs through the Centre ; and draw the Lin EG perpendicular to FH, which will divide iri|s the Middle the Line F at the Point Qj dra alfo the Line E F>
Secondly,

AH

4

H

The Line F

Point G, and the Rectangle contain'd under AH, A F, witfe the Square of FG, will be equal to the Square of AG. Add to both the Square of E the ; under AH, A F, with the Squares oi Re&angle and GE, that is, (by the 47. 1.) the Square of F E, or E B, will be equal to the Squares oi^ f and GE, that is, (by the 47. 1. ) the Square^ of AE. Further, The Square of AE (by thi fame) is equal to the Squares of EB and A B ; lij Therefore the Rectangle contain'd under A H, A F, with the Square of B E, is equal to the
;

Demonftration. being divided equally at th the Line A F being added to it

H

G

FG
AG

F:

Squares of B E and A B : and taking away the Square of BE from both, the Re&angle contain'd under AH, will be equal to the Square of A B, Cord,

AF

The Third Book,
CoroU. 1. If

181

fame Point, as
under

and AO, and A F, will be A betwixt themfelves, fince they are both equal equal to the Square of A B,
CoroU. 2. If
the

C

you draw clivers Secants from the A G and A H, the Rectangles

AH

you draw two Tangents from

fame Point, as

A B, A I,

they

will

be equal

;

becaufe the Squares wilf be equal to the fame and A O, and confeRedangle under guentlv betwixt themfelves; as alfb the Lines

AC

IB, A I.
vr

m m
,

PROPOSITION
ATheorbm,
\\f

XXXVII.

the Reft angle contained under the Secant

and

the External Line be equal to the Square of a Line that falls upon the Circle^ that Line will touch the Circle.

tUppofe the Secant to be
the Redangle

A C, A O

;

AC, or A H, and or A H, A F, (fee
the

%.
jLine

freced. ) to

AB;

be equal to the Square of the the Line A B will touch the Circle.

Oraw

the Tangent

A I,

(by

17.) and the

tine IE,
Demonfiration. Since the Line A I touches the Circle, the Wangle AC, A O; or AH, A F, will be equal to

I 82

The. Elements of Euclid,

to the Square of A I. But the Square of A B is fuppos'd to be to either of thofe Redequal angles ; therefore the Squares of A I and A B are equal, and confequently the Lines A I and

Therefore the Triangles A B E and A I E, hiving all Sides equal, will be equiangular, (by the S. i.) and becaufe the Angle AIE
B.
is

A

a right Angle ( by the' 1 8. ) the Line A I be- __ will be a ing a Tangent, the Angle a right Angle, and the Line

ABE

AB

J
I

Tangent, {by

the 16.)

The
e

USE.
I

Maurylochus makes ufe of this Propofirion to find the Diameter of the Earth. For obfrom the Top oi a Mountain A, the ferving Superficies of the Earth by the Line B A, he takes notice of the Angle made by the

O

.

OAB,

Line

and a Perpendicular A C And by Trigonometry calculates the Length of the Line A B. Then multiplying A B by A B to have its Square, he divides the Product by A O the Height of the Mountain, which gives the Quotient A C, the Diameter of the Earth, with the Height of the Mountain; from which having fubdu&ed AO, there will remain the Diameter of the Earth. This

AB

:

(

OC

Propofition ferves alfo to prove the
third

fifth

of the

Book of Trigonometry.

THE
s

C

* 8?

"J

THE
3

Fourth Book
OF THE

Elements of

EV CLIT>.
is

Fourth Book

exceeding ufe-

a Circle, we fcribing Polygons learn the Methods of Compofing the Tables of Subtendents, Tangents, and Secants; a Practice mod neceflary for taking all forts of Dimenfions,
in
c

THIS
Again,

ful

in

Trigonometry.

For by

in-

we

find

which

infcribing Polygons in a Circle, divers Afpetts of the Stars, alfo take their Names from thofe Po-

By

the

lygons. ' Thirdly,
ful.

Quadrature of the

The fame Operations give us the Circle, as exad as is needAnd by them we alfb demonftrate, that

Circles are in the duplicate Proportion of that

of their Diameters.
4

Fourthly,

Military

Architecture
'

does
ire-

184
c
e
c

The Elements if Euclid.

frequently require to infcribe Polygons in ;l Circle, tocompofe the Defigns and Platform I I of regular Fortifications.

jr.

DEFINITIONS.
(cribi'din a Circle, or Circle is defcrib'd about i

A

Re&ilineal Figure

is

ir|

when
Circle.

ail

]ts

Angles -sre'

11

the Circumference of the fa m'

< <

As the Triangle ABC is defcrib'd if) a Cii is inferib'd about the Tf cle, and the Circle becaufe its Angles A, B, and Cy do a angle;
1

<
< «
<

The Tr terminate at the Circumference. is not infcrib'd in the Circle, bi angle DEF caufe the Angle I>does not terminate at !r. Circumference of the Circle.
2.

A ReS'ilmea! Figure
and

is

inferib'd

about

Circle,
-

>N>

J^—y
\0

a Circle defcrib'd within that Fj gure, when all the Sides of th
.

R-

Figure touch the Circumfi ' As th rence of the Circle.
*

c

I is defcrib' Triangle about the Circle KLM, be 1 caufe its Sides touch the Cii cumference of the Circle in K, L, and M. A Line is apply'd to, or inferib'd in 3.

K

GH

-v

c

|

Circle

The Fourth Book?
Circle,

185

when its two Extreams touch the Cir* O. As the Line umference of the Circle, in the is not infcrib'd But the Line

N

RP

Circle.

PROPOSITION
•A
injcribe in

I.

Problem.

a Circle a Line, that does not exceed its Diameter.

'

ET
A

__/ to
ircle
5

a Line be propos'd be infcrib'd in the EB D, not exceeding

Diameter. Take the length the Line propos'd upon the 'ameter; for Example, Let e BC. Place the Foot of the Compafsupon e Point B, and defcribe a Circle at the Diof BC, which may cut the Circle AEBD jince and E. Then draw the Line BD, or BE.
;

D

is

tion

evident they are equal to of a Circle. )

BC, (by

the Defi-

The

USE.

r

'This Propofition is neceflfary for the Perormance of what is required in the following,

PRO

i8<5

The Elements of Euclid.

PROPOSITION
A Problem.
To
infer ibe in

III.

a Circle a Triangle equiangular n
another Triangle.

L
is

ET the Circle be
in

EGH ABC FED

which a Triangk

to be inferib'd, equian gular to the Triangle

the Tangent the 17. 3.) and at the Point of Contad I (by make the Angle E equal to the Angle B and the Angle F E equal to the Angle C, (b

Draw

D H
G

the 25. 1.

angle

EGH

ABC.

the Tri ) and draw the Line G ; will be equiangular to the Triangle

H

Demonflration.

and confequently the Angles B and G ar< equal. By the fame reafon the Angles C and F
are alfo equal 3 and (by CoroU. 2. of the ;2. 1.; the Angles A and E will be equal. There
fore the Triangles

E is equal to the Angl< the alternate Segment, (by the $2. ^\ But the Angle E is equal to the Angle B

EGH of

The Angle

D H

D H

G H EGH

and

ABC

are equi

angular.
*

*

PRO

Tfo Fourth Book*

187

PROPOSITION
A Problem.
To
defcribe

HI.

a Triangle about a

Circle,

Equiangular

to another Triangle*

defcribe a TriIF

you would

angle Equiangular to the Triangle

ABC

about

the Circle

GKH.

Continue one of the Sides of the Triangle given and F, and make the Angle G I B C to to the Angle ABD, and equal equal to

D

HIK

H

the

Angle ACF: Then draw the LGM, LKN, and NHM, through

Tangents
the Points

G, K, and H.

Thefe Tangents will concur ; becaufe the Angles I L and I L being right G, the ngles, if you (hould draw a Line

K

G

and would be lefs than two Angles Therefore the Lines and right Angles: muft concur, ( by the ir. Axiom. )

KGL

GKL

K

GL

KL

Demonfiration.
All the Angles of the Quadrilateral
ire

G IHM

equal

to

four

be divided and Angles
lay

IGM

right Angles, becaufe it into two Triangles. The

IHM,

which are made by
the

1 88

the Bementi of Euclid,

the Tangents are right Angles ; therefore th<| and I are equal to two right Angles Angles as are alfo the -Angles A B C, and A B D. Bu is i the Angle equal to the Angle A B will be equal to the An therefore the Angle ABC. By the fame reafon the Angle Arigle

M

i

G H

M

D

N and

A

angles

LMN

CB

are equal, and therefore the Tri are equiangular. and

ABC

mm

PROPOSITION
A Problem.
To mfcribe a
Circle in

IV*

h

k
k

a Triangle*
infer i be a Cir

IF
D

you would

clein the Triangle divide the Angles

ABC
am
If

ABC
Parts,

(V drawing the Line B and C D, which will con cur at the Point D. This done, from the Poin G F, and draw the Perpendiculars E,
the 9. 1.)

ACB

into

two equal

D

D

D

D

to

which will be equal ; fo that a Circle from the Centre D, at the Diftance F and G. pals through
Demonfiration.

defcrib'c

D E,

D:

wil

4

DEB and DFB have the both right Angles D EB and D F B equal, being The Angles DBE and DBF are Angles:
The
Triangles
!

N
ft

alfo

equal

The Fourth Booh
.equal, the
"

189

Angle

ABC

K|mto

two equal Parts *
be equal in

having been divided and the Side DB is

common:
les will
f'ides

therefore (hyjbe bstti) theTrian-

all Refpects, and the and DF will be equal. After the Ufame manner might I demonstrate the Sides DF and DG to be equal. 'tis polKbfe thereFore to defcribe a which {fall pafs Circle, the Points E, F, and G h and becaufe through the Angles E, F, and G are right Angles, the Sides AB, AC, and BC will touch the Circle, which by confequence is iiifcrib'd ira

DE

he Triangle.
1 1

ill

PROPOSITION
A PROBLEM.
To
defcribe

V.

a

Circle about a

TfiamUi

Fyoii would
It'll

defcribe a Cir-

cle about the

livide the Sides
:6

AB and BC

Triangle

ABC,
in-

two equal Parts, at the Points b D and E, drawing the PerpenDF and EF, which will concur at the diculars Point F. Which done, if you defcribe a Circle from the Center F at the Diftance FB, if Ni\\ pafs through A and C 5 that is to fay, the Lines FA, FB, and FC are equal.
Deihojiftration.

The

Triangles

ADF

and

N

BDF
.

have the
Sidg

The Elements of Euclid. Side DF common, and the Sides AD and
icjo the Side having been equal, and the Angles at 5 qually in

DB
e*

AB

divided

D

D

are equal,

being right Angles. Therefore (by the 4. 1.) the Bafes AF anc^ BF are equal-, as alfo the
Bafes
*
* c

BF and CF
The USE. have frequent Occafion to infcribe
a,

I

Triangle in a Circle*, as, for Inftance, in the third Book of Tr$ firft Proportion of

my

*

gonometry.
c
<

This Performance alfo is neceC for meafuring the Area of a Triangle fary and upon many other Occafions.

PROPOSITION A PROBLEM.
Jo
infcribe

VI.

a Square in a Circle.
infcribe a Square in th Circle ACBD, draw th

1
let
lltl

TO
the Lines

FG.i

lar to it

Diameter AB, and perpendici the Line DC paffin: IV through the Center E then drat
-,

AC, CB, BD, DA, and you
Demonfration.

wi]

v.

have

infcrib'd in the Circle the Square

ACBI
QJs

%

The Triangles AEC and C£B have

the:

Sides equal, and the Angles

AEC and CEB
qua.

Hoe fourth Booh
being both qual, their Bafes AC and
c

i9±
therefore

right Angles: are equal, (by the 4. and are i ) Further, becaufe the Sides and will be equal % the Angles equal, and the Angle E being a right Angle* they

CB

EAC

AE ECA
is

EG

will be
therefore

half-right

Angles,

(by the

32. 1.)

half a right and confequently the Angle ACB will Angle, be a right Angle. And the fame Reafon holds is for all the reft therefore the Figure
the

Angle

ECB

:

ACBD

a Square.

PROPOSITION
A
To

VII.

PROBLEM.
1

defcribs a Sqitai'e about a Circle ,

dra wxu+he two Dia-

HAving AB and CD, meters

which

cut each other perpendicularly at the Center E, draw the Tangents

FG,GR HI, and IF,by the Points
A, D, B, C, and you
Square
will have defcrib'd
tfca

FGHI about

the Circle

ACBD.

The Angles E and
therefore^

CD are Parallels,
prove, that

Demovjlration. are right Angles, and tbeij. %-) the Lines

A

FG

After the fame

AB

may

CD

manner I and HI, FI and AB,
Therefore the
2

and

GH,

are Parallels.

V

Figure

1

92

The Elements of

fiuclid .

Figure

FCEGis

34. 1 J the Lines alfo the Lines

a Parallelogram, and {by tbt are equal, as FG and

CD

CD and IH,

FI and AB,

AB

GH^ andconftquently the Sides of. the Figure FG and HI are equal. Further, fince the Lines FG and CD are paiallels, and the Angle CDGisa right Angle, the Angle G will
alfo be a right Angle (by the 29. 1.) After the fame manner I may demonftrate the Angles F, H, and I, to be right Angles. Therefore the

and

Figure FGHI

is

a Square, whofe Sides touch

the Circle.

*m

PROPOSITION
A PROBLEM.
To

VIIL

ivjcribe a Circle in a Square,

JF FGHI,
FG,GH,
which

yod would

infcribe a Circle in the Square [fee Fig. preced.J divide the Sides HI, IF, in the Middle at the Points

A, D, B, C, and draw

the Lines

AB

and CD,
I

may cut each

other at the Point F.

EA, ED, EB, and EC are equal, and the Angles A, D, B, C, right Angles and that therefore you may defcribe a Circle from the Center E, which will pafi through A. D, B, and G ? and touch the Sides of the Square FGHt
demonftrate that the Lines
:

The Fourth Book.
DemoTiftration.

193

Lines

AB and GH do conjoyn. the and BH, which are parallel and equal, they alfo will be parallel and equal
Since the Lines

AG

:

therefore the Figure

and the Lines

equal.

Further, AG and CD being parallel, and the Angle G a right Angle, the Angle D
fo

and and equal .and being equal, 3 will be equal alio. Tis after the fame manner that the Lines AE, EC, EB, are proved

AG

AGDEisa Parallelogram ^ AE and GD, AG and ED are

GD

AE

ED

Therefore the Circle the Center E which will pafs through the Points A, D, B,G* * and touch the Sides of the Square.
likewife.

will be

ADBC may be defcrib'd from

PROPOSITION
A PROBLEM.
ire

IX,

le

To

defcribe a Circle about a Square.

i

iJfTpO defcribe a Circle about the Square X ACBD, [fee Fig. in Prop. 6 .] draw the Diagonals AB and CD, which will cut each oPoint E h the Point E will be the jCenter of the Circle, which will pafs through Points A, C, B, D. It ought therefore to [ithe be demonftrated, that the Lines AE, EB, CE,
jther at the

|and

ED are equal,

N

^

Di

194

W
Sides

e

Ekments of

Euclid.

The

Angles. C is

feACandABC
the Angles

Demonjtratiov. are equal, and the a right Angle ^ therefore the Angles

AC and CB

are equal,

(by the j. i.)

and
that
are

half-right Angles, (by the 32. 1.) After the fame manner I demonftrate,

ACD, ADC, BDQand BCD,

half-right Angles. Therefore the Triangle

AEC

having the Angles EAC and ECA half-right Angles, and confequently equal, will have
r

k\£o.(by the 6. l.) its Sides

AE arid EC

equal.

The fame may
EB, EB,
equal.

be prov'd of the Lines
that they

EC

and

and ED,

likewife are

lie
'

USE.

<

c

t
«
4.

We fhow in the 1 2th Book, that Polygons infcribd in a Circle, degenerate into Circles-, andasthefe Polygons are always in the duplicate proportion of that of their
Diameters, fo likewife are Circles.
ctical Geometry,

Jn pra-

we have frequent Occafion

.4.

to infcribe a Square and other Polygons in * Circle, or to defcribe them about it, to reduce

a Circle to a Square.

PRO-

The Fourth Booh

195

PROPOSITION
A PR03LEM.
v.

X.

To

defcribe

an Ifofceles (or

having

its

eqmcrural) Triangle each of them Angles at the Bafe,

double to the third

£ngk.

Angles

TO ABDandADB,deubleto ABD,
A
.

defcribe

an Ifofceles having each of its

'

the Angle

j

divide the

Iine^B

(by the 1 1 2.) fo that the Square ot may be equal to the Re&r

AC

the Genangle under ABandBC* pndfropi ter A at the Diftance AB defcribe the Circle ii 5 and BD, in which infcribe equal to the Line DC, defcribe a Circle about drawing

BD

AC

i

the Xrxangle
*

ACD, QptheiJ

I
1 I
1

Depovftration. or Since the Square of the Re&angle contained under

AC

tine BD will touch the Point D, (by the 37.3.) therefore the Angle BDC will be equal to the Angle A, being in
the alternate Segment CAD, (by the 32. 3.) Now the Angle BCD, being an external Angle in refpeft ol the Triangle ACD, i§ equal to the Angles

BD is equal to AB and BC, the Circle ACD at the

A and CD A N4

5

therefore the

Angle

BCD

1

1

95

The Elements of Euclid.

is equal to the Angle BDA. Further, the Angle is equal to the Angle ABD,

BCD

ADB

and (by the 5. 1.) therefore qual, and {by the 6. 1.) the Sides
will be equal : and fince likewife the Angles and

DCB

DBC are eBD and DC
*,

[

BD

is

A

CDA.

equal Therefore

and fo

E

the Angle

ADB is
^-«

double the Angle A.

I
PI

PROPOSITION
A PROBLEM.
To
infer ibe
a-

XL


Ml

regular Pentagon in a Circle.

O
1*i

lar
-5

infcribe a reguPentagon in a
Ifofceks

Q

Circle .defcribe (by the
to.)

an

ABC
Anat

having each of its

DEF

the gles ABC, ACB, Bafe, double tp the AnInfcribe in the Circle the Triangle gle A. then divide the equiangular to

ABC

:

fti

Angles DEF and DFE into two equal Parts, drawing the Lines EG and FH. Laftly, joyn the Lines DH, DG, GF, EH ? and you will h have defcruVd a regular Pentagon that is to h fay, a Pentagon having equal Sides, and eft
*,

|u$I Angles,

Demon*

TheFonrth Book.
Demcmjlt atwn.

197

The Angles DEG, GIF, DFH, and HFE,
being the Halves of the Angles DEF, and PFE, each of which is double to the Angle

and conare equal to the Angle ^ the five Arches, which are their fequently

EDF,

EDF

Bafes, are equal, (by the 26. 3 J and the Lines PH, HE, EF, FG, and GD, are equal, (by the

29. 3 .) Secondly, the Angles DGF, GFE,and fo of the reft, having each three of thofe Arches for its Bafe, will be alfo equal „ equal
(by the 27. 3.) Therefore the Sides and Angles are equal. of the Pentagon

DHEFG

PROPOSITION
A
To

XII.

PROBLEM.
q

a Circle* defcribe a Pentagon about

INfcribea gon ABCDE in the Circle, (by the 1 1 .) and having Ey drawn Tangents through the Points A, B, C, D, E, h' (by the 17. 2.) you will
have deferib'd
a regular
Circle.

regular Penta-

Pentagon about the

Draw

the Lines

FA, FG, FE, FH, FD.
Demonflration.

The Tangents

GE and GA aie

equal, (by Co-

198

The Elements of Euclid.

Cor oil 2. of the 36. ;.) as alio and fh Lines FA and FE are alfo equal (by the Dcpiit. of a Circle $) therefore (by the 8. 1 ) the Triangles FGA and FGE are equal in all
;

EH

HD

refpettSj and the Angles equal, as alio the Angles

AFG and EFG are EFH and PFH. the Angles EFA Av&becd\i&(bytbe 27.3.; and EFD are equal, their Halves EFH and FFG will be equal and (by the 26. 1.) the 'Iriangles EFH and EFG will be equal in all refpecis, and the Sides EG and EH will be
^

alfo equal.

monftrate

all

After the fame manner I can dethe Sides, to be divided into

two eqn a! Parts , and confequently, lince the Lines C£ ai G \ as equal, GH and GI will
be alfo equal, Further,!] Being double to the Angfeg
alfo

equal.

Therefore

G and and FHE>are we have defcribd a
singles

H

FGE

regular Pentagon about l

Circle.

PROPOSITION
A PROBLEM.
To hfcribe a

XIII.

Circle iv a regular Vent agon.

np jL
/j^ B
gles
j\

inferibe a Circle in
le

ABCD.E, divide

regular Pentagon the An-

anctB into two equalPa. is by the Lines AF and BF, which concur at
the

199 Then drawing the line FG perhe Point F. to AB, defcribe a Circle from the pendicular F at the Diftance FG. I fay it will Center
:ouch all the other Sides, that
zing 7 will be equal.
is

The fourth Book.

to fay,

ha-

drawn FH perpendicular

to

EC, FH

and

G

Demoiiftratiotu

and B were diSince the equal Angles into two equal Parts, their Halves vided md GBF will be equal and iince the Angles it are right Angles, the Triangles

A

GAF

:

G

AFG

and
'be

BFG
1 .)

26.

equal in all refpe&s (fy and GB are therefore the Lines
will
fee

AG

?qual.

BH,

and Further, I may prove the Lines as alfo the Lines FG, and FH, to be eand BC of a regular the Sides qual and and Pentagon being equal, the Lines and confequently the Angles will be equal $
*,

BG

AB

BH

HC

at the Point

HFC will be equal, the Triangle all refpects, and the Angles FBH and equal,in FCH will be equal And fince the Angles B and C, are equal, the Angle FCH will be half
BFH
and
the Angle C. So parting from one to the other, I will demonftrate, that all the Perpendiculars, FG and FH, and the reft, are equal.

H being

alfo right

Angles,

and

PRO-

2 go

The Elements of Euclid.

PROPOSITION
A PROBLEM.
To

XIV.

defer ibe a Circle about a regular Pentagon.

*TP O

defcribe a Circle about

the

ABCDE-,
its

Sides

AB

regular Pentagon divide equally two of

and

BC at G

and
zt\
:

H, and draw the Perpendiculars GFand HF. The Circle
£rawn from

the Center F, at the Diflance FA, will pafs through B, C, D, E. Demonjtration. Scppofe the Circle defer ibed, it is evident
(by tbe !.•$.)

to

at

ia
lin

that having divided the Line the Middle in G, and drawn the PerABin pendicular GF, the Center of the Circle muft

be in that Perpendicular
therefore
4

*

it is

alfo in

HF,

3G

it is

at the Point R.
1

c

*
*

*
c

The USE. Thefe Propolitions are folely ufeful for the compofing the Table of Sines, and drawing the Platforms of Citadels, for their Obferve ordinary Figures are Pentagons. alfo, that thele Methods of defcribing Pentagons about a Circle, may be applied likewife to other Polygons. But in my Book of ' Mili-

I

x

"(

c

The Fourth Book.
13

201

Military Archite&ure, I have mown another Way of infcribing a regular Pentagon in a
Circle.

PROPOSITION
A PROBLEM.
To
infcribe a regular

XV.

Hexago n } n a Circle.

TO draw Hexagon
fcBCDEF-,
neter
?

infcribe

a regular in the Circle the Diafixing

AD, and
D,

the

A

oct of the

Compafs

at the

Point

defcribe a

Circle
:

at the Diftance of

DG

t lraw the Diameters

EGB

then ? and
the

CGF

*,

and the

Lines

AB, AF, FE, and

reft.

Demonjlraiwn*

Tis evident,

DGE, CGD, Top, BGA, and AGF,
third Part of

that the Triangles CDG, and are equilateral ^ therefore the Angles DGE, and thofe opposed to them at the
are each of
•,

them the
is

two right Angles

that

to fay,

contain 6o Degrees. Now ail the Angles that can be made about the fame Point are equal to four right Angles, that is to fay, %6o DeTherefore taking away four times 60, grees. that is 240, from 360, there will remain 120 for EGG and FGE* which therefore each con?
tain

202
tain
at the

The Elements of

Euclia.

60 Degrees. Therefore all the Angles Center being equal, all the Arches anc all the Sides will be equals and every Angle. as A, B, C, &c. will be compounded of twc Angles of 60 Degrees each, that is, 120 De grees, and therefore will be equal.

CorolL *The Side of a the Semidiameter.

Hexagon

is

equal

U

The
1

USE.

*

*
1

*
c

Becaufe the Side of a Hexagon is the Bafc of an Arch of 60 Degrees, and is equal to th< Semidiameter,its Half will be the Sine of 3c by which Sine we begin the Table of SineJ Euclid treats of Hexagons in the laft Boo! of his Elements.
•mm.
1

11

1

in

PROPOSITION
A PROBLEM.
To
infcribe a regular Pejite decagon in

XVI.
1

a

Circle,

in

the

Circl

an equilateral IlSJfcribe
_H

Triangl
regu

A^BC,
lar

(by the 2.)

anda

f

p

^

Pentagon, (by the 11, ma: fo that the Angles meet at the Point A. Th Lines BF, BI, and IE, wiJ
j

be the Sides of a Pentedecagon

and

if yoi
ii

The Fourth Booh
incribe in the other Arches Lines equal to and BI 7 you will compleat the Polygon.
De?novJlratio)t.

205

BF

the Side of an equilaAEB will be the third Part of the whole Circle, that is, five fifteenths. Bur the Arch AE being the fifth Part will contain three fifteenths^ therefore the
Since the Line
is

AB

teral Triangle, the

Arch

Arch

EB

in the

and if you divide it contains two at the Point I, each Part will be Middle
:

a Fifteenth.

The
c c

USE.
f
i

This Proportion
to other

res cp}y to
s;

*

Way

F
;i

We
in

open the h ve in the
ft

Conipafs of Pi'opo'
infcri
I

torn-

eafy

Me-

'thodsof
*.

ordinary Polygons, but they are r winded on this here, ^ox it > would be im ;;"-ilible to n\ark)PolygoP3 upon ' that Inftrument if their Sides yerenot fjift * found by this, or other like Piopoikions,

ail

TF

[ 204 1

THE FIFTH BOOK OF THE

ELEMENTS
O F

EUCLID
fifth

i

Book

Is

abfolutely

ne-

THIS
it

ceflary to demonflrate the Propo-

rtions of the fixth. The Do&rine contains is of univerfal Ufe-, and it&

Manner

of Argumentation by proportion, II the moft fubtil, folid and brief. Infomuch ft that all thofe Treatifes, that are grounded
are obliged to make lift a kind of Mathematical Logick

on Proportions,
thereof, as

Geometry,
Statich,

Aritbmetick y

and in a "Word,

Mnfick, dftronomy, all Parts of Ma-

thematzch, are conflrained to borrow feme of their Demonstrations from the Proportions of this Book. The greater!: Part of
*

'I

Meafuring in PraSical Geometry

is

dorteiu
l

h7

The F/fih Booh

205

by Proportion. All the Rules of Aiithmttick are demonftrable by the Theorems that
fo that there is no ^ NecefFity of having Recourfe to the fevenrh, eight or ninth Books for that purpoie. The of the Antients is fcarce any Thing Mujick elfe but the Doctrine of Proportions apply 'd The fame may be faid of Stato Sounds.

occur here

the proportion of moft certain, that if the Knowledge of Proportions which this Book affords, was taken away from the Mathematich , what remain'd would be
tich y
coniider

Weights.

which In

fine, 'tis

very inconfiderable.

DEFINITIONS.
A
5-V. compar'd

Small Quantity with
*

A-—— -j—«— J--.-B
C-—^«D
be call'd 6

£

[art.

greater, is call'd a 4 As for example,

iftheLineCD,of 2 Foot long, be compar'd with

AB of

6, it will

its

Part.

Which Name alfo it obtains, though indeed it be not contain'd in AB, provided AE> a
Line equal to CD, be therein found* The whole is anfwerable to the Part* and therefore will be the greater Quantity

O

*

com-

2c6
t

The Elements of Euclid.
*,

compar'd with the lefs

whether

it

do

real

*
1

ly contain the lefs, or not. c Part taken in general is ordinarily di vided into (that which is call'dj an Aliqm

A

j

Part, and an Aliquant Part.
i.

An

Aliquot Part (which alone Euclid

de-

[

Book) is a Magnitude of a Magni tude, a lefs of a greater, when it exactly mea ' fures the greater. That is to fay, Tis a lei * fer Quantity compar'd with a greater, whicf c precifely meafures the greater. As a Lin * two Foot long taken three Times, is equa^ * to a Line of fix Feet in length.
fines in this
is a Magnitude of a Magni R a greater of a lefs, when it is exactl; F tude, c That is to fay, a Mul P« meafur'd by the lefs, * is a greater Quantity compar'd with an tiple ' which it contains exactly fo man] i lefs, * Times. For example, a Line fix Foot lonj * is Triple a Line two Foot long.

2

.

A Multiple

ffe

ret

An

Aliquant Part,

is

a leffer Quantity con*

'F

par'd with a greater, which it does not exact ly meafure. As a Line of four Feet in lengtl is an aliquant Part of a Line ten Foot long * In a Word, An Aliquot Part fo many Time
c *
1
* *

Id

repeated will equal the Whole: hut an Al: quant Part, though it contains fuch a Quan tity of the Whole, yet repeated as you pleafe will never exactly equal, but either com fliort of, or exceed, the Whole.
Equi

The Fifth Booh
Equimultiples

207
[2.

are

Magni-

tudes which

equally contain

their Aliquot Parts. 'That is to fay, fa many Times. As for example, if contains B, as many Times as contains

12, 4^ 6, A, Bj C,

D.

A
3

C

D,
.

A
*

and

C

will

be Equimultiples of

B

andD.
Proportion is a refpect of one tude to another of the fame Kind.

Magni-

*

Gr&c.hiy®-. Gall. Raifen.

4. ifWwfzfrVjarefaid to have a certain pro" )ortionto each other, when being multiply 'd

:hey

oij

can exceed each other. For which Reafcn they ought to be of the fame KindFc r indeed a Line has no proportion to a Superficies-, becaufe a Line taken matbemath colly, is confider'd without any Breadth at all, and therefore multiply'd as much as you pleafe, will never give any Breadrh, which

'

yet a Superficies contains. * For as much as Proportion is a Refpect, or Relation founded upon^Quantity, it ought to \i\ have two Terms. That which fome Philoor fophers would call the Funiameritiim, Mathematicians name the Ante* Foundation, cedent, and the Term is calfd by them the T ^Confequent. As if we w ere to compare the with the Quantity B, that ReQuantity fpect or Proportion would have for the A ntecedent the Quantity A, and for the ConfeOn the contrary, juent the Quantity B.

A

O

2

'if

2o8
if

The Elements of Euclid.

be compar'd with A, that proportion °* would have B for the Antecedent, and B for the Confequent. ' Proportion, or Refped of one Quantity to another, is divided into Rational Propor
to

B

A

A

tion,
'

and

Irrational.

Rational Proportion is the Refpecl of one Quantity to another, which is commenfurable to it-, that is, when both the Quanti ties have the fame common meafure, bj which both may be exaclly meafur'd. the proportion of a Line four foot long t( another that is fix, is rational, becaufe i Line two Foot long may exa&ly meafun

A

both.
tities

And when
have the

this

fame

Number

to another.

happens, thefe Quan Proportion as on For Example, fince th«

Line two Foot long, which is their commoi Meafure, is found twice in the four Foo Line, and thrice in that which is fix Foo long ^ the firft has the fame proportion t<
the fecond, as 2 to
*

3.

tw< Proportion is betwixt of the fame Kind, which are in Quantities

Irrational

commenfurable,
fure.

f.

e.

have no

common Mea

the Proportion of the Side of 1 Square to its Diagonal. For there is no Mea fure fo fmall, as will precifely meafure both

As

Quantities will be Proportionals the proportion of the firft to the fe cond, is the fame with, or like to, that o

c

Four

when

<

the

Tfie Fifth Book.

209
to fpeak a Similitude

the third to the fourth \
r

fo that,

properl) , Proportionality is of Proportions. But it is noeafy Matter to tindeiftand in

what

this Similitude of

Pro-

portions conilfts^ that is to fay, how two Refpe&s or Relations may be alike. For Euclid has not given us a juft Definition
thereof, or fuch an one as might explain the Nature of the Thing, but contented himfelf to fet down fome Marks or Signs, by

be known, whether or no have the fame proportion. And Quantities 'tis the Obfcurity of this Definition, which has render'd the whole Book fo difficult to be underftood-, which Defect therefore I fhall endeavour to fupply. 5. Euclid makes four Magnitudes to have the fame proportion, when taking the Equimultiples of the firft and the third, and likewife the Equimultiples of the fecond and the fourth, according to any Multipliit

which

may

cation
firft

whatfoever If the Multiple of the exceed that of the fecond, the Multiple of the third will alfo exceed that of the and if it be equal to, or lefs than fourth the fecond, the thiid will be equal to, or lefs than the fourth. In fuch a Cafe the firft has the fame rroportion to the fecond, as the third to the fourth,
:
•,

O

3

A,

B

:

:

The Fifth Book.
c

211

*
4

4
4 4

Similar Aliquot Parts, then, arefuch as are contain'd in their Wholes as many Times one as the other * as 3 in refpeft of 9 and 2 in refpect of 6, are fimilar aliquot Parts^ becaufe they are each contain'd three Times
in their refpedive Wholes. ' The firft Quantity will

4 4 4

have the fame to thefeeond, as the third to the proportion fourth, if the firft contains fo many Times fuch aliquot Parts of the fecond, as the third
contains the like aliquot Parts of the fourth. As if contains

*
*

A

A,B,C,D.

4
4

the hundredth, thoufandthor 1 hundred-thoufandth Part of B as oft as

C
or

*

4
4

contains the hundredth, thoufandth, hundred-thoufandth Part of D* (and the be faid of all other aliquot Parts like

may

I
4

will be the lame proimaginable :) There as of C to D. to B, portion of A
4

To render

this Definition ftill

more clear,

I

c
*
4

I will prove firft proportion to B,

A has the fame that, as C to D, A wilL contain
if

*
4 4

the aliquot Parts ol B, as oft as C does the contain the like of D^ and fecondly, if Parts of B, as oft as C does the like aliquot of D, then there wi!Vfee_the fame proportion

A

of
4

A to B,
firft

as of

C to D.

4

f
1

Point feems fufficiently evident The the very Notion of the Terms for if from A contains the tenth Part of B once more the than an hundred Times, and C contains tenth I 4
:

O

212
c

The Elements of Euclid.
:

* *

c
,

ot D an hundred Times only the Quantity Awill be agreatcr Whole compared theretcre it to B, than C is compared to D cannot be cempar'd alter the fame manner,

tenth Pait

•,

4

c
*•

c

the Refpedt or Relation being not the fame. c The fecond Point feems more difficult, viz. if a Quantity, fuppofe AB, contain the aliquot Parts of arother, CD, as ott as a third, E, contains the like ot the fourth, F
*,

*

there will be

G
A

the fame proportion ot 'to CD, as otE toF.

AB

H

-I
I

—B
1

^ But
'

K

6

C
E
F
*

'
1
c

it it be otherwile, to us fuppofe have a greater proportion to CD, than

let

AB

E

has to

F}

that

is

e

to fay, that is too great to have the fame

AB

*
*

' *
* *
1

proportion to CD, that E has to F. Therefore a -Quantity lefs than AB, as AG, will have the fame proportion to CD, as E to Divide theretore in the Middle F. in the Middle in I, and ID in H, and in the Middle in K continuing the likeDiyiiion till you arrive at an aliquot Part of

CD

HD

*,

CD
1

lefs

than

GB, which

I

will fuppofe to

<beKD.
Demonjfratkn
*

Since there is the fame proportion ci A will cent in KD, to CD, as of E toF;

G

AG

*#n aliquot Iart of CD,
'•
>

as eft as

E

contains 4 the

The Fifth Book.
'
'

%

z'13

:

*

Noiv will the like aliquot Part of F. once more than h contains the contain like aliquot Part ot F j which is contrary

AB

KD

to the Suppoiition.

£The firftQuantit}

7

is

faid to

have

a greater

proportion to the fecond, than the third to the fourth, when the« firft contains a certain
aliquot Part ot the fecond, cf'tner than the third contains the like aliquot Part of the fourth :' As io i has a greater proportion to i o
1

*
1

1

than2oot0 2o,becauie I oi contains the tenth Part ot ic, that is, t, once above a hundred Times 5 and 200 contains the tenth Part of 20, i. e. 2, a hundred Times only.

7. Magnitudes, or Quantities having the tame proportion, are call d Proportionals. 8 * Proportionality, or Analogy, is a Si-

militude of Proportions or Refpects. * 'hv&teya.. End. In each Proportionality are required at 9 the leaft three Terms. For that there may be * a Similitude of Proportions, there mult be e two of them And every Proportion having
' :

*

two Terms,an Antecedent and a Confequent,
there feems to be a NeceJlity of fourTerms^ has the fame proporas when we fay, that

4 *

A

4
*

tion to

B

as

C

to

quent of the
fuffice
5

ilrft

but becaufe the Confe* proportion may be the An*

D

tecedent
*

as

ot the fecond, three Terms when is laid to have the

A

may
fame

*

proportion to

B

as

B

to C. 10.

Mag-

214
io.

r fl° e

^-foments of Euclid.

Magnitudes are faid to be continually proportional, when the intermediate Terms are taken twice, i. e> both as Antecedents and c Confequents. As if there be the fame propor* tion of to B, as of B to C, and of C to D. 1 1 . In that Cafe will have the duplicate^

A

A

proportion to C, what it has to B.
'

and the

triplicate to

D, of

But here it is to obferv'd, that there is a great deal of Difference between double Proportion, and duplicate. We fay that the proportion of four to two is double, becaufe four is the Double of two 5 the Number two
giving the Name to the Proportion, or; rather to the Antecedent thereof. Accordingly,
double, triple, quadruple, quintuple, &c% are Denominations drawn from the Numbers

two, three, four, five, &c- compared with

Unity ^ which I infiancein, becaufe the more eafily we conceive the Proportion, the lefs are its Terms. But, as I faid, thefe Denominations do rather affedt the Antecedents, than the Proportions themfelves-, for we call that double, or triple Proportion, whofe Antecedent
is

double, or triple

its

Confequent.

But by duplicate Proportion we underftand fuch an one, as is compounded of two fimilar Proportions. As, if there be the fame proportion of two to four, asof fourto eight: the proportion of two to eight being compounded of the Proportion of two to four, and
1

The Fifth Book.
' ' '

21 5

and that of four to eight, which are fimilar and equal, will be the duplicate of eacn of
So three to twenty feven is the duoi three tonine. plicate Proportion of that The proportion of two to four is calf d the

them.

,

' c
c

'
4

*

j

Sub-double, becaufe two is the hal ot rour^ but that ot two to eight is the Duplicate^ of the Sub-double which is as much as to fay, that two is the Half of the Half of eight, as three is the third Part of the third Part of
•,

4
*

twenty feven ^ where you may obferve, that; the Denominators 4. and K are taken twice. ' In like manner, the proportion of eight to

*
* *

two

a duplicate proportion of that of to four, becaufe eight is the Double of eight four, but it is the Double of the Double of
is

*
*

* *

Terms in continual the proportion of the firft to the proportion, ]aft is triplicate of that of the firft to the fetwo.
If there be tour
*,

*

cond \ as in thefe four Numbers, Two, Four, the proportion of two to Eight, Sixteen I fixteen is a triplicate of that of two to four^ 'becaufe two is the Half of the Half of the * Half of fixteen. So alfo the proportion of ' fixteen to two is a Triplicate oflhat of fix*
*

teen to eight, becaufe fixteen is the Double of the Double of the Double of two.
' 1

2.

Antecedents to Antecedents, and Con-

c

4
* 1

(equents to Confequents, are call'dHomologous Magnitudes. As if there be the fame

proportion of A to B, as of C to
are

D A and G
^

and D,

4

Homologous,

The

1

216
4

The

\L\enients

of Euclid.

The

following

c

Definitions explain the

divers
nals

*
4

Manners of arguing by Proportiofor the Demonfiratir

n of which this

Book was
4

13.
4 4 4

principally compos d Alternate Proportion iswhen
of the other,

wecom-

pare the Antecedent of the one with the Antecedent

and the Confequent

* 4 '

of the one with the Confequent of the other. As for example, if becaufe there is the fame proportion of A to B, as of C to D, I
infer, that there is the to D. to C, as of

*
*
'

A

B

feme proportion of This manner rf Ar-

Terms

'
*

gumentaticn holds only when all the four are of the fa\mfpekr$ or Kind*, i. c.

either all Lines, or Superficies's, Solids. Tis demonftrated Prop 1

Ml

or all

L

'

14. *In\*erted Proportion isthecomparing of the Confequents with the Antecedents.

AvcLTftth.iv End. Convcrfe. Gall. As, if becaufe there is the fame propor-' * tion of A to B, as of C to D, I conclude that * there is the fame proportion of B to A, as 4 of to C. Cor oil of Prop j 6 4 j 5. Composition of Proportion is the comof the Antecedent and the Confequent paring taken together, with the Confequent alone. 4 As if, becaufe there is the fame proportion 4 of A to B, as of C tnD, I conclude that * there is the fame proportion of A and Bto 4 i5, a.s of C and D to D, Pi-op. 1 8.
4

*

*

D

;

.

1

16. Di-

The Fifth Book.
16. Divifion

217

of Proportion is the compaof the Excels of the Antecedent above ring the Confequent to the fame Confequent. ? As, if there be the fame Proportion of AB to ' ; from thence I B, as of CD to infer, that
;

D

4

there
4

is

the fame Proportion of

A
is

to B, as

of

Prop. 17. 17. Converflon of Proportion

CtoD.

the com-

paring of the Antecedent 4 of the Terms: As, if * of AB to B, Proportion 4 thence conclude, that * proportion of AB to A,
*

with the Difference there be the fame as of CD to D ^ I
there
as of
is

the fame

CD to

C. Co-

roll of Prop.
1

18.

Proportion of Equality is the compaof the extream Magnitudes, and omitring As A. B. C. D. ting thofe in the Middle * if there be the fame Proportion E. F. G. H. of A to B, as of E to v , and ' of B to C, as of F to G h and of Cto D, as
8.
*

of

G to H

$

I infer, that there

is

the

fame

*

proportion of A to D, as of Eto H. 19. Proportionality of Equality orderly placd, is that in which the Terms aie com' As in par'd together in the fame Order.
the foregoing Example. Prop. 22. 20. Proportionality of Equality diforderly plac'd,is that in which the Terms are com' As par'd in a different Order. there be4 4

if,

*

ing the fame Proportion of

G

to

H

A

to B, as

of

5

and of

B

to

C, as of F to G* and c of

2i 8
4
4 4

of C to
there

I conclude, that the fame proportion of to D, as of E toH. hop. 23. 4 See in fhort all the different Manners of
is

The Elements of D, as of E to F-,

Euclid.

A

4

Argumentation by Proportion.
4

As A

to B, fo

C

to

D
:

,

*

By
4

alternate Proportion

therefore, as to 0, foB

A

'toD.
Inverted.
Divifion.
*
4

Cbrr.pofition.

As B to A, fo D to C. As AB to B, fo CD to D.

If as

then as
*

A

to B, fo

Convcrfion.

As

AB to B, fo CD to D C to D. AB to A, fo CD to C.
:

:

Orderly Equality. If as Ato B, 10C to D^ and as B to E, fo D to F then
as

Ato

E,

foCtoF.

Diforderly Equality .If as as B to E, fo C to
as
e 4
4

A to B,fo D to F,and D then
:

A to

E, fo

C to F.
2 5 Pro-

Euclid's Fifth

Book contains but

4
4

pofitions, to which nine more have fince been added, and are commonly receiv'd. And the firft fix in Euclid, ferving only for the

4
4

4
4

Prccf of thofe that follow by the Method of Equimultiples, to fince I intend not make Ufe ot that Method, I fhall wholly omit beginning with the Seventh, without changing either the Order or Number of the
5

*

Propofitions.

Demands

The Fifth Book
Demands, or Suppcftmts.

219

Three Quantities, A, B, C, being propos'd*
that there is a is required to be granted, has fourth poiYible, to which the Quantity to B. the fame Proportion, as
it

C

A

PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.'

VII.

Equal Quantities have the faint Proportion tv another Quantity, and another Ghiawtity has
the

fame Proportion

to

Quantities that art

equal.

1

F the'Quantities A and B be

equal,

X1T

they will have the fame Propor-

tion to the third C.
Demonftration.

If one of the two, fuppole A, had a greater Proportion to C, than B bastoC ^ A would contain any aliquot Part efC, uftner thanB could contain the fame-, and conftquentiy would be greater than B, which is contrary to

A

what was fuppos'd. Again, I fay, if the Quantities A and B be equal, the Quantity C willhave the lame Proportion to
v

A

as to B.

Dejnon-

220
If the

The Elements of
Demovfl ration.

Euclid.

Quantity

C had a greater proportion

would contain a certain Part of A, oftner than the like Part aliquot muft be of B which Part therefore of lefs than the like aliquot Part ot B, and conwould be lefs than the Quantity fequently
to A, than to B,
it
•,

A

i]

A

;;.-.

B, which

is

contrary to the Suppofltion.
lei

PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
The
greater

VIII.
|00l

an
ill

Proportion the fame Quantity has a lejfer Proportion than to the lefs. the
greater,

has a greater of two giiavtities than the lefs ^ and to the fame,
to

AS

k

t-B D
GI

the

SUppofe Quantities AB
and
par'd

C

be

com-

E

M-l-l-F

the with and that fameEF,

AB

exceeds C.

I

will have a greater proportion fay, that to EF, than C will have to the fame. Cutoff EF in the Middle, equal to C, and divide one Half in the Middle, and fo on, and again come to an aliquot Part of EF lefs till

AB

AD

you

thanDB, asGF.

Demon'

The

Fifth

Booh

221
has the fame

Dcffionftrafion.

AD and C

being equal,

AD

to EF, (by the 7.) and proportion to EF, as an aliquot Part will contain therefore of EF, as ott as C will contain the fame, (by

C

AD

GF

Dtfn. 5.) But AB contains the fame aliquot D art once more than AD, 'DB being greater han GF ^ therefore (by Defin. 6,) the proporion of AB to EF is greater than that of C to he fame EF Secondly, I fay, that EF has a lefs proporto C. Take a certain ali* the fourth, of C, as oft as you juot Part, as :an in EF, which fuppofe to be five times ;

ibn to

AB, than

fomething of the Quantity EF,or nothing ^ nothing rcmain,it is evident, that five times the fourth Part of AB making a greater Line than fo many times he fourth Patt of C, the fourth Part, of AB •ould not be five times contained in EF. But f the fourth Part of C, taken five times reach 00 farther than G, the fourth Part of AB
either there

will remain

if

:aken fo

many
AB,

ar as F, or to I, •each as far as F,

times will proceed either as fomething fhort of F,.. If it

portion to

as

-edivg Part)

EF

EF will have the fame proEG to C. But (by the pre*

2 } than
1

EG
EI

to the

has a greater proportion to fame C therefore EF has

greater proportion to C, f the fourth Part of

AB

than to AB. But reach no farther

han

I,

will have the

fame proportion to

P

AB

i 2

2

TA* Elements of Euclid.

to C. But EI has a greater proC, than EG to C^ therefore EF greater than EI, has a greater proportion .to C, than the fame EF to AB

AB as EG

portion {to

PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
Quantities that have the *^ther Qiiantity, or to

IX.

fc

w

fame Proportion

to

ano-

which another ^uantit) has the fame Proportion, are equal

F
; b, c,j

j

and B have the Quantities the fame proportion to a third
I

A

|lfi

sal

Quantity C,
equal

fay,

A

and

B

are
re

Demonflration.

If one or the two, v.g. B,
it

A were greater than

would have a greater proportion to the Quantity C, (by the i .) which is contrary to

theSuppofition. Secondly, if the Quantity C has the fame proportion to the Quantities A and B I fay A and B are equal. For if A were greater than B, C would have a greater proportion to the
\

Quantity B, than to A, (by

the 8.)

which

is

alfo contrary to the Supposition.

P RO-

The Fifth Book.

223

PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
'he

X,

another

{ghiantity that has the greater Proportion to is the greater Quantity ^ and that the

lejfer, to

which that other Quantity has the

greater Proportion.

F
.

fame C ^ I fay A is For if A and B, Were e" ;reater than B. ual, they would have both the fame proporon to C and if A were iefs than B, B would
lan

has a greater the Quantity to the Quantity C, Proportion

A

A

.

B. C.
|

B

to the

•,

ave a greater proportion to C, than to the ime C 1 both which are contrary to the Suprfition.

A

ian B.

ave the
lefs
)th
)s'd

For if A and B, were equal, C would fame proportion to both, (by the 7.) nd if A were left than B, C would have

Secondly, if C has a greater proportion to than to A, I fay that A will be greater

which

proportion to B than to (by the S.) are contrary to what was fup-

A

P

2

PRO-

124

The Elements of Euclid.

PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
Proportio7is

XL

that ate equal to another y

are alfo e

qual amovgfl themfelves.

|A, 4, 2
I

B

-

5

C,

D

5

LF.I
.j

T F A
L

•,

b, 4-, 6, ?

D

has the fame pro portion to B, as C t(

F
'

%

and

C

the

to F I fay that will hav* portion to D,as E fame proportion to B, as E to F. the

A

fame pro

<

for

Demovftration,

C

has the fame proportion to B, a will contain any certain aliquo to Part of B, as oft as C contains the like ali
Since

A

Si

D

•,

A

Andinlik quot Part of D, (by Defrih. 5.) manner as oft as C contains that aliquot Par of D, fo oft will E contain the like aliquc
So that as oft as certain aliquot Part of B, fo
Part of F.

i
jfl

A

contains an

1

^

times alf r;< will E contain the like aliquot Part of I ^ Therefore has the fame proportion to B, a f

many

A

EtoF.

A(

PRO

The

Fifth

Boob

225

PROPOSITION
A
[j

XII.

THEOREM.

one Antemany Quantities be proportional, cedent will have the fame Proportion to his Antecedents taken toConsequents as all the taken together. gether to all the Consequents

*•

[

has the fame proportion to B, asC toDj I fay that AandCtacen together will have the fame proto B. portion to B and D, as

FA

u
(2,

B,

3, 12,

A

C, D,
8

Demonjlration.
has the fame proportion to B, as will contain the Quantity } any :ertain aliquot Part of B, as oft as C contains he like aliquot Part of D, (by Defih, 5 ) fU p>ofe the fourth Part. Now the tourth Part \i B and the fourth Part of D, make the
Since
to

A

D

A

burth Part of will h and accordingly ontain the fourth Part of BD, as oft as ontains the fourth Part of B j and the like nay be faid of any other aliquot Parts.

DB

AC

A

Therefore
ts

A hgs AC to BD.

the fame proportion gto B,

P

3

PROp-

2^6

The Elements of Euclid.

I

PROPOSITION
A

XIII.

THEOREM.
<

If of two equal Proportions one is greater than tvvf'l\ the other will befo likewife.

|

A, B: C,
:

D

;

EF^i
•:

T F Abas the fame
1

P rc

D

j
:

portion to B, asCt< but a greater propoi
]

I fay, that C. alfi tion to B, than E to F will have a greater proportion to P, than has to F.

Demottjlration.

Since

E

to F,

A has a greater proportion taB tha A will contain a certain aliquot Pai
i

of B, cftner than E contains the like aliquc Part of F> (by Defin. 6.) But C contains like aliquot Part ot D» as oft as contair that of B j becauie has the fame proportio.

A

A

to E, as C to and therefore C contains certain aliquot Part of D, oftner than E cor tains the like aliquot Part of F 5 and corifi
:

D

quently,

C

has a greater proportion to E
(by Defin* 6.)

than

E to F,

PRO

The Fifth Booh.

227

PROPOSITION
A

XIV.

THEOREM.
to

If the frft Quantity has the fame Proportion

accorthefecond, as the third to the fourth ; ding as the firft is greater, or equal, or lefs 7

than the third, thefecond will be greater^ equal, or lefs, than the fourth.

or

has the fame proporC to D I fay' be greater than C, firft, if B will be alfo greater than D.

TFA

1

tion to B, as

Ja^b7c~5
1

•,

-

A

Since

A is greater than

Demovf ration.
C,

A
C
:

will have a to the

greater proportion to B , than B, (by the 8.) But there is the

to B, as of C to therefore C has a greater proportion to D, than C to B, and confequently (by the jo.) B is greater than D. be equal to C, B will be Secondly, if

tion of

A

D

fame fame propor-

A

alfo equal to

Since

A

fame proportion of A to B, as of C to the fame B, (by the 7.) But as A to B, fo C to D therefore C has the fame proportion to B, as the fame C to D, and confequently B and D
-,

D. Demonf ration. and C are equal, there will be the

are equal, (by the p.)

P 4

Third-

32.8

The Elements of Euclid.

Thirdly, if A be lefs than C, B willalfobe lefs than D. Demonf ration. is lefs thau C, A will have a lefs Since

A

proportion to B, thanC, to the fame B,

(by

is to D: therefore is to B, fo the 8.) But as will have a lefs proportion to D, than the will be lefs fame to B, and coniequently

A

C

C

C

B

than D,

(by the io.)

PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
Equhmvtiples,

XV.

and Jimilar A'iquct in thefame Proportion.

Parts,

are

A

I F
*-

the Quantities C and

D be

and the Equimultiples of will B, their aliquot Parts $ have the fame proportion to B, as C to D.Divide the Quantity

A

A

F, G, and the Quantity D into Parts equal Becaufe C and D are the Equimultiples to B. of A and B, there will be as many Parts or one, as ot the other. Let the Parts of D therefcie be ? I, K.

C into Parts equal

to A,

v. g.

E,

H
'

E

L

Demcnfration. has the fame Proportion to H, and F to to B, becaufe they are and G to K, as

A

all

The Efth Book.
Therefore (by the 1 2. ) all equal. fo E, F, G, to H, I, K, i. e. fo
Coroli
as

229

A

to B,

C to D.

The fame Numbers of the aliquot two Quantities are in the fame proportion that the Quantities are, For fince E has the fame proportion to H, as C to D and F to I, as C to D^ E and F will have the fame proportion to H and I, as C to D.
Parts of

&<

PROPOSITION.
A
Jf four

XVI.

THEOREM.
alternativelyjo.

Alternate Proportion.
Magnitudes of the fame Kind be proporbe aljo tional, they mil
proporti-

A has the fame

on IF toB as C to D,

U
'

and

all

the four Quantities are of the

q U^—%\ — — —
-

BCD A

-

fame Kind, that is either all Lines, or all Suwill have the or all Solids ^ perficies's, lame proportion to C, as B to D. For if not,

A

fuppofe

A

to have a greater proportion to C,

than

B to

D.
Demonjlration

Since

'tis

fuppos'd,
to

that

A

proportion

C than

B

to

D,

has a greater the Quantity

A

v. g. will contain a certain aliquot Part of oftner than B contains a third a third Part,

C

Part

2$o

The Elements of Euclid.

Part of D. Let therefore contain a third Part of C four times, but B the third Part of only three times , having then divided into four Parts, each will contain one third Part of C$ but B being divided into four Parts, they will not contain each of them a third Part of D$ therefore three Fourths of A v/ill contain three Thirds of C, that is, the whole Quantity C \ but three Fourths of B

A

D

A

not contain three Thirds, or the whole But on the contrary, fince there Quantit}?- D. is the fame proportion of to B, as of C to
v/ill

A

D,

there will bealfo the

three Fourths of

A

lame proportion of

to three Fourths of B, as of

C

Fourths of B will be equal to D therefore cannot have a greater proportion to C, than
•,

to B, by the Cor oil. of the \$.) and (by the be equal to C, three 14.) if three Fourths of
I

A

A

B to D,

A
If the
fir

LEMMA.
Proportion to
:,

f

have the fame

the

any Aliquot fecond, as the third to the fow th Part of the firfi will have the fame Proportion to the third as the like Aliquot Pa) t

tbefecend,
foil)

of

to the

th

.

t$ 9

%T

32, 6

If

A has the fame proporD-, andE of A, and

A,' B} C,

D
j j

£

?

F.
8.

tiontoB, as C to be an aliquot Part

4J

—r

Fa

like aliquot Part of

C

:

I

The Fifth Book.
I fay*

231

that

to B, as

E F to D.

will have the fame proportion

If E had a greater proportion to B than F to D, E would contain a certain aliquot P^rt of B, oftner than F contains the like aliquot

Demorfrathn.

Part of D-, and confequentiy,

E taken twice, or four times, would contain an alithrice, than F, taken twice, quot Part of B oftner or four times, contain'd the like alithrice,
quot Part of D.
equal to A-, is equal to

an aliquot Part of B, oftner than C contain'd the like aliquot Part of D, and by cona greater proportion fequence A would have to B, that C to D i which is contrary to the
Suppofition.
1

But E taken four times is andlikewifeF taken four times C , therefore A would contain

A

COROLLARY
after his $tb Propofit.

which Euclid places

Invented Proportion. has thejame Proportion to the fecond7 Tf the frf the fecond will have as the third to the fourth
•,

the

fame Proportion

to thefirfi,

as

the

fow th

to the third.

A has the fame proporIFtiontoB,asCtoD* B will
have the fame proportion to A, asDtoC.

A, B h C D,
4

4j8

.

12,24,

g

?

p

?

U.~\3De-

232

The "Elements of Euclid.
Demovft ration.

than If B had a greater proportion to to C, B would contain an aliquot part of \ contain dF iuppofe a fourth E, oftner than the fourth Part of C. Let us fuppofethen that B contains eight times the Quantity E^ mufl contain but feven times the Quantity F. Now flnee A has the fame proportion to B, as to D, E will have the fame proportion to

A

D A

D

D

C B as F
(by the

to D,
i

[by the preceding

Lemma,) and

taken eight times will have the fame prop rtion to B, as F taken tight times to D} bur E taken eight times is contain d "in B, therefore F taken eight times muft be
contain'd in

5J E

D, notwithftanding
thereiore
to

what was

fliewn to the contrary-,

B

cannot

have a greater proportion
The
c

A, than D to C.

USE.

The Followers
ufe of a

of Ave'rroes feem to have

rrade

manner of Argumentation

not much unlike this, to prove, that the World bad exified from ttermtjy urging

fame proportion between Will of God, and the eternal Production of the World, as between a temporal A£r, and a temporal Effect 9 therefore by a Kind of Alternation, there is the fame proportion of a temporal Ad of the Will, i. e.an Ac~t beginning in Tim?, to an etcriial Effecl j as of an eternal Will to a tern-"
that there
is

the

an eternal

^d of the

-

1

poral

The Fifth Book
Effect. Now it is evident,

233

that the Will, poral an Act of the Will that begins in Time, or cannot produce an eternal Effect 5 therefore

the eternal Acl; of God could not produce an Effect in time. But this Argument is faulty in two RelpeSs; firft, in that it fuppofes it
poiTible for

an

Ad

of Divine Will to begin

in Time-, and fecondly , in that it is 5 from alternate P roportion, tho the be of a different Kind or Species.

drawn Terms

PROPOSITION
A THEOREM,
The

XVII.

Divifion of Proportion.

nnded Quantities be proportional, they If compo mil be fo likewife being divided.

IFportion
D,

AB

has the fame proto

AB, B

t

B

as

CD

to

A

will have the fame

proportion to B, as

C

to

D.

Demov.Jlration.

fuppos'd to have the fame proto r> as to D, AB will contain a portion certain aliquot Part of B, as oft as contains the like aliquot Part of D. Now that aliquot Part muft be found as oft in B, as the
Since
is

AB

CD

CD

like

234

The Elements of Euclid.

like aliquot

Part is found in D- Therefore from CD, taking away B from AB, and will contain as many aliquot Parts of B, as C contains the like of D-, and confequently

D

A

A will have the
toD,

fame proportion to B,

as

C

PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
The Compofitions of
If
will befo likewije

XVIII.

Proportion.

Quantities , hehtg divided, he proportionable y tbey

when compounded.

A, B,
i,
7
h

Q

D,

io, 6.
6,

AB,B*CD,D,
8,

35 16,
Since

D, have the fame proportion to B as CD to D.
alfo will

fame has |FA to be the as C to proporti* on AB B

Demonstration.

fuppcs'd to have the fame proto B as C to D, A- will contain any portion as oft as C contains the aliquot Part of B, like aliquot Part of D. N6w the Quantity B contains any oi its own aliquot Parts, as oft therefore adas contains the like ot his

A is

D

•,

A, and D to C 7 AB will cdntain any ding Part of B as oft as CD contains the aliquot like aliquot Part of D, and confequently (by the fame proportion Defin 5.) AB will have A C Oto B as CD to D.

B

to

The Fifth Book.
.

23-

A

COROLLARY.
C onverfion
of Proportion.

The
If
to
to

AB

D, then

as CD to C. For (by the preceding) : and has the fame proportion to B, as C to {by the CorolL of the 16.) B will have the fame and therefore to C proportion to A, as them, AB will have the fame compounding proportion to A, as CD to C.

A

has the fame proportion to B as AB will have the fame proportion

CD

A

D

D

*,

frequent Ufe of this manner Argumentation in almoft all Parts of the " Mathematicks.
'

"

The

USE.

,

We have

of

PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.'

XIX.

If the Whole be in the fame Proportion, as the Parts that are taken away from them, the Rein ainders will

be alfo hi the fame Proportion.

F

the Quantity

AB

has

'ABTcdTbTd,
16,

J the fame proportion to CD, asl the Part B to the
Part

8

h

4.

2,

A,C^AB,CD,
12, 6-, 16,
i,

D,

I

fay,

A

will

have

236

The Elements of Euclid.
as

have the fame proportion to C,
TJimofifiration.

AC to CD.

to

fuppos'd to have the fame proportion therefore alternatively (acCD, B to to the 16. has the lame proportion cording to and by Converfion of Proto B, as ^ to portion ABwill have the fame proportion there to C 5 and again alternatively, A, as to CD, as wj!1 be the lame proportion of
is

AB

as

D

•,

1

AB

CD

D

CD

AB

of

A to C.
c

The
* 1

USE.

c
c

This Proportion is commonly made ufe of of in the Rule of Fellowship. For inftead the Rule of Three tor every parworking by ticular Aifociate or Partner, having done
it

for the reft,

in the laft they aifign the

c *

*
c

Remainder of the Gain fuppofing that if there be the fame proportion of the whole. Sum of all the Principals to the whole
Gain, as of the Principal of one Aflociate to Gain 5 there will be alio the fame propoition of the Principal that remains to the Remainder of the Gain. c The 2 b and 2 1 Propofitions are not ne«
his Part of
ceffarv.

c c '

*

PRO-

The Ffih Booh

23?

PROPOSITION
A THEOREM,
The Proportion of Equality
If divers

XXII.

orderly placed.

Terms be proposed and an equal Numher others compared, whb the.nl, Jo that of thofe
in the

which anfwerto each other
be proportional
•,

fame
the

\j\der

the Firjls and

Lafis wilt

be alfo proportional

F

1
D

the Quantities A, P,C, andthe Quantities D.E.F,

ii 2 ,6

3

2-6,3,

a ^

.ni
B

1,

F
of

e proportional 5 that is, it to there be the fame proportion of to E, and of B to C as of E to F^

A

as

A will
as

alfo have the fame proportion to C, toF.
t)e?jionfiratioii.

D

If to F,

A has a greater proportion to C than D A will contain an aliquot Part, v. g. the
D

can contain the |Ialf of C, oftner than Let us fuppoie then the Halt of Half of F. C to be contain'd twelve Times in A,' and the
td the Quantity B will contain the Half of F, C ? as oft as E contains the Halt of F Sup^
i

caufe

Half of F only eleven Times in D. B has the fame proportion to

Now
C
as

be-

E

Q,

'pofa

2^8

The Elements of Euclid.

.

pofe then thofe Halves to be contain'd fix Times in each, Band E. A* which contains the Half c f C twelve times, will have a greater proportion to B, which contains the fame Half of C fixtimes^ than D which contains! the Half of F eleven times only, to E, which contains the fame Half of F fix times $ andj have a greater proportion confegaently A will to B, than D to E, which is contrary to what
j

fras fuppos'd.

PROPOSITION
A
The

XXIIL

THEOREM.
plac'd.

Proportion of Equality- diforderly*

be in the farie Propor If tiro Orders of Term, d iforderly plac'd: the fir avd the kj ft tkiij

of both Orders

will be ProjportMtal.

AJB CD,E,F.G,
}

12,6,3. 8,4,2.1.

and IF the others D,
equal in

the Quantities, A, B,(

Number,

E, f be in th

A has the fame B to C, as D to E A will have the fam proportion to C, as D to F, Suppofe B to hav
if

fame^ proportion,

diforderly plac'd, that i\ proportion to B, as E to t
:

and

thefiame proportion to Cl as

F

to G.

th

The Fifth Book:
Demonfiration.

23$

Since there is the fame proportion of to as of E to F, and of B to C, as of F to p, has the fame proportion to C, as E to G G, (by the 22.) Further, fince B has the fame
-,

A

A

and alfo as F to fame proportion to E ? as F to G, (by the it.) and alternatively, (according to the 16.) D will have the fame proportion to F, as E to G. Now we have before prov'd , that as E to G, f A to Cj
proportion to C, as

D to E,

Gj

D will have

the

:herefore, as

A to C,

fo

D to

F.

PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.

XXIVi

If the firft Quantity\ha% the fame Proportion to

:

the fecond, as the third to the fourth $ anl. alfo the fifth to the fecond, ajthe fixth to the fourth: the firft with the fifth will have the

fame Proportion

to the fecond, with the fixth has to the fourth.

as the third

to IF B,
s

F

has the fame proportion as C to D, and E to B, to will have the

A

ffi

F
2 > 9>
%

D

•,

AE

ame proportion

to B, as

CF

67

A»B,QD,

Since

A

Demoyfiration*

has the fame proportion to B, as

Q

2

id

240
to

The Elements of Euclid.

aliquot Part of B, like aliquot Part of l)t(byt)efin 5.) In like manner, E will contain the fame aliquot Part of B, as oft as F will and fo that contains the like of

D,

A will contain any
C contains the

as oft as

D

-,

A

E

contain any aliquot Part of B, as oft as C and F contain the like aliquot Part of * therewill have the fame proportion to B, fore

D

AE

as

CF

to

D.

— —uJ—L—i*
i

v

r

PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
are

XXV.
the

proportional, tffour Magnitudes and the leaji will exceed the other two.

greatejl

the four Magnitudes AB CD E, F, be proportional 8, £ and AB the greateft and F th ea ftj AB ail(i F w iU exceec f'I A,t\E CD and E. Since AB has thi fame proportion to CD as E to F, and AB fuppos'd greater than E, CD will be alfi

B,D,

1

TF

?

'

"

'•

i

D
of

greater than F, (by fore fo, that the

the

AB

14.)

Divide there

equal to Ft, and fo, may be equal to F.

C

CD

Magnitude
that the

A may

I;

b<

Magnitud<

Since

A to

AB has the fame proportion
B will alfo have

Demonjlration,

to

CD at

C,

the fame proportion

The Fifth Booh
to D, as

241

AB

to

CD,

(by the 19.^

will be greater and E, which are equal, be added F and C, which are alfo equal, and F will be equal t© C and E h and adding to the two firfl: B, which is the greater, and

fuppos'd greater than than D. Now if to

CD, B

And AB being

A

A

to the
!

two

laft

F

will be greater than
'

D, which is the leiler, CD and E.
The

AB and

USE.

1

By
r

this

r Property
r whereby

PropoCtion is demonftrated a of Geometrical Proportionality,
diftinguilhed

from that which' For in this latter the. * two middle Terms are equal to the two Ex' treams*, but in the former, (as has been r prov^d,) the greateft and the leaft exceed the r two others.
it is

iscall'd Arithvietical.

Tho' the nine following Propofitions are not Eacli d's , yet, becau'fe many make ute of them, and quote them as if they were his, I thought I ought not to omit them.

*

Q.3

PR<

242 * -

The Elements of Euclid.

PROPOSITION
!
i

XXVI,

-

A THEOREM.
has a greater Propoition to the fecoiti Jf the frft than the third to the fourth, the fourth will have a greater Proportion to the third than
the fecoid to thefirjr.
fi

I

1

F A has
to

B

a greater proportion

than

C to D, D

will have

I

a greater proportion to

to A. Suppofe E proportion to Bas

than B to have the fame

C

A
f;

C

to

D, A

will be greater than E, (by the 10J Demonfration. There is the fame proportion of

of

E to B, a* therefore (by the Corollof the i&. has the fame proportion to C, as B to E. But B has a greater proportion to E than tc

€ to D:

t

D

1

has a greater proporA,(fy the 8 ) therefore P tion to C, than B to A.
k

D

i

PRO

The Fifth Booh
' 1
-

243

-

PROPOSITION,
A THEOREM.

XXVII.

If the fir has a greater Proportion to the fecottd ft than the third to the fourth, the firft will alfo have a greater Proportion to the third than
thefecond to the fourth.

-*•

will have a greater propor- E. tion to C than B to D. Let E have the fame proportion to B, as C to in that Cafe muft be greater ^ than E.

A

F A has a greater to B than C to D,

!

proportion I fay that

9/4'

6, 3,

A,B*C,D,

&

D

A

Demonftration,

has the fame proportion to B, as C to D: therefore (by the 16.) E has the fame proportion to C, as B to D. And becaufe A is greater than E, the proportion of A to G will be greater than that of E to C. Thererore the proportion of to C, is greater than that

E

A

ofBtoD.

Q.4

PRO-

244

The Eh went s of Euclid.

PROPOSITION

XXVIII.'
I

A THEOREM.

has a greater Proportion to the feIf the ftft cond than the third to the fourth, thefrft aid thefecond will have a neater Proportion ta

thefecond, than the
the fourth.

third

and the fourth

tat,

I F
-*-

A, ii,C,D
3.

the proportipn of to B le greater than that of C to I),

A

the proportion of
alfo be greater to D. Suppofe

AB

to

B

will

than that of CD E to have the fame

proportion to B, as

C tp D.
C
to

De?nopJlratiott.

the fame proportion to B, as D: therefore (by the 18.) EB has the to And proportion to B, as
.

E has

fame
being
con-*

greater than

EB,

CD D AB will have a
:

AB

greater pro-

portion to B, than EB to the fame

B

;

and

frrmemly than

CD

to D.

PRO

The Fifth Book.

245

PROPOSITION
ATHEOREM.
If the
firft

XXIX.

with the Jecond has a greater Prothan the third with the fecond, portion to the fourth the the firft will have* fourth
to
•,

a greater Proportion to the fecond,
third to the fourth.

than the

1 F
-*-

the proportion of AB to B be greater than the proporto D,the proportion tion of ef A to Bwill be alfo greater

9,4;

CD

than that of C to D. Suppofe EB to have the fame proportion to B, as to D then EB will be lefs than AB, and lefs than A.
:

CD
E

Demonfiratioju

Since

EB

CDtoD-,

has the fame proportion to B, as dividing them, E will have the

fame proportion to

to D, (by the 17 .) E, the proportion of to B will be greater than that of E to the fame B, and confequently than that of C %o D.

B

as

C

And

A

A being greater than

246

The Elements of Euclid,

PROPOSITION
ATHEOREM,
If
the Proportion

XXX.

of the

firft

the fecond, be greater than with the fourth to the

with the fecond to that of the third
•,

the Proportion fourth with the to the firjl^ will firjl of fecond be lefs than that of the third with the fourth to the third.
the

A,B J* 4

.

.

c, £5

DJ
3J
lefs

*"

A

will be

be greater than that of CD to D, the proportion of AB to than that of CD to C.
Demonfration.

A

TF the proportion of AB

to

B

proportion of AB to B is fuppos'd to be greater than that of CD to therefore to B will be the 29.) the proportion of (by greater than that of C to D ^ and (by the 26.) to C will be greater than the proportion of

The

D A

:

D

that of

B to

A

j

therefore being

(by the 28) the proportion of to A. be greater than that of

CD

compounded to C, will

AB

PRO*
S

The Fifth Book,

247

PROPOSITION
1

XXXI.

A THEOREM.

are in a greater Proportion If many Quantities among themfelves, than an equal Number of

ner

other ghiantities, placed after the fame manthe frfi of the frfi Order will be in a 1

to the lajl of that Order , greater Proportion than the fijt of the fecond Order to the lafi

of

that,

IFAhasagreaterproportion to B, than D
to

E

j

and

portion

B a greater proto C, than E to F

|A, B, C,D,E,F, JJj^io, 3[i9,6, 2.[

~*

5

greater proportion to C, than

A will D to F.

have a

Demonjlration.

D

has a greater proportion to B than to E, A will alfo have a greater proportion to than B to E-, and becaufe B has a greater proportion to C than E to F, B will alfo have a greater proportion to E than C will have a greater, protoF. Therefore than C toF^ and alternatively portion to will have a greater proportion (by the 27.) to F. toG, than
Since

A

D

A

D A D

PRO-

148

The Elements of Euclid.

PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.

XXXII.

If many Qjtantities are in greater Proportion among themfelves^ than an equal Number of ether Quantities placed after a different manner y the fijl of the firjl Order will have
,
-

a greater Proportion to thelafi cf that Order , than thefrji of the fecond Order to the laft of
that Order.
13, 6, 2,

IF A has a greater proporI

A,C,e'
B,
12,

tiontoCthanItoK,and
proportion to
,

F,

H,I,K C a greater
than

E

34, 2,1

H to I A will have a

H to K.
tion to to

C

F

as

H to I
'tis

greater proportion to E,than Suppofe B to have the fame proporas I to and C the fame proportion ?

K

\

then

A will "be

greater than B,

and

F

than E.

Demonftration.
fuppos'd that B has the fame proto F as to C as I to K, and tol-* portion will have the fame proportion to F, as has a greater proporto K, (by the 23.) But

Since

C

H

B

H

A

tion to F, than B to the fame F, (by the 8 J and the proportion of A to E is greater than to F, becaufe F is greater than E : that of

A

therefore the proportion of to K. than that of

A

H

to E, is greater

PRO-

The Fifth Book.

249

PROPOSITION
If the Whole has

XXXIII.

A THEOREM.
Ifhole than
the Part

a greater Proportion to the taken away bo the Pari

taken away, the Remainder will have a greater Proportion to the Remainder than the Whole to
the Whole.

F AB

I

than B to D, A will have a greater proportion to G than AB to CD.
to

CD

has a greater proportion

A ^ £j^ ~— —
l

l

CD is greater

We fuppofe

Demonftration. that the proportion

of

AB
to

to

than that of

B

to

D;

there*

fore (by the 27.) the proportion of to D: and is greater than that of

AB

B

therefore alternatively, that of CD to C the proportion of AB to CD is lefs than that
•,

50) the proportion

of

CD AB to

(by the

A,

is lefs

than

of

A

to C.

PRO

2^0

The Elements of

E'i:liJ.

PROPOSITION XXXIV.
A THEOREM.
If two Orders
the

1

of Magnitudes be proposed,

mil

to the Proportion of the firfi of the firfi, that of firfi of the fecond, be greater than the fecond to the fecond; and that greater
the. than that of the third to the third, whole firfi Order will have a greater Proportion to the whole fecond, than the whole firft

&c

Order except its firfi Magnitude, to the whole fecond Order except itsfrft Magnitude-, But a lefs Proportion than thai of the firfi Magnitude of the firfi Order, to the firfi Magnitude
.

of the fecond andlafily, a greater Proportion than that of the laft Magnitude of the firfi
*,

Order,

to the laft

of the fecond,

112,6.4,-4,3,3,1 1A,B, C, E,P,G,|
tion of

B

to

F

that greater jr £ tQ -p^ ancj t j ie proporI greater than that of C to

]FE be proportion than -1

the

of

A to
:

G

fey, that A, B, C, will have a greater proportion to E, F, G h than the proportion of

BCtoFG.
fupposM the proportion of A to E is greater than that of B to F , and therefore
'Tis

Demonftration.

gu

The Fifth Booh
alternatively, the proportion of of E to F ^ and greater than that

251

A

to

B
to

is

by com-

pounding them, the proportion,
•,

ot

AB

B

to F and again greater than that of EF the proportion of AB to EF alternatively, And becaufe the greater than that of B to F. of the Whole AB to EF is greater proportion than that of the Part B to the Part F, the to the Reproportion of the Remainder mainder E, will be greater than that of the

A

Whole
I

AB

to the

Whole EF. In

like

manner,
5

may prove the proportion of B to F greater than that of BC to FG, and confequently that of A to E r much greater than that of BC to FG. Therefore alternatively, the proporto BC is greater than that of E to tion of

A

and compounding them, the proportion of A , B, C, to BC, greater than that of E,F,G, therefore the proportion of A, B, G* to FG to E, F, G, will be greater than that of BG
;
:

FG

toFXj.
to E, is Secondly, the proportion of than that of A, B, C, to E, F, G. greater Demovjlratvm. I have demonftrated, that the proportion of the Whole A, B, C, to the Whole E, F, G, is greater than that of the Part BC to the Part FG therefore the proportion of the to the Remainder E, will be Remainder greater than that of the Whole A, B, C, to the
1

A

:

A

Whole, E, F,

G,(bytbe&)
Third-'

252
.

The Elefnents of Euclid.

Thirdly, the proportion of A, B, C, to F, G, is greater than of C to G.
Demonjlration.

^

The proportion of
that of

B

to

F

$

that of

A to B is

A to E is greater than and therefore alternatively,
greater than that of

E to F 5

AB to B will be greater than that of EF to F, and again alternatively, that of ABtoEF But the will be greater than that of B to F. proportion of B to F is greater than that of C
to
to therefore the proportion of to 5 and that of greater than that of

and compounding them, the proportion of

(X

AB

EF is

C

G

AB to

G,- and therefore 5 the proportion, of A, by compounding them, B, C, to G,will be greater than that of E,F,G, to G * and that of A, B, C, to E, F, ? greater

C greater

than that of

EF to

G

than that of

C to G.

PRO

53

THE SIXTH BOOK
.

OF THE
O
--

ELEMENTS
F

CLI
~>

His Book begins to apply the Do^
dtrine
in

of

Proportions
in

general

particular Matters 5 the moft Ample Figures, i. e. Triangles, it gives Rules to determine, not only the proportion of their Sides, but alfo that of their

, explain'^ the preceding, to and taking its Rife froni

Capacity, Area, or Superficies. In the next Place we learn from it, how to find out pro* portional Lines, and to augment, or diminifh

any Figure, according to any proportion aflign'd. Here alfo is. demonstrated the moft ufetul Rule of Three-, rand the Forty- feventh of the Firft extended to any Figure whatfoever. Laftly, it lays; down the moft facile and moft certain Principles to con-

dud us in taking any manner

oi

Dimenfions,

R

D

E^

2<j4

21b*

Elements of Euclid.

DEFINITI ONS.
I
.

T3

fimilar, when thei: are equal, and tto Angles Sides, that form thofe Angles
c

XV

Edtilineal Figures ar

proportional.
*

As

the Tri
will b

angles
*

ABC, DEF,
5

fimilar, if the

D,

B and

E,

C and F, be equal
2.

Angles

and

A ant AB ha
DF

the fame pioportion to

and

AB

to

AC, as BC, asDEtoEE.
when

DE

to

b
*

r »
when

Figures are reciproca the}'' may be fo con par'd, that the Antecedent ( one Proportion and the Cor fequent of another are bot|

1

* *

found in the fame Figure a the Analogy begins and en< That is, in the fame Figure. As if AB has the fam
evi

CD, as DE to BF. \ Line is divided according to e: 3. tream and middle Proportion , when th whole Line has the farr.
proportion to

jut

A

ICC

-

——
.

1|

A
*

C

proportion

to

the

great<

B

Part, as the greater Part t c the leffer. hi As if

AB

the fame proportion to

AC,

as

AC

to

CB
tl

The Sixth hook
the Line

*>$j

AB is divided
a

according to extream

and middle Proportion. 4 TheHeighth of any Fi.

gure
{

is

Perpendicular
its

lrawn from
its

Sum miry

to

Bafe.

'

As

in the Trian-

|

gles

ABC, EFG,

thePer-

« F GB »

c-

pendiculars

AD

and EH,
within or without the

whether

they

fall

Triangles, are their Heights. Fierce it follows, that all Triangles and Parallelograms,
that have

equal Heights, may he placd within the fame Parallels. For having fet
their Bafes

pendiculars
5
)f
.

EA and HC will be Parallels.

upon the Line HC, if the PerDA and HE be equal, the Lines
is faid

A

proportion
others,

many

when

to be compounded the * Quantities of

hofe proportions being multiply'd, make c nother. To underftand the true Intent of
this Definition, it

every proportion,

mufi be obfery'd, that at leaft every t rational

proportion, takes its Denomination from a certain Number, denoting that Refpect or Relation that the Antecedent of the propor*6
tion bears to the Confequent.

As

if

two

Magnitudes were proposed, one of twelve Foot in Length, and the other of fix we mould call that proportion of 12 to 6 the

* Demminators.

f

Exprcflible by true

Kum'ers,
*

R

2

double

256

The Elements of Euclid.

double proportion. In like manner, if 4 and 12 were propos'd, we mould give that
the
its

Name

Denominator

of fubtriple proportion, { being importing as much as,
-,

that the proportion of 4 to 12, is the fame as that of ~ to Unity, or as one to three. This Denominator is call'd the ^iianuty ot\l

Suppofe therefore three 12, 6, and 7\ the firft of 12 to 6 being double, its proportion
Proportion.

the

Terms were given,
Denominator
is

two-,

the fecond of

6

to

V

2 being Triple, its Denominator is three$ the proportion therefore of 1 2 to 2 is faid to be compounded of that of 12 to 6, and of 6 to 2, the double and the Triple pro-

k

an

To find therefore the Denomina a portion. K tcr of the proportion of 12 to 2, multiplj
r

three by two, and the Product 6 will fhou the proportion of 1 2 to 2 to be fextiiple to fix. This is that whicl f. e. as one is

Mathematicians
*
c

commonly underftand
though
call'd

.11

1

bj
'it

compound Proportion,
it

might more properly have been ^portion multiply 'd.

methink: Pro

"8

h

PRO

The Sixth Booh

257

A

2

58

equal to ing equal among themfelves are the aliquot Parts of the Triangle DEM. As oit there contains thofe aliquot lore as the Bale of EM, fo oft does tho Triangle AGC Parts contain the aliquot Parts of the Triangle DE

ThelElements of Euclid. which be thofe contain'd in ,

1

DEM

GC

i

M

will happen in every Diviflor h which alfo whatfoever therefore the Triangle AGC ha: the fame proportion to the Triangle DEM, a; the Bafe GC to the Bafe EM.
:

Mow
fame
.

Parallelograms,

defcrib'd

upon th

v.

Bafes.

and

inclos'd

between the fam

Parellels, are double the Triangles, (by th 41 1 .) therefore they are in the lame propoi tion as the Trangles, 2. e. as their Bales.

Tie USE.
not only ferviceablei thofe that follow, but alio demcnftrating great life in dividing large Fields, or Plain As for Example, fuppofe you were to tal 4 the third Part of the Tr
is
<

c

This Proportion

ill

c

i
i

c

*
4

pezhm ABCD, having tl Sides AD and BG parallel
t

F
1

c

*
"

and taking BG tl AD-, third Part of BE, draw AG-, I fay the Tr 5
'

produce the Line BC to E,#i i that CE may be equal

&

angle
1

AEG is the third Part of the Trapeziv
to
1

t

ABCD,

I

J

The Sixth Booh
Demonflration.
*

259
are Equiare

The Triangles ADF, and ;FCE,

angular, becaufe the Lines Parallels 5 and their Sides
:

AD

and
and

AD

CE CE

arc

the Trianequal the Triangles are equal, and confequently gle ABE, is equal to the Trapezium ABCD. is the third Part of But the Triangle
therefore (by the

26. 1.)

iS

ABG
(

the Triangle

ABE,

fore the Triangle

ABG

by the preceding) thereis

the third Part of

the Trapezium

ABCD.

PROPOSITION
ATHEOREM.
A
divides

II.

Line drawn in a Triangle parallel to its Bafe, and the Line its Sides proportwially-,
Sides

that divides the

of a Triangle proporti-

to its Bafe. onally , will be parallel
<

F
Bafe
iwill
z.

in the Triangle

I" Line

DE

ABC the be parallel to the

BC,

the Sides

AB

and

AC

be divided proportionally. will have the fame to proportion to DB, as AE, the Lines DC and EC, Draw
e.

AD

Triangles DBE, and ECD, having the fame Bafe DE, and being enclos'd within4

BE.

The

R

s6o
(by the 37.

The Elements of Euclid.

in the fame Parallels
1.)

DE

and BC,

are equal

DejnGvftratioTi.

The

Triangles

ADE

and

DEE

fame Height E, and taking
their Bafes they

AD

have the and DB for

may be plac'd within the Line AB, and another Parallel to it drawn through the Point E, and confequently have the lame proportion as their Bates, (by the il 2. e. the Triangle ADE has the fame proportion to the Triangle DBE, or its Equal CED. as AD to DB But the Triangle ADE ha< like wife the fame proportion to the Triangle CED, as AE to EC-, and therefore AL) has the
1

fame proportion

to

DB,

as

AE
to

to

EC

Secondly, frppofe I fay to DB proportion to EC. as Lines DE, and BC will be Parallels.
:

AE AD

have the farm
th(

Demoyjlration.

AD

has the

ADE to the Triangle to DEB,(fl the i ) and AE has the fame proportion DC, as the Triangle ADE to the Triangl<
the Triangle
tc

fame proportion

to

DB,

a

CLDi

and conic quently the Triangle ADI has the fame-proportion to the Triangle 1 EB has to the Triangle CED as the fame Therefore (y the 9. 5.) the Triangles BDI and CED, are equal, and (by the 29. \ ) be uveen tie fame Parallels. Therefore th

ADE

t

Lines
>

LE and EC are

1

arallels.

Th

The Sixth Book.
The.

261
necelTary

U
is

S E.

'This Propofirion
t

abfolutely

for the
It

Demonftration of thofe that follow.

may

c

lions

As

'

were to meafure the Height of BE ^ having creeled a Staff or Pole DA, there will be the fame proportion of CD to DA, as of

alio b« ferviccable in taking in the following Figure,

Dimenif you

'BCtoEE.

PROPOSITION
A
two
Pai
ts

III.

THEOREM.
Triangle into
into

A Line that divides an Angle of a
equal Paits,
divides its

Eafe

two

which have the fame

Proportion as the

Sides.

And

if

it

Pai ts yrovdHional to the Sides, the Angle into two equal Parts.

divide the Baje into two it will divide

I F
-1

the Line

AD

divide the Angle

equal Parts, will have the fame proportion to

BAC into two

AB

AC as BD to DC.
CA,and
The
two

Produce the Side take A.E equal to AB^
Demonjlration.

then draw the Line EB.
external

Angle
5

internal Angles
1

CAB is equal AEB and ABE:
.

to the

which

being equal,

by the

1

.

)

becaufe the Sides

AE

262

The Elements of Euclid.

AE and AB are equals the Angle BAD, which is the Half of BAG, will be equal to one of them, fuppofe ABE: therefore (by the 27. 1.) the Lines AD and EB are parallel, and (by the 2.) there is the fame proto . portion of EA or AB to AC, as of if AB has the fame Secondly, proportion to AC as BD to DC, the Angle BAC will be

DB

DC

divided into two equal Parts.
DemoTiJlrathn*

AB
AC,
as parallel

or

EB and AD are and (by the 29. 1.) the alternate Angles EBA and BAD,asalfo the internal BE A and the External DAQwill be equal and the
:

EA has BD to DC
5

the fame proportion to

therefore

:

Angles
fore the

BEAand EBA
Angle

BAD an&DAC
equal Parts.

BAC

being equal,the Angles will be alfo equal. Therewill be diviaed into two

The USE.

*
*

make Ufe of this Proportion chiefly to find the proportion of the Sides oi Tri'

'

We

angles.

PRO-

The Sixth Book

r

263

PROPOSITION.
A THEOREM.
The. Sides of equiangular Triangles
portional,

IV.

are pro~

IF DCE, be equiangular,
if the

the Triangles

ABC

and
i.

e.

Angles ABC and DCE, BAC and CDE be equal, AB

will have the fame proporto CE, and B tion to BC as will have the fame proportion to alfo

DC

AC as DE to

CB

EC. Joyn the Triangles after fuch a manner, that the Bales BC and CE may be upon the fame Line, and produce the Sides
-,

BA and ED till they meet in F fince the Angles 'ACB and DEC are equal, the Lines AC and EF are Parallels, (by the 28. 1.) and by the fame Reafon CD andBF are Parallels, and therefore AFDC is a Parallelogram.
De?nonftration.

In the Triangle BFE,

FE

is

parallel to

AC, therefore (by the 2.) proportion to AF, or, which
CD,
as

AB

BC

to

CE

has the fame is equal to it,
as

:

and alternatively, AB has
to

the fame proportion

BC,

CD

to

CE.
In

264

The Elements of Euclid.

In like manner in the fame Triangle,
ing parallel to BF, proportion to DE, as

CD be-

FD or AC
,BD
to

has the fame

CE,

{by the 2 )

and alternatively,
tion to

AC has
CE.

the fame propor-

BC,

as

DE to
The

USE.

it

This Propofition isfo of general life, that may pais for a moil univerfal Principle in taking all manner of Dimenfions. For in
place all the Methods of meafuiing inaccejfible Lines, by defcribing a fmall Trifimilar to that which is form'd upon
firft

'

the

angle

it-, as alfo the of thofe mathematical Ivftruments, upon which are defoiVd Triangles, fimiliar to thofe of which we defire to take the Dimenfions, as the Geometrical Square^

the ground,
preatefl:

is

founded upon

Part

the
Sec.

Pantometer,

the Arbaleft or

Crqfs-ftaff,

Nor could we knew how to raife the Plane of any Place, but by the Help thereof.
So that in
fine,

to
it

this Propofition,

unfold all the Ufes of would be neceffary to
firft

tranferibe the

whole

Book of

frafiical

Geometry.

PRO-

The S:xth Book.

265

PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
Triangles,

V.

which

have proportional Sides, are
equiangular.

IF Triangles DEF have proportional
Sides,

the

ABC and
has the

A
^

I

e.

if

AB

fame proportion to
DE. to EF \ anr alfo fame proportion to

BC as B AB the


<j

^

AC

as

DE to DF,
FEG
to the

the Angles and DEF, D, C and F, will be equal. Make the equal to the Angle B, and

ABC

A and
Angle
equal

EFG

Angle C.
Demonjlration.

ABC and EFG hare two Angles equal, therefore (by CorolL 2. of the 32. 1.) they are equiangular*, and (by the 4.) Aft has the fame proportion to BC as GE to EF. Now 'tis fuppos'd, that DE has the
The
Triangles

fame proportion
fore

to

EF

as

AB

to

BC,

there-

DE

EG to DE and EG are equal. After the fame manner DF may be prov'd equal to FG, and con* the Triangles DEF ) fequently (by the 8. and GEF are equiangular. But the Angle GEF
1

has the fame proportion tp EF as EF-, and cenfequently (by they. 5.)

was

266

The Elements of
to

Euclid.
the

was made equal

B,

therefore

Angle

DEF DFE

is equal to the Angle B, and the Angle and confequently, the to the Angle C
•,

Triangles

ABC and DEF

are equiangular.

PROPOSITION
A

VI.

'

THEOREM.

T) tangles, which have each one of their Angles
the other, and the Sides com* equal to one of that Angle Proportional, are equiaUtahring

gidar.

and tfeefg. the Triangles B and E equal, preced~\ have the Angles has the fame proportion to and the Side and to EF, the Triangles as Make the Angle will be equiangular. and the Angle EFG equal to the Angle B,

ABG

DEF

IF

t

AB

BC

DE

ABC

DEF FEG

equal to the Angle

C

Demonjlration.

The Triangles
(by Coroll.

ABC
2.

and
the

GEF

are equian*

fore (iytfee 9-

of gular has the fame proportion to BC, fo is EF (by the 4.) But as has the fame proporroJEF-, therefore to the fame EF h and theretion to EF as are e 3 ual > and

AB

32. 1.) therefore to to BC, as

AB

GE DE

DE

GE

*•)

DE

EG

and the Triangles DEF Angles DEF and GEF, D

and GFE, having the
each equal to the

Angle

-

The Sixth Book.

167

Angle B, and the Sides DE and FG equal, with the Side EF common to both, will be the 4, 1 .) therefore equal in all Refpe&s, (by will be equiangular ^ and the Tiiangle they

EGF being equiangular to ABC,the Triangles ABC and DEF are equiangular.
The Seventh Propoftion
is

of no Ufe.

PROPOSITION VIII.
A THEOREM.

A Perpendicular,

drawn from the right Angle of a rectangular Triangle to the oppojite Side, di*
it.

videsthe Triangle into two others fimilar to

drawn from the IF

the Perpendicular

BD

he

right Angle to the oppofite Side AC, it will divide the rectangular A" into two TrianTriangle

ABC

ABC

which will be fimilar gles or equiangular to the Triangle ABC.
De?no7iftration.

ADB and BDC,
Triangles

ABC and ADB have the fame Angle A, and the Angles ABC and ADB
The
right Angles, therefore they are Equiangular, (byCoroll 2. of the 32. 1.) In like manand have the ner, the Triangles

BDC

ABC

Angle

C common

ABC

and

BDC

and the Angles right Angles ^ therefore they
to

both,

alio

268

The Elements of
and

Euclid.

I

alio are equiangular-

Therefore the Triangle's

:f

ABC, BDC,
c

ADB,

The

USE.

are iimilar. Triangles.
I

Help of this Proportion inacceffible liftances may be meaiur'd by a Carpen-

By
s

the

ter

Square.

As

tor

Example,

It I

were to

meafure the Diftance

DC

I

-.,

having

drawn
A

the Perpendicular Bi), and plac'd Square upon the Point Bin 'filer) a m-.aimr, that

my

BC I could obferve the the other the Point by 'tis evident, there would be the fame proto DC. to DB, as of portion of Therefore multiplying DB by it felf, and dividing the Product by AD, the Quotient
by one-oj
Point
its

Sides

C) and

A

:

,

AD

DB

m
j

^

would be DC.

PROPOSITION
A PROBLEM.
from a Line givsn
to cut off

IX.
i

what Part you pleafs,
F

T

ET

the Line

propos'd
,

J

t!

X'j be AB, from which defire to take away 3 you fifth Parts. Make an Angle FXD, and upon one of its
Sides
Parts, three of

me
n;

CD

take five; equal
iri

til

which fhall be contained

CF:

The Sixth Book
-

$$$

»

then taking CE eijual to AB, dratv the Line DE r and another parallel to that FG j :he Line CG will contain three fifth Parts of
!F
:

:£,

<|r

AB.
Demonjlration,

In the Triangle ECD, FG being parallel to hp Bafe DE, CF will have the fame proporion to FDas CG to GE, (by the 2.) arc compounding them (by the 18. 5) CE will have" he fame proportion to CG as CD to CF * and the Coroll of the 16. 5.) CG will have the 'by ame proportion to CE as CF to CD. But 3F contains three Fifths of CD, therefore CG
/ill

contain three Fifths of

CE or AB.
-**sr

PROPOSITION
A PROBLEM.
To divide a Line after the ther Line given
is

X.
*

fame manner
divided;

as atto\

the [F Line AB

you would divide
after the

~

ame manner
livided,

as

AC

*^-'C t&X
\
I

is

make with

**cil_|i
\

\

the

wo Lines the Angle
>f

L what Magnitude you X>»-''£ then draw the )leafe: LineBC, and parallel to it the Lines EO, TV* and S

CAB

^V^tl^4> B
.L-jjj'H

2 fO

The Elements of Euclid. and the reft. The Line AB will be after the fame manner that AC is.

divided

and AC proportionally (by the 2.] fame may be faid of all the reft. To do this more eafily'you may draw th< Line BD parallel to AC-, and transferring the Divifionsof AC^toBD, draw Lines from one
Sides and the

Demonftrathn, is drawn Since in the Triangle BAC, to the Bafe BC, it will divide the parallel

HX

t

AB

I

to the other.

PROPOSITION
A PROBLEM.
Two Lif@ s

XI.

being given to fid a third Proportional
et

*

I

F you

find a thirc Proportional to the Line

would

T,

4

tion of AB to BC, as to the Line fought h

ABand BC, i. e. thatthep may be the fame Propoi
ofBC
ED

and upon one AE and BC, one immediately after the other; and upon the other Side take AD equal toBC then draw the Line BD, and parallel to it the Line CE and the Line DE will be that which
*,

at pleafure the Angle of its Sides take the Lines

mab EAC
A!

br

you feek.

m

I

The Sixth Book.
Demojijlratlon.

271

In the.Triangle E AC the Line DB is parallel the Bafe CE, therefore (by the 2 J there is ilhe fame proportion of AB to BC, as of AD
I

ji

LrBCtoDE.

PROPOSITION
A PROBLEM.
fa'es

XII.

Lines being given to fold a fourth
portionah

£<?•

f l_j .propos'd, to which you re to find a fourth Propdrional,

ET

the

three Lines

A
c
*><
"

B

§ZT^ r

be

AB,BC, and DE.

/lake at pleafure the

the Lines and to DE ; C, and upon AF the \lm equal icn draw the Line DB, and parallel to it FC:

AC, and take upon

AC

Angle

^L

B

AB

AD

;

fay, that DF is the Line fought, u e. there the fame proportion of AB to BC as of

DE

r

AD

to

DF.
Demonjlration.

d

In the Triangle F AC the Line DB is parallel the Bafe FC there is therefore the fame to DF, (by ropcrtion of AB to BC, as of
=,

AD

>*2.)

2

Tf»

2 j2
c
c
<

The Elements of Euclid. The USE.
of the Co?npafs of Proportion
i

The Ufe

grounded upon thefe four Proportions, fc that Inftrument teaching us to divide a Lin
as we pleafe-, to make ufe of the Rule ofthre without the help of Arithmetic^ to extrai the ftjuale^ arid cubick Roots-, to double th Cube } to meafure all forts of Triangles ; t find the Capacity of Superficies's, and theSc lidity of Bodies and to augment or diminif!
r,

<

«
4
c

1

*
c

any Figure, according
delire^ all thefe

to

what proportion w

El

Operations are demonftratei
n

'

by

the preceding Proportions.

PROPOSITION
APROBLEM.
Two
Lines being given to
ajfign

XIII.

a middle Pt b
LV
lie

portionah
JT

TF

you

defire
t

a

midd
betwec

to

JL Proportional the Lines LV,

and

VK
f<

-yr~\ having
that

—-v
'V

plac'd

them

***

right that Line into

they make Line LR,
defcrib'd

but 6r
divic
equj

two

Parts in

M,

and having

a Sem

die

I

The Sixth Booh

275

from the Center, draw the Perircle pendicular VT, which will be a middle Pro* and VR. Draw the )ortional between

LTR

LV

^ines

LT, andTR.'
m

Demoyjlration.

The Angle LTR,
nicircle, is

being defcrib'd in a Se~

a right Angle, (by the. 31.3.) and are and the 8.) the Triangles by therefore there is the fame proporimilar*

LVT

TVR

LV to VT in the Triangle LVT, as VT to VR in the Triangle TVR (by the 4) ierefore VT is a .middle Proportional beween LV and VR.
ion of

f

9

The
c

USE.

any rectangular Pabe reduc'd to a Square. For rallelogram may Example, in the Re&angle contained under LVand VR. the Square of VTls equal to

By

this Prcpofition

,

the Rectangle under hereafter demonftrate.

LV

and

VR

•,

as I fhall

Sj

PRO:

274

The Elements of Euclid.
I;

K

PROPOSITION.
A THEOREM.
equiangular £gi/^Z Sides reciprocal

XIV.
r
have
the]

Parallelograms
,

and equiangular

Parallel*
a\

grams, which have their Sides reciprocal,
equal
-

b c
D

H
£

'

F

-*•

M

the Parallelograms

L

to

an
ar
r
[,

be
i.

equiangular
e.

equal,

thejr Sides will be

M

ciprocal,

CD

will hai

FG

the
as
1

fame proportion to FD. to DS* .Since

D
thi
t

have equal Angles, they
gether, that the Sides XB, will concur in two
Coroll.of^the is>
I.)

CD

may ire'To

join'd

and DE,

FD

ar

right Lines,

(byt

AB arid logram BDEH.
Sides'

producing therefore t! GE, you compleat the Parall
Demonjlrathn*

^The Parallelograms

L and M

being

equ;

will have the fame proportion to the Paral i But the proportion of L logram

BDEH
is as

BDEH,
the Bafe

the Bafe
or

CD to

the Bafe

D
\

and that of

M,

DFGE,

to

FD

to the Bafe

DB

BDEH,

is

(by the

Thej

The Sixth Book.
I Therefore

275

CD

has the fame proportion, to

IDE, asFD toDB.
Ibe

jprocal,

Secondly, if the Parallelograms L and equiangular, and have their Sides recithey will be equal.
De?no7tfiratio7U

M

The Sides of
(proportion but as the Bafe
rallelogram
(by the 1.)

Ipos'd to be reciprocal, i. e. there of to DE, as of

the Parallelograms are fupis the fame

CD CD is

FD

to

DB

;

to

DE

7

fo is the Pa-

L

FD M to BDEH therefore L has the lelogram fame proportion to BDEH as M to the fame
and
^ ^

to the Parallelogram as to DB, fo is the Paral-

BDEH

BDEH,
grams

L

therefore (by the 9. 5,; the Paralleloand are equal.

M

S 4

PRO-

$j$

*£he

Elements of Euclid.

PROPOSITION
A

XV,

THEOREM.
And
red-

that have one Avgle equal each 'Equal Triangles, to the other, have the Sides that jorm that
reciprocal. if thofe Sides be will be equal frocaly they

Avgle

I F
-*-

the Triangles
equal,

being

F and G, have the

Angles

ACB

and

DCE

e?

qua), thofe Angles, will be recii. e. will have procal the fame proportion to CE
•,

their Sides that

form

BC

as

to CA. Place the Triangles fo, that the and Sides may majee one right Line and DCE and then becaufe the Angles are fuppcs d to be equal, BC and CE willalfo

CD CD

CA

•„

ACB

make one right Line, praw the Line AE.
The Triangle ABC

(by Coroll.

of the

i

j

.

i .)

Demonftration.

has the fame proportion

to the Triangle ACE, as the Triangle equal to the former, to the fame ACE, (by the to ACE, fo is the Bafe 7. 5.) Eut as

LCD

ABC

EC

to the Bafe
fa n^e

CE,

(by the 1.)

the

Height $ and as

ECD to ACE,

having both
fo is

the

The Sixth Book.

277

to CA, (by the fame:) therefore the Bafe to has the fame proportion to CE, as ]BC CA. But if the Sides be fuppos'd reciprocal, i. e. that BC has the fame proportion to CE to CA, the Triangles ABC and as will be equal, becaufe they will both have

CD

CD

CD

CDE

the fame proportion to

ACE.

PROPOSITION
A

XVI.

THEOREM.

the ReBangle conIffour Lines be proportional, tain d under the fir[t and the fourth, will be equal to the Rectangle contain d under the

And if the ReBangle fecond and the third. contain d under the Extreams be equal to that
contain

d

under the middle Terms, the four

Lines will be proportional.

T F the
-*

Lines A, B, C, D, be

proportional, i. e, if as to D, the Rectanto B, fo

A

A

C

gle contain'*! under the flrft A, and the fourth D, will be
[U

A
c

equal to the taiiul under

B and C.

Re&angle

con-

D

Demonftration.

Rectangles have one Angle equal each to the other, becaufe 'tis a right Angle in both ^ their Sides alfo are reciprocal there:

The

fore

they are equal, (by the 14 J

In

278

The Elements of Euclid.
their

In like manner, if they are equal,

will have the Sides will be reciprocal, i. e. to B, as C to D. lame proportion

A

PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
If
tabid under the

XVII.

three Lines be proportional, the ReSaftgle con* and the third, will be firft

ReBangle Lines are proportional.

And the middle Term. equal to the Square of the Square of the middle Term he equal to if under the Extreams^ the three the
the three Lines A, B, D, be proportional, the Rectangle will and contained under

}F

A

D

'

he equal to the Square of B. Take C equal to B, and there will be the fame proportion of therefore to B, as of C to j

A

D

the four Lines are proportional.

Demonfir ation.

The Rcdangle under

A and D will be equal

to that under B and C, (by the preceding) B but the laft Rectangle is a Square fthe Lines and C being equal) therefore the Re&angle the is equal to and contain d under Square of B.

A

D

The Sixth Book.
In
*^nd

279

D

have and B and C being equal, fame proportion, to B, as B
The
c

like manner, if the Rectangle under be equal to the Square or B, will to D: the fame proportion to B as

A

A

C

A

will

have the

to

D.

USE.

c

be demon' Rule in Arithmetick, which is 'commonly call'd the Rule of Three; and

By thefe four. Proportions may
the Rules of

flrated that

i
-*

confequently,
Falfe,

FellowJIrip,

of

and

all thofe others that

depend upon
fuppofe three

c

proportion.

For Example,

c
c c c c
c '

Numbers given, 8, B 6, and C 4, and it be requird to find a fourth proportional Number-, which taking as found, I will call D. The Rectangle then contain'd under

A

A

and D,
I

'
1

plying B by C, i. e. Six by Four the Product will be Twenty-four 5 therefore the Rectangle is alfo contain'd under and twenty
•,

may

equal to that under Band C. But have this latter Rectangle by multiis

A

D

4

four*, and therefore dividing that Number by A, which is 8, the Quotient Three will

I

be the

Number fought.

PRO-

280

The Elements of Euclid.
ww-

PROPOSITION.
A PROBLEM.
To
defcribe

XVIIL

a Polygon fimilar Line given.

to another

upon a

ET A B be the Line
afllgn'd,

upon
are
re-

you
JF

quired

to

defcribe

a

make a Triangle ABH fimilar to the Triangle CFE, h e. make the Angle ABH equal to the Angle CFE, and BAH equal to FCE for then
:

Polygon fimilar to the Polygon CFDE-, having divided the Polygon CFDF into Triangles, upon the Line

&&

will be equiani. of tbe 32. I.) Make alfo gular, (byCoroll. a Triangle equiangular to upon the Line

the Triangles

ABH
BH

and

CFE

FDE.
Demonjlration. Since the Triangles, which are Part of the Polygons are equiangular, the two PolyFurther, fince the gons are equiangular. and CFE are equiangular, Triangles will have the fame Proportion to as CF to FE, (by tbe 4J In like manner, the

ABH

AB

3H

Triangles

BH will

HBG and EFD being equiangular, have the fame Proportion to BG as

The Sixth Booh

281:

EF

to

FD

:

Defin. 18. 5 .) tion to BG, as

and by Equality^ (according t& AB will have the fame ProporCF to FD. And the fame may

be faid of
Defin.
1 .)

all the other Sides. Therefore (by the Polygons are fimilar.

The

USE,

this Proportion is grounded the Part of Pr attic al Geometry, that greateft relates to the raifing the Plan of any Place, as of a Building, Field, Foreft, or a whole For having divided a Line into Country equal Parts, to anfwer the Feet or Yards contain'd in the Plan, you may defcribea Figure fimilar to, but lefs than, the Original, in which you may fee the proportion! of all its Lines. And having by Experience

Upon

:

found

it much more eafie to travel upon Paper, than to take a tedious Tourney either

by Land

or Water, this Proportion will like-

wife afford us Afliftance in this refpect ^ informing us in almoft all the Parts of Geode*
Jia,

and Cborography ^ and giving Inftruilions how to compofe Geographical Charts, and Maps h which are nothing elfe but Methods
,

of reducing great Figures to fmall. Further, the Ufe of this Propofition extends its felf to almoft all thofe Arts, that require the

Defign and Model of their Works beforehand.

PRO-

q.%2

The Elements of Euclid.

PROPOSITION

XIX.

A THEOREM.
of
duplicate Proportion ibeir homologous Sid: s.

Similar {Triangles are hi the

EG-

C
7

£

£

BC EF, e. the proportion of the Triangle* ALC to the Triangle DEF will be the Duplicate of the proportion of BC to EF- fo that
BC and iF, and making EC to have the fame pr portion to EF, as EF to HI, the T Jangle EC'will have the fame proportion to DEF as the Line BC to the Line HI v which is to have to it a duplicate proportion (by J) fin. Take BG equal to HI, and draw the j S Line AG.
-

or equiangular, they will be in the duplicate proportion of their homologous Sides

IF be fimilar, DEF

the Triangles

ABC and

iding a third Proportional

HI

to the Lines

i

.

Deviojijlraticn.

The*Angles B and E of the Triangles ABG and DEF are equal} and befide.% j(jnce the ABC and DEFare firhilar, AB lyill Tria, have the lame proportion to E)E as BC to
;

I> (h

the fourth.)

But as

BC to

Er,

fo

EF
to

The Sixth Book
to

-

285
fo

HI or BG toBG} and

•,

therefore as

AB to DE,

EF

eonfequently,

the Sides of the

'

and DEF being reciprocal, Triangles And the Triangles will be equal, (by the 15; (by the 1.) the Triangle ABC has the fame proportion to the Triangle ABG, as BC to or HI} therefore the Triangle ABC has- the fame proportion to the Triangle DEF, as BC

ABG

J

BG

to

HI.
The
e

USE.
may
help
to correct

Thefe Proportions

c

the Error of thofe,

who

c
c '

fimilar Figures to have as their Sides, For it
two.

are apt to imagine the fame proportion

two
or

Squares,

two

f

Circles, Hexagons, Pentagons be proposed, and the Side of the firft be c double that of the fecond, the firft Figure c will be quadruple the fecond: if the Side of c the firft be triple that of the fecond, the * firft Figure will be nine times greater than ' Therefore to make a Sauare the fecond. * triple to another, you muft feek a middle ' proportional between one and three, and
c

two

*

you'll find for the Side of your triple Figure almoft 1 ~,

PRO-

284

The Elements of Euclid

«—

PROPOSITION
ATHEOREM.
Similar
Polygons

XX,

Number

may be divided into an equal of Triangles, and are in the duplicate Ft oyortion of their homologous Sides.
the Polygons

IF ABCDE"
GHILM
laiy

and
fimi*
e-

be

they

mzy b©
of

divided into an

qual fimilar Triangles^ which will be the fimilar Parts of their Wholes. Draw the Lines AC, AD, GI, GL.
Since

Number

the

will Angles have the fame proportion to BC as GH to HI, (by Defin. 1.) therefore the Triangles ABC and G HI are fimilar, (by the 6.) and (by the 3.) BC has the fame proportion to CA
5

B and

H will be equal

Polygons

Demonflration. are

fimilar,

their

and

AB

<

has the Further, becaufe fame proportion to BC as IL to IH, andBC as HI to IG ^ by Equality* the fame to as will have the fame proportion to
as to GI.

HI

CD

CA

CD
IL

CA

to

GL Now

the Angles

BCD

and

HIL
being

T/je

Sixth

Booh

285

and GI.H, King equal, if the Angles be taken from them, the vhich are equal, will remain equal. Angles ACD and GIL the Triangles ACD and Therefore (by the 6.) jIL will be
fimilar.
all

ACB

In like
the

afie to run over fimilar. Polygons, and to prove them that the Triangles I add further,

manner, 'tis Triangles of the
|

are in

he fame proportion as the Polygons.
Demo7ifirati on.

Since all the Triangles are fimilar, their Sides will be proportional, (by the 4.) but sach Triangle to its fimilar is in the duplicate proportion of their homologous Sides,' (bytb$
'

1

therefore every Triangle of one'T"^to every Triangle of the other, is in the gon duplicate proportion of their.Sides which be19.)
•,

the duplicate proportion muft r be the ame ? and there will be the fanne proportion of each Triangle to its Similar, as of all the Triangles of one Polygon to all

ng the fame,

-

Triangles of the other Polygon, (by the 2. e. of one Polygon to the other. Coroll. 1. Similar Polygons are in the duplicate proportion of their homologous Sides. Coroll 2. If three Lines be in continual proportion, a Polygon defcrib'd upon the firft will have the fame proportion to a Polygon defcrib'd upon the fecorid, as the firft
the
12. %.)

T

Line

$$6
tine to the

The Elements of Euclid.
third,
i.

e.h will be in the d plicate proportion, of that of the firft Lii to thefecond.

PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
Tolygovs,

XXI,
fa
J

that

an Jo

are fimVar a Jo

to

another

Polygo
I

amov^Jl them]elves.

IFmilar
will

two Polygons be
to a
fo

to: i

be

third, the alfo betwi: P
Pg,
its

themftlves. For they ms each be divided into

many
are in the third.

But

fimilar Triangles, Triangles fimilar to

h
an:

i

third, are alfo fimilar

amongft themfelvei becaufe Angles equal to- a third, are equ; amongft themfelves^ and the Angles of tl
thofe

urn

ofthePolygoi Triangles being equal, being compounded of them, muft be fo life
wife.
I add, that the Sides of the Triangles b< ing proportional, thofe of the Polygons mri! be fo alfo, becaufe they are the fame.

prii

to!

tati

»
!L

tie

h
• jt
.
.

The Sixth Booh

287

XXII.

PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
\Sitnilar

Polygons defcrib'dtiponfour proportio7ial And if the Poly* Lines, are alfo proportional. Lines arefo too. the gons be proportional?

,

IF portion
toMN,
will
alfo

BC

has the fame proto

EF

as

HI

the Polygon have the fame

ABC

to the flmilar to Polygon DEF, as fimilar Polygon MO. its

proportion

HL

to the Lines BC Seek a third Proportional and LF, and to the Lines HI and MWanother
third Proportional P, (by the 11.) Since has the fame Proportion to EF as HI to to P ^ by equality, and EF toG as will have the fame proportion to G, as

G

MN

MN

BC

f

BG
HI

to

proportion will be the Duplicate of that of BC to EF, or HI to MN.

P : and this

in the duplicate proportion of that of BC to EF, (by the 20) that is, as BC to G-, and the Polygon has the fame proportion to

The Polygon ABC

Demonftration. to the Polygon

DEF

is

HL

MO,

as

HI to

P.

Therefore

ABC

has the
fan?*

T

2

a88

The Elements of Euclid.
to

fame propprtiorL

DLF^

as

HL

to

MO.

Ant if the fimilar Polygons be proportional the Lines being, in thefubduplicate proportion
to them, will be alfo proportional.

The
'
1

USE.

h

#V^ M
jp'.-p'
'
!

W&l CTD, A
n
.

T his

, c

eafily
'

Proportion may apply d to Numbers,
->

h
li

the

Numbers

A B C D; U
:
'
j

>." .u'|.

*

*
*

which is more in

proportional, their Square; < E, F, G, H, will be to too very ferviceable in Arhbmetick, and
/

'

algebra.
'

"
: ',

;

PROP O SITION
f

XXIII.

A

THEOREM.

are in the ProportiEquiangular Parallelogra??is on compounded of the Proportions of their tit.
Sides;

K
Ml

b H
D

TF the Parallelograms L and X M be equiangular, the proportion of

L

to

M

will

be
toj

compounded

of that of

AB
to

P

&

,FG

BE, and
Joyn

that of

BD

DF.
lb,!

the Parallelograms

that their Sides

BD

may make

DE another

but one right Line, as 5 which, the Parallelograms ^be-

and DF; alfo CD and

jng
»"J

Tfje

Sixth Book.
be done

289

iilg equiangular, may ir6*i?.i.) and compleat the

(by the Coroll, of,

Parallelogram

BDEH.
Demovjlration.

The Parallelogram
tion to the
,

(by the 1) and the the fame proportiParallelogram to the Parallelogram DFGE, i. e. M, as thd iBafeBD^tt) DF. But the proportion of the Pa:
to the Bale
r

AB

has the fame proporParallelogram BDEH, as the Bafe

L

BH or DE BDEH has

on
I

rallelogram

pounded

of that of

L to the Parallelogram M, is comL to the Parallelogram

logram M. Therefore the proportion of E is compounded of that of AB to DE, [to land that of BD to DF. For Example, let A& and make as4 to, 7, jbe8, DE$,BD 4, DF7 to 8{ by which means you will have* jTo |:hree Numbers, 8, 5, and 8^, 8 to 5 being the

BDEH,

and of that of

BDEH to

the Paralle-

M
<>

^

•,

proportion of the Parallelogram and to ; ivhich is that of

AB

the Parallelogram jway therefore the middle
Df
tfill

DE BDEH

L to BDEH,
5 to

8f that

M. Taking Term five, there
to

remain 8 to 8 ~ for the proportion compounded of the two.

T

3

PRO-

290
'

The Elements of Euclid.
/

"

>

1 1

PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.

XXIV.

In aU Parallelograms, thofe through which th Diameter pajjes, are Jimilar to the great one.

Parallelogram pafs thro the Parallelograms EF, | fay they are fimilar to the Paral lelogram AC.

s Uppofe

the Diameter of thc|

AC

GH

:

F

t

Demovjlration.

a
1

Parallelograms AC and EF, have th feme Angle B, and becaufe in the Triangl BCD, IF is parallel to the Bafe DC, the Tri angles BFI and BCD are equiangular. There fore (by the fourth) BC has the fame Propoi

The

/I

lei

tion to Sides are

and confequently thi ii In lik< proportion. manner 1H being parallel to BC, wii b; to BC have the fame proportion to HI as lei. the Angles are alfo equal, all the Sides beinj Parallels: therefore (by Defn. 1.) the Paralle
as

CD

BF toFI,

in the fame

DH

DC

lograms EFand logram AC.
*
'

GH are fimilar to
The

the Paralle
fc

USE.
laft

I:

I

*

have made ufe of this Proportion to de
1

monftrate the

o Progofition of my

Bool

<0

The Sixth Booh
i

$<)i

of
to

Perfpe&ives', where draw an Image fimilar

I

have fhown a

way

to the Original,by

I

a Parallelogram composed of four Rulers.

PROPOSITION
A PROBLEM.
o defcribe

XXV.
dfii

a Polygon, fimilar to one given >
equal to another.

F you
lal to

defire

to de*
e«*

fcribe a

Polygon

the Rectilineal and fimilar to the |3lygon B i make a Pae

Uelogram CE equal to the Polygon B, (by 44 i J and upon the Line DE make anoer

Parallelogram equal to the Re&ilineal A* ythe 45. ii) Then find a middle proporti* and DF, (by the 13.) between lal

GH

ftly,

make upon
A.

CD GH a Polygon O, fimilar

B,

(by the 18.)

which will be equal to the

s&ilineal

Demonftraiion*
a continual the Rectilineal B defcrib'd upon •oportion, e firft, will have the fame proportion to e Rectilineal defcrib'd upon the fecond,

Since

CD, GH, and DP, are in

O

'DtoDF,

CD to

DFj

(byCoroll. i.tif the 20J fo is the Parallelogram

But

T4

CE to FEJ

zgi FE,

The Elements of Euclid.
or

B

to

Therefore

B

A, which are equal to them as has the lame proportion to
(by the 9. 5.)

B

to

A, and conflquently

O A and

O
*
c

TbeU S E. 7 his Propcfition teaches how to change one Figure iiito another, retaining ftill its ui etui ill equality to 3 third:, which is very
c

are equal.

'•

c

Ft attic alGeometr j, tor the reducing all 'gures to Squares.

Fi-

PROPOSITION XXVL
AIf
in one
lefs,

THEOREM.
vpn
the Angle, of the
1

Jimilar the greater will fall

ibei Angle of a Parallelogram you defer to the .former, the Diameter
left

....

-

F
__ i

in the Angle D of the Pa rallelogramAC you defcrifo

Parallelogram DG, fi miiar to the other,, the Diameter BD-will pais by the Point G For if it do not pals by that Point, fuppof< and t( Point I, it then to pals by. the
a leflei

make
lei

the Line.BlD.

Draw the Line IE

paral

to'HD.
Demonstration.

The Parallelogram DI would

be fimilar

tc

the

The Sixth Be ok.
the Parallelogram

295

Parallelogram

DG

AG, (by the 24.) But the is alfo fuppos d iimilar to

it, therefore the Parallelograms DI and would be fimilar, which is impoffible * for if fo, HI would have the fame proportion to IE

DG

or
6.

GF,

as

HG to the

fame

GF

5.) the Lines

HI and

GH

and (by the would be equal,
•,

PROPOSITION
A PROBLEM.
To
divide a

XXX.

Line

according to the extreme and middle Proportion,
\

LE
ding

T AB

be the Line pro-

pos'd to be divided accorto the extreme and middle

A

C B

may have the proportion, z. e. fo, that as to CB. fame proportion to Divide the Line by the 11. 2.) fo, that the Redand CB may be angle contain'd under

AC
of

AB AC

ABC

AB

equal to the Square

AC.

Demonjiration.

Since the Rectangle under qual.to the Square of AC,

fame proportion

AB and CB is eAB will have the to AG as AC to CB, (by thz
lie

17)
'

USE.
is

This Proposition

'

tec-nth

Book of

Euclid,

neceiTary in the Thirfor the finding the Side

294
c

The Eleme?its of

EuctidL'

* *

Sides of the five regular Bodies. And Friar Lucas, of the Holy Sepulcber, has composed a-' whole Book concerning the Properties of a

Line divided according
middle proportion.

to the

extreme and

*

PROPOSITION XXXL
A THEOREM.

A Polygon defcriVd upon the Bafe of a
lar Triangle,
is

ReBangu-

equal to the two fnnilar Polygons defcrib'd upon the other Sides of the fame

Triangle.

J

C

Angle BAG of the Triangle ABC be a right Angle, the Polygon D, de* fcrib'd upon its Bafe BC, will be equal to the two fimilar
the
-*

T&

upon

the Sides

AB and

Polygons

F and E

defcrib'd

AC.

Demonfiration.

F, are amongft in the duplicate proportion of their homologous Sides BC, AC, and AB, (by and if Squares were defcrib'd the 20.)

the Polygons D, E, and

themfelves

upon the fame Sides, they alfo would amongft themfelves be in the duplicate proportion of their Sides*, but (by the 47.1.) the Square of
>>1J!

The Sixth Booh

*95

and !BC would be equal to the Squares of defcrib'd upon the Polygon therefore the Bale BC, will be equal to the fimilar Po-

AC

AB

:

D

lygons E, and F, defcrib'd upon J5

AB

The

US
is

and AC.

E.

* *
4

This Proportion
or diminifh all

made

ufe of to aug-

6
*

manner of Figures, bement more univerfal than the 47. 1. which ing
yet
is

exceeding ufeful, in as

much

as almoft

all Geometry is

grounded upon that Principle.
is

The

3 2 Proportion

vfelefs.

PROPOSITION.

XXXIIL

A THEOREM.
In equal Circles, the Angles as well at the Center as a as the Seltors, are in lfo Circumference^
the

fame proportion

as

fa

Arches upon which

fbeyftan'i.

the Circles

Atf IF C and DOF
are
equal,

the
will

Angle ABC have the fame

proportion to the as the Angle

Ag

tt

Kl
Suppofe AG,
let

Arch and HC,

DEF AC to the Arch

DF.

GH,
be
di-

to be equal Arches, -and confequent-

ly the aliquot Parts of

AC* and

DF

29 6
it

The Elements of Euclid.

divided into as
contains the veft.
,

many

Parts,

equal to

AG,

as

and draw the Lines EI, EK, and
Demovflrathn.

All the Angles, ABG, GBH, HBC, DEI, 1EK, and the reft, are equal, (by the 27. 3.)
fo that AG, an aliquot Part of the Arch will he cohtain'd in the Arch DF, as oft as the Angle ABG, an aliquot Part of the Angle ABC,,

AC

therefore the is contain'd in the Angle DEF 5 Arch AC will have the fame proportion to the Arch DF, as the. Angle ABC to the Angle DEF. And becaufe N and Q are, the halves

of the Anglei ABC and DEF/ tney will be in therefore the the fame proportion as thefe has the fame proportion to the Angle Angle O, as the Arch AC to the Arch DF.
:

N

holds likewife in the Sectors for il you draw the Lines AG, GH, HC,DI 3 IK, and the reft, they will be equal, (by the 29/ 3, J and each little Sector will be divided into a
.

The fame

:

Triangle, and a Segment. But the Triangley will be equal, (by the 8. 1.) and the little Segments will alfo be equal, (by the ^4. 3.) there*, fore the whole little Sectors will be equal
x
;

f>

and confequently, as many the Arch AC as are contain'd

aliquot Parts of in the Arch DF*

fo many aliquot Parts of the Sector ABC will; be contained in the Sector DEF. Therefore the Arch has the fame proportion to the Arch,
.

as the Seftor to the Sector

THE

398
c
* * '

The Elements of

Euclid.

*

and the Tra&s concerning the cutting of precious Stones, arifing chiefly from their Eminences, and rais'd Parts, not eafily reand their being conprefented upon Paper,
tain'd under

many

Superficies,

are jender'd

4
'

*
4

and eafy by the previous Knowintelligible of the Doftrine of Solids. ledge 4 have omitted the feventh r eightjh, I ninth ancl tenth Books of the Elements of
Euclid,

*
c
€ *

being of little, or no ufe in any And I have Part of the Mathematicks oft wondred how they obtain'd a Place the Elements, finee tis evident

amongft Euclid compilM them

for

no other End but

*

to fettle the Dodlrine of Incommenfurables ^ * which being little better than a vain Curio*
c c

fity,

* *
*

the ought n~t to be receiv'd into the which treat of Books, f ft Principles of the Science, but to make a particular The fame may be faid Treatife by it felf. of the thirteenth Book, and thofe that fok

low

it.

And

therefore

'tis

my
the

Opinion, that

*
*
f

almoft all Parts of the Mathematicks miay underftood by the help of fufficiently be
thefe

Eight

Bpojcs

of

EletnwtS

of

f Euclid.

DE-

The Sixth Booh

2 99

DEFINITIONS.
J.

A

Solid

Body

is

a

Quantity, hath length, breadth, and "
depth, or thicknefs. the Figure DL,
length
2.
is

that

K

X
thicknefs

As

whofe

f

NX,

breadth

NO, and

"LN.
The Extremes or Terms of
a Solid

Body

are Superficies's.
or peris right, to a Plane, when 'tis pendicular perpendicular to all the Lines,
q.

A

Line

meets in the Plane. will be right " to the Plane CD, if it be perpendicular to " the Lines CD and FE, which being " drawn upon the Plane CD, pafs by the Point

"

which

it

As the Line AB

"

B.fo that the Angles

iC

ABC, ABD, ABE,and

ABF, are right Angles. 4. One Plane is perpendicular to another, when a perpendicular

Line drawn upon one of them

to the

common

Section, is alfo

perpendicular to the other. c We call the Line that is common to the common Section of I both the Planes,
'

^

fthe

goo
t

The Elements of

Euclid.

the Planes: As the Line AB, which is as well in the Plane AC, as in the orher AD. *f therefore the Line DE, drawn on the

Plane

AD

the Line BE the Angle ? Is the Inclination of the to the Plane Line,
-

perpendicular to AB, be alfo perpendicular to the Plane AC, the Plane will be right to the Plane AC. 5. If the Line AB be not perpendicular to the Plane CD, and from the Point a Perpendicular be drawn to it, AE, and alfo

AD,

A

ABE

AB

CD.
6. The Inclination of one Plane to another, is the acute Angle fornrd by the two Perpendiculars drawn upon each Plane to their common Sectic As the Inclination of the Plane AB on. * to the P^ne AD, is nothing elfe but the * Angle BGD, form'd. by the Lines BC and
' 1

CD, drawn upon the two Planes, pendicular to their common Sc&ion AE.
7.

per-

Planes are inclin d after the fame

man-

ner, if their Arigks of Inclination are equal. 8. Planes. are parallel, if being continu'd

as far as

you pleaft, they ftill retain the difiance one from the other.

fame

Solid Figures are Similar, which are 9. contained within, or terminated by, an equal number of limilar Planes j as two Cubes.
c

This

The Eleventh Book
\
c

3 or

?

This Definition does not agree to thofeFias the gures, whofe Superficies are crooked Sphere, the Cylinder, and the Cone.
j

1

o.

Equal and Similar Solid Figures are con-

tained within, or terminated by, an equal numc ber of equal and fimilar Planes. Infomuch, c that if they were fuppos'd to penetrate each
r other, neither of them * other, having their Sides
1 t
.

A

folid

Angle

is

would exceed each and Angles equal. the Con-

courfe, or Inclination, of divers ' As the Lines, in different Planes.
*

'
'

and

Concourfe of the Lines AB^ AC, AD, which are in different Planes
1 2.

a folid Figure, terminated by Triangles,whofeBafesare in the fame Plane. As the Figure ABCD.
is

A Pyramid

13. Parallelepipedon is a folid Figure contained within fix quadrilateral Planes, of which the Oppofites are parallel. Prifm is a folid Fi14.

A

A

gure,

having

two

parallel

Planes fimilar and equal y and c the others, Parallelograms. As
I

in the Figure

AB.
is

Its oppofite

I

Planes
15.

A

may

be Polygons.
a folid Figure,
3

Sphere

terminated

from which divers Lines being drawn to a Point in the middle Some the Figurfy they will be all equal.

by one only

Superficies

&

£

Y

'

define

50 2
*

The Elements d[

Euclicf.

motion of a Sem? upon its Diameter*! * which remains immoveable. 16. The Axis of a Sphere, is that immove-l able Line about which the Semicircle isfe
'

define a Sphere by the turned about circle,

:

turn'd.
17.

The Center of

fame with that of the Motion it is made.
18.

is the Sphere, Semicircle, by whofe

the

fil

The Diameter of

a Sphere,
its

is

any Line

whatfoever, paflihg through terminated at the Superficies. 15. If a Line, immoveable at onel of its Points, taken above the Plane of a Circle, be mov'd about the Circumference, it will defcribe a Cone
e

Center, and

As if

the

LineAB,

c

the Point A, be Circumference BED, it will defcribe the * will be its SumCone ABED. The Point

*

being nYd at mov'd about the

I

A

1

P

*

*

mity or Vertex, and the Circle
Bafe.

BED

ront;
1

its
fell

frill

20.
*

The Axis of

from the

a Cone, is the Line drawn Vertex to the Center of the Bafe, 2i.

it

be

As AC.
If a Line be mov'd about the Circumference of two parallel Circles, fo that it remains always tne P ara ^ e l tG a ^ine drawn fr°

J
Kll|{

d 1'"Ib v

m

V_y

J

Center of one of the Circles to that of the other, h e the Axis, it
t

to

will defcribe a Cylinder,

22.

The Eleventh Book*

30^

22. Cones are faid to be right, when the Axis is perpendicular to the Plane of theBafe.

Alfo Right Cones are fimilar, when their Axis's and the Diameters of their Bafes are in But Inclin'd Cones are the fame proportion.
tion

hot fimilar, unlefs they have a third Condi* that their Axis's be equally inclined to 5 the Planes of their Bales.

PROPOSITION
A THEOREM,

I.

A right Line

cannot have one of its Parts upon a Plane, and the other above, or below it.

the Line

AB
it

IF AD, plane

be upon the

will not, being continu'd, either rife above, or fall below it, but all its Parts

will lie upon the fame. For if it be poffible that BC can be a Part of AB con* the Line tinud, draw upon the fame Plane

AD

BD perpendicular to AB, and dicular to BD upon the fame.
Demonjiratioft.

alfo

BE

perpen-*

The Angles

ABD

and

DBE

are two right

Angles ; tnakebutone right Line,

therefore (by the 14. 1.)

AB

and

BE

and confequently

V

2

BC

3C4

The Elements of Euclid.

!

is no Part of the Line continued otheiwife two right Lines CB and EBwculd have the fame Part AB in common, which is repugnant to the 13. Axiom of the firft

EC

AB

Book.

The
c

USE.
is

LT pon

this Picpcfition

built a Piinciple

in Gtiomojiicks,

prove, that the Shadow of the Style cannot fall out of the Plane of a great Circle, in which is the Sun. For the Extemity of the Style being

by which we

taken for the Center of the Heavens, and confequently of all the greater Circles-, and the Shadow being always in a right Line with a Ray drawn from the Sun to the opacous Body, and this Ray being in the Plane of this great Circle , the Shadow muff be fo
likewife.

PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
Lhiesthat cut each other, are
as are
alfo all the in the

II.

fame Plane]

Paits of a Triangle.

F the two
I

Lines

BE

and

CD

cut each other at
j

the Point

A
v

anda Triangle be form'd by

c

I fay, drawing the Bafe BC-, all the Parts of the Triangle

ABC

TTfe

ABC are in
BE

the

305 fame Plane, and alfothe Lines

Eleva t ) Booh.

and CD.
Demovfiration,
.

cannot be faid that any Part of the Triangle ABC is in a Plane, and another Part of the fame Triangle not in the fame Plane, but it muft be alfo affirm'd, that one Part of a right Line is in a Plane, and another Part of the fame Line is not in the fame Plane-, which
It

And becaufe the Sides is contrary to Prop 1 of the Triangle muft be in the fame Plane in which is the Triangle, the Lines BE and CD will be alfo in the fame Plane.'
.

.

,

The
'

US&

c
*

This Propofition fuffieiently determines a Plane, b)r the concourfe of two right Lines, I'have alfo made ufe of or by a Triangle.
it

in Opticks,

4

rallel
c

to prove that ubjedHve paLines,which meet upon a

Table,ought
in
'

to be reprefented

by Lines that concur

r

a Point.

,

V

3

PRO-

%c6

The Elements of Hiclid.

PROPOSITION
A
The common

III.
I
is

THEOREM.
Planes

Seffion of two

one right

Line.

F

the Planes

AB and CD
EF

i
t~d

cut

common

their other, Se&ion will be

each

one right Line. For if not, take two Points common to Loth Planes as E and F-, and draw a right Line from the Point E, to the Point F upon the Plane AB, which fuppofe to be EHF. Draw likewife upon the Plane CD a right Line from the fame Point E to F; and if it be not the fame with the former, fuppofe it to he EGF. Demonfration. Thefe Lines drawn upon two Planes are two different Lines, and enclofe Space ^ which is contrary to the 12. Axiom of the 1. Therefore they will make but one right Line, which being in both the Planes will be their com-

mon
*

Se&ions.

The
This
is
*

USE.

?

Propofition, fuppos'd in divers Parts of the Matbematicks, though it be not always quoted. Particularly, it is taken for granted in

a fundamental

f

Gnomomch',
'

when?

The Eleventh Booh

jo 7

the Hour-Lines are reprefented upon Dials, by marking only the common Section of their Plane, and that of the "Wall.

when

PROPOSITION

IV.

A THEOREM.
to two others that If a Line be perpendicular cut each other, it will alfo he perpendicular to the Plane of the fame Lines, _

perpenLines CD and EF, which cut each other at the Point B, fo that
•*

TF

the Line

AB be

dicular to the

and ABF,
(which

the Angles ABC, ABD, ABE, be right Angles,

cannot conveniently be reprefented a Plate,) it will be alfo perpendicular to upon and EF, i. e. to all the Plane of the Lines the Lines that (hall be drawn upon the fame

CD

Plane through the Point B as, for example, the Line GBH. Let the Lines BC, BD, BE, and BF, be equal-, and draw the Lines EC, DF, AC, AD, AE, AF, AG and AH.
•,

Demonftration.

The four Triangles ABC, ABD> ABE, and ABF, have each a right Angle at the Point B and the Sides BC, BD, BE, and BF equal,
5

y

4

with

ocS

The Elements of Euclid.

wjth the Side
their Bafes
(by
all
the. 4. i.)

AB common
EBC

to

all.

Therefore
are equal,
will be in

AC, AD, AE, and AF,
and

2.

The Triangles

DBF

their Sides BC, BD, refpecjs equal, having BE, and BF, equal and the Angles CBE and

DBFwill
fes

being opjv.fite at the top, equal

:

there-

fore the

AngksBCE, BDF, BEC, and BFD,
4.
1 )

be equal, (by the

and

alfo .the

Sa-

EC and

DF.

3. The Triangles GBC, and the oppofite Angles CBG and

DBH, DBH,

having
equal
5

as alfo the

Sides

BC

Angles BDH, and BCG t and BD-, the Sides BG and

and the

BH,
1.)

CG

and
4.

the ihe Bafes

The Triangles ACE and AFD, having Sides AC, AD, AE, and AF, equal and

DH,

will be alfo equal, (by the 26.

EC

and

ADF
5.

DF alfo equal

*,

Sides

ACE will be equal, (by the 8. The Triangles ACG and ADH have the AC and AD, CG and DH equal, with
and
1 .)

the Angles

the Angle's Bafes and

AG

Laftjy,
all their

ADH and ACG-, therefore their AH are equal. the Triangles ABH and ABG have
ABG

Sides equal} therefore (by the 8. 1.) the Angles and will be equal, and the Line AB perpendicular to GH. Accordwill be perpendicular to ingly, the Line any Line drawn through the Point B upon the Plane of the Lines-CD and EF, which I call

ABH

AB

lx ing perpendicular to their Plane.

The

The Eleventh Book.
The
c

309

USE.
:

t
c

This Proportion occurs very oft in the for example, to firft Book of Thcodofms (kmonftrate that the Zixli of the World is
Equiperpendicular to the Plane of In like manner in Gnomonich, 'tis noctial. demonftrated by this Propofition, that the
EquinoBical Line in Horizontal Dkh Nor is pendicular to the Meridian
is

the

c
i 1

per-

i.

it lefs

1 c

ufeful in other Mathematical Treadles-,

as

thofe concerning Ajlrolabes,

and the cutting

of precious Stones.

PROPOSITION
A

V.
-.

THEOREM.
at the

If a Line he perpendicular
cut each, other

to three others,

which

fame

Point,

they will

he

all

three in the fame Vlane.

IFlar

be perpendicuLines BC, BD, and BE, which cut each other at the fame Point B \ the Lines
to three

the Line

AB

BC, BD, and BE are in the fame Plane. Suppofe the Plane AE to be that of the Lines AB and BE, and CF that of the Lines BC and BD. If BE be the common Se&ion of both the Planes, it will
be

3io
was

The Elements of Euclid.

be in the Plane of the Lines
aflerted
:

BC

and BD,

z%

but if
Section.

BE

be not, let

BG

be

their

common

perpendicular to the Lines BC and BD, therefore it is perpendicular to their •Plane CF, (by the 4.) and (by Defn. 3.} -A3 will be perpendicular to BG. But it is alfo fuppos'd perpendicular to BE 5 therefore the

AB is

Demowjlration.

Angles

ABE and ABG are right Angles,

and

be but part of the other. Therefore the two Planes can have no other common Section but BE. BE is therefore in the Plane CF.
confequently equal though one

PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
are parallel.

VI.

Lines that are perpendicular to the fame Plane,

TF
-*-

the Lines

AB
to

and

CD

be

perpendicular
'Tis evident,

the fame

Plane EF, they will be parallel.
Angles

ABD

that the internal are right and

BDC
.-,

it remains 'Angles* but that is to be prov'd, that AB and CD are in the fame and flane. Draw perpendicular to BD, to AB 5 draw alfo the Lines BG, AG, equal

not enough

DG

and AD.

De z

The Eleventh Book.
Demonftration.

g

i

x

Sides

ABD and BDG have the and DG equal, and BD common to both} and the Angles ABD and BDG are right Angles, therefore their Bafes AD and BG
The

AB

Triangles

are equal, (by the

4..

1.)

ABG

and

ADG

have

a right Angle, becaufe AB is and is alfo a to the Plane, perpendicular is perTherefore the Line right Angle. to three Lines CD, DA, and DB, pendicular which confequentfy are in the fame Plane, {by the %) But the Line AB is in the Plane of the Lines and DB, (by the 2.) therefore are in the fame Plane. AB and CorolL Two parallel Lines are in the fame Plane.

therefore the Angles

ABG and ADG are equal-,

Further, .the Triangles all their Sides equal:

ABG being

ADG DG

AD

CD

The
c

USE.

c

\
*
c

By this Propoiition we demonftrate, that the Hour-lines, in all Planes that are parallel to the Axis of the World, as the Polars,
Meridional, and others, are parallel
themfelves.

among

PROS

*

/

313

The Elements of Euclid.

PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.

VII.

A Line drawn from
^
P
JL

one Parallel to another, the fame Plane with them.

is

in

being drawn Point B of the .Line AB to the Point C of the Parallel CD, is (I fay; in the Plane with the Lines AB and CD.

'Tp HE Line CB,
from the

:

Demonfi ration.

.

The Parallels
Plane
:

AB

and

CD are

in the

fame

from the fame with CB^ otherwife two right Lines would enclofe Space, contrary to the 12.

in which if you draw a right Line the Point B to the Point C, it will be

Axiom of

the 1.

PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.

VIIL
1

If one of two parallel Lines be perpen&i&iilar a Plane, the other will hefo alfo. V

to

of the two parallel Lines and &P, ee be perpenFig. Prop. 6.3 the one dicular to the Plane EF, the other will

IF U

AB AB

CD

be

The Eleventh Book.
be fo alfo.

312
:

Draw

the Line

DB

fince the

is a right and Angle Angle, and are fuppos'd to be Parallels, the Angle will be a right Angle, (by the 29. 1.) there-

ABD

AB

CD
is

CDB

fore if I can prove, that the

f

Angle

CDG

alfo a right Angle,

that
to

CD

is

Make

will follow (by the 4.) perpendicular to the Plane EF.
it

AB

a right

then draw the Lines

Angle BDG, and take DG equal BG and AG.
Demo?iJ}ration.

The
Sides

Triangles

ABD

and

BDG

have the

AB

and

DG
•,

and the Angles ABD and BDG are right Angles ^ therefore (by the 4, The 1.) their Bafes AD and BG are equal. ADG and ABG have all their Sides Triangles

equal, with the Side

BD

common

to both

equals

ADG and ABG
ADG

therefore (by the 8. 1.) the Angles are equal : but the latter is

is a right Angle, becaule fuppos'd to be perpendicular to the Plane EF, therefore the is a right Angle-, and the Line Angle and being perpendicular to the Lines DA, will be perpendicular to the Plane of the Lines and DA, which is the fame, in which are the Parallels AB and CD. Therefore the Angle is a right Angle, (by De-

AB

DG

DB

DB

GDC

falk. 2

PRO-

314'
«»•»•

the Elements of Euclid.
m«—
»

PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
Lines that are parallel to a third ,
rallel

IX;

rfrg

^//b

pd~
the

among tbemfelves,

though not

all

in

fame

Plane.

I
L

F

the Lines

AB

parallel to the

and CD are Line EF,they

I

the Plane of the Lines

Line

HG

not in the fame Plane; Upon AB and EF draw the to AB ; which will be perpendicular

D

will be parallel to each other* though all the three Lines be

EF and CD draw the Line HI pendicular to EF and CD.
the Lines
Demonftration.

alfo perpendicular to EF, (by the Lemma after the 26. 1.) In like manner, upon the Plane of

per-

being perpendicular to the Lines and HI, is ib alfo to the Planes of the Lines HG and HI, (by the 4.) therefore and CI are perpendi(by the 8.) the Lines of the LinesfiH and Hl,and cular to the Plane

The Line

EH

GH

AG

(by the 6
1

.)

parallel to each other.

The
'

USE,

This Proportion is frequently us'd in Pfr* to determine the reprefentation fpetfives,

The Eleventh Book.
•,

315

c

i

t
i
c

c
(.

of parallel Lines upon a Table asalfo in the cutting of precious Stones, to prove the Sides of the Pannels to be parallel among themfelves, becaufe they are fo to a Line in a different Plane. In Gnomonlch likewife we are fometimes oblig'd to prove, that the Vertical Circles ought to be defcrib'd on becaufe the Walls by perpendicular Lines
•,

i €
C

Lines, that are the common Sections of them and the Walls, are parallel to a Line drawn from the Zenith to the Nadir.

PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
&

X.

If two Lines, which concur, are parallel
others concurring,
pill

to

two
they

in

different Flane %

make

equal Angles.

the Lines AB and

CF IF
not

CD,

AE and

yet the Angles BAE and DCF will be equal. Let the Lines AB and CD, AE and CF be equal, and draw the Lines BE, DF, AC, BD, and EF.

be parallel, though they be all four upon the fame Plane, <"\

and CD are fuppos'd to be and equal, therefore (fy ^033.1.) both parallel,

Demoitjtration.

The Lines

AB

the'

316
the Lines
as alfo

The Elements of

Euclid.

AC and BD AG and EF
and and

are parallel and equal*

BD

and

EF are parallel,
equal.

fequenrly (by the
alfo parallel

and (by the preceding) and equal, and con35. 1.) BE and DF will be
^

Therefore the Tri-

DCF have all their Sides eangles and (by the 8. r,) the Angles BAE and qual } will be equal. Coroll. Many the like Propositions might Be made, which would not be altogether unufeful^ as for example, if upon a parallel be drawn parallel to the Plane the Line Line AB, and the Angles BAE and DCF be e-

BAE

DCF

CD

cjual,

theLines AE and

CF
S

will be parallel. -

IheU
c

%

* *

f
f

demonftrate, that the Planes of the Hourcircles with a Plane parallel to the Equator , are equal to the Angles made by them with
the;

By this Propofition we
Angles made by

the Plane of the tquator.

PRO

The Eleventh Booh

3*7

PROPOSITION A PROBLEM,
To draw a Perpendicular
given out
to

XL

a Plane from a Point

of

the Plane.

IF pendicular

draw a perfrom the Point C to the Plane AB, draw the Line ED at pleafure, and CF
you
defire to

perpendicular to it, (by the 12. i.) And again (by the ii. i.) upon the Plane AB draw
dicular to
I fay,

ED, and

FG perpenCG perpendicular to FG.

CG

AB. Draw

GH parallel to FJE.
Demonjlratioyu

will be perpendicular to the Plane

The Line [EF being perpendicular to the Lines CF and FG, will be perpendicular to the Plane CFG, (by the 4.) and being parallel to EF, will be alfo perpendicular to

HG

the fame Plane, (by the 8.) And becaufe is perpendicular to the Lines GF and GH,
will be
the

CG
it

^

perpendicular to the Plane

AB,

(by

X

PEO-

318

The Elements of Euclid.

PROPOSITION XII.
A

PROBLEM.
to

To draw a Perpendicular

a Plane through a
.

Point of thefavie Plane

Perpendicular AB through the Point C. Draw from the Point E, taken at pleafure out of the Plane, the Line ED perto the fame Plane, (by the 1 ) pendicular

F E

/

T* O

draw

a

X

to the Plane

^

1

.

Draw

CF

alfo (by the 3 1 1 .) parallel to will be perpendicular to the Plane
.

CF

DE. AB,

(by the S.)

PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
Iwo
Lines perpendicular to

XIII.

a Plane cannot be

drawn through the fame Pomt.

through Point C 7 were perpendicular to the Plane AB and CF the common Section of the Planes of thofe Lines, with the Plane AB 3 the Angles

_m /
E \

D

TF the two Lines CE
A 1
drawn

and

CD
fame

the

^

\/_ \ 5 F \

ECF

The Eleventh Booh.

319

ECF and DCF
which
to
the Plane

would be both right Angles,

is impoflible. I add, that two Perpendiculars

be drawn from the fame Point for having drawn the Line CF there would be two right Angles, DCF and DFC, in the fame Triangle, ^contrary to

AF cannot
:

DC and DF,

D

the 32. I.

The
c

USE.

c

This Proposition is necefiary to fhow,' that a Perpendicular to a Plane was fufficiently .defcrib'd, in as much as but one fuch
can be drawn through the fame Point.*

c

PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
Flanes, to which the fame Line are parallel,
is

XIV.

perpendicular}

IF

lar-

be perpendicuthe Line to the Planes and

AB

=-

AC

Bt), they will be parallel, ;. e. they will in all places be equally diftant from each otherDraw the Line parallel to A B, (by the ai^d join the Lines and'AC.

DC

3 1

.

1 .)

BD

X

2

JBr-

ja'o

The Elements of Euclid.
Demonjlration.

AB
Planes

is

AC and BD,

fiipposM to be perpendicular to the therefore the Line CD,

which is parallel to it, will be alfo perpendicular to them, (by the 8.) and coniequentand C, will be ly the Angles B and D,

A

right Angles and and BD will be
^

(by the 28. 1.) the

Lines

AC

ABDC a Parallelogram, Therefore the Lines AB and CD are equal, (by the 34. 1.) the
i.

Parallels,

and the Figure
e.

Planes in the Points
equally
difiant.

and D, are Accordingly the Line CD

A and C, B

I

may be drawn through arty other Point whatfoever j therefore the Planes AC and BD are equally diftant, in all Places, the one from the other.
The
*

1

i

i

I
J

USE.
and

c
*
*

Tbeodofms demonftrates the Circles, that

have the fame Poles, as the Equator,

*

the two Tropkks, to be parallel, becaufe the Jxh oi the World is perpendicular to i
their PJane«.

k

md

fRO-

The Eleventh Booh

$21

PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
If two Lines, meeting at a Point,
Lines of another Plane, thofe Lines will be parallel.
tjpo

XV.

be parallel to

the Hanes

of

x

TF

the Lines and parallel to the Lines

AB

AC be

DE £
Huk v JX \S
3

and DF, which are in another Plane, the Planes BC and FE
are parallel.
dicular to the Plane the 1 1 J and GI and

Draw AI perpenBG, (by

DE

:

and IH, parallel to will be alfo parallel to the Lines they
(by the 9.)

FD

ABandAC,

Bmonjlratfan.

Xhe Lines AB and GI
Angle IAB
is

are parallel, and the a right Angle, AI being perpen-

dicular to the Plane 1.) the Angle AIG

BG
is

:

Therefore (by the 29.

a right Angle, as alfo the Angle All}. Therefore (by the 4.) the LineAi is perpendicular to the Plane GH'j

and being

alfo perpendicular to the Plane

the Planes

BC and GH,
1^.)

BG,

or

FE,

will be pa-

rallel, (by the

X

3

PRO-^

322

The Elements of Euclid.

PROPOSITION
A
If a
Fictiie

XVL
\

THEOREM,
two
others which
will

cut

are parallel,
together

their

cemmon

SeBions

with

them he parallel.

F

the Plane

AB

cut

two

o-

BD
For

ther parallel Planes, and I fay their common Secti3 ons and BE will be parallel:

i

AC

AF

if not,

Would at length concur,

e.

being continu'd, they g. at the Point G.

The Lines AF and BE

AC and BD

Demovflration. are upon the Planes

and therefore (by the i .) can never be either above, or below them therefore if they concur at the Point G, the Planes muft do fo likewife, and confequently they would not be parallel, which is contrary to what
-,

•,

Was fuppos'd.
The
6

USE.

*

'
* '

*

By thisPropofition we demonttrate, in the Treatife of Conick and Cylhdrick Sections, that if the Cone or Cylinder be cut by a Plane parallel to its Bale, the Sections are Circular, By the fame we defcribe AJtrolabes 5 and prove in Gnomonich^ that the Angles, which
the
•.

The Eleventh Booh
the Hour-circles

325

Plane parallel to a great Circle, are equal to thofe which they make in the Circle it felf 5 and
again
that the Images of the objective Lines perpendicular to the Table,concur at the Point of Sight.
in Perfpeftives,

make with a

PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
Two
Planes.

XVIL

Lines are divided proportionally by parallel

the Lines

AB and CD

divided by parallel Planes, I fay, AE will have the fame proportion to EB
as

IF be

CFto FD.Draw the Line

palfing through the Plane EF at the Point Draw alfo AC, BD, FG, aud GE.

AD,

G

:

The Plane of
ons

Demonftration. the Triangle
are parallel

ABD

cuts the

three Planes, therefore (by the

it.) the Sectiaiid (by the 2. 6.)

BD and EG

-,

has the fame proportion to EB, as to GD. In like manner the Plane of the Tricuts the Planes EF and AC, thereangle are parallel ^ and fore the Sections and FC has the fame proportion to FD as to

AE

AG

ADC
e.

AC
'

FG

AG

GD,

i,

asAEtoEB.

X4

PRO

:

r
'j

24

^de ^em€nts °f Euclid.
XVIII.
'

PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
If a Line be perpendicularpendicular

to a Plane, all the in which that Line is found, are perPlanes, to the fame Plane.

be perpendithe Line to the Plane ED, all cular the Planes in which it is found

F

AB

i

be perpendicular to the Plane ED. Suppofe AB to be in
will

the Plane AE, having for a common Section with the Plane ED the Line BE * to which draw a Perpendicular FI.
Demovflration.

The Angles ABI and BIF

therefore the Lines $ and (by the 8.)FI will ke perpendicular to will the Plane ED. Therefore the Plane

AB

are right Angles,

and Ff are parallel

AE

be perpendicular to thePlane ED, (by Defin. 4.) * The fame may be prov'd oi the Plane AD. The USE. Vp
<
m

The

firft

*
*
*

Propofition

in

Gnomonich,

which

may pafs for a fundamental one, is built upon this Propofition 5 which is alfo

*

frequently made-ufe of, in Spherical Trigonoin jail metry, in PerfpeSives, and .generally 1 thofe

The Eleventh Booh
*
*

325

thofe Treatifes which arc oblig'd to confider divers Planes.

PROPOSITION
A

XIX.

THEOREM.
to the fame.

each other he perpendicuIf two Planes cutting lar to another, their common SeSion will be
perpendicular

I ED,
dicular

F the Planes AB and
which
to

cat

each other,
IK-, their ction EF

be perpenthe Plane

common
is

Seper-

alfo

pendicular to the Plane IK.
Demonjlration.

AB being perpendicular to the Plane the Line GF will be perpendicular to the IK, fame Plane. Draw likewife perpendicuit will be lar to the common Section DF fhall alfo perpendicular to the Plane IK. have therefore two Perpendiculars to the
the Plane

be not perpendicular to the Plane IK, upon the Plane AB draw the Line GF : perpendicular to the common Sedtion BF and
If

EF

FH

•,

We

fame Plane drawn through the fame Point

F

526

The Elements of Euclid.

P, (contrary to the 13. Propof.) it lnuft therefore be granted that EF is perpendicular to
the Plane IK.

The
c

USE.

'

*
c

Proportion we demonftrate, that the Circle which paiFes through the Poles of r the World and the Lenith, is the Meridian, and cuts all the diurnal Arches into two equal Parts-, and that the Stars fpend as much time in their Motions from their Ri-

By this

*

fings to this Circle, their Settings.
WHMVfc««*M

as

from

this

Circle to

PROPOSITION
'
"

XX.

A T H E O R E M.

If three plain Amies make one folii one, any tiro of them ought to he greater than the third.

F the Angles BAC, BAD, and I CAD, make the folid Angle A,
eft

and the Angle BAC be the greatAngle h the two others, taken
are

together,

Suppofe the Angle

CAE

greater than BAG. to be equal to the

Angle CAD,
equal
\

and. the Lines

AD

and

AE to

be

and draw the Lines
-

CEB, CD, and BD.
Sides

:

The Triangles CAEand CAD have the

Demovfiration.

AD

and

At

Side equal; and the

AC

com-

mon

The Eleventh Book.

327
and

mon to both, and the Angles equal 5 therefore (by the 4.
the 20.

CAD
1 .)

CAE

their Bafes

CD and CE are equal But the Side CD and DB are greater than the Side CB alone, {by
1.) therefore taking away the equal Lines CD and CE, the Line BD will be greater than BE. Further, the Triangles BAE and BAD have the Sides AE and equal, and the Side BA common, and the Bafe BD greater than the Bafe BE: therefore (by the 18. 1.) the Angle BAD is greater than the Angle
.

AD

BAE

CAD
1

adding therefore the equal Angles and CAE, the Angles BAD and CAD will be greater than the Angles CAE and
•,

BAE,

7.
r
.

e
1
1

the Angle
,

BAG
1

1

1

PROPOSITION
ATHEOREM.
All the plain Angles,
are
lefs

XXL

that make one Jolid Angle, than four right Angles.

-*-

T F the plain Angles BAC, BAD and CAD, make the folid An-

gle A, they will be lefs than four right Angles. Draw the

Lines BC, BD, and CD, and you will have a Pyramid, whofe Bafe
angle BCD. The folid Angle at
gles

is

the Tri-

Demonjlration. the Point B, has the

Anthe

ABC

and

ABD greater than that of

Bafe

Elements of Euclid. Bafe alone C£D. In like manner ACB and ACD are greater thanf^CD alone, and the

528

TJ:e

and are greater than Angles alone. But all the Angles of the Bafe are equal to two right Angles, therefore the Angles

ABC

ADB

CDB

ABC, ABD, ACB, ACD, ADC, and ADB, are And becaufe greater than two right Angles. all the Angles of the Three Triangles BAG, BAD, and CAD, are equal to fix right Angles *
taking away more than two right Angles, there will remain lefs than four, for the Angles made at the Point A. But if the folid confijft of more than three plain Angle io that^he Bafe of the Angles, Pyramid be a a Polygon, it may be divided into Triangles $

A

and the Computation being made, you
find,

up

will that all the plain Angles, which make the fblid one, are always lefs than four

right Angles.

The
c

USE.

c

Thefetwo Proportions fhow when many plain Angles may make up one |folid one,
often neceiTary in the Treatifes of of Stones, and in the following cutting Proportions. The 22, and 23. Propoftms are of no life.

*

which

is

c c

.'

PRO-

The Eleventh Book

329

PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
If a
folict

XXIV.

the

Body be terminated by parallel Planes, Sides mil be Jimilar and $qual apptijite

Parallelograms.

the Solid

IF parallel Planes, the oppoby
lite Superficies's will

AB be terminated
be fimilar

and equal Parallelograms.
Defnonftration.

The

BE
and

parallel Planes are cut by the Plane

AC and
FE
:

therefore their
(by the 16.)

common

Sections

are parallel,

fo likewife

DF

and

AE

:

therefore

AD

Parallelogram. After the fame manner I may demonstrate, that AG, FB, CG> and the reft are Parallelograms. I add, that and FB, the oppofite Parallelograms, e. g. are fimilar and equal. The Lines AE and
will be a

AG

EG

there* are parallel to the Lines and are equal, fore the Angles (by the 10) Accordingly I may demonstrate
:

FD

and

AEG

DB FDB

all the Sides

and all the Angles of the oppofite

Parallelograms to be equal, therefore the raHelograms are fimilar and equal.

Pa

>

PRO-

3

The Elements of

Euclid.

PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.

XXV.

If a Far allele'pipe'don be divided ly a Plane parallel to one of its Planes , the two Jolid Bodies which arife by that Divijion, will have
thefame

Proportion as their Bafes,

be IF

CD,

the Parallelepipedon divided by the Plane which is parallel to the

AB

Planes

AF

will have the fame proas the Bafe AI portion to

AC

and BE, the Solid

BD

to the Bafe
fliov/s

DG. Suppofe the Line AH, which

the height of the Figure to be divided

equal Parts as you pleafe j for ten thoufand ^ which we may take .example, as Indivifibles, i. e. without reflecting upon

into as

many

the poifibility of their being further fubdivided Suppofe alfo fo many Superficies's parallel to the Bafe AI, as there are Parts in I have defcrib'd only on OS ^ the Line fo that the Solid AB be compounded of all

AH

•,

fame thicknefs, as a Ream of Paper compounded of all its Tis laid one upon another. .Sheets and Quires fo the Solid AC will be com.evident that
is

thofe Superficies's of the

pounded

The Eleventh Booh

331

pounded of ten thoufand Superficies's equal to the Bafe AI, (ij the preceding) and the
Solid

DB

ficies's

will contain ten thoufand Superequal to the Bale DG.
JDemovJlratlun.

Every Superficies of the Solid fame proportion to any ot the of the Solid DB as the Bafe A I

AC

has the

Superficies's to the Bafe

becaufe they are every one of them equal to their Bafes therefore (by the 12. 5.) all the Superficies's of the Solid taken towill have the fame proportion to all gether,
-,

DG

:

AC

thofe of the Solid

Bafe
lid

DB, as the Bafe AI to the DG. Brit all the Superficies's of the SoAC make up the Solid AC, which has no

other Parts but thofe Superficies's: and all the Superficies's of the Solid DB are nothing therefore the Solid elfe but the Solid DB } has the fame proportion to the Solid DB, as

AC

the Bafe

AI

to the Bafe

DG.
which

The
1

USE.
•,

This is Cavaler jus's Demonftration
very
clear,

1

is
'

and that the Line, by which

c

*
*
4

ought > meafur'd the thicknefs of the Superficies's, be taken in the fame refpe&in both the Terms. I iliall make ufe of it hereafter, to render fbme intricate and perplex'd Demonftrations more
is

provided

it

beus'd as

it

feci land* cleat,

PRO*

352

The Elements of

Euclid.

<

PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
Parallelepipedon
is

XXVI.

A
B

divided

into

two

equal

Parts by the diagonal Plane.

Y

H

The Eleventh BooK
The
27.

331
are of

and 28.

Proportions

no ufe

according to this way of demonjlrating.

PR OPO

S.

XXIX, XXX, XXXI.
thet

A THEOREM.
Paralklepipedons of the fame height, having fame or equal Bafes, are Equal,

B

T>

u?

"Vs.

KH

534
iriariy in
tJieir

Th* Elements of Euclid.
one Solid as in the other becaufe thicknefs, which I take perpendicularly
-,

Recording to their

refpeftive

Heights,

is

equal.

,

has the fame proportion to The Bafe the Bafe CI, as each Plane KL to OM. But they being equal in number in both, all the Antecedents (by the 2.5.) will have the fame proportion to all the Confequents, i. e. the whole Solid AB to the whole Solid CD, as the to the Bafe CI. But 'tis fuppos'd Bafe that the Bafes are equal, therefore the Solids are equal. Coroll To find the Solidity of a Parallele'tis ufual to multiply the Bafe by' jfnpedon, the height taken perpendicularly, becaufe that Perpendicular mows how many Superficies's equal to the Bafe are contain d in it. As for example, if I take a Foot for my Indivifible Meafure, z. e. which I will not after wards fubdi vide 5 if the Bafe contain twelve

AH

DemonJ!ratio?i.

AH

Feet fquare, and the perpendicular height ten,, Ifhallhave an hundred and twenty cubick Feet for the folidity of the Body AB. Foi the height containing ten Feet, I may make ten Parallelelograms equal to the Bafe, having but the Bafe with each a Foot in thicknefs one Foot in thicknefs makes twelve Cubicfc Feet the whole therefore will make an hun dred and twenty ,if the height contain ten Feet
-,

:

PRO'

The Eleventh Booh

«XXXII.

PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
the Tarallelepipedovs of

fame

height

are in the

fame Proportion as their Bafes,
in the prethat the Paralleled ceding, demonftrating, has the fame proportion to the pipedon
(

I

Have prov'd

this Propofition

AB

to the Parallelepipedon CD, as the Bafe Bafe CI. (See Fig. pecel) Cor oil. Parallelepipedons that have equal Bafes, are in the fame proportion as their

AH

Heights. As the Parallelepipedons AB and AL, whofe perpendicular Heights are AKandAE. For if you divide the Height AK into as many aliquot Parts as you pleafe, and AE into as
as it contains equal to the former, and draw, according to each Part, Planes parallel contains of the to the Bafe} as many as

many

AE

aliquot Parts of AK, fo many will the Solid contain of the Superficies's equal to the Bafe, which are the Aliquot Parts of the Solid* AL*, therefore (% Defou 5. 5.) the Solid will have the fame proportion to the Solid

AB

AB

AL,

as the

Height

AE

to the Height

AK.
The

Y

3

M

33^

The Elements of EuclidJ
The

USE.

e

The

*
c

three preceding Proportions contain
all the

c


c
*

ways of meafuring Parallelepipedons, and msy be efteem'd as nrft Prin3 Tis after the fame ciples for that purpofe.
almoft

manner alfo that we take the Dimensions of the Solidity of Walls, by multiplying their Bafes by their Heights.

PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
Similar

XXXIIL

Parallelepipedom

are

in

the

triplicate

Proportioii of their homologous Sides.

IF ABParallelcpipeand CD be dons
fimilar,
i. e.

the

if

all

the
like

Planes of one be thofe of the other
all their

-,'

and

Angles equal, fo that they may be plac'd ana right Line, z. e. that AE and EF,HEand EI, GE and EC, may make right Lines*, and

AE has the fame proportion to EF
EI, and asGE to

7

as

HE

to

EC

:

I fay, that here are four

Solids in continual proportion according to the proportion of the Side EA to that, which
is

homologous to it,

EF

or JDI.

De-

The Eleventh BooK
Demonjtration.

jj7

Parallelepipedon AB his the fama proportion to EL of the fame Height, as the to the Bafe EO, (by the 5 2.) But' the .Bafe has the fame proportion to the Bafe -Bafe

The

AH AH
as

EO,

AE to

EF,

to El, and of GE to EC, was fupposM to ba and confequently, the Solid the fame has the fame proportion to EL as EL to EK, and as EK to CD. Therefore (by Dfot. 1 t. 5.) the proportion of AB to CD will be the tri* plicate proportion of that of AB to EL, or
*,

to ED, li e. that of the Solid EK has the fame prolaftly, to portion to the Solid EN, as the Height the Height EC, (by the Coroll. of the 32.) or the Line EF for their common Height) jf taking as the Bafe GI to the Bafe CI, 7. e. as to to EF, of EC. But the proportion of
to the Bafe

EO

ner, the proportion of Solid EK, is the fame

(by the 1. 6.) In like manthe Solid to the

EL

what that of the Bafe

HE

EL

And

GE

GE

AE

HE

AS

of AE to its homologous Side

E F.

Coroll. If four Lilies be in continual proportion, the Parallelepipedon defcrib'd upon the firft, has the fame proportion to another

funilar Parallelepipedon defcrib'd upon the fecond, as the firft to the fourth } for the proportion of the firft to the fourth, is the triplicate proportion of that of the firft to the

fecond.
c

The

US
a

E.
this

You may

perceive

y

by

Propofition that

33S
\
'

The Elements of Euclid.

1

that that famous Problem of the Duplication of the Cube, propos'd by the Oracle, confiftsj

c
,

two middle Terms in continual proportion. For if you make the fide of the firft Cube the firft Term, and the double of that the fourth ^ having found two middle Proportionals, the Cube defcrib'd upon the firft Line will have the fame proportion to
in finding

that defcrib'd upon the fecond,

as the firft

Line to the fourth,
.

By* thisPropofition alfo may be corrected their Error, who fancy fimrar Solids to have the
t.
-,

e.

as one to two.

fame proportion as their Sides as if a Cube of one foot in length was the half of a Cube two Foot long when indeed it is* tut the
•,
1

eighth
4

*

c

*
i

Part thereof. This is likewise the Foundation of the Rule concerning the fize of the Bores of cannons and is applicable not oply to Bullets, but to all forts of fimiFor example , fhould a Man,alar Bodies. bout to build a Navy, and refolving to retain the fame proportion in all his YelTels, reafon thus with himfelf if a Ship of an
:
,

-,

hundred Tun require fifty Foot in Keel anc other of two hundred Tuns ought to have an \ hundred Foot in Keel*, he would be guilty * of a great Miftake: for inftead of making
:
:

c

*;
.,

a Yeflel twice as large as the former, would make one eight times fo much.

He He

,£ lefs

ought toafiign to the fecond Veffel foiiiewhat. than fc ty three Feet. PP.O-

'The

Eleventh BooK

Zl9

PROPOSITION XXXIV.
A THEOREM.
Equal Parallelepipedom have their Bafes ani Heights reciprocal, and thofe that have their Bafes and Heights reciprocal are eqiial.
the Paralle-

IF lepipedons ?AB
and

CD

be equal,

and Bafes Heights will be reciprocal, i. e. the BafeAE will have the fame proportion to to the Height) the Bafe CF, as the Height AG. Having make CI eqnal to AG, draw the Plane IK parallel to the Bafe CF.
their

CH

Demonftratlon.

has the fame pro^ Parallelepipedon to £K, being of the fame height, as portion the Bafe AE to the Bafe CF, (by the 32.) BuC. as AB to CK, fo is to the fame CK, be-

The

AB

CD

caufe

CK,

are equal ^ and as which have both the fame Bafe,

AB and CD

CD

to
is,

,

lb

to the Height CI, (by the CorolL the Height the 3 2.) therefore as the Bafe to the of Bafe CF, fo is the Height to the Heighfi ~ CI or AG.

CH

.

AE

CH

X

4

I add

34a

The Elements of Euclid.
Bafe

I add, that if the

has the fam e

proportion to the Bafe CF as the to the Height AG, the Solids

AB

Height CH and CD will

be equal.
Demowjlvatiort.

CD to

has the fame proportion to CK, being fame Height, as the Bafe AE to the Bafe CF, (by the 22.) Alfo the Height CH has the fame proportion to the Height CI or AG, as
fcf the

AB

CK;

but

we fuppofe
as

that
to

AE
CI

has the
or

lame proportion to CF,

CH

AG

d

has the fame therefore the Solid tion to the Solid CK, as the Solid.

AB

CD

proporto the

fame CK, andconfequently the Solids AB and
;

CD are equal,

(by the 9.5.)

r

the
*

US

E.

*This

*
c
*

Reciprocation

of the Bafes arid

Solid very eafy to be mea« And the Proportion feems to bear fur'd. feme Analogy to the 14. Prop, of the 6. which
aflerts,

Heights mates the

That equiangular and equal

Paralle-

*

lograms have their Sides reciprocal ^ and the Practice of the Rule of Three may be de* aicnftrated from botb.j
'

L

The

35. Prop,

may be

omitteH.

PRC-

The Eleventh BooK

34*

PROPOSITION
Tf three Lines be
ralleleplpedon to an equal

XXXVI.

A THEOREM.
in continual proportion,

a Pa^

made of

thoje three

Lines

is

equiangular
Sides

which has
Line.

all its

equal

Farallelepipedon, to the middle

£

P

IF portion,

the Lines A, B, C, be in continual prcr the Parallelepipedon EF made of

the Points Hand K draw KQ_ perpendicular to the

thofe three Lines, the SideFI being equal to the Line A, equal to B> and HI equal to C, is equal to the equiangular Parallelepipedon KL; whofe Sides LM, MN, and KN, are each of them equal to the Line B. From

HE

the Lines HP and Planes t)f the Eafes$

which Lines will be equal, becaufe the folid Angles E and K are fuppos'd equal, (fo that if ^tney could penetrate, neither would exi

ceed

3 42

Th e Elements of

Euclid.

ceed the other,

and the Lines

EH and KN

are alfo fuppos'd equal. Therefore the Heights

HP and NQ. are equal.

Deinovjlration.

There is the fame proportion of or of FI to LM, as of B to C, or
therefore

A

to

LM to HI

B,
:

Parallelogram under FI and IH, is equal to the Paralleloand MN, both gram LN contain'd under

the

FH

contain d

LM

equal to B, (by the i6> 6.) therefore the Bafes are equal. But the Heights and NQare

HP
1 .)

therefore (by the 3 lelepipedons are equal.
^

alfo equal

the

Par'al-

PROPOSITION
If four Lines be
proportional,
-

XXXVII.

A THEOREM.
the Parallelepiped

:

defcviVd upon thofe Lines are proportional : and if the Jimilar Par allelepipe dons be their homologous Sides will bs -proportional,
alfo proportional.

dom

C to proportion to B as the fimilar ParallelepiP, the Lines pedons, whofe homologous Sides are be In the fame proportion. A, B, C, D, will
-*'

Demonjlratmi. The Parallelepipedon is ia the triplicate of proportion to the Parallelepipedon B, " that
!

A

.

The Eleventh Boofc

545

to the Line B, or that of that of the Line the Line C to the Line D. But the Paralleleis alfo pipedon C to the Parallelepipedon in the triplicate proportion of that of the Line C to the Line D, (by the 33.) Therefore has the fame, proporthe Parallelepipedon

A

D

A

tion to the Parallelepipedon B, as the Parallelepipedon C to the Parallelpipedon D.

PROPOSITION

XXXVIII.

A THEOREM.
If two Planes be perpendicular to each other , a Point in one ^Perpendicular drawn from a
of the Planes
to the other

will fall

upon the

common

Se&ion.

TF
-*-

the Planes

AB

and

CD being
-

B
a
'

perpendicular

to

you draw from

each other, the Point E in

the Plane a Line perpend icular to the Plane CD, it will fall upon the common Sedion of the
Planes.

AB

\*

AlF &

c

i

Draw EF

perpendicular to the com-

mon

Sedition: AG.'

Demonftration.

The Line EF, common Se&ion
fuppos'd
to be

the perpendicular to of the Planes, which are perpendicular, will be per-

AG

pendicular to the Plane
j

CD,

(by Defn. 3.)

and

becaufe

344
becaufe

The Elements of Euclid. two Lines cannot be drawn from the
»

Point E perpendicular to the Plane CD, (by the it,) every Perpendicular will fall upon

the
'

common Section AG.
.

Th USE,
'Tis of ufe to us in the

This Proportion ought to have follow d next aftjer the 17$, becaufe it refpe&s So*
lids in
*

general.

Treadfe of Apoiabe^ to prove that in the Analemma all the Circles, perpendicular to
the

-Mm Jim,

*

ought to be markf by right

Lines.

PROPO SITION
-

XXXIX-

A
If
'

THEOREM.

in a Paralklepipdon be drawn two Planes^ which divide the vppojite Sides into two dqual the DiameParts, their common SeBion and ter will divide each other into two equal
atfo

Parts.

CD and EF, their common Se&ion GH and the Diameter

of the Parallelepipedon AB to be divided into two equal Parts by the Planes

Qi O Uppofe

the oppofite Sides

BA

each other at the Point O.

will equally divide Draw the Lines
I
fiiall
. .

£G, GK,

AH

and HL.

prove

firft,-

that;

The Eleventh Booh
that the two io likewife
firft

345
(and

of thefe,

BG

and GK,

AH and HL.) make but one right For the Triangles DGB and have becaufe they their Sides DB and equal, are the Halves of equal Sides $ as alfo and GM. Further, DB and being parallel, the alternate Angles BDG and will be equal, (by the 29. ij and therefore (by the will be 4. 1.) the Triangle DBG and and confequently the equal in all refpe&s, and (bytbeCoroll of Angles BGDand the 15. 1.) BG and GK make but one right
Line.

KM

KMG

GD

KM

GMK

KGM

KGM

•,

and therefore ALBK Line, as alfo is one Plane, in which are found both the Diameter AB, and the common Sedtion of the Planes GH. The Plane ALBK cutting the and CD, their common parallel Planes will be parallel Sections «and and
:

LH

HA

AN

GH

AK

:

will have the fame proporto and therefore tion to GK, as \ to GK, fo the 18. 5.) as to BO* (by
(by the 2. 6.)

BG

BO BK
fo

OA

BA

and
to

(by the 4.

6)

GH

or

AK

to

OG.
is

But

BK is

double to

BG,

therefore

BA

double

equal to GH, double to GO. Therefore the Lines GH, and AB divide each other equally at the Point CoroU. 1 All the Diameters are divided at the Point O.

BO, and AK,

O

.

Here we may add fome Corollawhich depend upon divers Proportions. ries, for example, that triangular Prifms of
CoroU. 2.

M

the

5 4"

The Elements of

Euclid.

the fame height are in the fame proportion as for the Parallelepipedons, of which they are the halves, are (by the 32.) in the fame proportion as their Bafes therefore the halves of their Bafes, and the halves of the Parallelepipedons, i e, the Prifms, will be in the fame Proportion.
their Bafes:
:
.

Coroll. 3.

Polygon Prifms of the fame height

are alfo in the fame proportion as their Bafes, becaufe they may be refolv'd into triangular
ones, each of which will have the portion as their Bafes.
Coroll. 4.

fame pro<

of the Proportions concerning Parallelepipedons are alfo applicable as for example, that equal Prifms to Prifms have their Heights and Bafes reciprocal 5— and that fimilar Prifms are in the triplicate proportion of that of their homologous Sides.
reft
:

The

The
*

USE.

*
c

1
'

This Proportion may help us to find out the Center of Gravity in Parallelepipedons^ and to demonftrate fome other Proportions in the thirteenth and fourteenth Books of
Euclid.

PRO-

The Eleventh Book.

347

PROPOSITION
ATHEOREM.
A Prifm,
double to the triangular

XL.

that has a Parallelogram for its Bafe Bafe of another Prifm,
height,
is

and of the fame

equal to

it %

LE

and CDG be two triangular of the fame height-, and the Prifms, Bafe of one the Parallelegram AE, double to the Triangle FGC, the Bafe of the other I fay thefe Prifms are equal. SupPrifin the Parallelepipedon and GI were pofc

T ABE

:

AH

compleated.

H

B

348

The Elements of
•,

1

Euclid.

GK are equal and confequently, the Paralfelepipedons AH and GI, having the fame Bafes
and the fame Heights, are equaU and
there-

fore the Prifms, that are the Halves, (by the 26.) will be likewife equal.

THE

imnw«Mi

£ 349 3

THE TWELFTH BOOK
O
F

TH

E

ELEMENTS EUCLID
after having in the preceeding Books deliver'd the general PrinciETJcVilyof folid Bodies, and explain'd ples the manner of Meafuring the moft regular of them, that is, fuch as are terminated by

plain Superficies's; treats in this of fuch Bodies as are contain'd in Superficies's thai are crooked, as the Cylinder, Cone, Arid

Sphere comparing one with another, and giving Rules, relating both to their Solidity, and the manner of taking their Dimenfions. The Book is of exceeding great
:

ufe,

becatife in it

we

find the Principles,

upon which the moft learned Matljema* tlciam have built fo many famous Demonfixations concerning the Cylinder, the Cone,
I

and the Sphere;

Z

PRO

350

The Elements of Euclid.

PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.

I.

Similar Polygons, infcrib'd in Circles are in the fame proportion as the Squares of the Diameters oj the fame Circles.

IF ABCDE,
FGHKL,
bed
be
will

the Polygons

and
infcri-

in

Circles,

fimilar,

they
the

be

in

fame
as the Squares of the f)iameters

proportion

AM, FN.

Draw

the Lines

BM, GN, AC,
#

and FH.
I

Demonjiration.

toBCas FGto GH: from whence

'Tis fuppos'd that the Polygons are Similar* that is to fay, that the Angles B and are has the fame proportion and that equal,

G

j

AB

|

I infer,

and (by the 6. 6.) that the Triangles are equiangular, and that the Angle9 are equal $ fo that likewife and

ABC

FGH
ACB

FHG

(by the 1\.
•are equal.

%.) the Angles But the Angles

AMB and FNG ABM and FGN,
.XH^ fore
fy

being in a Semicircle, are right Angles, (£§ the%i. 3.) and confequently, the Triangles

ABM and FGN

are equiangub-

Twelfth Booh 351 ( the 4. 6.) AB has the fame proportion to by to FN, and (by the 22. 6.) if two FG, as fimilar Polygons be defcrib'd upon AB and FG, as thofe that are propose!; and two and FN, other fimilar Polygons upon which fhall be two Squares $ the Polygon ABCDE will h&ve the fame proportion to the

The

AM

AM

Polygon
c 1

FGHKL^
FN.

as the Square of

AM

to

the Square of
ftrate that

This Propofitkn is neceflary to demon* which follows.

LEMMA.
If a
^iianttiy be lefs than a Circle, 4 regular Tolygon may be htfcrWd in the fame Circle greater -than that Quantity.
certain
f he

SUppofe A Figure
'

c

to

be

lefs

*

than
Circle

\ c

B

the a
5'

* c
*
c

regular Polygon may

be inferib'd
in the

%

fame Circle* which fhall be greater than the Figure A. Let the Figure G be the and the difference between the Figure

A

Circle,

lb that the Figures

A

and

G

taken
to

£

2

35^
*

The Elements of Euclid.

together,
« *

may

fcribe in the Circle the 6. 4.)

be equal to the Circle B. InB the Square CDEF, (by and if the Square be greater

<
4

t c

c
c
.

c

than the Figure A, we fhall have what we wanted. If it be lefs, divide the four Quarters of the Circle CD, DE, EF, and FC, each into two equal Parts at the Points H,I, K, L, that fri you may have an O&ogon. But if the Oclcgon be fiill lefs than the Figure A, fubdivide its Arches, and you will have a Polygon of flxteen Sides, afterwards of thirty-two, and then of iixty-four. I fay, at lergth 37011 will have a Polygon greater than the Figure A, 2. e. a Polygon whofe difference from the Circle is lefs than that of the Figure A, that is, lefs than the Figure G. Demovjfratzon. ' The inferib'd Square is more than half of
the Circle, being half of the Square defcrib'd about the Circle ^ and -in jdefcribing the Oclbgon you take more than half of the Remainder, i.e. of the four Segments CHD,

*
1

DIE,EKF,andCLF. For the Triangle CHD isthehalfof the Re&angle CO, (by the 34.
r.)

{

therefore it

c

Arches. In like manner, in dethe Polygon of fixteen Sides, you 'fcribing c take more than half of what was left of the c Circle ^ and fp in all the others. Therefore
all the other
*

'

Segment

CHD

5

is more than half of the and the fame may be faid of

you will leave

at laft a

lefs

Quantity than 6,

355 G. For 'tis evident, that two unequal Quanr tities being proposed, if you take away more than half 01 the greater, and afterwards more than half of what remains, and again more than half of what is ftill left behind y at
-

The Twelfth Booh

length that which remains will be lefs than the fecond Quantity. Suppofe the fecond Quantity to be contain'd in the firft an hun-.

*

dred times: 'tis evident, that dividing the into an hundered Parts, in fuch fort, that the firft Part may have a greater proportion to the fecond, than two to one 5 the laft will be lefs than the hundredth Part fo that at laft you will obtain a Polygon, which will be lefs exceeded by the Circle, than the Circle exceeds the Figure A-, that is to fay, that what will remain of the Circle, when the Polygon is taken; away, will be lefs than G. Therefore the Polygon will be greater than the Figure A.
firft
:

PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.

IL

Circles are in the fame proportion as the of their Diameters.

Squares

A

I the Circles
and

prove that

B

(

A
Z
*

are [c

in the

fame
3

proportion 3

as

554

The Elements of Euclid.

and EF. Sappofe the as the Squares of to have the fame proportion to Figure

CB

G

the Circle B, as the Square of to the of EF if the Figure G be lefs than Square the (Circle A, (by the preceding Lemma^) a regular Polygon, may be infcnb'd in the Circle A, greater than G. Let a fimilar regu? lar Polygon bealfo infcrib*d in the Circle B.
:

CD

will ha ve* the fame proportion to the Polygon of B, as to the Square of EF, i. e* the Square of to the Circle B but the Quanthe fame as is lefs than the Polygon infcrib'd in; tity
.

The Polygon

Demcwflratioiu of the Circle

A

CD

G

•,

G

accordingly therefore (by. the 14, 5.) the Circle B muft be lefs than the Polygon infcrib'd in it,
jnufl:

A:

which

is

manifeftly

falfe.

It
1

therefore be granted that the Figure G, being lefs than the Circle A, cannot have

the fame proportion to the Circle B, as the Square of CD to the Square of EF, and con« fequently, that the Circle A, cannot have a greater proportion to the Circle B, than the Square of CD to the Square of EF : Nor can it be faid to have a lefs ? for then the Circle
*

B

would have a greater proportion to ths Circle A, and the f$me Dernonftratjon would be applicable to it,
Coroll. 1
.

Circles are in the duplicate pro-

portion of that of their Diameters 5 becaufe ihe Squares being fimilar Figures, are in the du? V»^*j
ft

The Twelfth Booh
duplicate proportion (by the 20. 6.) Cor oil. 2. Circles are in the fame

369

of that of their Sides

propor-

tion as the fimilar Polygons, that are infcrib in them.

d

Cor oil 3. This ought
:

to be well obferv'd

as a general Rule fimilar Figures, beinfcrib'd in others, fo that they aping

When

may

nearer and nearer to them, and at laft degenerate into the Figures themfelves, are in the fame proportion ^ the Figures that contain them are alfo in the fame proportion.

proach

ftill

What

I

would fgy

is

this,

That

fimilar re-

gular Polygon^, infcrib'd in divers Circles, are always in the fame proportion as ths Squares of the Diameters * and being made of more Sides, fo as to approach ftill nearer and nearer to the Circles, they ftill retain the fame proportion , and the Circles themfelves the Squares of are in the fame proportion as This manner of meafuring their Diameters. round Bodies, by infcribing in them others,
is

of great

ufe.

The E. This being a very general Propofition,
* ' c

US

c
'

enables us to argue about Circles, in the fame manner as we do of Squares. For example, we fay (in the 47. 1.) That in a redfcangle Triangle the Square of the Bafe alone is equal to the Squares of both the S;des

taken together.

We may
Z 4

fay the fame of
Circle!

356

The Elements of Euclid.

Circles, f. e. That the Circle defcrib'd upoi* the Bale of a Rectangle Triangle, is equal to the Circles, whofe Diameters are the Sides.

And in

the fame

manner we may augment

or diminilh Circles, according to what pro? prove alfo by it in portion we pleafe.

We

^

in the duOptichy that Light decreafes diftances plicate proportion of that of the of the lucid Bodies.

PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.

III.

Every Pyramid, whofe Bafe is triangular, hay be divided into two equal Ptifms, whub make the Pyramid-, and into up more than half of
two equal Pyramids.

IN *

the

Pyramid
EBFI,
be

ABCD
EHKC,
than

may

be

found two equal

Prifms,

and

which will

greater

half the Pyramid. Divide the fix Sides of the Pyramid equally at the Points G, F, E,
J,

H, K, and draw the Lines EG, GF, FE, EI, Jil, FH, IK, and EK. ;
jDemonJlration.

In the Triangle
proportion
to

ABD, AG

Tias the

Tame

GB as AF to FD,

becaufe

AB

The Twelfth Book,
and

357
and
are

AD are

equally divided in G,

F

•>

and therefore (by the 2. 6.) will be the half of rallels*; and

GF

ED

Pai. e.

GF

BI, FE and HI, will be parallels, and equal and (by the 15. 11.) the Planes GFE and BHI will be parallel-, and confequently EBFI will be a Prifm. The fame may be laid of the Figure HEKF, which will be alfo a Prifm equal to the other, (by the 4©. 11.) the Parallelogram Bafe HIKD being double the Triangular BHI,
equal to

BH. In

like manner,

GE and

BD,
:

(by the 41.

1.)

Secondly, I fay, the Pyramids

AEFG, and

ECKI,

are fimilar and equal.
Demotifiratioy.

The

Triangles

(by the 8.

1.) as alfo

AFG and FDH are equal, FDH and EIK* and
:

likewifeAGE, andEIC-, and fo of all the other Triangles of the Pyramids therefore the Pyramids are equal, (by Befn. 10. 11.) They are alfo fimilar to the great Pyramid ABDG lor the Triangles AGE and ECI are fimilar (by the 2.6.) the Lines GE and BC being Parallels*, and the like may be demon:

firated of all the other Triangles of the leffer

Pyramids.
Laftly, I fay the Prifms are more than half of the firft Pyramids. For if each was equal to one of the lefler Pyramids, both would be equal to the half of the greater Pyramid. But they are each of them greater than one of
thofe

35^
thofe

Th e Elements of Euclid*

the

Pyramids; as the Prifm GHE contains Pyramid GBHI, and fomewhat more-, and that Pyramid is equal and fciilar to the others, having all their Triangles equal and fimilar to thole of the Pyramid AGFE, as
be eafily prov d by the Prallelifm of their Sides: from whence I infer, that the two Prifms taken together, are greater than

may

the two Pyramids j and confcquently greater than half of the great Pyramid.

PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.

IV.

Jftwo Tiicmguhr Pyramids of the fame height be divided into two Prifms and two Pyramids, and the latter Pyramids fub divided after the all the Prifms of one Pyramid fame manner

have the fame proportion to all thofe of the other, as the Bafe of one Pyramid to the
will

Bafe of the

other.

the

two

IF mids
DEFG,

Pyra-

ABCD,
of the fame

^

height,

and having

triangular Bafes, be two divided into

Prifms and two Pyramids, according to the in the third Propofition
•,

method

laid

down

and the two IciTer be fubdivided alter the fame manPyramids
ner,

ner,

The Twelft h Booh andfo inorder,that,having made

359
as

many

Divifions of one as of the other, you have the fame number of Prifms in both^ I fay, that all the Prifms of one will have the fame proportion to all the Prifms of the other, as
Demonftration. or the fame height, the Prifms produced by the firft Divifions, will have alfo the fame height, becaufe they have
their Bafes.

The Pyramids being

each the half of that of their Pyramids. But Prifms of the fame height are in the fame proportion as their Bafes, (by theCoroll. of the 39. 1 1 ,) The Bafes BTV and EPX are fimiand having lar to the Bafes BDC and EGF for their Sides the half of thofe great Bafes, they can make but the fourth Part of them ^ but they are in the fame proportion as the great Bafes are h therefore the firft Prifms will have the fame proportion as the great Bafes. After the fame manner I may prove that the Prifms produc'd by the fecond Divifion, i e. of the lefTer Pyramids, will be in the fame proportion as the Bafes of thofe lefler Pyramids, which are in the fame proportion as the great Bafes. Therefore all the Prifms of one have the fame proportion to all the Prifms of the other, as the Bafe to the Bafe.
*,

-

.

The
cc
ct

USE.

Thefe

to

two Propofitions are neceflary compare Pyramids together, and to take

<c

their Dimensions.

PRO-

360

The Elements of Euclid.

PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
Triangular Pyramids of the

V-

fame height are in the fame proportion as their Bafes.

proportion as their BaFor if *hey were not, H one of them, e. g. ABCD, would have a greater proportion to the Pyramid EFGH, than the Bafe BCDtotheBafe FGH* fo that a Quantity lefs than ABCD would have the fame pro-, portion to the Pyramid EFGH, as the Bafe BCD to the Bafe FGH. Divide the Pyramid
fes.

and EFGH THE Pyramids fame

ABCD

are in the

of the third Propodivide alfo the Pyramids that refult rtion $ from the firft Divifion, into two Prifms and two Pyramids, and thofe again into two other Prifms, continuing the Divifion as long as there fhall be cccafion. Since the Prifms of the firft Divifion are more than half of the

ABCD after the manner

Pyramid ABCD, (by [the 3.) and the Prifms of the fecond Divifion more than half the remainder, i. e, of the two leffer Pyramids,

$

and

thofe of

the third Divifion- ftill

more
than

The Twelfth Booh
than the half of what

36 1

is left ^ it is evident, that fo many Divisions may be made, that that which remains fhall be lefs than the excefs of the Pyramid above the Qaan*

ABCD

tity L, that

is,

that all the Prifms taken to-

Make

gether fhall be greater than the Quanty L. as many Divisions of the Pyramid

JEFGH, fo

that

as there are in

you may ABCD.

have as

many

Prifms

Demonjlration.

have the fame proportion to the Prifms of EFGH, as the Bafe to the Bafe but the proportion of the Bafe BCD to the Bafe is the fume with that of the Quantity L to the Pyramid therefore the Prifms of have the fame proportion to the Prifms of EFGH, as the Quantity L to the Pyramid EFGH. But alfo the Prifms of are greater than the Quantity L therefore {by the 14.5.) the Prifms contain'd in the Pyramid

The Prifms of

ABCD

BCD

FGH

:

FGH

EFGH

:

ABCD

ABCD

:

EFGH

would be greater than the fame Pyramid EFGH, which is evidently falfe 5 becaufe the Part cannot be greater than the Whole. Therefore it muft be granted, that no Quantity lefs than one of th e Pyramids can have the fame proportion to the other as the Bafe to the Bale and confequently neither or the Pyramids can have a greater proportion to
-,

the other than the Bafe has to the Bafe,

PRO-

^G i

The Elements of Euclid,

V

i.<

O

P

O

S

I

TION
r

VI.

A TH
Ail J oris of lyrtwiids
the

FOR P.M.
have

Jamc

of the J ame height % Proportion as their jiaj'es.

THE
vide the

Pyramids ABC and DEJFIG, of" the

fame Height* are in the fame proportion as the DiBafefl BC and FFG.

Bats

into Triangles,
Ikmovjlratiov.

and I)F, bearc in the fame Height, proportion as (heir Bafts, fiy fie 7.) So alfo and DP arc in tile tii;u::Mil;ii' Pyramids
in^
TIic triangular Pyramids of the fame

AB

AC

the lame proportion as their; Baft*. There fore the Pyramid' ABC has the lame proportion to the Pyramid DEE, as the Bafe BC;fO the Bafe \A'\ (bftbe 12. 5-) Fmther, Una: the Pyramid 1)1 F has the (a flic proportion to the Pyramid ABC as the Bafc EF to the Bafe

BC

\

and again,

fame proportion
Bafe

G

to

will alfo

Pyramid DG has the Pyramid ABC, as the the Bkfe BG > the Pyramid DEfW have the fame proportion to
the
to
\h.c
1

t

Pyramid ABC, BC.

as the Bale

PPG

to the Bafe

PR

j

'•

TbeTwelfth Booh
>*«.

36 j

V R

O POSI T O N
I

VII.

A T Hi: OR KM.
r.uny Pyramid

h

upon the fains Bafi,
firft

the third Part of a Prifm heiyg and of the fame height.

SUppofe lar Prifm AB
pO&*t!t:

the triangubfe

pro

I

ving ono

ACHE

or

BDF

lay a Pyramid, haof the Triangle
for
its

Bafe,
"

F
as the

and being of the fame height

Pyramid

ACEF,
Draw

will be the third

Part

the three Diagonals

AV\

of the Prifm. IX', FC, o£ the

three Paiallelogiams.
Donmijlrat'um.

The Prifm is divided into three equal IV ramids, ACFE, A( Fl), and CFBD* then
i

ore each will be the third Part
firft,

of the Piilin.
Bafefc the

The two
Triangles

AEF and

having API), which

for

their

ft) the 34. 1.)

are equal, and for their Height the Perpendicular drawn from the Tap C to t!ie Plane of their Males AF, will be the prei equal* (by
ting,)

for their Bafes

have the equal Triangles ADC and the fame Top F, will be alfo andDCB,
(by
the

The Pyramids ACFDandCFflD, which
Therclorc one

equal,

fHceditg.)

ol

thdfe

The Elements of Euclid. thofe Pyramids, e. g. AFCE, having the fame
^64
Bafe

BDF with the Prifm,and the fame height,
is

Point

the Perpendicular drawn from the the Plane of the Bafe ACE, is the third Part of the fame Prifm. If the Prifm

which

F to

be a Polygon it muft be divided into divers triangular Prifms $ and the Pyramid, which has the fame Bafe and the fame Height, will be alfo divided into as many Triangular Pyramids-, each of which will be the third Part
Therefore (r<y the 12. 5.) the will be the third Part of the JPolygoh Pyramid Prifm. Polygon
its

of

Prifm.

^PROPOSITION
A

VIII.

THEOREM.

Similar Pyramids are hi the triplicate proportion

of that of their homologous Sides.

the Pyramids be triangular, compleat the which will be alfo fimiiar, becaufe will have certain Planes the fame with they thofe of the Pyramids. But the fimiiar Prifms are in the triplicate proportion of the homo? logons Sides, (by Coroll 4. of the 39. 1 1 j there-

JF

I rifins,

fore:

the Pyramids, which (by the preceding) are the third Parts of the Prifms, will be in the triplicate proportion of that of their ho* the

iriologoui Sides.

Eeduc'd to

Pyramids be Polygons, they muft be PJKOTriangular Pyramids.

The

Twelfth Booh
IX.

365

PR QPOSITION
A THEOREM.'

Equal Pyramids have the Heights arid Bafes recihave their Heights atti procal; and tbofe that
Bafes reciprocal, are equal.

two equal triangular Pyramids be promake Prifms upon the fame Bales, and of the fame height. Since every Prifm is

IF pos'd,

triple his Pyramid (by the 7.) they will alfa be equal. But equal Prifms have their Bafes and Heights reciprocal (hy Cor oil 4. of the 39. 11.) therefore the Bafes and Heights of the Pyramids which are the fame with thofe of the Prifms, will be alfo reciprocal. Secondly, if the Bafes and Heights of the Pyramids be reciprocal, the Prifms will be equal, as alfo the Pyramids, which are the third Parts of the Prifms. If the Pyramids proposed be Polygons, they; muft be reduced to triangular Pyramids. Coroll. Other Proportions may be made

concerning Pyramids: as for example

-,

That

Pyramids of the fame height, are in the fame proportion as their Bafes*, and thofe that have the fame Bafes, are in rhe fame proportion as
their Heights.

The
*"

USE.

*

From thefe Propofitions is drawn the manner of Meafuring Pyramids, which is,

Aa

.

I

by,

%66

The Elements of Euclid.

2

by multiplying their Bafes by the third part of their Heights. Other Propofitions may alfo be made, as, That if a Prifm be equal to a Pyramid, the Bafe and the Height of the Prifm, with the third part of the Height which of the Pyramid, will be reciprtical is as much as to fay, that if the Bafe of the Pyramid has the fame proportion to the Bafe of the Prifm, as the Height of the Prifm to the third part of the Height of the Pyramid, the Prifm and the Pyramid will be equal.
•,

A

LEMMA.

If a Quantity lefs than a Cylinder be proposed, a Polygon Prifin maybe infcrib'd in the Cylinder greater than that Quantity.

A IF be lefs
the

the Quantity

than
is

Cylinder,

whofe

Bafe B,

the Circle

a

Polygon

Prifm
Cylinder
circum-

may
in
'
' « <
c
1

be infcrib'd

the

greater than the Quantity

A.

The Square

CDEF
PJLQ.

infcrib'd

in,

and

GH1K

is fcrib'd about, the Circle, Draw the Tangent an O&ogon incfrib'd. had fo many Pnfms and

CLDMENFO
all
f

fuppofe you

as there are

Polygon Bafes, and

of the

lame

The Twelfth Booh.
c

367
That which
*,

fame height with the Cylinder.
will

has the circumfcrib'd Square for its Bafe, arid that encompafs the Cylinder whofe Bafe is the infcrib'd Square, will be
alio infcrib'd in the Cylinder.
'
.

4

Demoujt. Prifms of the fame height are in the fame proportion as their Bafes,( by CorolL 3. of the 39. 1 1.) and the infcrib'd Square

*

being the half
fcrib'd,
its

of

that which

is

circum-

Prifm will be the half of the

c

and therefore, more than the half of the Cylinder. And making the Prifm with c the Odogon Bafe, you take away more than 6 half of what remain'd of the Cylinder, after * the Prifm of the infcrib'd Square was taken c from it, becaufe the Triangle is the c Half of the Redangle CQ. And becaufe c Prifms of the fame height are in the fame * proportion as their Bafes, the Prifm, whofe * Bafe is the Triangle CLD, will be the half of 4 the Prifm, which for its Bafe has the Red* c angle DCPQ: it will therefore be more c than the half of that part of the Cylinder, ' whofe Bafe is the Segment DLC* The fame * may be faid of all the other Segments. 6 After the fame manner I may demonftrate, i that making a Polygon Prifm of fixteen * Sides, I take away more than half of what ' remains of the Cylinder* after the Odogon * Prifm is taken from it fo that there will * reiBainat laftapart of the Cylinder, lefs a 2 { then
other,

CLD

:

A

568
*
*

The Elements of Euclid.

c

than the exeefs of the Cylinder above the Quantity A. We fhall have therefore a

*
*

Prifm infcrib'd in the Cylinder, which fhall be lefs exceeded by the Cylinder than the Quantity A. i.e. which {hall be greater than the Quantity A. The fame way of arguing
will hold of the Pyramids infcrib'd in a Cone.

PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.

X.

A Cone

is the third Part of a Cylinder, having the fame Bafe, and being of the fame Height.

a Cone and a C ylinder have the Circle A for their Bafe, and be of the fame height,

I

F

the Cylinder will be triple the Cone. For if the proportion of the Cylinder to the Cone was greater than the the Quantity B lefs than triple Proportion, the Cylinder would have the fame proportion and (by the preto the C one as three to, one a Polygon Prifm may be inceding Lemma) fcrib'd in the Cylinder greater than the Quantity B. Suppofe that whiclr has for its Bafe to be fuch an one the Polygon y
:

CDEFGH

Make alio upon
icrib'd in the

the fame Bafe a

Pyramid

in-

Gone.
Cylinder,
the Cone,

Demonflr.

The

the

Prifm, and the Pyramid, are of the fame

The Twelfth Booh
Height
is alfo
j

369

the Pyramid,

therefore the Prifm is the triple of {by the 7.) But the Quantity

B

the triple of the Cone ^ therefore the Prifm has the fame proportion to the Pyramid, as the Quantity B to the Cone : and {by
the 14. 5.)

the Prifm being greater than the B, the Pyramid Would be greater Quantity than the Cone, in which it is infcrib'd,

which But

is

impoflible.
it

if

be faid,

that the

Cone has a

greater proportion to the Cylinder than one to three, the fame Method may be made ufe

of to demonftrate the contrary.

PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.

XL
in

Cones of the fame height are Cylinders ani the fame proportion as their Bafes.

LET Cones,
or

two

two Cyof linders, the fame
height,

L

be
:

propos'd having for their Bafts the Circles and B I fay, they are in the fame proportion as their Bafes. For if not, one of them, would have a greaterproe.g. the Cylinder

A

A

portion to the Cylinder

B, than the Bafe
a 3

A

A

has

jjo

The Elements of Euclid.
lefs

B-, fuppofe then that the than the Cylinder A, has the fame proportion to the Cylinder B as the Bate A, to the Bale B. Therefore a Polygon Prifm may be iijfcrib'd in the Cylinder A, Which (hall be greater than the Quantity L. Suppofe it that therefore, whofe Bafe is the

has to the Bafe

Quantity L,

and infcribe a fimilar PolyPolygon CDEF in the BafeJB, which is alfo the gon GHIK Bafe' of a Cylinder. of the fame height. Demovjlr. The Prifms of A and B are in the fam? proportion as their Polygon Bafes, {by Coroll 4. of. the 39. 1 1.) and the Polygons are in the fame proportion as the Circles, (by Coroll 2. of the 12.) therefore the Prifm A has the fame proportion to the Prifm B, as the Circle A to the Circle B. But as the Circle
*,

A to the Circle B,
Cylinder B
B.
;

fo is the

therefore as the

Quantity L to the Prifm A to the

Prifm B, fo is the Quantity L to the Cylinder But the Prifm A is greater than the Quantity L, and confequently (by the 14. 5.) the Prifm B, infcrib'd in the Cylinder B, would be greater than its Cylinder, which is impoffible.

Therefore neither of the Cylinders has a greater Proportion to the other, than its Bafe to the other's Ba(e Coroll' Cylinders are triple the Cones, of the fame height, therefore Cones of the fame height are in the fame* proportion as their

Bafes.
4

FRO-

The Twelfth Booh

371

PROPOSITION XII.
A

THEOREM.

Cylinders and Cones, that are fimilar, are in tlfi that of the Diameters triplicate proportion of

of their Bafes.

LET
two

two
or

Cones

Cylinders, that are fimilar,

be propos'd, ha*
I fay, that the pro^ of the Cylinder to the Cylinder B portion is the triplicate proportion of that of the Diameter to the Diameter EF. For, if it be not the triplicate proportion ; let the Quantity G,lefs than the Cylinder A, be to the Cylinder, in the triplicate proportion of that of the Diameter to the Diameter EFs

A

vingthe and B

Circles, for their Bafes

A

DC

DC

and

infcribe a

Prifm in the Cylinder A greater
:

than G, and another fimilar to it in the Cylinder B they will be of the fame height with the Cylinder, becaufe fimilar Cylinders; have their Heights and the Diameters of their Bafes proportional, as well as Prifms, (by De:

fin. 22.

11

J

has the fame Demonftr. The Diameter proportion to the Diameter EF as the Side Dl to the Side EL, or as to EF, as I have

DC

DC

fiown in the firft.

But fimilar Prifms A a 4

are in

the

57^

The Elements of Euclid.

the triplicate proportion of that of their ho-

mologous Sides, {by the Cor 611/^. of 39.1 1.) thereis to the Prifm Bin the trifore the Prifm

A

plicate proportion of that of we fuppos'd that the Quantity

DC

to

EF.

But
pro-

G

in refpedt

of the Cylinder

B

was in the

triplicate
^

Prifm A will have the fame the Prifm B. as the Quantity G to the Cylnv der B ^ and (by the 4. 5 J the Prifm A being greater than the Quantity G, the Prifm B,
1

portion of that of

DC

to

EF

therefore the proportion to

anfcrib'd in the Cylinder B, will be greater than the Cylinder B, which is impoifible. Therefore fimilar Cylinders are in the triplicate pioportion of that of the Diameters of

their Bales.

Cones

(by the 10.) therefore fimilar

triplicate of their Bafes.

of Cylinders, Cones are in the proportion of that of the Diameters
are

the third Parts

PROPOSITION
ATHEOREM.
If a

XIII.

that is parallel to Cyli7icler be cut by a Plane, its Bafe, the Parts its Jxis will be in the of
as the Parts of the Cylinder.

fame proportion

the Plane parallel to its Bafe: I fay, the Cylinder AF will have the fame proportion to the Cylinder FB, as the Line AF to the

LE

T the Cylinder AB be cut by DC

Line

The Twelft h Book. 375 Line FB. Draw the Line BG perpendicular to the Plane of the Bafe A. Draw alfo upon
the Planes of the Circles

DC

and

A the

Lines

FE

and AG.
Deviovjlrat'iott.

The Plane of
parallel Sections

A and DC^ therefore and AG are parallel, (by the FE
Planes

the Triangle

BAG

cuts the

the
i^.

11 J So that

AF

has the fame proportion to

FB,astheHeightGEtoEB. Take any
Part of EB-, and having divided

GE

aliquot

and

EB

into Parts equal to it, draw fo many Planes Bafe A^ then will you have parallel to the fo many Cylinders of the fame height ^ which

having

their Bafes

and Heights

equal, will be

yided

Further, the Lines AF and FB will be di* after the fame manner as EG and EB, the 17. 11.) fothat the Line AF will as (by oit contain any aliquot Part of the Line FB, as the Cylinder AF contains the like aliquot Part of the Cylinder FB \ therefore the Parts

the 11.) equal, (by

of the Cylinder will be in the fame proportion as the Parts of their Axis.
Parts of the Perpendicular are in the fame proportion as the Parts of the
Coroll.

The

Cylinder.

PRO-

574

The

&eMe?rts of Euclid.
XIV.
are

PROPOSITION
A

THEOREM.
Cylinders of equal Sabeing proposed, as AB

and Cones, havhtg the fame Bafes, Cylinders in the fame proportion as their Heights.

TWO
fes

and CD, cut in the greater a Cy4 linder of the fame Height with the lefs, drawing a Plane EF parallel to its Bale.

Tis evident

the Cylinders CF has the fame GH, or (by the Cor oil. of the preceeding) as the Height of CF to the Height of CD;, therefore has the fame proportion to CD, as the

CF and AB

(by the 1 1 J that are equal ^ and that proportion to CD, as GI to

AB

Height of

CF

or

AB to the

Height of GD.
of Cylinders,

Cones being the

third Part

If their Bafes he equal, wi 1 be alfointhe proportion as their Heights.

fame

PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
Cylinders

XV.

and Cones, that are equal, have their Baand Heights reciprocal: and thoje that have fes their Bafes and Heights reciprocal, are equal.

CZ>c ^—^

T F the Cylinders AB and CD
^
will .1 be equal, the Bafe ha\-e the fame proportion to

B

the Bafe D, as the Height

CD
to

The Twelfth Book. 37 ^ to the Height AB. Take the Height DE equal to the Height AB. Demovftr. The Cylinder AB has the fame proportion to the Cylinder DE, of the fame
\

height, as the Bafe B to the Bafe D, (by the 11 J But as the Cylinder AB is to the Cylinder DE,
fo
is

the Cylinder

linder

CD (equal to AB) to the CyDE} i.efo is the Height CD to the Height
Therefore as the Bafe
is

ABorDE.
Bafe D, fo

B

to the

the

Secondly, if the Bale B to portion to the Bafe D, as the Height will the Height AB, the Cylinders AB and be equal. For the Cylinder AB is in the fame as the Bafe B , proportion to the Cylinder and the Cylinder CD will to the Bafe have the fame proportion to DE, as the to the Height therefore Height

HeighyCD

Height AB. has the fame proto the

CD CD

DE

D

:

CD

has the fame

proportion to
5.)

and

(by the 9.

the

AB CD to DE % DE, Cylinders AB and CD
DE
:

as

will be equal.

"

and 17. Propositions are very and of no other ufe but to prove 'difficult, " the 18. which may more eafily be done by " the following Lemma's.
16.

" The

m

L E M

M

A

I.

If a

Qiiantity be proposed lefs than a Sphere, Cylinders of the fame Height may be infaWd in

the fame Sphere greater than that

ghmthy.
Sup-

%"j6

The Elements of Euclid.

\
\

I

J

1
'

cor
f
*

eT~

a
:

*f^f
^te^o

c

be a great Semiof the circle Sphere, whereot

C ^PP°f BC
we

e

A

*

treat,
lefs

and the Quantity

D to be the

Quantity

I fay, feveral Cylinders than that Sphere c of the fame height may be infcrib'd in the c Sphere, which taken together will be greater * than the Quantity D. For if the Hemifphere * exceed the Quantity D, it will exceed it by * fome Magnitude^ let it then be the Cylinder MP, fo that the Quantities and c taken together may be equal to the Hemi-

D

MP

4
'
1 * c

Makea great Circle of the Sphere fphere. to have the fame y^roportion to the Bale to the Height R. Then MO,as the Height

MN

divide the Line
as

1 1

you pleafe, drawing Parallels

into as many equal Parts and each being lefs than

EB

R

:

to the

Line

AG,

defcribe

the infcrib'd

and

*
* c

grams. will exceed that of the infcrib'd by But all the Rectangles circumfcrib'd

The number of

circumfcrib'd Parallelothe circumfcrib'd
one.

will

* c
*

furpafs all the infcrib'd by the little Redanof gles through which the Circumference

ft

*
*

the Circle palTes^ all which taken together I imagine are equal to the Rectangle AL. the Semicircle to be turn'd about upon then
the

Diameter

EB

^

the Semicircle will

by
that

The Twelfth Book.
that

377
and the

Motion

defcribe a Hemifphere,

Keclangles inferib'd fo man)*" Cylinders in-* and thecircumfcrib'd in the Hemifphere icrib'd, other Cylinders circumfcrib'd.
•,

'

Demnytftr.

The

circumfcrib'd

Cylinders

furpafs the inferib'd more than the Hemifphere furpaffes the lame inferib'd Cylinders, it being contain'd within the circum: the the Cylinder therefore the Hemifphere will furpafs thofe

fcrib'd Cylinders. pafs the inferib'd

But the circumfcrib'd

fur-

by

AL

inferib'd Cylinders by lefs than the Cylinder defcrib'd by the Rectangle AL. But the

Cylinder

AL

is lefs

than the CylinderMP

:

for there is the fame proportion of a great Circle of the Sphere, which is the Bale of

to the Cylinder AL, to MO, as of the preceding) a Cylinder, which therefore (by fhould have a great Circle of the Sphere for
-,

MN

R

its Bafe, and the Height R, would be equal to but the Cylinder AL, tho* the Cylinner

MP

i

it

have the fame Bafe, yet
•,

its

than R therefore the Cylinder AL is lefs than the Cylinder MP. Confequently the Hemifphere, that exceeds the Quantity by the Cylinder MP, and the inferib'd Cylinders by a Quantity lefs than AL^ exceeds the inferib'd Cylinders by lefs, than it exceeds the Quantity D ^ therefore the is lefs than the Quantity Cylinders inferib'd in the Hemifphere.
lefs

Height

CL

is

D

D

PRO-

378
c

The Elements cf Euclid.
That which
is

I

have faid of the Hemi-

*

fphere,

applicable to an entire Sphere.

LEMMAII.
Similar Cylinders, ivfcrib'd in two Spheres, are in the. triplicate proportion of the Diameters

of the Spheres,

two
linders

fi-

IF milar CyCD
and
the

EF
and

inferib'd

be in

A

Spheres B, they will be in the triplicate proportion of and NO. Draw the Lines the Diameters

LM

GD and
c

The
*,

lar

KD DG asPF to FI. Confequently the Triangles GDK and IFP are fimilar, the fame (by the 6. 6) therefore KD has as LM to proportion to PF as GD to IF,
to

DR

Demovjlration. and EF are fimiright Cylinders has the fame proportion therefore to FS, as alfo has the fame as

IF.

CD

HD

QF

proportion to

ON. But the

fimilar Cylinders

CD and EF

the

12J therefore the fimilar Cylinders CD and EF, inferib'd in the Spheres A and B,
x

and are in the triplicate proportion of the Semidiameters of their Bafes (by PF,

KD

are in the triplicate proportion of the DiaPROmeters of the Spheres.

The Twelfth Bock

379
XVIII.

PROPO SIT ION
j

A THEOREM.
Spheres are in the triplicate proportion Diameters.

of their

and EF. Spheres, fuppofe A, will be in a greater proportion to B, than the Triplicate of that of the t)iameters CD and EF*, therefore the Quantity G lefs than the Sphere A, will be to the Sphere B, in the triplicate proportion of and then fome Cylinders that of CD to EF to Lem. 1.) be inferib'd in the may {according Sphere A, greater than the Quantity G. Infcribean equal ijufiiber of Cylinders in the Sphere B ? fimilar to thofe in the Sphere A.
meters
•,

THE CD

Spheres

A and B

cate proportion

are in the tripliof that of their DiaFor if not, one of the

Demonfir. The Cylinders of the Sphere A to thofe of the Sphere B are in the triplicate proportion of that of CD to EF,but the Quantity G to the Sphere B is alfo in the triplicate proportion of that of CD to EF: therefore the Cylinders of the Sphere A have the lame proportion to the fimilar Cylinders of the
Sphere

380

The Elements of

Euclid.

Sphere B, as the Quantity G to the Sphere B. Confequently the Cylinders of being greater than the Quantity G, the Cylinders of B, i.e. infcrib d ir* the Sphere B, will be greater than the Sphere B, which is impoffible. Therefore

A

the bpheres and B are in the triplicate proof that of their Diameters. portion Cor oil. Spheres are in the fame proportion as the C ubes of their Diameters becaufe Cubes
•,

A

being iimilar Solids, are in the triplicate proportion of their Sides, (by the 33. 11.)

The

END.
Knapton.
:

\B0

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ro

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con-

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