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T
HE
PREFACE.
HAjingfer
dijlike
a long time cbfervd, that mo(l of thofe that take in hand the Elements Euclid, art apt to
of
them,
to
becaufe they cannot prefently
thofe feemingly
difcern
what end
incon
fiderabk) and
yet difficult Propofitions, can
accepta
conduce
ble piece
.•
/ thought I fhould do an
of Service, in not only rendring them as eafie as pojjible, but alfo adding to
tach Proportion a brief Account offbme TJfe that is made of them in the other Parts of
the
Mathematicks.
In
profecuting
which
Dejign,
I have
been obligd to change fomz
that feenid too intricate and perplex d, and above the ordinary Capacity of Beginners, and to fubflitute others
Demonftrations,
more
intelligible
in their (lead.
For
the
fame
reafon,
I have
demonflrated the Fifth
Book, after a Method much more clear than that by Equimultiples, I formerly nfed.
A
2
would
PREFACE.
r
would not
ZJfes that
of thefe Proportions: that^ would have obliged me to have comprised the whole Body Mathema
be thought to may be made
have Jet down
all the
To have done
of
ticks in this one Book^ 3 which would have render* d it both too large, and too
difficult.
But I have contented my felf with the choice of fuch as may ferve to point out fome of the Advantages they afford us, and are alfo in themfelves moji clear, and moji eafie to be I have diftinguifh' d them by apprehended, * Inverted Comma's, that the Reader may know them not defiring he [hould dwell too
s
long upon them, or labour to under{land them perfectly at fir ft, fince they depend on the
Principles
of
the other Parts.
This therefore being the Defign of this fmall Treatile, 1 voluntarily offer it to the Publicly in an Age whoje C cuius fee ms more
addiBed
to
the
Mathematicks, than any
it.
that has preceded
*
Inftead
of the Author's
Italian
Chara&er.
Eight
[I]
Eight Books
OF THE
Elements of
The Ufe of
..^^ ¥
,
EV CLIT>.
the Propofitions:

Together with
ll,
n
.i

rill
MB"
'
_^^__——^«
THE FIRST BOOK.
and the Explication of the moft Terms. To thefe he adds fbme ordinary
Definitions,
TH
:
E Defign of m this Book, is to lay down the Firft Principles of Geometry ; and, to do it methodically, he begins with
EUCLID
Toftitlata
And then propofing
thofe
known
Maxims
us
;
which Natural Realondoesinftrucl: he pretends not to advance a ftep farther
in
without a Demon/Oration, but to convince every Man, even the moft obflinate, that will grant nothing, but what is extorted
from
treats
him. In the firft Propofitions, he of Lines, and the different Angles, which are fornAJ by their Concourfe ; ana having occafion to compare divers Triangles
A
'
5
toge
3
Tke Elements of Euclid,
^together, in order.. to. demQaarare^ihe Proof Angles, he makes that the Bufif perries nefs of the eight firft Then folt Propofitions.
«
c
low»fome
vide"
Practical Inftrugion?,
how
to di
€
4
an Angle and a Li»« into two Parts, and to draw a Nex% he (hews the
c
1
Perpinjku\ar. Properties of a" Triangle, together with thofe cf Parallel Lines ; and having thus ftni(h 3 d the
1
'
Explication of this firft Figure, he pafles on to the Parallelograms, teaching the manner
*
*
* angle the Square of the Bafe Square of both the other Sides.
*
of reducing any Polygon, Multangular Figure, into one more regular. Laftiy, He finishes the Firft Book with that famous Propofirion of Pythagoras, That in every Retlangular Tri*
"
is
equal to the
He
calls that
i,
the Bafe, which
is is
commonly
call'd
the Hypdtemft,
right Angle,
*, che Line that
oppofice to the
DEFINITIONS.
I.
'
J\
this
Point
is
that
which hath no Parts.
*
c
c
*
4 *
This Definition muft be understood in Senfe : That Quantity, which we cor* ceive without diftingui thing its Parts, or to much as confidering whether or no it has any , is a Mathematical Point ; which is therefore very different from thofe of
Zm%
which were fuppos'd to be abfolutely 4
indi
The Firfi Bo6%.
1
3
'
1
'
indivifible, and therefore fuch, that we may reafonably doubt whether they are poffible ; but the former we cannot doubt of, if we conceive them aright.
c
\
'
1
' 6 c
'
Length without Breadth. this Definition is the fame with the former : That Quantity, which we conceive as Length, without refle&ing on its Breadth or Thicknefs, is that which we underftand by a Line ; though it be impoffible to draw a real Line, which will not be .of a certain Breadth. 'Tis commonly that a Line is produc'd by the Motion (kid, of a Point Which ought to be carefully ob2.
'
A Line
is
The Senfe of
:
' *
ferv'd
;
for
Motion
may on
that
manner
c
c 1 c
produce any Quantity whatfoever : But here, we muft imagine a Point to be only Co mov'd, as to leave one Trace in the Space through which it pafles, and then that Trace will be a
Line.
3.
The two Extremes of a Line are Points. 4. A right Line is that, whofe Points are qually placed between the two Extremes.
i c
e~
Or
thus.
A
right Line
is
the (horteft that
4 €
can be drawn from one Point to another. Or yet ; the Extremes of a right Line may call a Shadow upon the whole Line.
5*.
which
6.
or Surface, is a Quantity to attributed Length and Breadtb 9 ivitbout the Consideration af any Thicknefs.
Superficies,
is
A
The Extremes of a
A
Superficies are Lines.
4
7.
A
^
7.
The Elements of Euclid.
A
Tlane or right Superficies
,
is
that,
whofe
;
Lines are equally placd between Or that, to which a right Line
apflfd.
its
two Extremes
be every
may
way
A
i
D
i
^
and that
that
c
have before obferv'd, That may produce any Quantity whatfoever Accordingly we fay, when one Line moves over another, it produ
I
*
Motion
:
ces a Superficies, or a Plane
;
Motion has a kind of
Affinity
with Arithmetical Suppofe Multiplication. then the Line A B to pa/s along the Line BC, retaining ftill the fame S'tuation, without any Inclination to one fide or other : The Point A will defcribe the Line AD, the Point B the Line B C, and the intermediate Points the Lines parallel to thofe, which will make up the Superficies A BCD. I add further,
That
this Motion anfwers to Arithmetical Becaufe, did I know the Multiplications Number of Points that are contain'd in both thofe Lines, A B, and by Multiplying
them together,
find a Produ & , which would give me the Number of Points which conftitute the whole Superficies A B C D. As for Example ; If A B contain'd four Points, and B C Six, by faying, four
1
DC;
mould
times
fix
whole Superficies
four Points.
make Twenty four, I find, that the A B C D confifts of Twenty
Now
by a Mathematical1 Point,
may
The Brfi Book*
c
5
may
e.
€
<
g>
be underftood any Quantity whatfoever ; a Foot, provided it be not fubdivided
is
into Parts.
8.
A Vlaln
Angle,
the
*
Diftance or opening
each of two Lints touching
one Line". pofe only
*
other, fo as not to
com
Overture. Gall. is$U aAAHActj fcAi^K. Eucl.
c
1
*
9.
betwixt the As the Diftance Lines A B, and BC; which are not Parts of the fame Line. c Retlilineal Angle is the Di
D
A
*
fiance betwixt
'
two Right
of
Lines.
'Tis chiefly
this
fort
of
A
C

c
'
'
Angles that I would be underftood at prefent y which I define by Difiance or Opening, becaufe Experience teaches, that the greateft part of
Beginners deceive themfelves in Mea faring the greatnefs of an Angle, by that of the Lines within which it is contain'd. * The Angle that is more
c
c
c
^
/
«^^
1
open,
'
is
is,
'
when
the greater ; that the Lines of one
\
/
*
c
Angle lie more apart from [?>. each other than thofe of
another,
taking
them
is
at
greater than
* "'**"
*
'
the fame Diftance
courfe, the former
ter.
rrom the Points of Conthe lat
'
<
*
Accordingly the Angle A is greater than the Angle E ; becaufe taking the Points and B as remote from the Point A, as the
D
4
Points
6
Points
Points
other,
G
D
The Elements of Euclid. and L are from the Point E
and
;
the
B
lie
than the Points G and L: From whence I infer, that ifthe Lines EG and EL were produc'd farther, the Angle E would be always of the fame Largenefs, and always lefs
than the Angle A.
ufe three Letters when we fpeak of an of which the Middlemoft denotes the Angle, Point of Concourfe: As the Angle is the Angle which by the Lines B A and is formed at the Point A The Angle B A is that made by the Lines BA and AC The Angle C A is compriVd by the Lines C A and A D. * A Circle is the Meafure of an Angle. Therefore to know the Magnitude of the Angle BAD; I place the Foot of the Compafs upon the Point A, and defcribe the Cir4
farther apart
from each
We
BAD AD
C
:
:
D
cle
BCD
:
The Angle
is
fo
much
the greater,
by how marry more Parts of a Circle the
f
*
<
Arch, that meafures it, contains : And becaufe a Circle is ufuallv divided inro %£o Parts or Degrees, therefore an Angle is faid
to have Twenty, Thirty, Forty Degrees, according as the Arch, compris'd betwixt the Lines that form it, contains To many. So the Angle is the greater, which contains more Degrees, as the Angle is greater than the Angle GEL. The Line divides
*
*
c

BAD
;
c 4
the Angle
BAD
CA
in
Arches
BC
and
CD
the middle, becaufe tht are equal and the Angle
'BAG
The
*
*
Firft Book.
7
becaufe part bf the Angle is pare of the Arch B D. Arch B the io. When one Line falling upon another makes
is
BAC
C
BAD,
two equal Angles, they are both right Angles
;
and
' c
1
Line AB, placed upon the Line CD, and makes the Angles
the Line Perpendicular. As for Example: If the
_A
E<
ABC
is,
*
1
ABD
j
equal
;
that
if
ha
'CAD from the Centre B, the Arches A G and A D are equal The Angles ABC and ABD are called Right Angles, and the
c
:
ving
defcrib'd
a
Semicircle
c
L
c
4
*
4
c
* 1
Line AB Perpendicular, Therefore becaufe is a Semicircle, the the Arch are each of them a Arches C A and quarter of a Circle, that is the fourth Part
CAD
AD
of three hundred and
Ninety.
fixty
Degrees, that
is
1 1. An Ohtufe Angle is that which is greater than a Right one. 1 is an Obtufe or Blunt As the Angle c becaufe its Arch E contains more Angle ; s than a quarter of a Circle; <
EBD
AD
12. An Acute Angle is that which is lefs than a right one. c As the Angle is an Acute; becaufe the Arch E C, which meafures has lefs it, « than ninety Degrees.
EBC
13.
A
Term
is
the extremity
or
end of any
,.
Quantity.
A
8
The Elements of Euclid.
14. Figure is a Quantity comprehended by one or more Terms,
c
c
A
limited
If.
That which is call'd a Figure, ought and inclos'd on every Side.
to be
A
Circle
the encompajjing
Circumference ; from the middle Point,
a Thin Figure, terminated by of one Lin?^ which is calFd the and is every where equally remote
is
<
c
« c c
The Figure
;
RVSX
all
18
a
Circle
becaufe
the
Lines
TR, TV, TS, TX, drawn from the Point
to the Line
equal.
RVSX,
%
is
are
*
16, The middle Point caird the Centre.
1 7. Circle, is any Line pafof the Centre, and terminated at the Cirfing through cumference) dividing the Circle into two equ.il
The Diameter
a
Parts.
6
*
c
VTX
As the Lines V T X, and R T S. But if any (hould doubt, whether the Line
*
c
'
does indeed divide the Circle into two equal Parts, fo that the Pare VSX be equal it to the Part V ; may on this manner be
RX
prov'd.
c
Suppofe the Part
VRX
to be p!ac d
s
upon
c
c
the other
VSX:
Ifav, they will not exceed
one
The Firji Book.
1
*
C
4
<
1
c c
one the other. Forifonefuppofe V S X exceed the other VRX, the Line T R will be lefs than TS ; and inlikemanthan TY, which is V ner contrary to the Definition of a Circle, which affirms all the Lines drawn from the Centre to the Circumference to be equal.
TZ
1 8. Stmt circle is a Figure terminated by the Diameter j and half the Circumference.
A
19. Rectilineal Figures are fuch as are terminated by right Lines, having Three, or Four, or Five, or as many Sides as you pleafe.
'
*
Euclid divides Triangles with refpect either
to their Angles, or Sides.
20.
that
An
which has
Equilateral Triangle is its three Sides equal,
A
B
ABC.
2T.
angle,
qt*al
* :
An
is
'
Ifbfceles,
or
Equicrural Trie
that
which has two Sides
AC
an
22.
As if the two Sides A B and be equal, the Triangle
Ifofceles.
ABC
*
is
A
Scalenum
is
a Triangle
having
all the three Sides unequal^ as
CHI.
:to
A
D
E
The Elements of Euclid. 23. A ReB angle Triangle
is
that
which has one Right Angle. E F, fiippofing the Angle :;* As ' to be a right One.
D
E
24.
An
Ambligone,
Triangle,
is
or
Ob~
that
tufeangle
which has one
as
IGH.
is
;
An?U *
or
ObtuCe\ J
2f.
all
4n Oxygone,
Triangle^
Acute
Acuteangle that whofe Angles an as A B
C
ReB angle ( properly 10 a Figure out confining of f Sides, and having all its Angles Right.
26. caird )
is
A
27.
A Square has all
and
its
its
;
Sides
EB,
B
qual>
Angles Right
as
A
D
28.
An
Oblong
ReB angle
its
has
its
Sides unequal\ but as D.
C
Angles Right ;
F
Rhombus, or Lofange , 29. has equal Sides hut unequal An,
A
gles
;
as
E F.
go,
A
Rhomboides,
hath
;
or
Obits
long
Lofange,
both
<jj
and Angles unequal
GH,
'
%i % Other
The
caU'd Trapefia.
3
2. Parallel
Flrfi
Book
H
B
31. Other Irregular
Sides are Figures of Four
Lines are
A
_
as being in the fame fucb, Plane, will never con
q
q
A B, CD.
a
cur, keeping fiill an equal the other) Difiance one from
%%>
A
Parallelogram
is
A
I
H
j
B
I
Figure, whofe are Parallels
'
two
'
oppofite
Sides
:
gure
1 *
A BCD,
As the Fiwhofe Sides,
c"G
f^fe
^<L/
D
AB,
CD;
and
AC, B D,
are parallels.
34. The Diameter of a Parallelogram is a right Line drawn from one Angle to another ; as BC.
The Complements are the two fmall ParaU which the Diameter does not lelograms, through as AFEH, and GDIE. pafs;
g
U
DEMANDS,
1.
or
SUPPOSTIONS.
>HTMS
JL
drawn from any Point
fuppos'd that a right Line may be vrhatfbever to
another.
2. That a Right Line may be cominu'd to what Length you pleafe.
3.
That
11
The Elements of Euclid.
3. That from a Centre given, a Circle be defcrib'd at any Diftance whatfoever.
may
MAXIMS,
1.
/
or
AXIOMS.
third,
are equal betwixt themfelves. 2. If equal Quantities be added to thofc that are equal, the Produfts will alfo be
that are equal to a ""pHofe Quantities
JL
equal.
;. If
thofe that
equal Quantities be taken away from are equal, the Remainders will be
equal.
4. If you add equal Parts to Quantities unequal, they will remain unequal. y. If from equal Quantities you take away unequal Parts, the Remainders will be une
qual.
6. Quantities that are
druple,
&c.
in
Double, Triple, Quarefped of the fame, are equal
among
7.
themfelves.
Thofe Quantities are faid to be equal, which being apply'd one to the other, neither
exceeds.
Equal Lines and Angles being plac'd one upon another, do not furpafs each other.
8.
9. The 10. All
Whole
greater than its Part. right Angles are equal to one anois
ther.
Let
The Firjl Book?
L
*3
Let
the
two
*
< 1 1
<
c
right Angles pro
pos'd be
I
ABC,
**
EFH, fay, they are equal. For 11 two equal Circles
'
CAD, HEG, be defcrib'd from the Centres B snd F the fourth Parts of thofe Circles C A, HE, which are the Meafures of the Angles, ABC, EFH, will be equal:
;
!
c
Therefore the Angles ABC, E equal Meafures, will be equal. The eleventh Maxim of
F G,
having
Euclid is to this EtFeft. If two Lines A B, C D, being cut by a third E F, make the Internal
A B, being right Angles; the Lines will at length concur towards the produced,
two
Points
c
Angles, BEF,
DFE,
lefs
than
CD
B and D.
c
Which, though it be true, is notcleirenough to be receiv'd for a Maxim; ther^foie I have fubftituted another in its Place. n. If two Lines be parallel, all the Perpendiculars contained betwixt them will be equal. c As for Examples If the Lines
:
c
AB,
c
4
are parallel, the Perpendicular Lines FE, HG, are equtl.
if
CD,
AE
G
B
For
c
c
the Lines
*
were greater than GH, C F H D would be and C more remote from each other towards the Points E and Fj than towards G and H; which
EF
AB
D
B
c
would
14
*
4
*
The Elements of Euclid.
where, \\$
would be contrary to the Definition of Parallels,
fnid, they are fuch as always the fame Diftance, rneafui'd by keep Perpen
*
>
diculars.
12.
Two
;
Space
jt
that
Right Lines cannot enclofe any is to fay, they cannot encompafs ic
.
en allSide c
ig.
mon
Right Lines cannot have one comSegment. 4 By which I mean, That two
4
c
Two
C
4 4
4
PJght Lines, fuppofe A B, and B, meeting at the Point B, cannot together make one fo!e LineBD; but cutting one ano
other, feparate again immediFor, if you deately after their Rencounter. fcribe a Circle from the Point B as a Centre,
AFD
will be a Semicircle; becaufe the Line ABD, palling through the CenRight tre B, will divide the Circle into two equal will be alfb a The Segment Parts. will be alfb a Semi circle ; becaufe
CBD
CFD
Right Line, and will pais through the Centre B Therefore the Segment will be to the Segment AFD, the Part to the equal whole ; which is repugnant to the ninth
:
CFD
Maxim.
APVE R«
The Firjl Book:
1 5
Advertisement.
*
c '
'
'"T^Here are two forts of propofirions. In Tome we have nothing but rhe bare Speculation ofa Truth without defcending to Prain others fomedice, which we call Theorems is proposed to be done, and thofe are thing
X
;
*
CalI'd Problems,
c
The
flrft
Number of the Quotations
denotes
c
1
As by the Propofitions, the fecond the Book. the 2. of the 3. trm is, by the fecond PropofiBut if only one Numtion of the third Book ber occur, it flgnifies fuch a Propoficion of the Book you are then upon.
:
c 1
*
PROPOSITION
A
I.
Problem.
Line given.
To draw an Equilateral Triangle upon any
/
be propos\i for the Bafe from the Equilateral Triangle Centre A at the Diftance A B defcribe the Circle BCD; and likewife from the Centre B ac the Diftance BA defcribe the Circle AC, cotB z ttn^ of LET
the Line
AB
an
;
D
1
The Elements of Euclid. Then draw the ting the former at the Point C. Lines A C and B C, and all the Sides of the
Triangle
6
ABC
will
be equal.
Demonfiration,
A
Lines A B and C, being drawn from the fame Centre A to the Circumference of the
The
being drawn from the Centre B to the Circumference of the Circle and B C beLa%, The Lines ing equal to the fame Line A B, are alfo equal between themfelves. All the three Sides therefore of the Triangle are equal.
Circle ly the Definition of a Circle and B C are likcwife equal,
BCD,
;
are equal, the Lines B A
CAD.
AC
ABC
The
'
USE.
The Defign of Euclid
m
4
placing this Problem here, was only to demonftrate the
1 c
'
two following
But
it
may
be
Propofitions. alfo further
ferviceable'for the
an inacceffible Line
measuring
A
a
B, which by cannot be approached.
as for Example, the Line reafon of a PJver or Precipice
;
In fuch a Cafe make fmaJI Equilateral E either of Triangle B Wood or Copper, or the like ; and having
D
placed
it
Horizontally upon B, obferve the ' Point
The Fir ft Book.
Point A, by the Side C, by the Side B E.
*
TJ
angle along the divers parts Of the fame Line; 'fill at length vou find a Point C, upon which placing the Triangle you mall fee rhe Point B, bv the Side
B D, and any other Point Then transfer your TriLine B C, and place it upon
C G,
and the Point A by the Side C F. I fay, CB and CA for AC) are equal; fo that by meafuring the Line B C, you may know the Line A B. I might further demonftrate, that the Lines AB and BC are equal
The Lines
7.
;
but let it fuffice, that in this Propofltion, you are taught the way of making an Inftrumenc proper to take the Dimenfions of an inacceffible Line.
v..
PROPOSITION
A Problem.
From a Point given,
to
II.
C*

draw a Line equal
to
A~'
another Line given.
LET from which
B,
the Point propos'd be a Line is to
be drawn equal to the Line A.
Take with the Compafs the Length of the Line A, and at that Interval, making B the Centre,
defcribe the Circle
A~
the
CD.
B
3
*
Drawing then from
U.
3»>
£>
5k
\
Ss
yr
v
Cf
(*X
hf%
o
The Elements of Euclid. the Point B t ) which Side you pleafe, a Line B I or B D, 'tis evident it will be equal to the
1
8
Line A. ' Euclid propofes a more myilerious and in* c tricate Method of demonftrating this Propofi1 tion but in Pra&icft we alwavs make ufe e of this: Inafmuch as, having taken with the * Compafs the Line A, 'tis as eafie defcribing c a Circle from the Centre B, as from the Cen;
c
tie A.
PROPOSITION
A Problem.
From a Greater Line
to
in.
take a Part equal to a Lefs.
a Part SUppofe B I,
you were to take from the Line B C Take beequal to the Line A.
twixt the Points of the Compafs the Length of the Line A, and at the Diftance from the Centre B defcribe a Circle, which (hall cut the Line
BC
'
at the Point
I.
*Tis certain the Lines
B
!>
and A, are equal.
The
is
* *
c *
ons
of thefe two preceding Propofitiforafmuch as we fufficiently evident ;
life
are frequently oblig'd in Pratlical Geometry to draw one Line equal to another, and to take a Part of a greater Line equal to a Line
that
is lefs.
*
PRO'PO
The Firfl Ebok.
*9
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
IV.
If two Triangles have two Sides equal, each to and the Angles alfo , the other r effectively,
formed by
thofe
two Sides equal
"will
;
thtir Bzfes
and
other
Angles
be equal.
the
LET have two Sides DEF,
equal
Triangles
ABC,
each to the other
;
refpe&ively
that
is
to fay,
Let
and
AB AG
be equal to
to
D E,
lee
F
E
C^~>&
v
EF
DF;
and
DEF,
the Augles B A C, EDF, form'd bv thofe Sides, be alfo equal : I fay, The Bafes B C, arc and the Angles ABC, equal; ACB, are equal; and Jaftly, The whole Tri
DEF;
angles are equal in all refpeds.
Demonfir a' ion. E F to be plac'd, upon Suppofe the Triangle the Triangle ABC; the SideDE being upon A B, they will not exceed each other, becaufe they are fuppos'd to be equal ; ib that the Point E will be upon B. and the Point upon the Pbint A. For the fameReafon the Line will
D
D
DF
fell
upon AC.
JF^r
if it
(hould
fall
on the Outfide
B 4
20*
The Elements of Euclid.
fide of it, the Angle E the Angle BAG; and
DF
would be greater than
(hould
Jefs
;
if it
fall
within
A C, the Angle E D F
would be
and yet they
are fuppos'd to be equal. Therefore fin ce the is F Point upon the Point A, and the Line falls upon the Line A C, to which it is equal,
D
D
not exceed each other, but the Point F upon C. Laftly, Since the Points E and F of the Line EF, fall upon B and C; the Line EF will fall upon BC; becaufe it can neither fall higher, as in BHC, nor lower, as in for then two Right Lines would enclofe
they
will
will fall
BGC
Space
;
is contrary to the twelfth Therefore the two Triangles do not at all exceed each other. But not only the Bafcs BC, EF, but aifo the Angles ABC, DEF,
;
which
Maxim.
and
A C B,
An
and
D F E,
are equal.
CoroU.
Equilateral
Triangle hath
all
its
Angles equal.
The
USE.
c
Suppofe
l c
I
were to meaj ^ fure an inac'ceflible Line
{ *
AB.
ferve
I
ob
from
c'
c *
the Point
C,
rneafure the Angle C.
the Points A and B ; and then This done, placing a
fucceffive
Board horizontally, and obfetving
Tfe
ly
Firjl Book.
2i
A and B, I draw two to the Rule, which make the Lines according G ^ and meafure with a Yard the Lines
by a Rule the Points
Angle
A G, and B C, which are fuppos'd acceflible. Then going into an open Field, and placing my Board again horizontally upon the Point F, and obferving the Lines that I drew upon it,
make an Angle DFE equal to I make Jikewife FD, FE, equal
the Angle C.
to
CA, C
B.
Then, according to this Propofition, the Lines B B, and E, are equal. So that meafuring by
D
Yard the acceffibie Line A B, which is inacceflible.
the
D E,
I (hall
know
Another
i
USE.
to hie
The fame Propofirion may
teach
ferve to
how
a
Bowl
at Billiards
by Re
flexion. Suppofe one Bowl to be at the Point A, and that
which you would hit at the the BilliardTable. Imagine Point B, and then a Perpendicular BD E, and take the Line
CD
A
D E equal to B D.
trorn the Point
I fay, If
you
direct the
Bowl
to E, the Refle&icn will car
ry it to B. For in the Triangles B F D, EFD,' the Side being common, and the Sides B and E equal ; as alfb the Angles B F and EDF Right Angles, the Angles BFD>EFD are
FD
D
D
D
The Angles AFC equal, by this Propofition. FB, being oppofite, are alfb equal, as I (hall
D
'
demon
12
* *
The Elements of Euclid.
c
c
demonftrate hereafter. Therefore the Angle of Incidence AFC, is equal to the Angle of Reflection BFD; and by confequence the Refle&ion will be by A F B.
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
V.
In Ifofceles, or Eyuicrural Triangles^ the Angles that are above the Bafe are equal ; as alfo thofe
that are below
it.
the
LET ABC,
let the
Ifofceles
is
be
that
to fay,
Sides
I
AB and AC
Anare
that
be equal.
gles
fay, the
ABC, ACB
;
G
equal
as alfo the An
HI
KglesGBC, HCB,
B C.
are below the Bafe
Suppofe another Triangle DEF, having the Angle equal to the A and the Sides DE, Angle equal to A B,
;
D DF
AC.
Since the Sides A B, A four Lines A B, AC, DE,
C
DF
are equal,
all
the
will be equal.
Demonftration.
Since the Sides
AB, DE; AC, DF,
are
the
equal
;
as alfo the Angles
A
and
D
;
if
Triangle
The Firjl Book.
23
be plac'd upon ABC, they Triansle E exceed each other, but the Line will not and EF upDF upon AC; will fall upon AB; C (by the 4 ri. ) therefore the Angle on B And becaufe one part of will be equal to I E falls upon A B, the whole Line the Line otherwife two Right Lines will be upon AG; therefore the would have a common Segment; B C. Suppofe then be equal to Angle I E F will E F turn'd, and apply'd another
DEF
D
DEF
D
ABC
D
G
the Triangle D
way
upon AC. upon AB, and AC, DE, are Since the four Lines AB, DF, A and D: The Trithe Angles equal; as alfo and the Triwill likewife agree this way,
to the Triangle
ABC;
that
is
DF
mav
fall
DE
to fay, fa as
angles
angles
ACB, DEF, HCB, IEF,
will
be
it apNow, by the comparing them, equal. was equal to the pear'd, that the Angle to IEF: Therefore and Angle ACB, being equal to the the Angles ABC, and GBC, HCB, alfo equal to fame themthe fame IEF, they are equal among
ABC
DEF;
GBC
DEF;
felves.
1
I
'
was unwilling to make ufe of Euclid's
;
Demonftration
it
becaufe being very
difficult,
[
might difcourage Beginners.
PROPO
24
.
Tie Elements of Euclid.
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
VI.
If two Angles of a Triangle be equal\ the Triangle will be an libfceles.
the Angles
that
LET an
is
ABC, ACB
is
of the Triangle
I
ABC
be equal: (fee Fig. preced. )
;
fay,
it
Ifofceles
AG, which
equal.
to fay, the two Sides A B, are oppofne to the equal Angles, are
E F to have a Suppofe the Triangle Bafe EF equal to BC, and the Angle DEF equal to ABC, as alfo DFE equal to ACB: finee the Angles ABC, ACB are fuppos'd to be equal, all the four Angles ABC, ACB, DEF, DFE, will
be equal. Suppofe again therefore the Bafe E F to be plac'd upon the Bafe CB, fo that th£ Point
D
E
equal,
B, the Bafes being fuppos'd evident they will not exceed each other. Further, The Angle E being equal to the Angle B, and the Angle F to the Angle C; the will fall upon the Line B A, and F Line E
lie
it is
upon the Point
D
D
upon CA:
meet
:
So that the Lines
at the Point A. is equal to B A. that the Line E F be turn'd to the Let then the Triangle other Side, and applied another way to the Tri
ED
and will From whence it Follows,
ED
FD
D
angle
The
angle
lie
Firfi Book..
is
25
E upon C, and F will perfe&ly agree, being fuppos'd to be equal: And becaufe the Angles F, and B, E, and C, are aifo fuppos'd to be equal, the Side FD will fall upon B A, and E upon C A ; and the
ABC;
that
to fay, fo that the Point upon B: the Bafes B C, F
E
D
Point D. upon A. Therefore the Lines will be equal. Whence it follows, That the Sides
AC DE
AC,
AB
equal to the
are equal between themfelves, being E. fame Side
D
The
f
c c 1
USE.
may
ferve
This Propofition
p^
for taking the Dimensions of any fort of inacceflible Lines.
%
Tis faid that lhales
was the
*
c
firft
that meafur'd the Heighth of Obelisks by their Shadows :
It
JJIb ^^
the Sun be ele
c
c
1
For if this Propofition. were to meafure the Height of the Obeyou
may be done by
A
B;
lisk
do but expe&
'till
*
1 1
vated 4? Degrees above the Horizon ; that is ? to fay, cill the Angle A C B be 47 Degrees ; and, by this fixtb Propofition, the Shadow B C
1 * *
' *
for fince will be equal to the Obelisk A B. and the is a right Angle, the Angle half a Right one, or of 4? DeAngle will be half a Right grees ; the Angle
ABC ACB
CAB
I
Therefore one, as I (hall prove hereafter. the Angle B C A, B A C, are equal : and (by
1
the
26
;
the
I
The Elements of Euclid. 6. ) the Sides A B, B C, are alfo equal
1
:
making
:
tan alfo meafure the fame Height without life of the Shadow, by taking a Stand
far
for
;
;
A C B may be half a Right Angle may be known by a Quadrant.
1
from the Point B, as that the Angle which ,
;
Thefe Proportions are of frequent U(e in Trigonometry, and in all other Tra&s. 1 The Seventh Ptopofition may be omitted, ? becaufe cis ot no other life but to demonftrate the Eighth, which may be done without it.
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
VIII.
their Sides equal, their If two Triangles have all will alfo be equal. cfpofete Angles
L
LV
!
ET
I
the Side
GI
LT;
to
be equal to
;
HI, to VT,
Angle
equal
GH,
will
GIH
to
fay,
That the
be
the
Angle
to the
LTV IGH,
From to the Angle V. Angle L; and the Centre H, at the Diftance I, defcribe the Circle IG; and from the Centre G, at the I. Diftance G I, the Circle
IHG
H
H
Demon
7he Fkfi Book.
Demonftratlon,
*T
Suppofe the Line LV brought upon HG; they would not exceed each other, becaufe they are I add, That the Point T fuppos'd to be equal. For ic will fall precifely upon the Point I ; to reach precifely to the Circumference of ought the Circle i G/ becaufe by the Suppofition the
Lines
Circle
equal.
H I and V T
I
manner
Ic ought in like are equal to reach to the Circumference of the are and H, becaufe the Lines will light upon the Point I, So then it
GI
LT
Circles cut' being the Point where thofe two each other. Indeed, if it fell any where elfe, as would upon O, the Line HO, that is to fay, VT, I ; and the Line G O, that is be greater than LT, would be lefs than GI ; which is againft Whence I conclude, That the the Suppofition. AnTriangles will exa&ly correfpond, and the
H
gle
GIH
be equal to the Angle
LTV.
The
USE,
* This Proportion is neceffary for the Proof of thofe that follow. And further, When we cannot take the Meafure of an Angle, becaufe,
the Lines meeting in a Solid Body, we cannot apply our Inftruments to it ; we rnuft take the
three Sides of the Triangle, and make another upon a Paper, whofe Angles we may meafure.
This
is
a very ordinary Praftice in Gnomonicks,
'
or
28
1
The Elements of Euclid.
c
1
or Dialling ; and in the Treatifes concerning cutting Precious Stones, fo as to fit the Pannels, and to retain the Waters.
PROPOSITION
A Problem.
To divide an Angle
into
IX.
two equal
Tarts,
T the Angle of S T be propos'd to be divided into two equal Parts. Take the Compafs, and from the Centre
LE
R
Lines T. Then draw S, the Right Line ST, and {by the i.) defcribe an Equilateral Triangle S T V. I fay, The Line V divides the Angle into two equal Parts ; that is
^
R, at any Diftance, draw the Arch ST, cutting off two equal
R
R
R
to fay, the Angles
VRT, and VRS,
are equal.
Demonfiraiion,
Side
V R S, and VRT, have the V R common and the Side R T was taken equal to the Side RS The Bafe alfb S V is equal to V T, becaufe the Triangle S V T is equilateThe Triangles
;
:
ral.
Wherefore
?
V RT
( by the 8,
) the Angles S
R V,
are equal.
I
Tic
7k
«
'"
Ftrfi Book,
ZB
The
USE.
:
the This Proportion is very ufeful to divide of a Circle into Degrees For cis Fourth part an Angle the fame thing to divide an Arch as does into two equal Parts; and the Line Arches ST, the both; that is, It divides both and the Angle SRT. Having therefore apof 'd the Semi diameter to the fourth Part
RV
an Arch of 60 Degrees* which divided equally, gives an Arch of *o; makes one of 15 Deand that
ply a Circle,
you cut
off
a^airhdjvjded,
muft divide an Arch into three equal Parts, but Pilots that is not to be done Geometrically. Winds by the alfo divide the Compafs into $2
help of this Propofition only.
grees.
'Y is trueTtoHanUh
this Divifion,
we
P R
OPO
S
IT
ION
X.
A Problem.
To divide a Right Lint into two equal Parts.
the Line
divided SUppofe into
lateral Triangle
AB was to be two equal Parts;
(by the
<5
upon the LineAB defcribean Equi
and divide the Angle ACE into two equal Parts by the Line DC, (by the 9 .) I fay, The Line A B is
divided equally at the Point
ABC,
iJ A /
j
\
\
.
:E
•
\n
*
/
E
\j/
;
D
C
that
go
that
is
The Elements of Euclid. to fay, The Lines A E and E B
are
equal
Demonftration.
.
E have the The Triangles A C E and B A and CB E common, and the Sides Side is equilaare equal, becaufe the Triangle teral ; and the Angle being divided
C
C
C ACB
and are alfo equally, the Angles Therefore ( by the 4. ) the Bafes A E equal. and B E are equal.
The
*
ACB ACE BCE
USE.
*
*
f
*
*
'
1
Great Ufe is made of this Propofition, ordinary Pra&ices frequently requiring us to divide a Line in the Middle, which Geometriclans require (hould be done exa&ly at the firft Da(b, by a Method that is infallible, and This Praftice is likewife not by EfTays. ufeful for dividing Meafures into principally
lefs
Parts.
PRO
The Firji Book:
3*
•**»
PROPOSITION
A Problem.
XL
To drajv a Perpendicular to a Line gvvm^ upon a given Point ef the jame Line.
you were
to raife
A\
t
a Perpendicular upon SUppofe the Point A in the Line B C Take two equal Lines, A B and A C, on both Sides the
_
'il
Point A, and
make an Equilateral Triangle B D C upon the Line B C, {by the 1 ) I
.
%,
is
BAD
Perpendicular; that is to fay, and are equal.
CAD
The Line A D The Angles
.
.
Demonfiration.
The
Side
A
D
Triangles
BAD
BD
and
CAD
A
have the
:
common,
,(
the Sides
equal,
and the Bafes
and
Therefore
G and A B are DC alfo equal
BAD,
and
ic. defin.) the
by the 8. ) the Angles
;
Line
CAD, are equal and {by the A D Perpendicular to B C.
:
.
»
C
2
£RO
32
The Elements of Euclid.
PROPOSITION
A Problem.
To draw a Perpendicular
Toint which
it
XII.
to
a Line.given^ from a
out of the Line*
A
"
F you would
draw
a Perpen
'
J^
E
dicular to the Line
B C, from
N>*..L*>*'
X/ the c
Point
A
:
foot of the
\T>'
Having fet the Compafs upon A,
defcribe the Circle
fhall
cut the Line BC, at the Then divide the Line B C Points B and C. I (ay, the into two equal Parts at the Point E. Line A E is Perpendicular to B C. Draw the
D
BC, which
Line
AB, AC.
Dimonftration,
The
Side
AE
Triangles
BE A,
and
CEA,
Sides
common; and the
EC
have the and EB
equal, the Line B C having been equally divided at the Point E ; the Bafes A B and A C f being drawn from the Centre A to the Circumference BC, are likewife equal : Therefore the Angles are equal, {by the 8.) and the AEB, and A
EC
Perpendicular, {by Defa. io.) in Pra&ice, of dividing the Line in the Middle, is to defcribe two Arches at ID, ar the fame Interval, from the
Line
AE
The Method
BC
Centres
B and C.
7h
The Firft Book.
The
4
33
USE.
«
<
need of a Plummet or SquaringNo Angles : line almoft in all our Operations but the Right; and all are in life in Building
We have
<
1
« <
and other Chairs, Benches, Tables, Buffets, framed by the Square. NoSurMoveables, are Ufe ot Land can be taken without making
vey
Dialling of Perpendicular Lines : Nor s without them. The Carpenter performed and the lame is Level contains a right Angle, other, efpecially by the preferr'd before any
French,
in
can
be
*
«
«
*
«
«
'
Laftly, Not only Fortification. alfo the greateft part Mathematicians, but that we (nould of practical Artifans, require
know how
to
draw a Perpendicular.
PROPOSITIONA Theorem.
One Line falling upon two right Angles,
Right
ones.
XIII.
another,
or
makes with
it
either
two Angles equal
to
two
ther two right Angles, or two Anand the other Agles, one Obtufe,
(hall be cute, which join'd together, of equal Value with two Right ones.
jj
L
,
ET
i
the Line
AD fall
make
upon
with
EC
it
;
^
»
fay, 'Twill
ei
j
j
£>
c
C
;
Demon
34
The Elements of Euclid.
DemonftWaticn.
1
„
...
t
i,
Suppnfe the Line
AD
and
to fall perpendicularly
dtfin,
upon EC,
the Angles
then
'tis
A
D B,
evident (by
ADC,
10.) that are equal, and
by confequence
right Angles.
Or,
Secondly, Suppofe the Line not to fall perpendicularly upon B C, then having draw^ a Perpendicular A Angles right Angles equal Value
ED
the are
or
E
A
D (by the 1.) ADB, and ADC,
1 ,
*r
which
with
are
ADE, EDB.
the three Angles ADC, But the Obrufe Angle EDC, and the acute Angle EDB. are ot equal Value with the three Angles ADC, ADE, and EDB: Therefore the Angles EDC, and EDB, are of equal Value with two Right ones. This Propoficion may be more eafily demonftrated, by defcribing a Semicircle from the Centre upon the Line B C. For the Angles and EDC, will require a Semicircle EDB, for their Meafure, which is the Meafure of two right Angles, as I have flhown before ( in the
D
8.
Dtfn. )
Corollary i. If the Line
right
AD falling upon BC,
other Cor oil.
Angle ADC; ir is evident, the be alfo a right Angle. B C, 2. If the Line ED, falling upon make the Angle Acute ; the Angle Ibe will be Cbtufe.
make one
ADB
will
EDB
EDC
The Firfi Book.
The
«
35
USE.
«
<
of the means, when we know ore is made by one Line falling upAngles which we know alfo the other. As tor on another, be one of 70 If the Angle Example
By
this
:
EDB
<
Degrees, taking
will
away 70 from
180,
in
there
ihis
1
<
regain
no
for the Angle
EDC.
occur Operation does frequently
metry,
Trigone
'
'
and
alfo in Aftronomj, for finding the
which the Excentricity of the Circle through
paffes.
.
Sun Annually
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
Jf two Lines meeting
another Line,
to
XIV.
together
at the
make with
j
it
two Right ones the fame Line.
they
will
fame Voint of two Angles equal make hat one and
the Lines
C A,
and
D A to SUppofe meet at the Point A of the Line A B ; and that the Anand BAD, gles adjoining, CAB, are equal to two Right ones. I C A and DA are fay, The Lines but one and &e fame Line ; fo that
continued, will
fall precifely
CA
being
upon. A P*
C
4
Imagine
56
The Elements of Euclid.
if
J
Imagine,
you
pleafe, that
will pafs on to E, fcribe a Circle.
and from
continued, the Centre A de
CA
Demonftration.
If
vou
CBE
fay that
will"
is a Right Line, the Arch be a Semicircle. But 'tis fuppos'd,
CAE
that the Angles CAB, and B A D, are equal to two Right ones, and that therefore their MeaTherefore the Arches fure is a Semicircle.
C BE
and poflible, one being
fore the Line
CBD
CA
will
be equal
;
which
is
irr>
a part ot the other.
being continued, will
Theremake but
one and the fame Line with
A D.
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
XV.
cut each other, the Oppcfite If two ?Jght Lines * he equal. Angles at the Top will
*
jg
1
M\v%\iJ* Eucl.
au fimmet. Gall;
the Line
Poinr
LET E:
cut
AB and C each other at the
I
D
fay,
A E C, and
D E B,
The Angles
which are
are equal. oppofite at the Top,
Demonftration. upon the Line
The JJne
C E falling
A B, makes
the
Ihe
the Angles
falling
Firfi Book.
37
two Right
A
EC
i ;.)
and
CEB equal to
ones, (by the
upon
and
BED
equal
In like mannelr the Line B the Line CD, makes the Angle to Right ones. Therefore
E CEB
wo
taken together, are ethe Angles A EC, therefore taking \ qual to the Angles CEB, from both,the Angle away the Angle CEB will remain equal to DEB, ( by the ;. Maxim.)
CEB
BED
AEQ
two Lines DE, and EC, concurthe fame Point E of the Line AB. form ing at equal, with it the oppofite Angles A EC, make but one Right Line. and
Coroll. If
DEB
DE
EC
,
Demonftration.
TheLine
two Right the Angles A E C, and C E B equal to iikewife that ones, {by the 13O Tis fuppos'd is equal to the Angle A EC. the Angle to Therefore the Angles DEB, BEC, are equal the 14.J the Lines And ones. two
EC falling upon the Line AB, makes
D EB
Right
and E
D
{by
CE
make but one Right
The
Line.
USE.
1
The two preceding Propo g
fitions
*
'
•
are made life of to make prove, that two Lines but one Total. As for Exam: In Catoptricks or Perfpepie
ftives,
D
*
*
•
where that is required to prove, that of all the Lines C that can be drawn bv Reflexion from the Point
t
A
§8
1
7he
to
Elements ef Eticlid.
thofe
A
the Poinc B,
c
*
are the fborteSi
which make the Angle of Incidence equal to the
'
*
? *
*
Angle of Reflection. As for Example: If the be equal, the Lines and Angles and EB, are (horter than AF, and FB. AE,
BED
AEF
'BED
«
«
'
c *
B D, and and make the Lines equal ; then draw EG, and FC. Firft, In the Triangles and CED the Side D E is common ; and BC being equal, as and the Sides alfo the Angles BDE, and CDE; the Bafes BE and C E will be equal ; as alfo the Angles B ED, and DEC (by the 4 J In like manner, I may prove that B F and C F are equal.
From
the Poinc
B
d«"?w a Perpendicular
BD
CD
BD
Demonftration.
€
'
The Angles
c
!
1 '
the Angles to be equal; therefore the oppofite Angles will be equal ; and (by the and one right Line ; and the is) Coroll. of is a Triangle, of which
BED and DEC are equal, and BED and AEF are fuppos'd likewife
DEC
AEF
by confequence
the Sides
AEC AFC
FC
€
AF
is
and and
;
f
f
c
AEC,
A
F,
that
to fay, than
muft be longer than AE, and EB. But
the Lines
AF
FB
FC
are equal to the Lines
and
fince
therefore the Lines
*
FB
And
pen
are longer than the Lines
A F and A E and E B.
c
c
(horteft Lines, the Reflection will
in
« *
Natural Csufes always aft by the always hapfuch a manner, that the Angles of Re
fleftion
and Incidence
(hall
be equal.
'
Fur
The Firfi Book. 39 Becaufe we can eafily prove, that Further, all the Angles that can be made upon a Plane
*
about the fame Point, are equal rr> four right Angles, ( forafmuch as in the hrft Figure of and A E this Proportion, the Angles A E are equal to two Right ones, as alfo BEC and to two more) we make a general Rule B to determine what Polygones may be join'd in
C
D
ED
paving a Hall. Accordingly we
fay, that
Four
Squares, Six Triangles, and three Hexagones, may beufed for that Purpofe: And thar therefore Bees are always obfcrv'd to make their
little
Cells of the iaft
;
that
is,
of Figures con
fifting
of hx Sides.
PROPOSITION
A Theore
M.
XVI.
The External Angle of a Triangle is greater than either of the Internal Ofpolite Angles.
the Side B C of Triangle A B C PRoduce
:
1 fay,
is greater than either of the Internal Op
ACD
the External Angle
B
B A C.
angle
pofite Angles,
ABC,
or
Suppofe the Tri
ABC to be mov'd along the Line B f and carry'd inco the Place of C E D. Demon
D
40
The Elements of Euclid.
Demonfiration.
'Tis impoffible that the Triangle be fo mov'd, but the Point A mutt
ABC mould
come
'twill
into
the place of the Point pear, that the Angle is lefs than the Angle
ternal Angle
F
;
;
and then
that
:
ap
£CD
is
is
ACD
lefs
to fay,
ABC,
ABC
Therefore the Inthan the External
ACD.
is lefs
'fis likewife eafie to prove, that the
having
equal angle
than the External Angle prolong'd the Side A
ACD:
Angle A For
F,
C
as frr as
the oppofite Angles
BC
F,
and
ACD,
arc
FA I to Aide along the Line A the Angle F to be greater fhall demonttrate
ABC
( by the if. )
Therefore caufing the Tri
C
BC
than the Angle A.
The
*
US$.
this Propofition
We may
draw from
many
e
ufeful Conclufions.
c
*
As firft, That from a Point given, anly one Perpendicular can be drawn to the fame Line. For Example: Sup'
pofe the Line
I fay,
AB
to be Per
*
pendicular to the Line
B
C
;
\
*
That
AC
;
will
not be
Perpendicular
c
becaufe the
right
1
Angle A B D
than
muft be
*
\
Angle
ACB
;
greater therefore
the Internal
ACB
cannot be a
nor right Angle,
AC
a Perpendicular. * S:cond
The
•«
Firft Book:
4*
«
the fame Point A Secondly, That from two equal Lines ; cannot be drawn more than and if you for Example, AC, and AD;
*
draw a
third as
AE/it
For
fince
will
«
i
to the former.
AC
"
i « «
4
equal, the Angles in the Triangle A EC, equal, (by the c.) but A C B is greater than the External Angle therefore litethe Internal A E C : And is greater than the wife the Angle A E D. Therefore the Lines A E, and
A CD,
not be equal arc and are and
AD ADC
ADE
;
Angle
4
A D,
are not equal
nor by confequcnce
AC
*
«
*
«
AC makes the ^Thirdly, That if the Line and ACF Obtufe, the Acute, Angle from the Point A will Perpendicular drawn For it the acute Angle. fall on the fide of
ACB
*
you
ele
«
«
that
AEF a Right Angle AEF would be greater
is
fay that
AE
is
a Perpendicular, and
;
the Right A nthan the Obtufe
ferviceable
* < *
*
and for maturing Parallelograms, Triangles to reduce them into RettanTrapefia, and gular Figures,
ACE
Thefe Conclufions are
PRO
42
The Elements of Euclid.
MB
PROPOSITION
A Theorem,
Any two Angles
of
XVII.
a
Triangle are
ones,
lefs
than
two Right
fay, That any two of its Angles taken together, as B A C, and B C A, Proare lefs than two Right ones. duce the Side C A to the Point D.
LET
the Triangle be
ABC;
I
Demonftration.
The Internal Angle C is lefs than the External B A D, {by the 16. ) Add therefore to both
the Angle B A C; the Angles BAC, and BCA, will be lefs than the Angles BAC, and two Right ones, ( by yet thofe are but equal to Therefore the Angles BAC, and the i%.) BCA, are Ms than two Right ones. After the fame manner I can demonstrate the than two Angles ABC,. and ACB, to be lefs Side B C. Right ones, by producing the
BAD;
Cor oil. If one Angle of a Triangle be a Right, or Obtufe Angle, the other are Acute.
1
f This Propofition thofe that follow.
is
necefiary to demonflrate
i
PRO
The
Firfi Book?
43
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
XVIII.
In every Triangle whatsoever, the greatefi the greatefi Angle. offosd to
Side
is
B C of the Uppofe the Side
Triangle the Side greater than
ABC,
to
be
I
is
AC;
that
The Angle opposM to the
fay,
BAC,
Side B C, is the Angle B, greater than which is opposed to the Side
jg
A C.
Line B
C
in
D,
fo that
C D may
A D»
Cut the be ecjual to
AC;
then draw the Line
Demembration.
Since the Sides Triangle
ACD
AC, and CD,
will
be an
the *.) the
Angles
CD A,
are equal, the and ( by Ifofceles,
and
C
A D,
equal.
Now
is
the whole Angle
BAC
is
greater
than
the Angle
CAD:
Therefore the Angle
BAC
which yet of the TriInternal B, angle A B D, is greater than the Therefore the Angle B A C is ( by the 16. ) greater than the Angle B, 6
greater than the Angle
;
CDA
being an External Angle
in refpeft
PRO
44
The Elements of Euclid.
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
XIX.
In every Triangle, the great efi Angle
the greatefi Side.
is
oppos'd to
A
T ET
I
j
the Angle
A
Triangle B A
C
er than
^ fay,
The
the Angle Side B C, to
ABC.I
which
of the be greatis
"oppos'd
greater than the Side the Angle B.
AC,
Angle A, is that is oppos'd to
the
Demonfiration.
If the Side
AC,
and B
'tis
be not greater than the Side and then the Angles A ; would be equal ; {by the <;.) which is coneither equal
BC
trary to the Suppofuion : Or iefs, and if (b, the Side A C being greater than B C, the Anwould be greater than the Angle A, gle B
C
though the contrary be fuppos'd.
therefore, that the Side
It
remains
ttie
BC
is
greater than
Side
AC.
the
USE.
'
We may
'
only that i
prove from thefe Propofitions, not no more than one Perpendicular can I
The Firji Bdohf
45
can be drawn from the fame Point to the fame Line ; but alfo that it is the fhorteft of As for Example If the all. r be Perpendicular to Line S T, it will be iefs than R S : Becaufe the Angle being a right Angle, the Angle R S V will be an Acute, (by the Corolt. s of the 17. J and the Line R V will be left than R S, (by the preceding.) Therefore Geometricians do always make ufe of a
:
RV
RVS
when they take the Dimenof any Thing, and reduce irregular Figures to fuch. as have one or more right
Perpendicular,
fions
more than
it being impoffible that three Perpendiculars fhould meet at the fame Point, it cannot be imagined that
Angles.
I
add, That
there mould be more than three Species or Kinds of Quantity, a Line, a Superficies, and a Solid Body.
'
By
thefe Propofitions
we
likewife proved
That a Bowl exactly round cannot reit, but For Example: upon fuch a certain Point.
fent
Let the Line A B reprea Plane, and the
C
Centre of the Earth, and that CA be drawn Perpendicular to the Line A B ; I fay, That a Bowl being
placM upon the Point B, cannot reft there. For a heavy Body cannot it may reft, when
D
defcend.
46
*
The Elements of Euclid.
*
'
* 1
mi
the Bowl 8 moving towards A, continually defcends, and approaches C becaufe in near the Centre of the the Triangle CAB, the Perpendicular
defcend.
Now
Emh
;
CA
* *
B C. 1 In like manner we dy muft flow from B
is
Shorter than
prove, that a Liquid Boto A, and that its Super
ficies
muft be round.
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
Any two
Sides of a Triangle
XX.
takm
togethtr, art
greater than the thirdy
That the two Sides
T L,
the
this
LV, ISav,
Side
are
greater
than
TV.
Some Men prove
Definition
Propofition by the
of
a
which is the fhorteft that can be drawn from one Point to another Therefore
Right
Line,
:
the Line
TV
is
lefs
than the two Lines
TL
and LV. But it may alio be demonftrated another way. Continue the Side V L to R, Co that the Lines L R and LT be equal ; then draw
the Line
R T.
Demons
7he Firji Book?
Demonstration.
4?
Sides L T, and L R, of the Triangle are equal ; therefore the Angle R, and But the Angle are equal ; ( by the j , ) : Thereis greater than the Angle than the Angle is fore the Angle greater R: And (by the 19.) in the Triangle V, the
The
L T R, L T R,
RTV
RTL
RTV
is
Side
RV,
that
to fay, the Sides
RT LT and L V
are greater than the Side
T V»
PROPOSITION
1
XXI.
A Theorem.
If a fmall Triangle be defcriPd within a greater upon the fame Bafe, the Sides of the fmall one will be lefs than thofe of the greater ; but they
will form a greater Angle*
LET
ACB,
defcrib'd within
the fmall Triangle the
ADB
be
Triangle
upon the fame Bafe AB* I fay, Firft, The Sides AC and BG are greater than the Sides AD and BD. A
Continue the Line
AD
to E.
Demonftration. In the Triangle ACE, the Sides AC, and are greater than the Side A E alone, (by the 20.)
CE
D
z
There
48
The Elements of Euclid. Therefore, adding to them the Side E B
Sides
;
the
AG, and CEB, are greater than the In like manner in the Sides AE, and E B. B E, the two Sides BE and ED are Triangle greater than the Side B D alone ; and adding the Side AD, the Sides ADE, and EB, will and B D. be greater than A B is That the Angle A I fay further, than the Angle ACB: For the Angle greater
D
D
D
ADB
is
an external Angle,
Triangle
Internal
DBE, and
Angle
the Angle
in refpect of the therefore greater than the
manner
Angle
DEB, (by the 16.) DEB, being an ACE;
In like
external
in refpecl:
of the Triangle
er than the Angle
ACE, is greattherefore the Angle
A
DB
is
greater than the Angle
ACB.
The
'
USE.
this
By
the help
in
of
monftrate Opticks , viewed from the Point C, will appear than when it is beheld from the Point
Propoiition we dethat the Bafe A B
lefs
D;
\
according to that Principle, That Quantities viewed under a greater Angle, will appear Therefore 'tis that Vitruvius adgreater. vifes, not much to lelfen the Tops of veryhigh PHlars; becaufe they being fo remote from our Sight, quickly appear (lender enough without being diminifhed.
PRO
The Firjl Book,
.
49
—
PROPOSITION XXII. A Theorem.
To
to three
a Triangle, whofe Sides [hall be equal Sides given, provided that any two of them be greater than the third,
defcribe
it
a Triangle, whofe Sides ihall be equal to three Lines given, AB, D, and E. Meafure with the
LET
be propos'd to defcribe
B,
Compafs
D, and fetting jy one Foot thereof upon the Point B, make an Arch. Then take the Line E, and placing the Foot of your Compafs upon the Point A, make another Arch, cutting the former at the Point C Which done, draw the Lines A C, and* B C. I fay, That the Triangle ABC
the Line
:
is
fuch a one as
you
defire.
Demonfiration.
it
is equal to the Line E, becaufe reaches to the Arch which is drawn from the Ce tre A at the Diftance of the.Line £ ; and for
The
Side
AC
C is equal to the Therefore the three Sides AC, B C, and A B, are equal to the Lines E, D, and A B. I added a Provifo, That the two Lines (hould be greater than the third ; becaufe otherwife,
the
fame Reafon the Side B
Line
D
:
D
3
if
$o
if the
The Elements of Euclid.
Lines
D
and
E
were
lefs
than the Line
A B,
1
the Arches could not cut each other.
The
USE,
This Propofition may be ufeful for defcribing a Figure equal or like to another:
that, which is proposed be equalled, or imitated, into Triangles ; and made other Triangles, having equal Sides with the former ; we Lhall have a Figure But if we defire only one exa&Jy equal. that is like, but lefs, as when we would defcribe a Plain, or Country, upon Paper :
For having divided
to
Having divided
fur'd all
their
Triangles;
it into Triangles, and meaSides, we muft make fimilar (6 giving to each of their Sides
Parts of a Scale, or Line divided into equal Parts, as the Sides of the Triangles proposed have of Yards or Feet.
many
PROPOSITION
A Problem.
To wake an Angle equal
Line given.
III.
to another at a Toint
of $
you were make an Angle at SUppofe
Point
to the
e
A of
the Line
A B,
/eF^X
F. Dequal to the Angle E the Points fcribe from
D
A
and
%\ Firjl Boo\. two Arches B C, and E F, at the fame Wf3enefs tyf the Compafs ; then take the Diftance E F, and having meafured as much in B C, draw the Line AC. I fay, The Angles BAC, and EDF, are equal,
and
The
D as Centres,
.
Demonfiraiion.
Sides
BC and EF were defame Widenefs of the Compafs, the Bafes alfo B C and E F are equal ; are therefore the Angles and
DF;
fince the Arches
The Triangles ABC, and D E F, have the AB, and AC, equal to the Sides DE, and
fcribed with the
BAC
EDF
equal, ( by the 8. )
The
This Problem
is
USE.
in
fo necefTary
Fortifications, Ptrfpeffive, Dialling,
and
Gxode/ia, all other
Parts of the Mathematicks, that the greateft Part of their Operations would be impoffible, if we did not know how to make one Angle
equal to another, or of fuch a
grees as
Number
of
De
we
pleafe.
D4
PRO
52
The Elements of Euclid.
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
Of two
XXIV,
Triangles 5 having each two Sides e\ual to. the other ; that which has the greateft has alfo the Jingle, Bafe.
two of
greateft
AC
L' have the Sides AB
and
ET
the Triangles,
ABC, DEF
and DE, and let the
DF
be greater than the Angle EDF. I (ay, The Bafe BC Angle is greater than the Bafe EF.
BAC
equal
;
Make
the Line
the Angle
EDG
equal to
DG
the Angle equal to
BAC,
AC
;
(by the
23.) and
then draw the Line
ABC and JD EG, haFirir, the Sides A B and D E, A C and DG, equal, ving and the Angle EDG equal to the Angle BAG their 'Bales BC and EG will be equal, (by the 4.) and tint Lines F)G and p F being both equal
EG.
The Triangles
;
to
AC,
will
be equal betwixt themfelves.
uemonft ration.
In thQ Triangle DGF, the Sides and will be and beingequal, the Angles is lefs equal, ( by the $•.) But the Angle is thr.ii the Angle DGF, %nd the EF Angle than the Angle Therefore in greater the
DG
DF
DGF,
DFG
EGF
G
DFG,
The
will be EF the Triangle E F And therefore greater than the Angle the 18 J the Line oppos'd to the great{by will be greater than EF. Thereer Angle EFG, fore B C, being equal to EG, is greater than EF,
Firfi Book. G, the Angle
55
G
EGF:
EG
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
Of two
XXV.
each two Sides equal to Triangles , having the other ; that which has the great?ft Bafe t has likewife the great eft Angle.
two of
LET D
E,
DEF, have and AC,
the Bate
the two Triangles the Sides
ABC,
D
A
A
D
BC
F.
I
B,
F,
and
Jet
equal ; be greater
fay,
than the Bafe
the Angle the Angle
E
That
e"
A
will
be greater than
Demonstration.
D.
gle
be not greater than the Anbe either equal, and then the Bafes.BC, EF, will be equal, {by the 4.). or it wjll be lefs, and the Bafe E F greater than the Bafe BC, (by the 24.) but both are contrary to
If the
D
Angle
A
;
it
will
the Suppofirion, ' Thefe Propofitions are neceffary to
[
demon
ftrate thofe chat
come
after.
PRO
54
The Elements of Euclid.
PROPOSITION
%
XXVI.
A Theorem,
has one Side, and two Angles, equal to thofe of another Triangle ; 'tis equal
to it in all Refpefts.
If one Triangle
LET ACB,DF£, of the
ABC, DEF,
Sides
the Angles
ABC, DEF;
Triangles
be equal; and the
C Da.^
i
C^\ / ^y^
'greater
B C, and E F, which are between thofe Angles, alfo equal. I other Sides are equal ; fay, That the F Imafor Example, AC, and
D
:
F
E g me
be
you than AC; and cutting
>
if
pleafe, the Side
DF
to
GF
equal to
AC, draw
the Line
G E.
Demonflration. the Sides The Triangles ABC, GEF, have the Angle C is alfo EF, BC, AC, GF, equal;
to F. Therefore (by the 4. ) fuppos'd to be equal in all the Triangles ABC, GEF, are equal and ABC are Refpefts: and the Angles GEF, But we fuppos'd the Angles ABC, equal. E F, to be ^qual : And fo the Angles DEF, to E f! would be equal that is, The whole Therefore the the Part, which is impoffible. E will not be greater than the Side Side
D
G
;
D
A
d,
Firfi Book. 55 than F, becaufe the greater fame Demonflration may be made in the Tri
Tht
A
B, nor
AC
D

D F be greater than AC, cut E. and draw the Line
angle ABC. and Again, Suppofe the Angles A and D, F to be equal ; and alfo the the Sides B C, and EF, oppos'd to the Angles A and D, to be I fay, The other Sides are equal. For if equal.
C
GF
G
equal to
AC,
A and D were equal, therefore the and EGF, muft be equal ; which is Angles D, impoflible, fince the Angle EGF, being the external Angle in refpeft of the Triangle EGD, muft be greater than the internal D, (by the
the Angles
i\5. )
The Triangles ABC, G E F, having the Sides EF, BC, FG, CA, equal, will, (by the 4.; be equal in all Refpe&s And the Angles EGF, But we fuppos'd, that BAC, will be equal.
:
Demonflration,
therefore
the Side
DF
is
not
greater
than
A
C.
The
i
USE,
b
1
of this Propofition, to meafure inacceffible Diftances. Fof Example :
Thales
made ufe
* 4
*
The
Diftance
A
D
being propofed, he would draw from
the
^A
' ' *
Point
A,
the
Line
cular
AC
to
Perpendi
AD
:
Then
defcribing
a
Semi
J
circle at
the Point
C, would meafure the
I
Angle
j6 Angle
7he
AC
Elements of Euclid. D, and take another equal to
it
on
the other Side, prolonging the Line C B 'till A at the Point B ; it meet with the Line and then demonftrate the Lines and
D
AD
A B to be equal fo that rneafuring the Line A B, which was acceffible, he could know the
;
other which was not.
For the two Triangles and ABC, have the right Angles CAD ADC, and CAB equal, the Angles ACD, and ACB are alfo taken equal ; and the Side A C is
common to both: Therefore {by the ±6.) Sides A D and A B are equal,
the
A L
A Line which
is
E
M M A.
to one
"Perpendicular
of tivo Pa"
rallelsy is alfo
Perpendicular
to the other.
LEand CD, and
C
c
T
the Parallel Lines be
let
AB
EF
be Per
I fay, 'Tis pendicular to C D. alfo Perpendicular to A B. Cut F equal to F D, and the Line
upon
c
the Points
culars to
rallels,
c
*
Lines
EC
FE
raife two Perpendiwhich, by the Definition of Pa' will be equal to F E ; then draw the
C
and
D
CD,
and
ED.
'Demonfi ration,
c
1
1
The Triangles CEF, and
Side
and the
D E F, have the common, the Sides CF, FD, equal, Angles CFE, and DFE, Right, and by
;
'
confequence equal
therefore (by the
4.
4
J
the
Bafes
The
?
1 '
Firjl
Book
;
tf
f
c
c
BafesEC, ED, and the Angles FED, FEC, and FCE, FDE, will be equal the two laft of which being taken away from the right Angle ACF and BDF, leave the two Angles
equal: Therefore the TriDBE, will have (by the £.) the angles Angles DEB, C E A, equal ; which' being added to the equal Angles CEF, DEF, make the Angles FEB, and FEA, equal ; therefore the Line E F is Perpendicular to A B.
ACE,
and
BDE,
CA&
1
1
1
•
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
XXVII.
If a Lint, falling upon two others, makes 'with them the Alternate Angles equal, thofe two
Lines are parallel.
the Line
LET the Lines AB and upon
CD, make
equal.
I
EH,
falling
with them the
alternate Angles
fay,
AFG, FGD Firft, The Lines
C D, will never concur, tho' continu'd as far as you pleafe For (uppofe them to concur in I, and that FBI, and are two right Lines.
and
:
A B,
CDI
Demonfiration.
If
FBI, and
GDI, be two
right Lines,
FIG
is
The Elements of Euclid. 59 is a Triangle; and (by the 16.) the external Angle AFG, is greater than the internal FGI. They cannot therefore be equal, if the Lines AB and ever concur; 1 But becaufe we have Examples of fome c crooked Lines, which never concur ; and yet ' are not Parallels, approaching (till nearer and * nearer to each other. I fay, Secondly, That if the Line EH, fall
GD
ing upon the Lines AB, and C D, makes the alternate Angles AFG, and equal ; the Lines A B,
FGD,
C D,
or in all Reremote from each fpe&s equally
are Parallel,
other, fo that the Perpendiculars
between them
the Point lar A, to the Line equal to A F, draw F
will
G
be equal.
From
G
draw the Perpendicu* A B and taking G D D.
;
Demonfiration.
The
Side
is alfo taken common; the Side to the Side A F, and the Angles AFG and equal fuppos'd to be equal: Therefore (by and are equal, and the the 4.) the Bafes F is equal to the right Angle Angle C
FG
Triangles
AGF,
and
GD
D F G,
have the
FGD
AG
FD
D therefore FD
the Line
Parallel
CAB;
is
AB
is
Perpendicular. Parallel to
Line that can Point F to the Line G D, ought
add, That For the only be drawn from the to by the
I
CD
:
pafs
4
Point
f
The
Firfi Book.
59
Point A, according to the Defin'nion of Paralthe Perpendicular lels; which requires, that
Lines
AG
and
FD
be equal.
PROPOSITION XXVIII. A Theorem.
makes the exIf a Line, falling upon two others, to the internal ternal jingle equal oppofite Angle on the fame Side ; or the two internal Angles on
fame Side equal to two Right two Lines will be Parallel,
the
ones 7 thofe
IN
firft
I
EH,
the precedent Figure, fuppofe the Line and CD, to make falling upon
AB
ternal oppofite
E F B equal to the in: Angle on the fame Side are Parallel, fay, That the Lines AB and C
the external Angle
FGD
D
Demcnfiraticn.
is equal to the Angle AFG, being oppcvs'd to it at the Top, (by the 15. ) and 'tis fuppos'd thst the Angle is alfo Therefore the alterequal to the Angle E F B nate Angles AFG, FGD, will be ecmal ; and will he ( by the 27. ) the Lines A B, and C
The Angle EF8
FGD
D
:
Parallel.
fecond Place, That if the Angles are the internal Angles on the fame Side, be equal to two Right ones, the Lines A B and will be Parallel.
I
fay, In the
BFG, and FGD, which
CD
Demon
€o
The Elements of Euclid.
Demonflration.
The Angles
AFG
and
BFG
are equal to two
right Angles, (by that the Angles B F
the
G
13.)
;
y
and F G
to
two
right
Angles
'tis fuppos'd are alfo equal therefore the Angles
and
D
AFG, BFG,
FGD;
AFG
the Lines
which is and
are equal to the Angles BFG, and therefore taking away the Angle BFG, common to both, the alternate
FGD
Angles
will
A B and C D
be equal
the 27.) will be Parallel.
;
and (by
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
cut two If a Line
Parallels,
XXIX.
the alternate Angles
will be equal ; the external Angle will be equal to the Internal Oppoflte Angle ; and the two
Internals on the fame Side will be equal to
two
right Angles.
the Line
two LET
EH
[/e« Fig. preced.~\ cut the
Parallels
AB, and
CD;
I
fay,
Firfl:,
The
alternate Angles From the Points equal.
Perpendiculars GA, Definition of Parallels are equal.
Demonflration.
In the Reftangle Triangles
and FGD, are F and G draw the and FD, which by the
AFG,
AFG,
and
FGD,
the
4
The Firji Book*
the Sides
6t
FIG is an Acute, an Angle, the Angle an Obtufe, (by the i;.) Therefore (by the 18J in the Triangle F I G, the Side F opposed to the Obtufe Angle, is greater than FI. ThereI
being equal, as alfo the Side F common to both I fay Firft, That the Side be greater having is equal to A F. For if cue the Line DI equal to AF, and drawn the and FDI would Line Ft; the Triangles and FI equal, which is have their Bafes is a For fince the Angle righc impoffible.
the Right Angles
F
D
and
:
AG
,
A and D, and
G
GD
GD
;
AFG
GF
D
FID
G
fore
DG equal AFG and FGD,
is
to
AF;
and the Triangles
will
Sides equal, having and have the alternate Angles as being oppos'd to the equal Sides AG, equals and FD.
ail their
AFG
FGD
I is
fay again,
That the external Angle
the
it
EFB
equal to (by the if,)
gle
external
FGD;
becaufe
FGD.
AFG,
equal to its oppofite An* which is equal to its alternate
is
and F Laftly, Since the Angles to two Right ones ; taking away equal and fubftituting in its place its alternate
the two internal Angles F 8, andbe equal to two right Angles.
A G
GFB
are
A FG*
FGD,
will
G
FG D*
The
*

USE,
E
cum*
Eratojihenes found out, by thefe Propofitions, a way of rneafuring the Circuit cr Cir^
f
62
*
The Elements of Euclid.
*
1
*
cumference of the Earth. In order to which, he fuppos'd two Rays, proceeding from the Centre of the Sun to two Points of the Earth, and alfo that ac to be Phyfically parallel
;
Syene, a
*
*
*
higher Parts of Egypt y the Sun comes exa&ly to the Zenith upon the Day of the Solftice, obferving the Wells there to be then illuminated to the very Botin the
Town
* ' 4
torn ; and likewife computed the Dittance between Alexandria and Sytne, by Miles or
Furlong.
c
4 4
4
4
Let
us
therefore
Syene to be at
fuppofe the Point A,
and Alexandria at B, where
we eretta Style Perpendicular to the Horizon ; and
BC
*
4 *
4
let the two Lines and two Rays proceeding from the Centre of the Sun upon the Day of the Sol
1
EG
DF
reprefent
*
*
4 '
*
* * *
*
which are parallel to each other. which paiTes by Syene, is PerpendicuDA, lar, that \$, it pa (Tes through the Centre of the Earth. Having obferved by the Perpendicular Style the Angle GCB, made by the Ray of the Sun EG ; I fay, The Rays and being parallel, the alternate and B F A are equal : By which Angles means we have got the Angle A F B, and its which gives us in Degrees Meafure A B the Diftance between Alexandria and Syem.
ftice,
BC
DA
EG
GCB
;
*
And
r
having fuppos'd
it
to
be known in * Miles
Tke Firji Book.
'
4
4
63
Miles, the Circumference of the Earth may be found by the (Imple Rule of Three dire£ • faying,
€
bow many
If fo many Degrees give fo many Miles9 will 560 give ?
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
XXX.
Lines faralUl to a third, are alfo parallel
tbemfelves.
among
QUppnfe
the Lines
AB
and F
E
to be parallel
1 fay, to the Line C are parallel betwixc they
:
D
themfelves.
CAL
Let the Line cut them all three.
Demonjuration*
A B and are the alternate Angles A HI, and HID, parallel, are equal, ( by the 29. ) and becaufe the Lines and are alfo parallel, the external
Forafmuch as the Line
CD
CD
AB
EF
I
Angle
H D
I
will
)
( by the fame:
AH
I,
and
L
and'
FE
be equal to the internal I L E, Therefore the alternate Angle* E, will be equal, and the Lines
parallel,
(by
the 27.
;
£
2
PRO*
$4
Tie Elements of Euclid.
PROPOSITION
A
XXXI.
Problem.
by a Point given,
To draw a Line TaraUelto another
C
'~P\
/
D T ET
,
it
j^
a Line
("hall
be requir'd to draw by the Point C,
be parallel to the the Line C E, rhe Angle
/
E
/ which
Line AB.
Draw
I
A
is
Band make
ECD
equal to the Angle
Parallel to
CEA
:
fay,
The Line C
D
AB.
Demonfiration, alternate Angles equal; Therefore the Lines
The
DCE and AEG CD and AB
/.
are
are
Parallels.
c
The eleventh Maxim,
e.
If a Line fall
t
e 5
two others makes the internal Angles ing upon than two right Angles\thofe Lines will concur, lejs
may
alio
now
be^afiiy dernonlkated. Let the Line AG, falling upon the Lines and
AB
C^,
make
the
internal
the Line
A CD, and G two right A B arid CD will
and
CAB,
Angles concur.
:
Angles lefs than
I
fay,
Let the
AngWs
"Angies
ACD
:
G AE
The Lines A E' and
be equal to two right will be Paral
CD
k!s>
m
lels,
Firji Boo\.
&$
( by the 28. )
as
you
as
pleafe,
Take the Line AB as long and by the Point B draw FE
Parallel co
oft
is
CA.
Then take the Line
to
EB
fo
necefiary,
make
;
ic
reach lower
than the Line CD; as in the prefent Figure I have taken it only twice fo that E.B and BF are equal. By the Point F draw a Parallel F 1 fay, B. to AE, and join the Line equal That the Line A B G is only one Line and that
G
G
;
therefore the Line
A B concurring
ic
in
FG,
if
rW
Line
CD
be
continued, fince
ic
Parallel
F G,
will
cannot cut its cut the Line B G between
B and G.
Dcmonfiration.
and BFG have the Sides and BF, equal; as alfo the alternate' Angles AEB, and BFG, (by the 29.) therefore they are equal in all Refpe&s, ( by the 4.) And the oppofite Angles AB E, F B G, and by confequence (by the Coroll. of are equal the 15. ) A B and BG make but one right Line. The USE. 1 The life of Parallel Lines is very common ; ' as in V effectives, forafmueh as the Appear'
The
Triangles
A
EB
AE
and FG,
BE
;
c '
c
ances or Images of Lines parallel to the Picture In or Table, are parallel among themfelves.
Navigation, the Lines of the fame Rhomb of Polar the Wind are defcribed by Parallels. The Dials have the Hourlines Parallels.
* 1
6
Compafs of Proportion
Parallels.
is
founded aifa upon
*
>A
E
5
PRO*
66
The Elements of Euclid.
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
The external Angle of a Triangle
the internal
XXXII.
and
to
cppoftte Angles, are all the three Angles of a Triangle
to both is equal taktn together ;
equal
two
right Angles.
ET
the Side
BC
I
of
Triangle be produe'd to D.
L'
the
ABC
fay,
That
the
is
3
f cken
CD
AC
D
A
external Angle equal to both the
internal
B.
Angles
A
and B
the Line
CE
By together. parallel to the Line
the Point
C draw
Demonftration.
The Lines A B and C E are Parallels thereEC A fore, (by the 29. > the alternate Angles BAC are equal; and (by the fame) the and
;
is equal to the interexternal Angle nal B: And by confequence the whole Angle ACD, being equal to both the Angles ACE,
ECD
of which it is compos'd, will be equal to both the Angles A and B taken toge
and
EGD,
ther.
and In the fecond place: The Angles A C are equal to two right Angles, (by the 1 3.) ACB
and
D
The Firfi Book.
67
to and I have demonftrated the Angle A be equal to both the Angles A and B taken totherefore the Angles ACB, A, and B,
CD
gether
that
;
is
ABC,
is all
to fay, All the Angles of the Triangle are equal to two right Angles, or, which one, to 180 Degrees.
All the three
all
Corollary 1.
Angles of one Tri
angle are equal to ther Triangle.
the three Angles of ano
Cor oil.
2.
IF
two Angles of one Triangle be
equal to two Angles of another Triangle, their third Angles are alfo equal.
Cor oil ;. If a Triangle has one right Angle, the other two will be Acute; and taken together, will be equal to one right Ang e. Coroll. From a Point given, only one Per!
4.
bependicular can be drawn to the fime Line ; caufe a Triangle cannot have two right fin
§ !es

Perpendicular is the inorteft or all the Lines that can be drawn from the fame Point to the fame Line. Coroll. 6. In a Rectangle Triangle the right
Coroll. e.
A
Angle
is
pos\i to
it
the greateit Angle; and the Side the greateft Side.
<
p
Coroll. 7.
angle contains 60 Degrees third Part of 180.
Every Angle of an equilateral TriThat is to fay. The
;
The
*
USE.
is
This Propoficion to determine the
1
of
Parallax.
Ufe in Aftronom^ Suppofe the
E 4
Poim
6B
;
The Elements of Euclid.
Point
A
to be the
X)
\
that
Centre or the Earth ; and from the Point A upon
Superficies
c
*
the
be
is
taken
the
1
'
c
of a Scar from the If rhe Earth was the Star would ap«. rranfparent,
Zenith D.
D itance
Angle
DBG,
that
to fay, the
* *
*
*
%
pear remote from the Zenith D, according to the Bignefs of the Angle CAD, which is lefs than the Angle C.BD. For the Angle the external Angle in refpect of being
CBD
*
* *
s * *
the Triangle ABC, it is (by the 52.) equal to both the oppolre Angles A and There* w »li be equal to the Excels fore the Angle
C
G
of
the
Angle
CBD
above the Angle A,
Whence I infer, That if I can know by the AJhonomkal Tables how far remote from
the Zenith the Star ought to appear to him that fhould be at the Centre of the Earth, Vand obferve it at the fame time from the
c
*
J
Superficies, will be the
the Difference of thofe
two Angles
Parallax
B C A,
PRO
The Firft Book*
69
PROPOSITION
A T
Two
L'^nes
XXXIII.
H
B
O R EM.
the
drawn towards
two
fame Parts, from
Lines that
are
the Extremities of
other
equal
and
parallel) are alfo themfdves
equal
and
farallti.
and equal ar.d let the Lines AC and be drawn from their ExtremiB A ties towards the fame Parts are equal I fay, That the Lines AC and and parallel. Draw the Diagonal Line BC.
be
parallel
;
LE
T
the Line
A B and
CD
BD
:
D
BD
Lkmonfiration, Since the Lines AB and
ABC
and will be the alternate Angles the 29. ) Therefore in the Triangles equal ( by and BCD, which have the S\dz com*
ABC
CD
BCD
are parallel,
mon, and the Sides
AB
and
ther with the Angles and alfbj the Bafes
AC
ABC and BCD equal BD will be eqral, ( by
AG
CD
BC
equal, toge
the 4.)
and
alfo the
Angles
DBC, andBCA;
which being alternate Angles, the Lines and will be parallel, (by the 27. )
BD
The
8
U S E.
This Proportion
is
reduced to Practice for
4
the
70
'
7he
'Elements of Euclid.
lar
DA
71
'^e
c
•
meafuring the perpendicuHeights, AG, of the vafteft
fc
B J&A
**8fe
'
Mountairis ; and alfo their honzontal Lines, C G, which are
hid
CFG*
J*'
c
' 1
by their Bulk. Take a large B, and place it fo at Square A
D
the Point A, that the Side B mav fall perthen meafure the Sides A ; pendicularly
D
D
(
'
and
D B.
This done, do the fame again at
the Point B, and meafure
BE
and
EG:
1
1
Sides parallel to the Horizon AD, BE, together, give the Horizontal Line
CG
The added and
;
1
1
1
Meafuring
*
the perpendicular Sides the perpendicular Height * Cult is
call'd
DB
A
and EC, give G. This way of
Mat ion,
Meafuring by piecemeal.
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
The
oppofite
XXXIV.
Sides
;
and Angles of a
the
are equal
and
Diameter divides
"Parallelogram it into
two
equal Parts.
A B C [See the Fig. of the to be a Parallelogram, that SUppofe Prop. ] preceding is to fay, that the Sides A B, AC, and
the Figure
D
CD;
B D,
CD; AC
are parallel.
I fay,
and BD,
oppofite Sides A B, are equal ; as alfo that the
The
Angles
The Firft Book,
71
;
D ABD and A C D and that Angles the Diameter B C equally divides the whole
A and
Figure.
The Lines A B, and
Parallels
:
and
like
BCD
and
Demonflration. D, are fuppo*'d to be Therefore the alternate Angles
C
ABC
will
be equal,
manner the
Sides
AC
( by the 29.
and
BD
)
la
being fup
be Parallels, the alternate Angles ftC w ill be equal. And further, The Triangles ABC, and having the fame Side B C ; and the Angles ABC, A C B, anu C B equal, will be equal in all reTherefore the Sides A B, fpe&s, (bytbeiS.)
posM to
ACB
D
DCB,
D
BCD;
CD; AC and
are equal
:
B D, and
the Angles
A and D,
the Diameter divides the Figure And fince the Angles into two equal Parts. and CBD, are equal, joinABC, BCD,
And
ACB
ing together
BCD
c 1
and
Angles
CBD; and ACB, A B D and A C D are equal.
and
ABC
likewife
we
infer that the oppofice
the
USE. A Eg l\ / "1
/
Surveyors have need of this
*
Propofition for dividing Grounds. If the Field be a Parallelogram,
*
c
*
they can divide it into two equal Parts by the Diameter A D. But
if
I
c G
—/ N
>£
/
i
D
E
;
you be
oblig'd to divide
it
by the Point
into
*
divide
firft
the Diameter
4
Parts by the
Point F,
two equal then draw the Line
4
EFG,
72
'
'
The Elements of Euclid.
which
will divide the
EFG,
Figure into two.
equal Parts.
For the Triangles A
c
' c c
GFD, GDF;
and
fince
having the alternate .Angles
E F and E A F,
and
FD
the
AEF,
FGD;
and the Sides
(by
the 26.)
AF
and
equal, are equal
e
c
1
4
'
with the Triangle AEF ; that is to fay, The Triangle ADB, is half the Parallelogram, (by the 54. ) the fame Trapezium with the Triangle F will be half the fa me. > the therefore, Line divides it in the Mid die.
Trapezium
BEFD
BEFD
DG
EG
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
XXXV.
TarallehgramSy having the fame Bafe, and being between the fame Parallels, are equal.
C
E
F
LE
lels
T
the
Parallelograms
be
ABEC,
and
and
ABDF,
They

having the fame Bafe AB, and being between the fame Paral
A
B
AB
CD:
I
fay,
are equal.
Demonft ration.
The
as alfo
Sides
AB,
FD:
AB, CE,
are equal (by the Therefore C E and F
D
%^
are
equal
\
and adding to them EF, the Lines
CF
and
The Fkfi Book 73 and ED will be equal. The Triangles therefore C FA, andEDB, have rhe Sides CA, EB,
as alfo
CF, and ED,
equal,
together with
one and FCA, (by the 29 being an external, and the other an internal Angle, on the fame Side Therefore (by the 4.) the Triangle ACF and BED are equal ; and taking from them both, that which is comthe Angles
DEB,
J
:
mon, i/is. the little Triangle EGF, the Trawill be equal to the Trapepezium zium CAGE; and adding to both the Triangle A G B,< the Parallelograms A B E C and A B D F will be equal.
FGBD
The
6
*
USE.
made
Scotus, and fome Divines fi nee him, have ufe of this Propofition, to prove, that
1
1
Anghs may
they pleafe.
1 1
1 1
themjelves to what Space For, fuppofing they can aifume any Figure, provided they have not a greater Extenfion ; it is evident, That if an Angle fhould poffefs the Space of a Parallelogram
extend
A B EC,
the
rallels
it
may
iikewife
occupy the Space of
and becaufe Painfinitum^ ( with%r.
r
'
Parallelogram may be continued
ABDF;
*
*
'
*
out end, ) and Parallelograms may be flill form'd longer and longer, which will all be C; an Angle will be able to equal to
ABE
extend
itfelf itill
farther
and
farther.
a.
A
De«
74
The Elemnts of Euclid.
fame Vropejltm by
IndiviJibUs.
thg
A
*
Demonftratiott of the
Method of
*
*
*
c *
This Method was lately invented by Cavahrius ; which has found different Acceptation in the World, fome approving, and others
it. His Method confifts in this That we imagine Superficies to be compos'd
rejecting
;
of Lines
like fo
many
Threads.
And
'tis
cer
c
' c
tain, that
*
two Pieces of Linnen will be equal, if they have both the fame Number oi Threads, of equal length, and equally compa&ed. * Let two Parallelogram? therefore ABEC, and ABDF
be propos'd, having the fam.2 Bafe A B, and being between
the fame Parallels A B, CD; the Divide Parallelogram into as many Lines as you pleafe, to A B, which continue to the othei parallel 'lis evident, There Parallelogram ABDF. will be no more in one, than in the other and that they will be of equal Length, being all equal to the Bafe A B ; and that they will not be more clofely compared in one, than in the other ; therefore the Parallelograms
ABEC
;
will
be equal.
PRO.
7he
Firfi Book?
75
PROPOSITION
Parallelograms, upon equal Bafes,
XXXVI.
A Theorem.
and between
the
fame of LET
let
Parallels^ are equal.
theBafesCB and
the
OD
A
ACBF, ODEG,
allels
Parallelograms be equal; and
I
both be between the fame Pa
A
E,
C
D.
fay,
rallelograms are equal,
The Pa C draw the Lines
C G,
and B
E.
Demonftration.
TheBafesCB, and OD, are equal: OD,and G E, are alfo equal Thet efore C B and G E
:
are equal, and parallel;
{according equal and
to the
;;.) CG and BE will be and CBEG will be a parallel
;
and by confequence
GODE and CBEG will be equal, {by the fame.) Therefore the Parallelograms ACBF and ODEG are equal.
*
1
Parallelogram equal to CBFA, ( by the 55*. ) having both the fame Bafe. In like manner, for the Bafe, the Parallelograms taking
EG
The USE. reduce Parallelograms have Obliqne Angles, as C B EG, or
1
We
ofc
,
which
OD EG,
4
toRe&angles;
as
CBFA:
So that meafuring
the
The Etements of Euclid.
the latter, which
is
eafie, being only to
mul
Produd being equal to tiply the Parallelogram ACBF, we may by confequence know the other Parallelograms CBEG, or O D E G.
the
AG byCB,
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
Triangles having the
XXXVII.
fame
Bafe,
and
being be
tween the fame Parallels, are equal,
IFC D E,
C
C
parallel to the Lines
and the Triangle A C have the fame Bafe
D
the fame
D, and be indos'd between Parallels A F, and
H
,
Draw
they will be equal. the Lines F, B, and
D
D
A C,
and
C E,
and you
will
have form'd two Parallelograms.
Demonflration.
The Parallelogram A
the
equal, {by E, are the Halfsof thofe Parallelograms, {by the 34. ) Therefore the Triangles A D,
CD
C D B, and ECDF, are and the Triangles A CD, %^.)
C D E,
C
are equal
PROPO
7he
Firfi Book.
77
PROPOSITION
Triangles,
XXXVIII.
A Theorem.
that have equal Bafes, and are inclos'J within the fame Parallels t are equal.
AC and EGH, I fee Fig. have equal Bafes CD, and GH, and are inclos'd within the fame Parallels A F and C H, they are equal. Draw the Lines B F parallel to the Sides AC, and EG ; and and
the Triangles
D
IF freced.]
H
will
D
you
have form'd two Parallelograms.
Demonfiration.
The Parallelograms A
are equal, (by the and are the Halfs of thofe Parallelograms, the 34.) therefore they are alfo equal. (by
C B, and E G F, and the Triangles A C %6.)
D
H
D
EGH
The
1
*
USE.
Field into
We
have
in this Propofition Directions for
*
4
dividing a Triangular Parts ; for Example,
two equal
the
Tri
angle
*
*
ABC.
into
Divide the Line
i
which you
as
will take for the Bafe,
? *
*
*
two equal Parts in D: I fay, The Triangles ABD, and ADC, are equal. For if you fuppofe a Line drawn by A, parallel to B C, thofe Triangles will have equal Bafes, and € bc F
BC,
78
*
*
* c
The Elements of Euclid,
be inclos'd within the fame Parallels : and by confequence will be equal. Other Divifions,
grounded upon the fame Propofition, might be made; but I omit them, that I might not
} be tedious.
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
XXXIX.
Equal Triangle* upon the fame Bafe, the fame Parallels,
are within
E
TF
Tops
the
B C, having the J[ and lame Bare B C, be equal drawn by the the Line A
;
D
Triangles
ABC,
D
will
Bafe B
BC
A
it
be not parallel
it
;
;
if
For if A D and draw a Parallel by you
C.
be parallel to the
the Point A, D, as A
will fall either
below the Line
O
or above
it,
as*
A
E.
to fall above, and produce the Line A E at the Point E
B
;
D
Suppofe
'till it
meet
then draw the
Line
CE,
Demovftration.
The
Triangles
ABC
and
EBC
are equal.
arc (by the 37. ) fince the Lines A E and Parallel ; 'tis likewife fuppos'd that the Tri
BC
angles
ABC,
and B DC, are equal: Therefore
the
The Tirji Boo{.
the Triangles DBG and E B C would
79
be equal : which is impofllble, the firft being pare of the fecond. Whence I conclude, that a Line parallel to B G cannot be drawn above AD, ss A E. I add, That a Parallel cannot be below A D, as AO: Becaufe the Triangle would be
BOG
equal
the Triangle ABC, and by confeB C ; that is to fay, quence to the Triangle The Part would be equal to the Whole. It muft
to
D
be confefs'd, that Parallel to the Line B C.
therefore
the Line
AD
is
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
XL
Equal Triangles, having equal Bafes, if they be taken upon tie fame Line, are between the fame
Varallels.
Bafes
AB and DE, on the fame Line AE; the Line CF drawn by their
Tops,
For,
will
if it
IFand D E
the equal Triangles
F,
ABC
have
equal taken up
be parallel to A E, be not parallel, hav
£ A
\rfc " "
—

•
ing drawn by the Point
C
A E,
it
will pafs either
above
below
it,
as
C
a Line parallel to C F, asCG; or
I.
F z
Demon*
Bo
If
it
The Elements of Euclid.
Demonstration*
CG, continue pafs and draw the Mil it meet with in ; would Line EG. The Triangles ABC and and be equal, (by the $8. ) and being fuppos'd to be equal, DEF, DEG, would be alfo equal ; which, one being part of the
above CF, as
DP
CG
G
D EG DEF ABC
other, cannot poflibly be
lel
:
Therefore the Paralit
cannot pafs above CF. I add, that neither can
pafs
below
it,
as
becaufe then the Triangles ABC and DEI would be equal ; and by confequence DEI, and the Part and the Whole : There* F can be Parallel to A E. fore only C
I ;
C
DEF;
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
XLL
A Parallelogram will
equal Safes*
be double to
they be between the
a 1V tangle, if fame Parallels^ and have
F
I and between
BC,
Triangle.
the Parallelogram BD, the Triangle EBC, be the fame Parallels
AC
AE
and B C ; and have the fame Bafe
or only equal Bafes; the Parallelogram will be double the Draw the Line A B.
i
Demon"
The Firft
The
Triangles
Boo1{.
81
are enual,
Demonjhation.
A
BG and'BCE
ABC,
B
\{hy the 37. )
But the Parallelogram
AC
)
It
B
D
is
double the Triangle
(by the 34.
It is
therefore double the Triangle
C E.
would
be alfo double a Triangle, that, having a Bafe Paequal to B C, fhould be between the fame
rallels.
The
1
USE.
The ordinary Method of Mea
furing the Area or Superficies of a Triangle is built upon this Pre
pofnion.
If
;
the
Triangle
ABC
perpendicular to the Bafe then multiplying the Perpendicular A ; by half the Bafe B E, the Produ& gives rhe Area of the Triangle ; because multiplying AD, or, what is the fame, E F by BE, we have a Re&angle B EF H, which is equal to
be propos'J muft draw
AD
From the Angle
A we
B
C
D
the Triangle
Triangle
A BC.
is
ABC
For (by
the
41.) the
and
*
fo likewife is
We
Reaangle the Re&angle B E F B.
all
half the
HBCG;
Fi
meafure
forts
of
divi
Re&ilineal
gures, as
A BCD
E,
by
ding them into Triangles, as
the Lines AD, and the Perpendiculars
BCD, ABD, AED; drawing A
C G,
F
3
ED;
and
B
F,
and
•
E
I.
For
half of B
D
multiplying by CG, and half of
AD
by BF, and
8x
1
The Elements of Euclid. and by EI, we have the Area of
all
thole
*
<
Triangles: Adding which together, the Surras equal to the Rectilineal Figure
ABCDE.
'
We
y by
that Area of regular Polygones, multiplying half their Circuit by a Perfind
*
pendicular
drawn
from their Centre to one of their Sides. For multiplying
AG by
IG,
we
*
(hall
have a
>L*tL
c
*
1
Rectangle HLM And repeating equal to the Triangle A I B the fame for all the other Triangles, taking always half of the Bafes, we (hall have a which will have the Side Re&angle
:
*
KO
HKON,
€
*
compounded of
all
the half Bales,
and
by confequence equal to half the Circumference ; and the Side equal to the Per
HK
*
pendicular
i
I
G.
this
'Tis
according to
Principle, that
Ar
t
*
%
1
cbimedes has demonftrated, that a Circle is equal to a Re&angle compris'd under the
Semidiameter, and a Line equal to half the Circumference.
PRO
The Firfi Book:
;
$$
PROPOSITION
A Problem.
To
wrfi&e
XLIL
a parallelogram equal
to
a Triangle gHfen;
\
having one
Angle equal
to
an Angle given,
LET
gle
a Parallelogram be de
fired equal to the Trian
ABC,
to the Angle E. gle equal into vide the Bafe B
and having an AnDi
C
two
equal Parts at the
Line
Point
D
AG
make the Angle C D F equal to E, And Jaftly, Draw the Line C G
parallel to
BC,
and draw the (bytbe %\.) then
;
DF: The Figure becaufe the Lines are Parallels; and
the Angle
FDCG
Further,
(by the 2;.) parallel to
is
F G, DC; F its Angle
'tis
CDF
a Parallelogram, and C,
D
G
E
;
Triangle
AB
and C.
equal to ajfo equal to the
is
Dentonfir atkn.
The Triangle gram FDCG, (by
r
ADC
is
half the Parallelo5
i
ADB
riangle
AB C
A
B
the 41. )
ris
alfo half the
;
fince the Triangles
A
DC
and
are equal
Triangle
C
(bythe%%.)
Therefore the
is
FDCG.
equal to the Parallelogram
'
F
4.
P
R
O
$4
The Elements of Euclid.
PROPOSITION
XLIII.
A Theorem.
The Complements of a Parallelogram are equal.
the Parallelogram
ABDC,
IN
and
the
Complements A F EH,
are equal.
EGDI,
C
G
The
~D
Triangles
Demonfiration.
and BCD, are equal, (by the ;<t. ) Therefore if the Triangles HBE, and BIE; FEC, and CGE, which are alfo
ABC,
)
equal ( by the fame plements AFEH,
be fubftra&ed, the ComGDIE, which remain, will
•*
.
be equal.
<
.
I.
PROPOSITION
A Problem.
To
XLIV.
defcribe a Parallelogram upon a Line given ,wbicb and have fuck {hall be equal to a Triangle given, certain Angle ; i. e. equal to one given.
H GA
/e
OUppofe you be
required
its
lj
to
make
fhall
a Parallelogram
which
have one of
—
Angles equal to the Angle E, and one of its Sides equal to the
The Fir Book ft
the Line
85
D, and be equal
to the Triangle
ABC.
M
BFGH, ( by the 42.) F G equal to the Angle E, whidrhas the Angle B and is equal to the Triangle ABC. Produce the Sides G F, and G H, fo that H I may be and draw the Line 1 BN equal to the Line D ; 'till it cuts G F produced to N ; and from the Point N draw the Line N O parallel to G I, and I O parallel to B ; producing alfo the Side F B to K, and HBtoM: The Parallelogram K is that which you defire.
Make
the Parallelogram
H
the alternate Angles MN being and BMO, are equal; therefore the AnFBM, equal to E, and the Side K B gle B M O
GFand HM being Parallels, the alternate are eAngles GFB or the Angle E, ancfFB M, the Lines K B qual ( by the 29. ) In like manner
and
parallel,
is
Demonfi ration.
is
equal to the Line HI,
rallelogram
GFBH,
equal to the Parallelogram that was made equal (by thefreced.) and to the Triangle ABC: Therefore the Parallelois equal to the Triangle ABC. gram
is
MK
orD: And laftly, The Pa
MK
The
1
USE.
This Propofltion contains a * kind of Geometrical Divifion :
€
'
For
in
Arithmetical Divifion a
is
Number
propose, which
may
* *
looked on as a Reftangle : For Example, The Reftangle A B,con!
fitting
86
The Elements of Euclid.
lifting of twelve Square Feet, which is to be divided by another Number, fuppofe two ; that is to fay, another Rettangle is defit'd to be made equal to A B, having one of its
equal to two ; and the Queftion is, Feet the other Side ought to contain ; which is, as it were, the Quotient. This is done Geometrically by the Rule and Compafs, thus ; Take B confiding of two
Sides,
B D, how many
D
E F : The Feet, and draw the Diagonal Line A F is that which you feek. For, having compleated the Re&angle DCFG, the Complements EG, and EC, are equal, {by the 43.) and EG has for one of its SicJes EH, equal to B D, of two Feet in length and E I
;
D
equal to
This kind of Divifion is calFd becaufe the Re&angle A B is apApplication, or EH: And from ply'd to the Line
A F.
BD
hence
is frequently cali'd becaufe the ancient Geometricians application made more life of the Rule and Compafs, than of Arithmetic!:*
'cis,
j
that Divifion
PRO
The
Firfi Book.
87
PROPOSITION
A
To
defcribe
XLV.
PR O
B L E M.
lertain
a Parallelogram, which jhall have a Angle ; and be equal to a Refiilmeal
Figure given,
proposed be B CD, you are required to make an equal Parallelogram, which (hall have an Angle equal to the Angle E.
to
LEgure which
T
the Rectilineal Fi
AB
Divide the
: And Re&ilineal into Triangles by the Line B {by the 42.) make a Parallelogram which has the Angle I equal to the Angle and and is equal to the Triangle E, L the 44.) make the Paralldogram I (by one Side to the Triangle having equal
D
HG
FGHI,
ABD;
HK
equal to IH, and the Angle LIH equal to the will be Angle E. The Parallelogram equal to the Reailineal A B C D.
BCD,
FGKL
Demonflration.
Nothing need be prov'd, but that the ParalK LI, make up but lelograms FGHI, and and one ; that is to fay, G K, make but
H
H
H
one
right Line.
The Angles
GHI,
and
:
LKH,
LKH,
are equal to the Angle E.
And the Angles
88
The Elements of Euclid.
and K I, are equal to two right Anbecaufe is a Parallelogram: g'es, Therefore the Angles and are equal to two right Angles, and {by the 14. )
LKH,
H KHIL SHI
make one
The
KHI
GH
1
and
HK
right Line.
USE.
The
life
of
this
;
'
the preceding
Proportion is the fame with both ferving to meafure the
re
* *
Opacity of any Figure whatfoever, by
reducing
it
into Triangles,
like wife
and then making a
them.
*
Re&angle Parallelogram
*
1
egjual to
Tis
eafie
to
make a Re&angular
1
1
*
Parallelogram upon a determinate Side, which may be equal to many irregular Figures. In like manner, having many Figures, a Re&angle may be defcrib'd equal to their Difference.
'
PROPOSITION
A Problem.
To
defcribe
XLVL
a Square upon a Line given.
defcribe a Square
D
>TpO
AC and B and draw the Line
culars
1
upon the
Line
A
B, draw two Perpendi
D
equal to
A B,
C D.
right
g
Demonstration.
The Angles
A
and B being
Angles,
The Firji Boo\.
Lines Angles, the
89
AC
and
BD are Parallels, (by
C
alfb equal; therefore the are Parallels, and equal, (by the ;;. ) and the Angles A and equal to two as alfo B and D, ( by the 29.) right Angles ;
tbei&)
;
They are
L nes A B
ilnce
and
CD
and
A and B
and
Angles C
irs
the Figure
D will be fo Iikewife Therefore Sides equal, and A D has
:
are both right Angles, the
all its all
Angles, right a Square.
Angles, and by confequence' is
PROPOSITION
/
XLVII.
A Theorem.
the Bafe
the Squares
The Square of
is
equal taken together,
to
of a ReSangle Triangle, of both the other Sides
the Angle
ABC
PAC
to
be a SUppofe
right
that Squares
:
Angle, and were defcribed
upon all the Sides B C, A B, and AC That upon the Bafe
oppos'd to the right Angle, will be equal to the Squares of both the Sides A B, and AC. Draw the Line Parallel to and CE; and join the Lines AD, AE, F C, and B G* I will prove the Square
is
B C, which
BD
AH
AW
9©
The Elements of Euclid.
is
AF
tore
equal to the Re&angle
Square
Squares
A
G
to the
Re&angle
is
the Square
BE
and the and thereequal to both the
BH,
CH;
AF
and A G.
Demonftration.
The Triangles F B C, and A B D, have And Sides AB; BFBD and B C equal
:
the
Angles
FBC,
and
more than their reTherefore ( by the 4. ) fpe&ive right Angles. and F B G are equal. But the Triangles the Square F is double the Triangle F B C, (by\ the 41.) haying the lame Bafe BF, and being
taining the Angles
ABC
ABD,
the are equal, each con
ABD
fame

between
the
Parallels
B
F,
and
is In like manner the Re&angle B the Triangle ABD, having likewife the farnel Bafe BD, and being between the fame Paraland A H. Therefore the Square le!s
H
C. double
A
1
I
BD
AF

is
equal to the Re&angle
Method
and the Triangles may be to be equal, ( by the 4. ) and the Square prov'd and to be double the Triangle
BH, By the' fame GCB, ACE,
1

1
AG
GCB;
\
BDEC
c
double the Triangle ACE, is equal the 4.1. ) therefore the Square A (by to the Re&angle C \ and by confequence the Squares A F and A G are equal to the Square
the Re&angle
CH,
H
G
The
'Tis faid,
USE.
that Tythagoras, having found * out this Propofition, facrific'd a Hecatomb, * i. e. a hundred Oxen, to the Mufes, to re1
turn
The Firjl Book.'
turn
I
9
1
them Thanks
if,
poling
Human
thereof
it
for their Affiftance ; fupfeems, above the Power of bare Nor was his Efteem Invention. fb irrational, as to fbme perhaps
it
may appear ; this Propofitiori being the Foundation of a very confiderable part of For in the firft place, the Mathematicks. cannot poffibly fubfift without "Trigonometry it being neceflary to compofe a Table of ir, all the Lines that may be infcrib'd in a Circle, as Chords, Sines, Targents^ Secants ;
;
as will appear
by one Example
:
Suppofe F to be divided into iooooo Parts,
the Semidiameter
AC
g
and that the Arch
BC
contains
^
30 Degrees. Since the Chord, or Line that fubtends 60 Degrees is equal to the Sine of ;o the Semidiameter
°C
AC; BD
Degrees,
will
be equal to half
AC, and
in the
there
fore contain f 0000 Parts,
Now
Rect
AB angular Triangle is to the Squares of AD, and BD. equal Make therefore the Square of AD, by multiplying iooooo by ioooco, and from the Produd fubftra& the Square of foooo or B ; the Remainder will be the Square of A ; or F B the Sine of the Complement ; and extracting the Square Root of that NumThis done, ber, you will have the Line F B.
B, the Square of
AD
D D
making
*
as
AD
to
will
have the Tangent
BD, fo ACtoCE, you C E then adding to; '
gether
92
c
*
*
gether the Squares of
The Elements of Euclid. AC and CE, and
the
Pro*
duft ( by
47.)
will
give the Square of
AE
:
*
*
extracting therefore from that Number the Square Root, you will know the Length of the Line A E, which is the Secant.
*
4
'
c
By this alfo we may augment Figures as much as we pleafe. For ExTo double the ample;
4
Square A BCD, continue and the Side CD, fo that may be equal ; the Square of A E will be double the fi nee Square (by the 4.7.) it is E. and to both the Squares of A equal
AD
DE
ABCD;
D
D
Making the right Angle A E F, and taking equal to A B, the Square of* A F will be Again, Making triple the Square the right Angle A FG, and taking equal
EF
ABCD.
to
AB,
the Square of
or four times that which I fay of the Square, derflood of all Similar Figures.
FG AG will be quadruple, And the Square of ABCD.
may
be un
PRO
The Firjl Book
93
PROPOSITION XLVIII. A Theor em.
one Side be.*equal to If in a Triangle the Square of the Squares of both the other Sides, taken together ; the Angle offojite to that fir ft Side will be
a Right Angle.
IFbe
the Square of the Side equal to both the Squares
NP
will
of the Sides
together;
NL
and
L P,
taken
the Angle
NLP
Draw
be a right Angle.
perpendicular to
LR
LP
;
drawn the Line
In the
N R.
N L,
and equal to
then
Demonftration,
of
L R> the Square equal to the Squares NL, and RL, or the Square of P is LP, (by the 47. ) alfo eqtral to the fame Squares of L and LP; therefore the Square of is equal to the of and by confequence the Lines Square P, and are equal. And becaufe the Triangles NLR, and NLP, have the Side common ; the Sides LP and LR equal,and their Bafes P and alfo equal ; the Angles
NR
Re&angular Triangle
N
is
Now
N
N
NR
N
NR
NP
NL
N NR N LP and N L R will be equal, the Angle N L R being a right
gle
NLP
{by the 8.) then Angle, the An
muft be
fo too.
G
THE
C P4 3
THE
Second Book
O
F
THE
Elements of
VCLID
fay5
in
EV CLID.
this
Book
treats
of the
is to ; right of their Squares; comparing the ' divers Rectangles, which are made upon * a Line divided, as well with the Square, as
*
'
Powers of
Lines
that
c
1
*
Tis a the Re&angle, of the whole Line. Part exceeding ufeful, ferving for the Foundation of the principal Operations of AlThe three fir ft Pfopofitions demongebra. itrate the third Rule or Operation of Aritbmetick, viz. Multiplication'.
*
* c
*
The Fourth
teaches to extract the Square Root of any Number whatfoever<,' Thofe that follow to
the eighth
,
ferve
reft
upon many Occafions
in
c *
'
'
Algebra. This Book feems ac proper for Trigonometry. firft View very difficult ; becaufe Men are apt to imagine there is fomething myfterious
The
inftruci us in Operations
?
contain'd
therein
;
neverthelefs
[
the

great
The Second Book.
greateft pare of
its
93
ed on
this
is
Demonitrations are groundmoil evident Principle, That the
equal to ail irs Parts taken together. ought not to difcourage any, if they (hould not at the fir ft Attempt fully comprehend them.
Whole
But
it
DEFINITIONS.

r.
A Rettangular Parallelogram
tivo Lines, that
is
comprised undtf
form a right Angle,
that hencefor
ward, OBferve,
by a Re&angle,

we
lhall intend »fuch
a Pa
whofe Angles rallelogram are all right Angles, diitin
naming two of its which contain one of its Angles, as the Lines A B and; B C. For the RedtangJq A B C is compiriz'd under the Lines A B and BC; BG denoting its Longitude, and AB its Latitude; and the other Sides being equal to
Sides,
it by giving guifhing. Longitude, and Latitude,
its
D
it
thefe,
I
will
ajfo
have
Line of to
A
not be neceffary to name them., formerly intimated, that the
and being
A BCD
remaining perpendicular to BC, from one Extremity therethe other, produces the Re&angie and that that Motion has fome re<~ ;
B,
mo/d
G
i
km
96
4
The Elements of Euclid.
as
femblance
fo that,
c
*
c
C, there are Points
angle
Line
B
Arithmetical Multiplication the Line moving over th< that is, taken fo many times a
to
AB
in
B
C, compofes the
Red
o
c
'
'
ABGD;
I
A B by BC,
As, Suppofe
fo the Multiplication alfo will give the Reftangle A
BCD
It
i
knew
the
1
*
matical Points, that are in 40, and that there were
Number of Mat be A B, for ExampI
60
in
BC:
will
c
*
*
'
c c
there ar and that multiplying 40 b 60, the Produft will be 2400, which is thl Number of Mathematical Points in the Ret I
evident that the Rectangle (b many Lines equal to
A BCD AB, as
hav
Points in
BC;
angle
'
*
Quantity Mathematical Point, provided I
I
A B C D. may take what
it
;
I
I
pleafe for do not afte
* '
wards fubdivide
ferv'd,
it
I
that
when
Point
rauft therefore be ol meafure a Line, for
*
' *
*
* *
take that Meafu which my Occafions ; for E when I fay a Line of five Foot ample, Length, my Mathematical Point is a Line of Foot long ; which I take without confide
Mathematical
I
beft fuits
with

ing that
it is
compos'd of any
Parts.
In
me
* *
1
I do the famlc; Turing a Superficies like wife taking fbme known Superficies; for ExampI an a Foot Square ; which I do not afcerwar I make ufe of a Square rath SI fubdivide.
1
'
than any other Figure ; becaufe its Leng and Breadth being equal, there is no need
4
nanair
The Second Book*
9J
naming more than one of its Dimenfions co defcribe it. Accordingly when I would mark the Area of the Re&angle A BCD, I do noc
confider the Sides as fimple Lines, hut as RectFor Examangles of a determinate Breadth :
ple
;
when
is
has the Side
Foot
Point,
I
fay that the Re&angle A B A B of four Foot long, fince a to me inftead of a Mathematical to have alfo conceive the Side
I
CD
AB
a Foot in Breadth,
ABE
the
F.
and to be as the Re&angle Therefore knowing how many times
B
I
eadth
(hall
BE
know
BC
AB
contain'd in the Line how many times the Line
is
contained in the Re&angle that is to fay, multiplying C which has four Foot Square ) by 6, the Produd: will be 24 Foot Square. In like manner, knowing the to be Magnitude of the Re&angle
is
AB
ABCD;
ABCD
24 Foot Square, and one of its Sides A B to be 4 ; dividing 24 by 4, the Quotient will give me the other Side B C, confuting of fix Foot Square. 2. Having drawn the Diameter of ^L a Re&angle, one of the lefler Redangles, thro' which it paffes, together with the two Complements, is {f As the Redcali'd the Gnomon. angle EG, through which the Diameter paffes, together with the Complements EF and
'
BD
GH,
their Figure to; a Carpenter's Square. gether reprefenting
is
cali'd the
Gnomon
G
5
PR O
98
The Elements of Euclid.
PROPOSITION A Theorem.
If two Lines he
fropos'd,
I.
whereof one
is
divided,
into divers Farts ; the Retlangle contained under thofe two Lines is equal to the ReBangLs contained under the Line which is not divided^
and
the Farts of the Line divided,
5_P_ H D
A E
T ET
I
j
the
Lines
proposed be
A By and AC; and let AB be divided into as many Parts
as
F
B
vou
jjj
A
is
conta n ^ un(jer the L
i
pleafe.
The Reciangk
AB
and AC,
equal to the Re&angle
AG
Red
contained under
A
C
angle
E
H
;
contain'd
AE under E G
and
;
to the
equal to
AC
and E F and to the Refiangle F contain'd under FH equal to AC, and FB taken together.
D
Demonftration.
The Re&angle
taken together
;
AD
which
AG, EH,
and F D, the Re&angle A is equal to the Rectangles taken together. and F
equal to all its Parts are the Pvedangles and no other. Therefore
is
AG EH
3
D D
The Second Boo\.
By Numbers.
'99
This Propofition holds true likewife In Numto be fae Foot bers. Suppofe the Line A
C
:
two, long; by confequence contain'd under
to fay,
five,
is
AE
EF
four,
FB
three;
and
AB
nine
The Reftangle
five
and A B nine, that is times nine, which makes forty
five,
AC
or ten 3 four times times n>e, or fiffive, or twenty ; and three teen ; for ten, twenty, and fifteen, make forty
equal to twice
five,
five.
The
i
USE.

'
Propofition is demon ftrated the ordinary Operation
By
this
A,
B,
c
c c
1
of Multiplication. For Example:
If
you were
to
multiply
the
*
'
Number A, which is 5*;, by the Number B, that is 8. Divide the Number A into (b many
Parts as there are Characters:
that
is,
* *
6
c
two,
50,
and
5
;
which
multiply by 8, faying, eight times three is twenty four ; and fo you make one Re&angle, Then multiplying the Number 50 by 8, the
c '
'
Product will be 400. But 'tis evidenr, that the Product of eight times 55, being 424, is fo equal to the Produ& 24, and the Product
tata
together.
ioo
The Elements of Euclid.
.
— ———^—
II.
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
The Square of any Line
contained
Tarts.
is
equal
to the
%
ReEtangles
all
under the whole
Une
and
its
CGHD j ET the I and
,
its
Line propos'd
be
I
A
B,
the Square
FB
AB
Line AB and AE; another under and EF; and a third under AB and FB
Re&angle
is equal to the contained under the whole
ABDC
Square
A B D C.
fay,
taken together.
Demonft ration.'
is equal to all its Parts The Square taken together, which are the Re&angles A G, is contained under EH, FD. Thefirft is The fecond E to A B, and A E. equal to A C or A B, and contained under E equal
ABD C
AG
AC
H
G
is corrain'd under to A B, and FB: But Vis the fame thing equal to be contain'd under a Line equal to A B, and
FE.
The
third
FD
FH
to be contained under
AB
icfelf.
Therefore
the Square of A contained under Parts of AB.
B is equal to the Re&angles A B, and A E, E F, F B, the
The Second Book*
ici
Let the
its
By Numbers. Line A B reprefent the Number 9
;
Let alfo the Part Square will be 81. and FB two; nine times be four; EF three; nine times three, twenty four makes thirty fix
;
AE
leven
plain
and nine times two, eighteen that 36, 27, and 1S make 8r.
;
;
and
'tis
The
€
1
USE.
AU
This Propofition ferves likewife to prove
;
Multiplication
*
as alfo for Equations in
gebra.
I
— I— PROPOSITION
.
I
—
—«—
II
»
I
I
III
I——————
III.
A Theorem.
If a Line be divided into two Tarts, tie ReBangle contained under the whole Line, and one
of
its Tarts, is equal to the Square of the fame Tarty and the Retlangle contain d under both the Tarts.
LET C
Point
the Line
AB
Parts
be divided
at
D
E
^
F
into
;
two
and
let
the
a Re&angle be
made
one of
fay,
of
its
Let
A
the whole A B and A C ~B Parts A C ; that is to be equal to A C ; and then if
D
the Reftangle
AF
be compleated,
it
will
be
equal
102
The Elements of Euclid.
equal to the Square of A C, and the Re&angle contain'd under and CB. Draw the Per
AC
pendicular
CE.
.
equal to all its Parts, which are the Rectangles A E and C F. The firfl A E is the Square of A C, the Lines A C and A F being equal ; and the Re&angle
is
AD
The Re&angle A F
equal to
Demonftration. contain'd under
A B and
A C,
D
C
is
contain'd under
C B,
and
or
AC.
Therefore the
under A B and A C is equal to the Square of AC, and the Re&angle contain'd under and CB. / By Numbers,
equal to AD, Re&angle contain'd
CE
AC
angle contain'd under A three times eight, or 24 :
C B f the Re&B and A C, will be The Square of AC 3, and the Re&angle contain'd under is nine; AC 3, and CB 5*, is three times or 15". But it is evident that 15* and 9 make 24.
Let
AB
be 8
;
AC
j
;
and
;
5*
The
c
USE.
of
this
A,
The
life
c
ftili
c
to demonftrate
Propofition is the ordinary
c
4
Pra&ice of Multiplication. For Example ; If you would multiply
the
*
'
vided
Number 4; by_£; having dithe Number 43 into 40,
;
:
and
Three times 43
will
a
mount
to as
many
as three times three, or
*
nine,
The Second Book.
€
1 05
nine,
1
1
that
is
three
times
the Square of three ; and 40, that is, 120 ; for three
' '
times forty three is 129. Beginners oughe not to be difcourag'd, if they do not prefently
apprehend thefe Proportions
truth, are not difficult,
;
which
4
yet,
1
c
lft
but as they
are conceiv'd to contain
fiery.
fome ftrange
My
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
be V a Linewholedivided will
IV.
into two Parts, the Square be equal to the Line of Squares of both the Tarts ; and two Rectangles contain d under the fame Farts.
the
C, and its Square ABDEdefcrib'd;letitsDiain
ded LET
the Line
AB
be
divi
FD
gonal alfo EB be drawn, and £ a Perpendicular cutting it k C F : And by that Point let L be drawn parallel to A B. 'Tis the Line evident that the Square is equal to
G
ABDE
and LF. of which are the Squares of A and CB: And the two Complements arecontain'd under AC and CB,
the four Redangles
firft
GF, CL, CG,
The two
C
1
Demon*
104
2"fo Elements
of Euclid.
Demonfiration.
The
Sides
half right the Angles L and A B And b^caufe the Lines Angles are Parallels, rhe Angles of the Triangles of the Square {by the 29. *>) will be equal, Therefore as alfo their Sides ( by the 6. 1. )
:
A E and A B are equal A E B, and ABE are
;
therefore
G
GF
GF
is
is
the Square of
:
A C.
In like
manner
CL
the Square of
tained
under
C B The Rtr&angle G C is conAC, and AG equal ro BL or BC
;
and the Re&angle equal to AC, and
Coroll.
If
LF
is
contain'd under
to
LD
FD equal
draw the
BC.
Square, the Squares.
c
Diagonal of a you which ic cuts are Re&angles
Demonftration,
A,
'
1
This
Propofition
teaches
the
Method of extracting the Square Root of any Number propos'd.
Let the Number be A, or 144, reand its Root prefented by the Square AD, by the Line AB. I fuppofe ic known from other Principles that it requires two Cha:
imagine therefore that the Line in C, fo that may reprefent the firft Character, and B C the fecond. Then fearching the Root of the firft Characters.
is
I
AB
divided
AC
racter,
of the Number 144, which is 100, and making it Square I find it to be 10 ; the Square 100. reprefemed by F, I Tub« ftrad
G
The Second Book*
1 05
draft it from 144; and there remains 44 for the Re&angles GC, FL, and the Square C L But becaufe the Figure of a Gnomon
:
is
not proper for
this
Re&angle whole Re&angle
jo, therefore divide
the
FL
Operation,
I
transport
I
unto
KG,
is
making one
44.
KL,
that
know
:
alfb already almotr. the
AC
being
KC
whole Side muft be 20
;
KB
:
I
For muft
44 by 20
that
is
to fay,
Divifor, doubling the Root found ; I enquire then how many times 20 I can have in 44 ? And find twice ; and therefore take 2
for
my
and becaufe 20 was not the but only KC; that two which came in the Quotient, 1 add to the Divifor, making ic 22 ; which Number being found precifely twice in 44, adding 2 to the Root before found, I conclude the whole You fee Square Root of 144 to be 12.
for the Side
intire
Side
B L; KB,
then that the Square 144 is equal to the Square of 10, which is ioo, is Square of 2, that is 4 ; and twice 20, which make the
two
ten.
Re&angles
contained
under two and
PRO
lo6
The Elements of Euclid.
i
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
V.
If a Line be divided into two equal Parts, and two Tarts that are unequal ; the Rettangle contained under the unequal Parts, with the
together
;
Square of the
intermediate Part
is
equal to
the Square of half the Line,
F
the Line
i
AB
be divided
in
into
two equal Parts
C,
AD, endDB,
and two unequal Parts in D; contain'd the Re&ang!e under the unequal Segments with the Square of C D, will be
AH
is,
equal to the Square of
CB
that
the Square
fc F. Compleat the Figure as you fee; the and DI will be Squares, (by the ke&angles
LG
CoroB. of the 4.)
'
c
'
c
equal to B equal to the Square
DH
Re&angle
AH,
will prove then, that the contain'd under A_D, and D., with the Square L G, is
I
CF.
Demonfiration. is equal to the Rectangle both being contain'd under half the Line DF, which is equal to ir. and DB, or
The Re&angle A L
AB
DH,
4dd
to both the
will
AH
Re&angle
CH
;
the
be equal to the
Gnomon
C B G.
Re&angle
Add
The Swotid Book.
therefore again to both the Square
;
107
with the Square theRe&angle be equal to the Square C F.
AH,
L G and LG, will
By Numbers.
Let
wife
;
A B be
and
let
10
;
AC
CD
B likewill be f , and the Redbe 2, and B % ;
C
D
7, angle contained under of fay 21, with the Square be equal to the Square of
AD
and
The
1
USE.
CD 2, that G D y, which
DB ;
,
that
is
is
to
4, will
25.
is
1
*
'
very ufeful in the third Book It is alfo us'd in Algebra^ to demonftrate the manner of rinding tke Root of an' ajfecled or impure Square.
This Propofition
:
is
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
VI.
and to it If a Line be divided into two equal Parts, the Rectangle contain d un~ another Line added ; der the Line compounded of tbofe two, and that which is added, with the Square of half the divided Line, is equal to the Square of the Line cornfounded of that half, and the Line that
to the Line
is
added.
A B,
divided
IF
two equal Parts in C, be added the Line BD; the
into
Rectangle AN, contain'd under the Line AD, and
equal to
DN A
BD,
with the Square of
C CB,
B~~D
is
equal to
108
The Elements of Euclid.
to the Square of C D. Make the Square of C D, and having drawn the Diagonal F D, draw
alfo
BG
parallel to
FC,
cutting
F
D
at the
Point H, through which pafTes the Line will be the parallel to Square
AD; KG
HN
ol
CB; and BN,
that of
BD.
and
Dentonftration,
The Re&angles
equal Bafes
AC
AK
and
C B,
and E ar< 36. 1.) The Complements equal, (by the ^. 1.) therefore the Re∠ and are e^jual. Add to both th< : and the Square then th< Re&angle CN,
CH
GH, being upor are equal, ( by th
H
AK
HE
KG
Redangles
AK
and
and
CN,
that
is,
the Re&anglt
th<
AN,
with the Square
Re&angles that is, by
Let
CN
H
KG,
be equal to E, and the Square
will
KG
4
4. 2. the
Square
of 8
CE.
Parts
;
By Numbers.
AB
n.
confifl
A
C
of
.
and
AD
CBof4;BDof;;
be
'Tis evident the
fo that the wholt
Rectangle
AN
h
;; ; which with the Square of KG, (equal to C B 4 ) that is 16 makes 49 , and therefore is equal to th<
that
is
three times
n,
Square of make 49.
1
'
CD
7,
which
is
49
;
for
7 times
7
The
Maurolycbus,
USE.
by the help of this Propofi. meafur'd the whole Earth at one Tingle tion, * 'Obfcrva
The Second Bco{. To effed which, he that from the Top of a Mountain of a known Height A, you obferve the Angle B A C, made
Obfervation.
1
6^
advifes,
A B, touching the of the Earth at B, and the Line A G palling thro* the Centre; And that in the
by the Line
Superficies
Triangle
<'
A
and the right Angle
gonometry, b*cau(e 'tis
knowing the Angle A, ADF, you find, by Trithe Sides A F and FD: And
F,
D
and
FD
Lme A B, and alfo its Square. Now we have demonftrated in the preceding Proposition, that the Line E D, being divided into equal Parts in C, and the Line added to it; the Re&angle contain'd under £ A and with the Square oFCD,' B, is equal to the Square of C A and the Angle A B ;
eafie to demonftrate that are equal, you will then know the
FB
AD
AD
.
( as is prov'd in the third Book A is equal to ) the Square of the Squares of AB and therefore the
being a right An*Ie,
Q
Rectangle under A E and A D, with the Square of B C, is equal to the Squares of A B and B C. Take therefore from them both the Square of B C, and the Re & angle under A E and A will be equal ro rhe Square of A B. Divide therefore the known Square of A B, by the Height of the Moun* tain A and the Quotient will be the Line
C BC;
D
D
s
I
'
*
lb
The Elements of Euclid.
;
1
from which fubftra&ing the Height of ; the Mountain, the Remainder will be the DiaE. meter of the Earth * We have made life like wife of the fame Pro*
AE
D
*
* * c
pofition in
our
sllgebra, to
demonftrate the
thirteenth Proportion of the third Book, to find the Root of a Square equal to a Number,
more a
certain
Number
'
c
that follow
do
alfo ferve for the
of Roots. The two Proof of the
like Operations.
PROPOSITION
A Problem.
VII.
If a Line he divided, the Square of the wholt Line with that of one of its Parts, is equal u\ two Rectangles contained undtr the whole Line and that firfi Part, together with the Square o\
the other Part.
B
; the Square of the Line A B, with tto Square A L, will be equal to twc Re&angles contain'd under AE and AC, with the Sqnare of
LE AD
T
the Line
in
A B be
divided
any where
C
CB
Make
AB, and having drawr and the Lines C F and H G L the Diagonal EB, prolong E A fo far, as that AK, may be equa,
the Square of
tc
to
AC;
is
To
Ill The Second Book? A L will be the Square of AC,
is ebe equal to AB; for is equal to CB, becaufe
and
HK
will
HA
qual to
GC, and
GC
CI
the Square
of
CB
;
(ty the
Coroll.
of
the 4. )
Dcmonftration.
'Tis
evident,
that the Squares
A
D
and
are equal to the and the Square Cl.
is
AL
Re&angles
H L and H D,
e&angle
Now
the
contain'd under
HK equal to
In like equal to AC. is contain'd under HI equal to A B, and Therefore the Squares of equal to AC. are equal to two Re&angles and
HD
HE
AB
of
AB, and KL manner the Re&anglc
HL
AC
contain'd under
AB
and AC, and the Square
C B.
In Numbers.
Suppofe the Line A B to confift of 9 Part?, A C of 4, and CB of j. The Square of A B 9 is 81, and that of AC 4 is 16 ; which 81 and 16 added together make 97. Now one Redfour times 9, make angle under AB and AC, or is 72; and the Square 36, which taken twice, which 72 and *j added togeDf C B is 2? ;
5
ther
make
alfo 97.
Mi
PRO
112
The Elements of Euclid.
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
to
VIII.
If you divide a Line, and add another to
one of
its
it
equal
Square of the whole compounded Line will be equal to four Reft* angles contained under the fir ft Line, and that
fart that
is
Tarts, the
added, together 'with the Square of
the other Tart.
ana
L
tT
!
the Line
A B be
divided
BD equal to CB added to
any where
in the Point
C,
it
tht Square of
AD will
G
be equal
to four Rectangles contained un
the Square of
A
der AB, and B or BD, and Make the Square of A D, C.
and having drawn the Diagonal AE, draw likewife the Pependiculars BP and CN, cutting the Diaeoial in O and I; and alfo the Lin^s
M O H "and
G
angles Squares, ( by the
Gl R parallel to AB. The RedC, LK, PH, MB, and NR, will be
Coroll.
of the
4. )
to all its Parrs The S }uare and the Rt dangles L B, OD, PM. are contained, under Lines equal to A B and BC and if you add the Red: ingle MI to the Rrdangle PH,
;
;
DemonJuration. A D E F is equal
they
together
will
give
you another Redangle
The Second Book:
113
a Line equal to AB, angle contain'd under A or B D. Befides and another equal to which, there remains nothing but the Square
C
3 C, which
he Square
:ontain'd
)f
is
AD
the Square of A C is equal to four
Therefore
under
A
Re&angles B and B D, and the Square
A C.
In Numbers,
L*t the Line A B confift of 7 Parts, of 3, CB of 4, as alfo BD. The Square of 1 will be in. And one Rectangle under AB7, nd 4, makes 28 ; which taken four times,
id
AC
AD
BD
is
112; and
hich
9,
thofe together with the Square of 3,
make
alfo
121.
PROPOSITION IX. A Theorem.
&
a Line be divided into two equal Parts, and two unequal, the Squares of the unequal Parts will double the Square of half the Line and the Square of the intermediate Part,
ET
4
the
Line
AB
be
divided
into
two
at
iual
Parts at the Point
and
e
Point
the
D
two unequal
the Squares ; Parts unequal
A
h
;
pl4 A D and
which
Part.
is
The Elements of Euclid.
D B,
half
will
AB
be double the Squires of A C, the intermediate and
CD
Draw
CE
perpendicular to
A
B,
and
equal to AC; draw alfo the Lines AE and and the Perpendicular DF, as likewife
parallel to
BE,
FG
C D.
Tnen
join the Line
A
F.
The Lines
Angle
AC
Demonstration. and are equal,
CE
:
and
the
C
is
the Angles C AE and C E A are equal, I {j i.J In Jik< and confeqientlv half right Angles. manner, the Angles C E B, C B F, G F E, an< DFB, are half right Angles ; and the Line G F and G E, D F and B, equal, (by the 6. i. and the whole Angle AEF is a right Angh Now the Square of A E (by the 47. 1. ) is t qual to the Squares of AC and CE, whi<J
a right Angle
Therefore ( by th
D
n
double the Square ( A For ths fame Reafon, the Square of E is double the Square of GF, or C D. Now th of A F is equal to the Squares of A Square is a and EF, becaufe the Angle Rig! therefore the Square of AF is doub! Angle; The fame Squai the Squares of AC and C D. of AF is likewife equal to the Squares' of A I
are equal
:
Therefore
it is
C
AEF
r
L
t
or DB, the Angle and being a rigl Therefore the Squares of Angle. B are double the Squares of A C and C D.
DF
D
AD
i
it:
D
In Numbers,
Ler
AB
be
10/ACy, CD], and
DBilCj..
**5 The Second Boo\. is to that ie Squares of A D 8, and D B 2, and 4, which make 68, are double the iy, 64 and of %y that i*, 25of A C qares which is for 2; and 9 make 34, vhich is 9
$,
;
CD
;
alf of 68.
The
1
USE.
this Propofltion, ex
I
have not met with
cept \n Algebra; follows.
no more than that which
PROPOSITION
r
X.
A Theorem.
a Line be added to another that
c
two equal Parts
;
founded of thofe which is added, makes double the Square of~balf the Line, and the Square of that which h com* Line that is added. founded of half, and the
is divided[into the Square of the Line corntwo, with the Square of that
ET
be
aiddle
the
at
Line
in
AB
the
divided
the Point C,
jnd
the Line
it
:
kD
!l
The Squares of ST
the
and and
BD added BD will be
Draw
louble
C
Squares of
C D.
H
the Perpendiculars
CE
and
4
1
1
$
The Elements of Euclid*

and
that
DF
A
jLines
AG
PG
and
and then draw the ; equal to A E F, and producing £,B to G, fo E, may be equal to B D, join the Lines
C
EBG.
pemonft ration. C B, and C E, being equal, and the Angles at the Point C being righc Angles the Angles C A E, A E C, E B, and C B E, will be half right Angles. In like manner, the A^gle being a right Angle, and the Lines B D
The Lines A C,
;
C
and
will
D DG
b£
equal, the Angles
halt'
DBG and D G E
FE
CD,
is
wife
G E F,
therefore
will likeright Angles; and fo the Angle F being a right Angle ; are equal and the Lines
FG
(by
the 6. i.)
and E F
is
equal to
( £j
the 3;. i. )
Now
EG is alio the Square of AC, double the Square of EF, or CD, (by the 47. 1.) is equal to the Squares But the Square of
the Square of and the Square of
AE
double
AG
of
A E and EG, (by
the
Square of
AG
fame
;
the ) therefore
and
C D.
double the Squares of The fame Square of A G is
is
AC
like
wife ( by the fame 47. ) equal to the Squares of therefore the A D, and B equal to
DG
D
:
Squares of AD and 1}B are double the Squares pf A C and C D.
By
Let
Numhtrs.
AB
BD4;
contain 6 Fart, the Square of A
gqijare of
BD
is
16,
and C B ;, ;, 10 is jo^; the which rn^ke together
AC
D
n6.
The Second Book*
•
"7
:
n6.
j 8,
The Square
alfo
of
AC
3
is
9
The
Square of
49. 7 the half of 116.
CD
is
Now
49 and 9 make
PROPOSITION
A Problem.
?
XI.
7# divide a Line
w
.
in fuch a manner, that the Rectunder the whole Line, and one of its Varts y angle the other Tart. be {hall equal to the Square of
the Line
divided SUppofe in
that
AB
a
to be
fuch
manner
the Re&angle under the whole Line AB and BH, may be equal to the Square of A H. Make the Square of AB (by the in 46. 1 ) and dividing A the Middle E, draw EB, and take EF equal Then make the Square of AF, that to EB. is to I fay, let A F and A H be equal. fay, the Square of A H will be equal to the Redangle H C, contain'd under HB, and BC equal
.
D
to
AB,
Demonftration.
The Line
E, and the
( hy the 6.
AD
is
Lne FA added
divided equally
to
it
in
;
the Point
therefore
) tie Rc&angle
D G contain'd
under
DF,
1
1
8
and
is
The Elements of Euclid.
D F,
A E,
with the Square of E F, equal to E B : now equal to the Squares of and AB, (by the 47. 1.) Therefore the of A B and A E are Squares equal to the RedG. and the Square of A E ; and fubangle
FG equal
to
AF,
AE
equal to the Square of the Square of E B is
D
tra&ing from both the Square of A E ; the Square of A B. that is, AC, will be equal to the Re&angle G Taking away therefore the which is common to both, the Re&angle DH, Red angle will be equal to the Square of
D
:
HC
AH,
that
is,
AG.
The
1
USE.
c
*
4
c
c
This Proportion teaches how to cut a Line according to the extreme and middle Proportion, as will be (hewn in the fixth Book. Tis alfo frequently made life of in the fourteenth Book of Euclid's Elements, to find the Sides of Regular Solids. It is
ufeful alfo in the 11. of the 4. to infcribe a Pentagon in a Circle, as alfo a Pentedecagon ( or a Figure with if Angles. ) You will
fee alfo other Ufes thereof in dividing Lines after this manner, in the 30th of
*
* *
c
*
Proportion
the 6.
PRO
The Second Book*
119
PROPOSITION
A Theorem,
XIL
In an Obtufe angPd Triangle, the Square of the Side opposd t$ the Obtufe Angle, is equal to both the other Sides, and two the
Squares of Reft angles contain' d
under
the
Line
upon
which a Perpendicular will fall, and the Line which lies vetwixt the Triangle and the Perpendicular.
be obtufe, Triangle be drawn Perpenand let D c * dtcular to BC; the Square of the Side A B is equal to the Squares of the Sides AC and CB, and two Re&angles contain'd un
LE
T
the Angle
A C B of
the
A *
ABC
AD
V\
LA—J^
der the Side
BC
and
CD.
Dernonftration.
equal to the Squares of But the Square of and CB, is equal to the Squares of and two Red angles contain'd under and B ( by the 4.) Therefore the Square of A B is equal to the Squares of A D, DC, and CB, and and C B. two Rectangles contain'd under
AD
Tie Square of
AB
is
BD
C
and DB, {by
the 47. 1. )
DC
DC
Inftead of the
two
firft
Squares of A
x
DC D
and
D C,

put
I30
7hc Elements of Euclid.
put the Square of
AC. wmch
equal to the Squares of AC and CB, and two C and C B. Rectangles contain'd under
( by the 47. 1. ) then the
equal to them, Square of A B will be
is
D
The
*
USE.'
€
1 * 6
This Propofition is ufeful in Trigonometry, to meafure the Area of a Triangle, whole Sides are known. For Example, Suppofe the
Side
c
'
* 1
'
c 1
AB to confift of 20 Foot, of 13, of ii ; the Square of AB will be 400, that of The 121. 169, and that of Sum of the two laft is 290 ; which fubftra&ed from 400, there will remain 110 for the two Rectangles under B and C D. The half of which, 57, will make one
B
AC
C
AC
BC
C
half of thofe
Rectangles
11,
;
dividing
which
for the
Number by BC,
Line
we
(hall
have
$•
*
c
1
c
*
*
whofe Square 25; being fubftradted from the Squire of AC, 169, leaves the Square of AD, 144, whofe Root 12 will be the Side AD; which being multiplied by £{ f the half of B C, will give the Area of the, Triangle AEC that is, 66 Foot Square,
y
CD;
PRO
The Second Book?
lit
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
XIII.
In any Triangle whatfoever, the Square of the Side cppos'J to the acute Angle , with two Rectangles contained under the Side which the
dicular falls,
upon Verymand the Line which is betwixt the Verfendicular and that Angle, is equal to the
.other Sides.
Squares of both the
ABC, SUppofe
the Triangle to be and the acute An
A
gle C, and cular falling
AD
upon
the PerpendiB C ; the
.
Square of the Side A B, oppos'd to rhe acute Angle C, with two Re&angles conrain'J under BC and CD, will be equal to the Square of A C and B C.
Demonftration.
being divided in D, (by the 7.) fhe S iuarcs of B G and C are equal ro two
The Line
BC
D
Rectangles' under
B C and
C D,
and
the
of BD. Adding to boih the Square of A the ; ot BC, DC, and AD, will be equal to Squares
D
Square
two Red ingles under B C, and CD, and the S uares of B D and A D. Inftead of the Squares of CD, and A D, put rhe Square of AC, which
is
equal to them, ( by the 47.
r,
)
and inftead
ol"
ill
The Elements of Euclid.
of the Squares or BD, and AD, iubftitute the Square of AB which is equal to rhem, ( by the fame : ) then the Squires of B C and A C will be equal to the Square of A 6, and two Rectand CD. angles con tain'd under
BC
The
c
USE.
1
*
c
c
*
*
1
Thefe Propofitions are very ufeful in JWgonometry : I have made uffc of them in the eighth Proposition of my third Book, to prove, that in a Triangle the Sine Total has the famr Propoficion to the Sine of an Angle, as the Re&angle contain'd under the Sides, which form that Angle, to double the Triangle.
I
have us'd them likewife
in the fe
1
venth, and divers other Propofitions.
PROPOSITION
A Problem.
To
defcrlhe
XIV.
a Square equal to a Rectilineal Ft* gure given,
TO
F c
angle
lineal
defcribe a Squareequal
to
the
Re&ilineal
make (by
the 45. i.J a
A: Red
BCDE equal to the Re&iA. If the Sides C D and
what
E CB wereequal, we fhould have
The Second Bookwhat we defied
the Line
:
1*5
:
But being unequal, continue
B C,
fo that
C F may be equal to C D
BF
in the
middle at the Point G, defcribe the Semicircle FHB; this to H. The Square of done, prolong Re&ilineal A. Draw the Line is equal to the
and dividing the Line
DC
CH
GH.
Dernonflration.
The Line B F
Parts in
( by the
is
divided
into
in
that is to fay, The Re&angle B D, or C ; with the Square of C Q, is equal to the Square of GB, or GH, which equal to it. Now. f*^ is equal to the the 47. r. ) the Square of of CG, and CH: Therefore the Re&Squares
therefore ; G, and two unequal contain^ under BC f f. ) the Re&angle
C
two equal
C F,
D
GH
CH
1
of C G, are equal to angle BD, and the Square and therefore, the Squares of CG, and ; of CG, which is comtaking away the Square mon to both, there will remain the Square of is the equal to the Re&angle BD, or, which
CH
fame, the Rectilineal A.
the
*
USE.
*
'
c
4
Magnitude
I
This Propofition teaches us, in the firft Place, to reduce any Re&ilineal Figures to Squares ; which being the chief Meafure of all Superficies, becaufe its Dimenfions are bo$h equal, we can by this means cake the of all forts of Re&iiineal Figures.
Again,
it
helps us to find a middle propor* tional
1
24
fee in
The Elements of Euclid.
two Lines given, as we fhall the thirteenth Propofition of the fixth
tional betwixt
Book.
Arifiotle brings this Propofition as an Inftance or a formal Definition : For, in bis 2d Book, de Anima, § iz. diftinguilliing betwixt
4
a formal and a caufal Definition, he explains If when 'tis demanded, what ic them thus is to fquare a Re&angle ! Anfwer be return'd, That ic is to defcribe a Square equal to a Rec:
tilineal
given
;
this
mal
Definition.
Anfwer contains the forBut if it be faid, That it is
to find a
middle Proportional betwixt two
For Lines, this gives the caufal Definition. to find a middle Proportional, is the Caufe of
making a Square equal to the
Rectilineal
propos'd. c This Propofition may alfb be farther lifeful for the fquaring of crooked Figures ; and ic alfb, as far as is pofllble, even the Circle
of crooked Figures may, felf; for all forts at leaft as far as is difcernible by Senfe, be
redue'd
to Rectilineals.
As for Example:
a Polygon confifting if we of a thoufand Sides, there will be no fenfibJe difference betwixt it and the Circle ; therefore
inferibe in a Circle
reducing this Polygon to a S \juare, we do, as far as our Senfes are capable of judging, fquare the Circle.
THE
C I2 5 3
THE"
Third Book
OF THE
Elements of
1 i
EV CL I'D.
*
*
J
'
* *
'
S Third Book explains the Pro* perries of a Circle, and compares divers Lines which may be drawnwithin, or without, its Grcu inference. It confiders likewife the Circumftances of Circles, that cut each other, or touch a right Line ; and the Differences of Angles that are made either at the Centres, or Circumferences. In
*
11"^
H
I
1
JL
4 ' s
down the firft Principles for Eftathe Pra&ical Part of Geometry ; fot blifhing which the Circle is moft commodioufly made
fine, it
lays
life of in almoft matkks.
all Treatifes
of the
Math*
f
Dfc
126
The Elements of Euclid.
Mfa
DEFINITIONS.
r. Thofe Circles are equal, whofe Da meters or Semidiame
ters are equal.
Line is faid to touch a Circle, when, meeting with irs Circumference, h does not cut it : As the Line A B.
2.
3.
A
Circles
touch,
,
when meeting they do not cut each other
:
A, B,
As the Circles and C.
4, Thofe Lines are equally reremote from the Centre ; when the Perpendiculars, drawn from the
Centre to
4
'
the
Lines,
are
equal.
As
for
Example; IfEF, and EG,
*
c
4
will be ebe equal, A B and C qually remote trom the Centre ; becaufe the Diftance ought always to be meafur'd by per
and
C
D
Perpendiculars to the Lines
A
B,
D
£
pendicular Lines.
f.A
Iht Third Book?
of a Circle is {. A Segment a Figure terminated on one Side
ther
and on the oby a right Line, the Circumference of a by « As LON, Circle:
LMN.
6. The Angle of the Segment is the Angle which the Circumference makes with the right
Line
7.
' :
As the Angles
LNG, N L M.
An Angle is in that Segment which are the Lines that form it : in As the Angle FGH, is in the « Segment FGH.
8.
is
4
An Angle
is
oppos'd, or which
gle
9.
F G H,
is
upon that Arch, 'to which ic As t/je Anis as its Bafe the Arch F I H. upon
:
The
Seftor
is
a Figure con
two Semidiameters, and the Arch which ferves * As the Figure them for a Bafe
tained
under
:
;
FiGa
1
%
PRO
128
The Elements of Euclid.
PROPOSITION
A Problem.
To find the Centre of a
I.
Circle.
Line A B, and divide ic in the middle at the Point C; through which draw tnt Perpendicular
T
O
find the
Centre of the
Circle
AEBD,
draw the
E D,
which
aifo divide into
the Point F, then that Point
two equal Parrs at F wii] be the Centre
G
G
of the Circle. If it be not, fuppofe the Point to be the Centre ; and draw the Lines G A, B, and G C.
Demon'fir at hn.
If the Point
G
GAC
GB AC
and
GBC
be the Centre, the Triangles will have the Sides and
GA
and common, the Angles be equal. (by the 8. i. ) and a not C D, which is contrary Perpendicular, to the Suppofmon. Therefore the Centre rnuft of neceffity be in the Line C D. I ad i, That it muft be ac the Point F, where ic is divided into two equal Pans otherwife the Lines
CG being GCA will
equal, (by the Definition of a Circle:') And and B will be equal ; the Line being divided in the middle at the Point C, and
C
AB
GCB
CG
;
The Third Book*
Lines
129
drawn from the Centre to the Circumference would not be equal. CorolL The Centre of a Circle is in that Line which failing perpendicularly upon another, divides it into two equel Parrs.
The
*
USE.
necefTary to demonftrate
This Propofition thofe that follow.
1
is
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
A
II.
Right Line dcawn from one Point of the Ch' cumference to another falls wholly within the
»,
Circle.
LET
li
the Point
it
lay,
a Line be drawn from B to the Point will be wholly contained
C
:
within the Circle.
that
it
To
prove,*
cannot
fall
wirhout the
Lines
Circle, as BVC:, having found the Centre of the Circle A, draw the
AB,
AC,
and AV.
Demonftration.
The IGBC,
[Angles
Sides
A B and A
:
are equal
pe
Angle
ABC and ACB are equal. And fince AVC an external Angle in reis
C, of the Triangle Therefore ( by the 5*. r.) the
I
5
fpeft
j$o
fptd:
fo
it
The Elements of Euclid. of the Triangle A VB, it is greater than
the Angle
will
ABC,
be greater
(bytbt 16. i. ) and then al« than the Angle ACB,
Therefore ( by the to. i.) in the Triangle V, the Side A C, oppos'd to the greater Angle A V(X will be greater than A V; and by conference A V ought not to reach to the Circurrn ference of the Circle, if the Line B V C was a
right Line,
AC
7be
c
USE.
'
*
*
*
*Tis by this Propofition that they demonftrate, that a Circle can touch a right Line but in one Point. For if the Line touched
f
*
*
*
two Points of the Circumference, it would be drawn from one of its Points to another and by confluence, according to this Pro* pofition, would enter the Circle ; though, by
its
:
E
* *
c
(
S
Definition, the Line that touches ought u not to cut the Circumference. Theodofim \ t makes ufe of the fame Pemonftration to prove, that a Globe can touch a Plane only in M: one Point* for other wife the Plane would snccjr within the Globe,
I
Ho
IE
PRC
Nil
The Third Boo\.
131
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
If the
III.
Diameter divide a Line, which does not fafs
it
through the Centre, into two equal farts,
cut at right Anghs Angles, it will divide
it
;
will
and
it
if
it
cut
it
at right
into
two equal
farts*
the Diameter
AC
cut the
/
IF
;>afs
Line
which does not thro* the Centre F, into
j
B D,
:wo equal Parts at the Point E, t t will cut it at right Angles. £
Draw
the Lines
FB
and
FD.
'
Demonstration.
In the Triangles F E B and F ED, the Side E F are equal ; and s common ; the Sides
BE
is
ED
Decaufe the Line
B
D
md
ire
their
B ifes F B and F D
Angles B E F and D EF are eqial, and by confluence right Angles. I add, That if the Angles B E F and D E F be
( by the 8. 1. ) the
equally divided in E, Thereare equal
:
ight AngI
s,
the Line
BD
will
be divided into
wo equal Parts at E, that is B E and E D will be equal.
Demonftration.
to fay, the Lines
The
gular
:
Triangles
B E F and
1
D EF
1.
are Reftan
Therefore ( by the 47.
) the
4
Square of
%%%
o\ the Side
The 'Elements of Euclid.
I
the Sides
BF
and
D F will be equal to the Squares of D and E F. Now the Squares of FD are eqtwl, becaufe the Lines are
E
j
equal, therefore the Squares of B E and EF. are equal to the Squares or. E and EF; and
D

taking away the Square of E F, which is comwill be equal, inon, the Squares of B E and
ED
and by confeqnence the
Lines.
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
Xwo
Lines
IV.
;
drawn within
two equal
other into
a Circle, cannot cut each Parts,' unlejs they both fafs
through the Centre.
C and B each other at the Point I, which is not the Centre of the Circle, they will not equally divide each Fir it. If one of thofe other.
F the Lines A
cut
D
I
Lines,
'tis
as
it
fhe Centre, vided but at the Centre. But and as through the Centre, tine AIC through the Centre,
evident
AC, pafs through cannot equally be diif
BD
EG, draw
neither pafs the
If the Line
AC
Demonstration. divide the Line
in
I,
BD
AID
into
two equal Parts
the Angles
and
The Third Book.
Al B
will
*33
;.
be right Angles, ( by the
)
In like
manner, if the Line EG was equally divided in I, the Angle A I E would be a right Angle ; and eonfequently the Angle A I B and A E would be equal, which is impoilible, one being but It a word, The Line AIC, the other. pare of which paffes through the Centre, would be perand EG^, if they to the Lines
1
pendicular were both equally divided at the Point
BD
I.
/The
1
USE.
Thefe two Proportions are us'd in TrigoThat rhe Half of a nometry, to demonftrate, Chord oi an 'Arch is perpendicular to the and confequently, that it is Semi diameter
;
the Sine of half rhe Arch.
By
thefe alfo they
demonftrate,
That the Sidts of a Triangle
have the fame Proportion as the Sines of the We alfo make life of it to oppofire Angles. find the Eccentricity of the Circle, which the Sun defcribes in his Annual Motion.
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
Circles that cut each ether,
V,
have not
the fame Centre.
and ACD, rip HE Circles ABC, other in A which cut each
£
JL
and
tre,
C
?
If they
have not the fame Cenhad the fame Centre,
fuppofc
The Elements of Euclid. would be fuppofe E the Lines E A and
134
ED
equal, ( by the Definition of a Circle
;
) as alfo
the Lines K
B : Therefore the Lines and would be equal; which is impofc fible, one being part of the other.
A and E
ED
EB
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
VI.
Tivo Circles that touch each other on the inner Side, have not the fame Centre,
on the inner Side at the Point B, have not the fame Centre. For t'houla' the Point A be fuppos'd to be the Centre of both the Circles, the Lines AB and AC, AB and AD, would be equal, ( by the Definition of a Circle ; ) and confequently the Lines AD and AC would be equal, which is impolfible, one being part of
£he other.
T
>HE
and B C, Circles B which touch each other
D
PRO
The Third Book?
135
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
If many Lines be
in the Circle,
VII.
drawn from any
one "Point with
which is not its Centre, to the Cir: 1. That which the fajfes through cumference 2. The Remainder of Centre is the great eft : the Circumit, continu d to the offofiue fart cf is the leaft : That which is neareft 3 ference, more reto the greatefb exceeds thofe that are mote : 4. There can be no more than two of them equal to each other.
.
many
drawn S'lppofe from
Lines to be
the Point A, not the Centre of the being Circle, to the Circumference ;
and
to pals the Line A I will through the Centre B
:
C
demonftrate, greater than any of the ocher ; for Example, that Draw F B. greater than A F.
it is
that
it
ia
Demonfiration*
A B and B F of the Triangle A B F, are greater than A F alone, {by the 20.1.}. But BF and B C are equal, ( by the Definition of a Circle ) Therefore A B and B C, that is to fay, AC, is greater than AF. \ add
1.
The
Sides
:
136
2.
I
The Elements of Euclid.
add, in the fecond Place, That A tor Example, that it is lefs than ;
4
D
is
j
the
leaft
A E:
Draw BE.
Demonflratiott.
and A B are greater than B E is alone, but equal toBD; therefore and A B are greater than B taking therefore ; from both that which is common AB, will
The
Sides
EA
BE
AE
D
is
AE
remain greater than A D. A F, which 3. Further,
nearer
AC
than
AF
3
is
alfo greater than
A
E.
De?nonftration.
The
Sides
Triangles
BF
:
to both
FB A, and E B A, have the and BE equal, and BA is common Bat the Angle A B F is greater than ABE:
Therefore,
( by the
the Angle
24.
1.
)
AF
is
greater than
AE.
That no more than two 4. Laftly, I fay, Lines, that are equal to each other, can be drawn from the Po^nt A to the Circumference,
Take the Angles ABE and A B draw the Lines A E and A G.
Demonstration.
G
equal
;
and
The Triangles A B G and ABE, having the
Sides BE and equal to both, and the Angles therefore rhur Bifes
qual, (by
the 4, i. )
BG
;
the Side
AB common
ABE
and
all
and
ABG
will
AE
AG
equal;
be
e
But
the Lines that can
be
The Third Book*
l%f
be drawn either on one Side o the other, will be either nearer A C, than A E and A or ;
G
more remote from
it;
and accordingly
will
be
either greater or lefs than
;
Therefore there can be no more than two Lines equal betwixt themfelves, drawn from the Point A to the Circumference.
AG.
The
1
USE.
tifes
Tbeochfius, advantageoufly
this
Pro
pofition to prove, That if from any Point of the Superficies of a Sphere, which is not the Pole of any certain Circle, divers Arches of
greater Circles be drawn to the Circumference of that Circle, that which pafles through its
Pole will be the greateft. For Example; If the Pole of the World, which is di^rom ftincfc from the Pole of the Horizon, ( for the
Zenith
is its
Circles be
drawn
Pole, ) divers Arches of greater to the Circumference; the
Arch of the Meridian, which pafTes through
Propofition
the Zenith, will be the This greateft Arch. is alfo brought to prove, that the
his
Sun, when in
Afogaum
}
is
mcft remote
from the Earth.
P Pv O
138
The Elements of Euclid.
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
drawn
VIII.
If from a Point taken without the Circle
Lines be
that
:
man
to its
Circumference
:
I.
Of a
thofe that extend to the
Concave Circumference
is
the great paftes through the Centre 2. Thofe that lie near are great e eft eft to it, than thofe that are more remote .4 % . Among thoj
which
that fall upon the
:
Convex Circumference, tht which being continud fajfes through the Centr is the lea (fr 4 The nearer to that, are lefs th& thofe farther off: f There can be but two equ,
.
drawn from the fame Point, Concave or Convex Circumference,
Lines
either to
ti
many
Lines
wei
drawn SUppofe from the Poinc
A
1
the Circumference of the Circ
GCDE.
The Line AC, wh through the Centre B, paflJes the greateft of all thofe tto reach to the Concave Gircun ference; for Ex^mole, it is greater than AL Draw the Line B
Firtt,
D
Demon/Oration. the Sides AB and B] In the Triangle alone j but the Sides A are greater than A
ABD,
D
4
ar
1 The Third Book. 39 B C are equal to A B and B D Therefore and AB and BC, or AC, is greater than AD. 2. A D is greater than A E.
:
Deinonftration.
and A B E have the Side The Triangle A B A B common to both, and ths Sides B D and BE equal, and the Angle A B D is greater than
the
D
Bafe
therefore (by the 24. 1.) the greater than the Bafe A E. A F, which being continued, pa (Tes through 3. he Centre, is the leaft of all thofe Lines thac
Angle
A
D
ABE;
is
ire
drawn
to the
Convex Circumference LF1K ;
than
or Example, It
is lefs
A I.
Draw
I
B.
Demonfiration,
In the Triangle A 1 B the Sides A I and I B are reater than alone, (by the 24. 1* ) thereore taking, from both, the equal Lines Bl and
AB
;
F,
AF
will
is
4.
\\
AI
and
lefs
remain than
lefs than A I. A K. Draw the
Line
B
K»
In the
K
3,
B,ie
the Sides are greater than the Sides A I and ( by the 21. 1. ) therefore taking, from both, equal Sides BK.and B I, A I will remain lefs
KB
Demonfir at ton. Triangles A I B and AKB,
lan
j.
A K.
There can be but two Lines equal betwixtfl drawn from A. Take the Angles j\jiemfelves BL, and ABK; as alfo ABE, and AUG, equal,
Demonfiration.
dj
The Triangks
eir
ABL
and
Bafes
A L and
AK
ABK,
will
have
)
equal, (by
the 4. 1.
ar4
140
•
The Elements of Euclid.
1
and by the fame alfo A E and A G will be but no other Line can be drawn, that equal
will
not be either nearer to, or more remote AC; and confequently, that will not be either greater or lefs than and AL. A E and A G.
from AF, or
AK
P
RO
P
O
S
I
T
I
ON
E M.
IX.
A T
drawn
Centre,
to the
H
E
6 R
three,
That Voint from whence
equal Lines can bi 'Circnmfh ince of a Circle, is it.
the Point wers not the Centre of a Circle
IF
there could be bu«
it
two equal Lines drawr
from
to the Circumference, (by the 7, and 8/
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
Two
*•
X.
E
Circles cut each other only in
two
Points.
r,_JUA ^\v
T FA twr BF
J[
ther in
'
Circles
AEBD, am
1
D, mould cut each o
\
/
D;
three Points, A, B, an(l find (by the 1.) the Centre C[
of the Circle
the Lines
AEBD;
4
C A, C B,
and draw and C D.
Dtrnon
^Me
the
the
cle
alfo
Third BookDemonstration.
f4t
drawn from
Lines,
Ontre C
C A,
CB, and
:
CD,
to the Circumference of the Cir
are equal But the fame Lines are drawn to the Circumference of the Circle Therefore ( by the 9; ) the Point C ABFD So will be the Centre of the Circle A B F D. two Circles which cue each other, will have ijthat :he fame Centre; which is contrary to the fifth
AEBD,
:
Proposition .
§4*
The
The tHentents of Euclid,
Lines Centre of the
D E,
Demonstration.
leffer
and D G, drawn from the Grcle to its Circumfe
i
D
rence, would be equal : And adding the Line and DC, would be equal; the Lines and DC, are greater than to CG.
CD,
EC
Now
ED
ED
alone, ( by the 20. 1.)
and
fo
CG.
will
E : Yet greater than the greater Circle,
therefore
C
CG
being the Centre oi and are equal will be greater than CB, which u\
G
CE
CB
impoflible.
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
If two
XII.
Circles touch each other on the OutfiJe,
t
Line drawn through both their Centres^ will paj through the Point where they touch.
F
the Line
1 where
to be
AB, which does no
the Point
fid
pafs
through
(»
Ian
the Circles touch, be fak
drawn rrom rhe Centre A t< the Centre B: Draw the Line IP A C and B C.
Demonfiration, In the Triangle A
C B,
the Side
greatei
AC
and
BC
would not be
k
Jt
than the Side A B alone, (which is contrary t< the 20. 1.) becaufe and AC, as a!fo Bl
AD
and BC, are equal.
PRO.
The Third Book?
*43
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
XIII.
"wo Circles can touch each other only in one "Point „
J*
If two Circles touch each other on the infide, they will Mich but in one Point only, viz. ie Point C, which is mark'd out y the Line paffing through
Irft,
F
I
BAG
Dth their Centres,
A and
B.
For
they (hould touch likewife in the Point D, raw the Lines A D, and B.
D
Demonftration.
The Lines A C and
entre of the
A D,
drawn from the
it
leffer Circle to
Circumfe
nce, are equal ; and adding A B, the Lines \ and AC, and BA and AD, would be equal, ow B and B D, drawn from the Centre of
C
:
e greater Circle to its Circumference, equal ; therefore the Sides B A and
will
will
AD
is
equal to the Side ary to the 20. i.
)
B
D
alone, which
con.
Secondly, If two Circles
uch each other on the oute; drawing the Line AB !>m one Centre to the other, 2
K
it
1 44
The Elements of Eaelid.
it will pafs through th e Point C, where the Cir But if you fay, Thai cles touch, ( by the 12.)
; having drawi they touch alfoatthe Point and the Lines B C and B the Lines A ; and AD, being equal, the* two Sides of Triangle taken together, would be equal to th<] third, which is contrary to the 20. 1.
D
D
BD
D
«
AC
the
1 t
1
USE.
*
Thefe four Proportions are very clear and and alfb neceflary in Jftronomy y when we make life of Eft cycles, to, explain the Mo tions of the "Planets.
evident,
PROPOSITION
A The
Equal
Lines
XIV.
n
SO
1C
o r em.
Circle^
F;
drawn within a
their Centre; and remote from the Centre, are equal. equally
remote
from
are equall thcfe that ar\
the Lines
AB and C
I
to be equal: I wilIprove,thatth< SUppofing
Perpendiculars EF and EG, drawr from the Centre, are a!fo equal and EC. Draw the Lines
EA
Demonfiration.
The Perpendiculars E F and E
Lines
G
divide eh<
AB
and
CD in
the middles at the Point;
F
anc
The Third Eooh^
•
145
and G, (by
tes
:
the 3. 5.) therefore
AF and
GG
The Angles F and are right AnTherefore (by the 47. 1.) the Square of and FA; )A is equal to the Squares of is equal to the Squares 5 alfo the Square of and f But the Squares of E A and ;C are equal, becaufe the Lines E A and re equal : Therefore the Squares EF and F A
re equal.
G
EF
EC
EG
GC
:
EC
re
iking
and C: equal to the Squares E away the equal Squares A F and »ere will remain the Squares of E F and
]ual
;
G
G
And
C G, EG
and confequently the Lines E F and which are the Diftances of the Lines A B G, id from the Centre, are equal. But fuppofing the Diftances, or Perpendicurs EF and EG to be equal; I will prove xer rhefame manner, that the Squares of EF id F A are equal to the Squares of E G and C and taking away the equal Squares of F and EG, there will remain the Squares of F and G equal. And therefore the Lines F and CG, and their Doubles AB and CD,
CD
;
C
e
equal.
K
;
PRO
14^
The Elements of Euclid.
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
The Diameter
in a Circle
;
XV.
\
is
and, of the
the greateft of all Lines infcrifi is reft, that tbegreatejA
which
is
neareft the Centre.
Lines that can be draw in the Circle
THE
Diameter
AB
of
a
C
the greateft
GlDC:
it
is
for
Example,
gre£*
tl
1
1
than
Lines
CD; for draw EC and ED.
EC
fit
Demonftration. In the Triangle CED, the Sides and E are greater than alone, (by the 20. 1. ) b and EB, or AB, is equal to and EI
H
tit
CD
of,
AE
EC
therefore the Diameter
AB
is
I be more remc Secondly, Let the Line from the Centre than the Line CD; that is to fa Let the Perpendicular be greater than t is I fay, That C Perpendicular EF. great
G
greater than
C
1
b
EH
D
than
GI
:
Draw
the Lines
E C, and E G.
F E (by
the 47. 1
Demonstration.
The Squares of
CF and
are equal to the Square of
EC
:
But the Squa
the Third
Boot{.
H7
and the EC G H and EG E Therefore the Squares of C F and F E arc \ and HE; and of B[ual to the Squares from one Side the Square of HE, and •king i)m the other the Square of E F, which is r GF s than the Square of H E, the Square of G H. than the Square remain
J
of EG, is equal to the Squ*r to the Squares of equal uare of
:
GH
;
ill
greater
lerefore the Line
CF
will
be greater than the
ne
"
GH
;
and the whole Line
CF,
will
CD, the double be greater than GI, the double
The
GH.
USE.
life
of thefe two Propothat in a Sphere the fitions, to demonftrate, Circles are more remote from the CenlelTer tre. I have alfo made ufe of them in my Books
c
Theodofius
makes
of Ajtrolabes. To thefe Propofitions may likewife be referr'd that Mechanical Propofition of Arifiotle , by which he ftiows, that the Rowers at the middle of a Gaily have greater are at either the force, than thofe that thereof ; becaufe the or hinder fbre
part Sides of the Gaily being crooked, the Oars of the middle part are longer, i. e. reach farther than the
reft.
The Demonftrations
re
do alfo fuppofe lating to the Iris, or Rainbow, the Truth of thefe Proportions .
K
#
4
PR°"
14$
Th Blemttft of
Euclid*
PROPOSITION
?;
XVI.
A Theorem,
drawn ferpendicularly nfon the Extremk the Diameter, falls wholly on the Outfide o 4 pf But any other Lin the Circle, and touches iu
'A Line
drawn betwixt
I
that
and
the Circle, enters within the Circle,
the Circumference Oj and cuts it<
Extremity of th« 1 fay ,Firft, That a! the other parts of the fame Line for Example, the Point C, fall 01 Draw the Line C $he Outfide of the Circle.
is
L' be drawn upon the which
_j
ET
the Perpendicular A 5 the Point A
piameter AB:
D
Dempnjiratio?}.
A( A C of the Triangle Since the Angle Am will be an Acute a right Angle, is will be greater thar {by the 19. 1. ) the Side reache Side DA; therefore the Line $he r €umference of the Circle. the beyond
DCA
D
D
:
DC
DC
add, That the Line CA touches the Circle becaufe that meeting with it at the Point A, does not cue it, but all its Points are on tht Outfide of the Circle.
I
ii
1 fay
aKo, that no pth,er Line car) be drawn
from
The Third Book.
from the Point cut the Circle.
149
does not
A below GA, which
If there could,
to be fuch an one ; a Perpendicular to
fuppofe and from the Point draw
EA
it,
D
D
I.
Demonfiration. Since the Angle DI A is a right Angle, and an Acute, will be the Angle A I greater than E) I : Therefore the Line I does not reach to the Circumference, but the Point I is within the Circle,
D
AD
D
The
'
USE.
ufe
this
Some
Philofophers
Propofition,
but altogether in vain, to prove that Quantity is not divifible in infinitum^ or that there
in the World fuch really are Ztnonical, i. e. abfolutely and in nature indivifeble Points. For the
things
their
as
own
Propofrion does not, as they would have if, pro^e, that a Circle touches a right Line in a Zenonical, but in a Mathematical Point, which is nothing c\Cq but a Quantity confider'd without Diitin&ion of Parts, that is to without
fay,
Quantity which being once ; eftabliuYd, our Circle will confift of fuch Points, and will be Mathematically perfe&r, provided it touch not a right Line, but in a
for a Mathematical Point
'
conceiving them diftinft and feparate one from the other, whether in Reality it has fuch Parts or not, making no Matter. We can therefore take any whatfoever
P ar t
1
50
The EtetnenU tf Eudid.
part equal to that quantity vhich we have raken for a Point. But if we afterwards take a Jefs part for our Mathematical Voint,
the Circle which was exa&iy perfect accordthe firft Supposition, will be imperfect in the fecond, and degenerate into a PoI lygene. believe, 'tis as impoflible to defcribe a Circle, that according to any Suping to
pofuion
perfect, as
whatfoever (hall be moft exactly it is to conceive the Je: ^offible
Quantity.
Secondly, Thofe Confluences , which fbme Men draw from this Propofition relating to the Angle of Cont&ti> which they take to be lefs than anv Rectilineal Angle, are grounded upon this Miftake, That they imagine an Angle to be a true Qjanary* ; the contrary of which may appear from hence, That
the Lines, that contain an Angle, being produced to any Length, the Angle becomes not at all the greater. Further, It ought to
4
be duly confider'd, what
we mean, when we
fay, that one Angle is greater than another ; for this is all we underftand, That a Circie be
ing defcrib'd from the Point ot Concourfe at any Diftance whatfoever, the Lines of that we call the greater Angle will contain betwixt them a greater Arch of that Circle, than thofe of that we call the lefs; which is the fole meaning of the Excefs of one Angle above another. From whence I infer, that the An
'gk
The Third Book.
M*
<
gle with a Reftilineal Angle, than a Superficies fame time both q<ial and a Line, being at the
of Conta& no more can be compar'J with
greater, and for Example
lefs
;
chan a P.edtilineal Angle. From he
j
As
Point
A draw
the Line
AD.
fay,
making with
AE
a Re&ilineal
n
lefs
is
Angle ; I both greater
and
qual to,
than, and e* the Angle of
Contact
For
divers
if
we
defcrib'd
fuppofe Poiut A, as the Centre,
fure thofe Angles ; it cording to the Arch
Circles
from
to
the
wheieby
mea
is
the Angle of Point D, that is, the Contad: is greater than the Re&ilineal Angle.
1
drawn Arch F F,
evident that, acbeyond the
But,
;
on the contrary, according
to the
Arch
1
1
c
'
1
CB, the Reailineal Angle is the greater of And laftly, according to the Arch the two. DG, paffing through the Point in which cuts the Circumference, they are both From whence it follows, That the equal. of Contaft is at the fame time both Angle
AD
lefs
5
1
the
I
1
* •
and greater than, and equal to, Re&ilineal Angle: And confequently, they ought not at all to be compar'd togeIn a Word, Angles are no Quantities; ther. nor are they call'd lefs or greater one than
another, but
with
refpeft
to
the
*
Arches which
152
f
The Elements of Euclid.
:
*
c
*
*
*
which they contain So that all the Difputes about the Angle of Contact, and all the Paradoxes, conclude nothing either for or againft the Divifibility of Quantity ; an Angle being no Species, but only a Property
thereof.
PROPOSITION AProblem.
From a
XVII.
Point given, to draw a Line that touch a Circle,
may
TO
cle
its
draw a Line from the
Point
A
B D, draw
defcrib'd
Centre ; draw a Perpendicular B E, which may cut an Arch of a Circle, from the Centre C through the Point
touching the Cirto the Line A and at the Point B
C
A, at the Point E.
Draw
alfo the Lines
and A D.
Circle in
I fay,
The Line A
D
E C,
touches the
D.
Demonstration.
have the Triangles EBC and fame Angle C and the Sides C D and C B, CE and C A, equal ( by the Defin. of a Circle : )
The
ADC
;
And
therefote they are equal in
1.
all
Refpe&s,
( by the 4.
)
and the Angles
C BE
and
CDA
are
4
*
The7hirdBooht
X
153
.But. the. Angle _C B E is a right are equalA will be fb therefore the Angle Angle, will the 16. %.) the Line too, and ( by
CD
AD
touch the Circle.

—

1
1 54
The
EkpHMi of
Euclid.
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
XIX.
If a Line perpendicular to the Tangent, be drawn from the Point of Contacl y it will faff through the Centre of the Circle.
DC be perpendicular to AB.
paflfes
LET
the Line
the
C rcle
I fee Fig. freced.'] at the Point D, and the Line
I fay,
AB
touch"
That
DC
through the Centre. For if it did not, drawing a Line from the Centre to the Point D, it would be perpendicular to AB, {by the f receding, )
culars
and Co there would be two Perpendidrawn to the fame Point of the fame
D
Line
1
mon
it is
CB, which cannot be. The USE. The life of Lines Tangents
in
;
is very comupon which account Trigonometry that I have made a Table, whereby to
meafure
rical as
all forts
of Triangles, as well SpheIn
Re&ilineal;
my
Optickt likewife
are divers Propofitions founded upon Tangents ; as when it is determin'd what part of a Globe is enlightenU The Phafes or Apparitions of
the
Moon
are eftabiifh'd alfo
tame Do&rine ; and that famous Problem of Hipparchus, by which he
upon
the
found the Diftance of the Sun, by the Diffei
*
rence
The Third Book,
155
rence of the true^and apparent Quadratures.
In Dialling, the Italian and Babylonian Hours are frequently defcril/d by Lines Tangents.
We take the Dimenfions of the Earth a Line that touches its Superficies ; and in by ithe Art of Navigation, take a Tangent Line
Laftly,
'
for our Horizon.
XMI
PROPOSITION A Thboum,
The Angle at the Centre
the Circumference,
its
XX.
is double the Angle at which has the fame Arcb for
Bafe.
at IF the Centre,
the Angle
ABC,
which
is
and the Angle
ADC, at the Circumference, have the fame Arch for their the firft will be double the Bafe,
AC
fecond. This Propofition has three
different
Cafes
:
The
firft
of which
the Line
the Line
the Line
A B D pafles through the Centre B, A B in one Triangle concurring with B D of the other.
Dernonftration.
is,
when
The Angle
32. i.J
it is
aped of the Triangle
an external Angle in reTherefore (by the and C, equal to both the Angles which
is
ABC
BDC:
D
I
$6
The. Elements of Euclid.
which being equal, (bythe$. j.) becaufe their" Sides BC and BD.are equal, rhe Angle ABCis
the double of either.
The Second Cafe
is,
When one
El er
Angle inclofes the other , but none of the Lines that form them concurr in one ; as you fee in the
Figure annexed. The Angle B I D at the Centre, ard the Angle at the Circumference, the Line A IC through the Centre.
is
BAD
Draw
Demonfiration. is double the Angle I and is double the ( by tfo Angle is : Therefore the Angle B I preceding Cafe ) double the Angle
The Angle
B1C
BAG
D
C D
CAD,
BAD.
is,
happens that nor do any of the Lines that form them, concurr in one. Which Cafe is wholly omitted by my Anic
The
third
neither
Cafe one Angle
When
inclofes rhe other,
tbor, but
plied.
for the Readers Satisfaction
is
here ftp
U
I
Let the Angle at the Centre be BED, and the Angle at the Circumference
oi
'I
BCD,
having the
Draw
fame Arch for their Baft B D. I fay, the Angle BED is double the Angle BCD, the Line E G, and continue it to the
Demon*
Point A*
The Third Book^
Demonftration,
1
57
The Angle
AED
;
is
double the Angle A
C D,
( by the 1. Cafe
AEB
is
) and ( by the fame ) the Angle double the Angle Therefore the
ACB:
is
Remainder of che one mainder of the other BCD,
The
1
BED
double the Re
US£.
is ordinarily proto defcribe an Horizontal
That Problem, which
pos'd, fnewing
how
fole
Dial by one
is
opening. of the Compafs ?
built
again,
•
And part on this Propofition. When we would determine the Apoin
g&um
of the Sun, or the Excentricicy of his by three Obferrations, we fuppofe the Angle at the Centre to be double that ac the Circumference. Ptolemy makes frequent life of this Propofirion, to determine both the Excentric Circle of the Sun, and the Epicycle of the Moon. The firft Propofition of the Third Book of Trigonometry is grounded sAfc
Circle,
upon
this here.
fe
PR&
158
The Elements of Euclid.
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
XXI.
The Angles that are in the fame Segment of Circle^ or that have the fame Arch for then
Bafe, are equal.
IF
BDC ment of
the Angles B an< are in the fame Seg
AC
a Circle,
which
i
greater than a Semicircle they will be equal. Draw th Lines B I and C I.
Demonfiraiion.
The Angles A and D are each of them th half of the Angle B I C, ( by the preceding,
therefore they are equal.
the fame Arch
BC
They have
likewi
for their Bafe.
Secondly, Let the Angles A and ] in the fame Segment BAD, whic is lefs than a Semicircle wi ; they neverthefefs be equal.
be
Demonftration.
All the
equal to
{by the
r.
all
and
DEC
ai Angles of the Triangle the Angles of the Triangle Cor oil of the 32, 1.) but the Angles A E
ABE DEC
Angles
E C D and A B E
are equal, (by the 1 y. 1. ) Alfo tf are equal, ( by the pr cedk
The. Third Book,
in.
i$9
the fame Segment A ECO, ceMngCafcJ being than a Semicircle ; therefore the Aagreater are equal; which, the and
gles
BAE
at
EDC
Angles
( by the Corell.
equal, and confeqiiendy Lines AE and of the if. i. ) the £C, making but one right Line, as likewjfe and EB another, are the Angles A and D, in the fame Segment A BCD, and having the
E
being
DE
"
c
Arch B
C
for their Bafe.
The
US£.
c *
*
c
This Propofition is produced in Of ticks, to will appear of the prove, that the Line B C fame Greatnefs, when 'tis view'd from A, and D, becaufe it is feen in both Cafes under equal
Angles. * Trie fame Propofition
is
us d to defcribe
?
*
1
f
c
large Circles without having their Centres: for Example ; If we would make large CopBafbns of a Spherical Figure, fuch as we
per
4
*
c
'
might work upon in Poliihing Spe&acles, and GlafTes to fee at a great D<ftance. For equal having made in Iron an Angle to that which is Contair/d in the Segment ABC, and at the Points B and C ftrongly
!
BAG
*
i
faften'd
two
fmali Iron Pins
fo,
;
if
the Triangle
1
1
B AC be mov'd ways touch the
that the Side
5
1
Pin B, and the Pin C, the Point A will defcribe an Arch of This manner of Dethe Circle A B C D. a Circle may alfo be us'd in making fcribing great dfirolabes.
A B may alSide A C the
f
L
*
FRO
1
60
The Elements of Euclid.
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
XXII.
Quadrilateral Figures, infcrib'd in a Circle, have
their ofpcfite
Angles equal
to
two
right Angles.
gure, or a Figure of four Sides, be infcrib'd in a Circle, in fuch fort that all
its
L
ET
a Quadrilateral Fi
the
Angles may terminate at Circumference of the
Circle
polite
A BCD
Angles BAD and BCD
: I fay, The opare equal to two
right Angles.
Draw
the Diagonals
AC, and B0.
Demonfiration. are ethe Angles of the Triangle qual to two right Angles. Inftead then of the Angle put the Angle A C D, which is equaf
AH
BAD
ABD
in the fame Segment Andiniteadof the Angle ADB, put the Angle ACB, which is in the fame Segment of the Circle B C D A Therefore the Angle BAD, and the Angles ACDandACB, that is to fay, the whole Angle BCD, are equal to two right Angles. The USE. ' makes life of this Propofitioti Ptolemy V to frame the Table of Chords, or Lines fub
to
it
ABCD:
(by the 2 j.) being
:
4
tending
The Third Book?
tending Arches.
ray third
I
161
in
have alfb us'd the fame
Book of Trigonometry, to prove, that
the Sides of an Ob.tufeAngle Triangle have the fame Proportion among themfelves as the
Sines of the Oppofire Angles.
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
Two
XXIII.
9
Similar Segments of a Circle, defer 1 1?
the
d
uf.n
fame
Line, are equal.
Call
thofe
Similar
Circle,
which contain equal Angles ; and I fay, that if fuch be defer ib'd upon the fame Line AB, they will fall one upon the other, and not exceed each other in any Pare. For if either did exceed the other, as do the Segments ADB, and ACB, they would not be Similar: To demonftrate which, draw the Lines ADC, and BC. ments of a
I
Seg
BD
Demonflration.
The Angle
the
1
ADB
is
refpea of the Triangle
6. i.)
it is
DBC:
an external Angle, in Therefore {by
greater than the Angle
^nd by confequence the Segments
ADB
I
ACB
fay,
;
and
is
ACB
conrain unequal Angles* which,
to be D'tjfimilar.
L
;
PRO
1
62
The Elements of Euclid.
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
Two
XXIV.
Similar Segments of a Circle dfcriVd upon equal Lines, are equal.
IFAEB andC
and the Lines
qual, the
the Segments of the Circles,
AB
F D, be limUar and C D ealfo will
Segments
be
equal.
Demonftrallon,
to be Suppofe the Line plac'd upon the Line A B, being fuppos'd to be equal, they will not exc^d each other; and then the Segments AEB and C F will be de
CD
D
icrib'd
upon
the
the
fame Line, and therefore
preceding.)
will
be equal, (by
The
USE.
Crooked Figures are frequently redue'd to \ As for ExRe&ilineals by this Propofuion. If two Similar Segment? ample of a Circle A E C and A D B, be
;
defcrib'd
c ',
upon A B and A C,
that,
the
equal Sides of the Triangle
'tis
ABC
A DB
Figun
evident,
is
tranfpofing
the
the Triangle
ABC
Segment A
EC
unto
AD8CEA,
equal to the
PRO,
The Third
BooJ{.
1
6%
PROPOSITION
A Problem.
ccmpleat a Circle of which
XXV.
we have
but a Fart.
the Arch
ABC
HAvjng given,
:
to compleat the
find its Cenwhich end, draw the ,ines A B and B C, which haing divided in the Middles at he Points E and D, draw their two PerpendiI ulars E I and which will meet at the 'oint I, the Centre of the Circle.
jrcle
1
we muft
:
to
D
;
Demonftration.
The Centre
fthe
ore
'
is
in the
Line
D
I,
(by
the CorolL
i,
it
EI, ( by the fame) theremuft be at the Point I.
)
it
is
affo in
S El The This Proportion occurs very frequently ; but (bmetimes it is exprefs'd in other Terms
or
to
:
U
:
As to inferibe a Triangle
defcribe a
in a Circle;
Circle three Points githrough ven, provided they be not a right Line. in plac'd
Lee
the
Points
propos'd
pla
be A, B, and
C; and
cing the Foot of the
ComL 4
'****'
i
pafs
164
The Elements of Euclid.
defcribe two Arches F pafs at the Point and E, at any Diftance whatfoever. Ther
Q
remove the Foot of the Compafs to the Poiqt B, and at the fame Diftance defcribe twc
other Arches cutting the former in E anc F; alfo from the Point B, as the Centre defcribe at any Diftance the Arches anc H, and at the fame Diftance from the Cen
G
tre A two other Arches cutting them in G and H. Which done, draw the Lines through F and E, G and H, which (hall cut each
the Point D, the Centre of th< The Demonftration is obvious e for if you had drawn the Lines A I nough and BC, you had, by this Operation, divided them equally and perpendicularly. Thi;
Circle.
;
other at
Propofition
fcribe
is
exceeding
neceflary
to
de<
Aftrclabes,
in
which we have
pofition to find
Circles, ol but three Points. That Pro.
and compleat
the
this.
it
Afironomy^ which teaches how the Jpogaum, and Excentricity oi Circle of the Sun, virtually contains
And
I alfo
have made frequent Ufe
oi
in
my
Treatife concerning the cutting oj
Stones,
pro;
The Third Book,
165
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
XXVI.
whether at the Centres, or the CirEqual Angles, Circles y have equal Arches cumferences of equal
for their Bafes.
the Angles
D and
;
I,
at the
IF
BC
For
or
Centres of equal Cicles
ABC,
and EFG, be equal
and
if lefs
the Arches
FG
will
be
equal.
the Arch
BG
than
was greater the Arch FG,
are meafur'd
fince the Angles
by Arches, the Angle
be
greater
I.
D
would
the
or
lefs
than
Angle But
if
the equal Angles be
fuppos'd to be at the Circnmfe* rences of equal Circles, as A and E ; the Angles which they inclofe at the Centres, as
D and
I,
being their Doubles, will be likewife
equal, and confequently require equal Arches
for their Bafes,
BC,
are likewife
the
and FG; which Arches Meafures of the Angles A
and E.
PRO
l 66
The Elements of Euclid.
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
XXVIL
Angles, whether at the Centres or Circumferences
of equal
Circles,
having equal Arches for
their
Bafes, are alfo equal,
and I (Fig. preceJ.) at the of equal Circles have equal Arches Centres for their Bifes, they will be ebC and a*e" and becatife their Meafures qual, And if the Angles A and E, at the equal. Circumferences of equal Circles, have equal Arches B C and F G for their Bafes, fmce the. Angles they inclofe at the Centres will be equals they alfo that are the Halves of thofe Angles
the
IF
Anpes
D
FG
BC
FG
(by
the
io.)
will be equal.
PROPOSITION
Equal Lines, within equal
equal Arches.
XXVHI.
A Theorem.
Circles,
anfwer
to
j
F the eqjal and EF be ap.
I
Lines
to
BG
and
C
Er
J?
plied
equal
Circles,
ABC,
The Third Book*
id
167
DEF,
B
rches,
they will be the Chords of equal Draw the Lines A B, C, and E F.
D,
DE/DF.
Demonfir ation.
the Sides are equal, being le Semidiameters of equal Circles; and their afes BC and E F are fuppos'd ecual ; therefore the 8. 1.) the Angles A and wiil be by equal ;
In the Triangles
ABC
and
and
Band AC,
DE
DEF,
DF,
D
nd (by the 26.) the Arches e alio equal.
BC
and
EF
will
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
Lines
XXIX.
that fubtend equal Arches Circles are equal,
of equal
BC and EF (feeFig.preced. Prop.) [ fubtend (or are the Chords or ) equal Arches the
TF the Lines
Circles, they will be equal, DemGnfiration. The Arches B and E F are equal, and Parts rf equal Circles ; therefore ( by the 27. ) the
I
C and E F in equal
C
Angles
:he Triangles
A and D will be equal: Therefore in A B C, D E F, the Sides A B, A C,
D
'
E,
and
D F,
being equal, as alio the Angles
h and
D;
the Bates
BC, EF,
will
be equal,
by the 4. 1. )
The
*
USE.
'
Theodojius,
by
the 28 and 29, demonflrates,
that
1 68
'
7he
Elements of Euclid.
Iff
that the Arches of the Circles of the Italia
1
*
<
1
and Babylonian Hours, contained betweei We have alfo de two Parallels, are equal. monftrated after the fame manner, that th«
Arches of the Circles of the Afironomica Hours, contain'd between two Lines parallc to the Equator, are likewife equal. Thefe Pre are almoft of continual life in Sphe pofitions
rical Trigonometry*
*
*
* *
and
alfo in Dialling.
II

PROPOSITION
A
k
XXX.
Problem.
t
To divide an Arch of a
Circle into
two equal
Part.
ife
K
the Arch
AEB
to be SUppofe divided into qual Parts ; place the Foot o the Compafs at the Point A, am defcribe two Arches F and then removing it to the Point E at the fame Diftance defcrib other two Arches, cutting the former in F am F will cut the Arch A B equal the Line ; Draw the Line A B. ly at the Point E.
wa two c
Q
G
G
G
iw
n
it
Demonftration.
By this Operation we have divided the Lira A B into two equal Parts. For fuppofe the«
were
k
The Third Book.
'ere
169
;
drawn the Lines A F, B F ; AG, and B G
I
which
have not done,
left
the Figure fhould
ppear confus'd, ) the Triangles
F
GA
and
GB
would have
by the
8. 1. )
all tkeir
>re (
ould be equal.
id
ides
DFB
A F D and B F D The Triangles D F A Again,
the Angles
Sides equal; there
A F and B F
:
DFB equal Therefore {by the 4. i.J the ifes A D and B D are equal, and alfo the We have therefore ngles A D F and B D F.
id
have the Side F common, the FA equal, and the Angles
D
D
A B equally, and perpendicuat the Point Therefore (by the 1.) rly e Centre of the Circle is in the Line F G. Supvided the Line
D:
)fe it
CA and CB; all the Sides of the Triane9 A C D and B C D are equal therefore ( by
;nes
;
then to be the Point C, and draw the
) the Angles id {by the 26. ) the
t.
1
«8,
ACD
and BCD are equal, Arches AE and EB.
The
USE.
Having frequent Occafion to divide art Arch into two equal Parts, the Exercife of this *Tis Propofition is very common. thus that we divide the Mariners Compafs
into
%i Winds: For having drawn two Dia
ameters cutting each other at right Angles, we divide the Circle in four Parts ; and fub* dividing each Quarter in the Middle, we have
sight Parrs;
:wice,
sion
and again,
32.
we make
We
fubdividing
thofe
have
in
alfo
Occa
for the
fame Operation
the dividing c a Semi
170
'
The Ekmettts of Euclid.
'
1
a Semicircle into 180 Degrees ; and, becaui to compleat that Diviiion we are oblig'd t divide an Arch into three equal Parts, a
Geometricians have fought afcer a Method c doing that Geometrically, but have not y<
'
c *
*
been
To
happy
as to find one.
PROPOSITION
XXXI.
A Theorem.
The Angle in a Semi circle is a right Angle th* which is in a Segment greater than a Sen circle is an Acute ; and that which is in a lejj Segment is an Qbtufe,
;
IFSemicircle,
it
the Angle
BAC
I vyill
be
in
prove th
a right Angle. A. Line
is
Draw
i
D
Demonfiration.
being an external Angle AC, is equal to bo regard of the Triangle A C and C A (by the 32. 1 the Internals and thofe being equal (by the $\ 1. ) becaufe fl are equal, it will be dout and Sides
The Angle
ADB
D
D D
DA
is
the Angle
ADC
the
DC D A C.
In like
manner the Ang
double the Angle
DAB:
Therefo
two Angles equal to two
1
ADB
and
ADC,
right Angles,
which a are double tl whc
The Third Book,
whole Angle
gle
*7*
BAC,
and confequently the An
BAC
is
a right Angle.
is in the Secondly, The Angle A EC, which lefs than a Semi circle, is an A Segment For in the Quadrilateral Figure Obtufe Angle. the two oppofite Angles E and B are ABCE,
EC
equal to
the
two
is
right Angles,
{by
the
22.) but
Angle B
an Acute; therefore the Angle
E
[will
be an Obtufe.
/Thirdly,
ment
Acute
gle
ABC
;
B, which is in the Seggreater than a Semicircle, is an becaufe in the Triangle ABC, the An
The Angle
BAC
is
a right Aogle.
.
The
1
US
life
E.
Mechanicks make
of
this
:
Proportion to try if their Squares be juft ; for having
1
defcribtta Semicircle
1
they Jay
'
i
down
the Point
BAD, A of
their
upon the Square and one of its Sides A B upon Circumference, the Point of the Diameter B ; and then the other Branch ought to pafc precifely the Point D, which is the other Exthrough treme of the Diameter.
BAD
AD
Ptolemy ufes this Propofition to compofe> his Table of Chords or Subtendents, of which he has occafion in his Trigonometry. ' There is alfo a Method of railing a Per4
*
pendicular
*
t
ijl
c
1
The Elements of Euclid.
e c
'
pendicular at the end of a Line, grounded For Example ; Tc upon this Propofkion. raife a Perpendicular at the Point A of the Line A B, I place the Foot of the fcompafi
upon the Point
fcribe a Circle
1
1
taken anywhere, and dethrough the Point A, cutting
C
the Line
AB
is
at the Point 6.
Then
I
drav
c
1
the Line
Line
AD
BCD;
and
fo 'tis evidenr, that th<
in a Semicircle.
PROPOSITION
A Theorem. A
XXXII.

Line cutting a Circle at the Point of Contact :: makes, with the Tangent, Angles equal to thoj I in the alternate Segments,
L
ET
is
the Line
at
Circles
which
cut th the Point B that where the Lin
BD
A B touches ir. I fay, The Angl C BD, made by the Line B E
and the Tangent ABC, is equj to the Attgle F in the alternate Segment B is equal to the Angl and that the Angle A E in the Segment B E.
FD
BD
D
Firft, If the Line pafs through the Centn as the Line BE, it will make, with the Tar
genr,
two
right Angles,
Angles of the
i
Sernicircles
(by the 18. ) and th would be alfo rigli
Angle
the Third
Book,.
173
Angles, (by the preceding,) therefore in this Cafe the Propofition would be true. But if the Line do not pafs through the Centre, as B ;
D
draw the Line B
join the
E
Line
D E.
through the Centre,
and
Demonftration.
The Line
right
Angles;
angle
\be
BDE
C
and
makes with the Tangent two and all the Angles of the Triare equal to two right Angles, (by
and
BE
%2. 1. )
therefore
Angles
wircle,
BE,
D
taking
away
is
the right
which
Angle
in
the
Sem>
is
likewife the
EBD
which
pmmon
\K
B
D
to both, there will remain the Angle equal to the Angle E.
I
*Vngle
is equal to the B Again, The Angle F ; becaufe in the Quadrilateral Figure BFDE, which is infcrib'd in a Circle, the op
C D
>ofire
Angles
E and F
are equal to
two
\ngles,
ZB
D
and the 2i. ) but the Angles are alfo equal to two right Angles, ( by (by
ABD
right
he 13.
u) and
the Angles
ABD
and
;
£
are
1 :qual, as I have he Angles C B
now demonftrated
and
therefore
D
F
are equaL
I
c
I
The
this Propofition
USE.
is
neceflary to prove that
which follows,
M
PRO
§74
The Elements of Euclid.
PROPOSITION
A Probl
Upon a Line given,
E M.
XXXIII.
to defer the a Segment' Circle capable of an Angle given*
it
of
LET
cle
be propos'd to de
Segment of a Cirupon the Line A B capable
fcribe a
of the Angle C.
draw AE perpendicular to AD make alfo the Angle A B F equal to B A F And in fine, from the Point B F and AE concur, at the diftance B
;
:
BAD equal to the Angle C, and
Make the Angle
the Ang! F, whet F, or Fi
is
defcribe a Circle.
The Segment
BEA
C.
cap*
ble of an Angle equal to the Angle
Lines FA and FB are equal, (by the 6. j.) an the Circle, which is defcrib'd from the Centi A. F, by A, pafles by B: Now the Angle a right Angle, the Line touches th te<ng Circle in A, ( by the 16. ) therefore the Angl contained in the Segment BE A, as the Angl
The Angles B
Demonft ration. AF and ABF being equal,
th
DA
D
JE,
that is, th equal to the Angle Angle C, ( by the preceding,) But if the Angl given be an Obcufe, we muft take an Acute It Complement to 180 Degrees,
is
DAB;
PRO
The Third Book?
m
XXXIV.
from
it
PROPOSITION
A Problem*
A
Circle being given, to cut a Segment capable of a certain Angle.
cut a Segment of the B C E capable of the Angle A, draw (by the 17.)
TO
Circle
the
Tangent
the Angle
DBC
'Tis
BD, and make
equal to the
evident
Angle A.
the
(by
32. ) that the an angle equal to
the Angle A.
Segment
BEC
is
capable of
DBC,
The
and .consequently to
USE.
of
this
c
I
have made
life
Proportion to
of the
his
find
Geometrically
the
Excentricity
Annual Circle ot the Sun, and
likewife in Opticks, to find
Apogaum,
'Tis ufcd
having three Obfervations given.
a Point where two
unequal Lines proposed, may appear equal, or under equal Angles, by making upon each Line Segments which will contain equal An*
gles«
M
*
PRO
176
The Elements of Euclid
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
XXXV.
If two Lines cut each other within a Circle, the ReBangle contained under the Tarts of one, is d under the Tarts equal to the Rectangle contain
of
the other,
If the
Flrft, Centre, they
two Lines cut each other in the will be both equal, and both
equally divided ; fo that in this Cafe it is evident, the Re&angle contain'd under the Parts,
of one, will be equal to the Re&angle contain'cf under the Parts of the other. Secondly, If one of the Lines pafs through the Centre F, as
Line
BD
AC, and
into
divide the
two equal Parts
at the
Point
E
:
I
fay,
The
Re&angle contain'd under A E and EC is equal to the Rectcontained under BE and E D, that is to angle The Line AC is perfay, to the Square of BE. f pendicular to B D, ( hj the 3. )
Demonfiration. Since the Line A is divided equally in F, and unequally in E, the Reftangle contain'd unde A E, and E with the Square of F E,
:
C
C
Q
.
is
The Third Book*
is
177
equal to the Square of FC, or FB, (by the f. 2.) the. Angle E being a right Angle, the Square of FB rs equal to the Squares of BE and
Now
FE;
Re&angle under A E, EC, F E, is equal to the Squares BE and FE; and taking away the Square of EF, there remains the Re&angle under AE, EC, equal to the Square of B E.
therefore the
with the Square of
Thirdly, Let the Line pafs through the Centre F, and divide the Line
CD
into unequal
Parts at the Point
E
:.
Draw
and and
GD
perpendicular to ( by the 3. ) the Lines will be equal.
FG
CD, CG
Demonftration. Since the Line A B is divided equally in F, and unequally in E, the Re&angle contain'd
under AE, EB, with the Square of EF,
is
equal
to the Square of F B, or F C, ( by the <f. 2. ) Inftead of the Square of EF, put the Squares
of
47.
FG
and
G E,
which are equal to
it,
(by the
1. )
being divided the Re&; E, ED, with the Square of E, ngle under equal to the Square of GC. Add the Square of F ; the Redangle under C E, ED, with the Squares of E and F, will be equal to
In like
^ually in
manner the Line C G, and unequally
D
in
E
C
G
5
G
G
the Squares of
( by the
CG
and
G G F,
that
is
47.
1.
) to the Square of F
C
to fay,
Therefore
in 3
178
fore the
The Element* of Euclid.
Redangle under A
I
Squares of angle under
LG and G F,
C E, ED,
B, with the to the Redequal with the fame Squares :
E,
E
is
And
confequently taking
away
the fame Squares
B, will be
from hoth, the Re&angle
A E, E
equal to the Reftangle CE f E D. and HI cut each Fourthly, If the Lines other in E, neither of the two palling through the Centre: I fay, The Re&angle CE, For to the Re&angle HE, EL is equal
CD
}
ED
drawing the Line A F B, it is plain the Reck angles CE, ED, and HE, E I, are both e
qual to the Re&angle
ing Cafe ; ) themfelves.
A E, EB, ( by the frece therefore they are equal betwix?
[
The
c
USE.
We are taught by this Propofition a Method of finding a fourth Proportional tc three Lines given, or a third Proportional tc two,
1
I.
PRO
The Third
Bool{.
179
—
PROPOSITION
XXXVI,
A Theorem.
he from a Point taken without the Circle a Line irawn to touchy and another to cut. the Circle :
the Square of the Tangent will be equal to and Retlangle contain d under the whole Secant,
the
the external Line,
lUppofe the Line
I
AB
B
to be
the Point A, ten without the Circle, to
drawn from
uch the Circle
e Line
;
in
;
and
AC,
or
AH
The S ^uare of AB
cutting will be
ir/d
.0
ual to the Rectangle conunder and AO, as
AC
and contained under A the Secant pafs through the Centre, as C, draw the Line LB.
to the
If
Redan gle
H
F.
Demcnflration,
Since the Line is divided in the mrdLe at the Point E, and the Line A added and !>it; the Reel: ingle containM under C, with the Square of OE, or E B, will be
OC
O
AO
lual to the Square of A E, {by the 6. 2. ) low the Line AB is fjppos'd to touch the Itrcle at the Point B: Therefore ( by the 18. )
M
4
the
j8p
the Angle
The Elements of Eudid*
B is a right Angle, and (by the 47, the Square of A is equal to the Squares 1, j of E B and A {3 ; therefore the Re&angle under
E
AG
and AO, with the Square of EB, is equal to the Squares of E B and A B : And taking away the Square of E B from both, the Redwill be equal to the Square angle under AC,
AO
of
A
B.
•
not Suppofe the Secant pafs through the Centre ; and draw the Lin EG perpendicular to FH, which will divide iris the Middle the Line F at the Point Qj dra alfo the Line E F>
Secondly,
AH
4
H
The Line F
Point G, and the Rectangle contain'd under AH, A F, witfe the Square of FG, will be equal to the Square of AG. Add to both the Square of E the ; under AH, A F, with the Squares oi Re&angle and GE, that is, (by the 47. 1.) the Square of F E, or E B, will be equal to the Squares oi^ f and GE, that is, (by the 47. 1. ) the Square^ of AE. Further, The Square of AE (by thi fame) is equal to the Squares of EB and A B ; lij Therefore the Rectangle contain'd under A H, A F, with the Square of B E, is equal to the
;
Demonftration. being divided equally at th the Line A F being added to it
H
G
FG
AG
F:
Squares of B E and A B : and taking away the Square of BE from both, the Re&angle contain'd under AH, will be equal to the Square of A B, Cord,
AF
The Third Book,
CoroU. 1. If
181
fame Point, as
under
and AO, and A F, will be A betwixt themfelves, fince they are both equal equal to the Square of A B,
CoroU. 2. If
the
C
you draw clivers Secants from the A G and A H, the Rectangles
AH
you draw two Tangents from
fame Point, as
A B, A I,
they
will
be equal
;
becaufe the Squares wilf be equal to the fame and A O, and confeRedangle under guentlv betwixt themfelves; as alfb the Lines
AC
IB, A I.
vr
m m
,
PROPOSITION
ATheorbm,
\\f
XXXVII.
the Reft angle contained under the Secant
and
the External Line be equal to the Square of a Line that falls upon the Circle^ that Line will touch the Circle.
tUppofe the Secant to be
the Redangle
A C, A O
;
AC, or A H, and or A H, A F, (fee
the
%.
jLine
freced. ) to
AB;
be equal to the Square of the the Line A B will touch the Circle.
Oraw
the Tangent
A I,
(by
17.) and the
tine IE,
Demonfiration. Since the Line A I touches the Circle, the Wangle AC, A O; or AH, A F, will be equal to
I 82
The. Elements of Euclid,
to the Square of A I. But the Square of A B is fuppos'd to be to either of thofe Redequal angles ; therefore the Squares of A I and A B are equal, and confequently the Lines A I and
Therefore the Triangles A B E and A I E, hiving all Sides equal, will be equiangular, (by the S. i.) and becaufe the Angle AIE
B.
is
A
a right Angle ( by the' 1 8. ) the Line A I be __ will be a ing a Tangent, the Angle a right Angle, and the Line
ABE
AB
J
I
Tangent, {by
the 16.)
The
e
USE.
I
Maurylochus makes ufe of this Propofirion to find the Diameter of the Earth. For obfrom the Top oi a Mountain A, the ferving Superficies of the Earth by the Line B A, he takes notice of the Angle made by the
O
.
OAB,
Line
and a Perpendicular A C And by Trigonometry calculates the Length of the Line A B. Then multiplying A B by A B to have its Square, he divides the Product by A O the Height of the Mountain, which gives the Quotient A C, the Diameter of the Earth, with the Height of the Mountain; from which having fubdu&ed AO, there will remain the Diameter of the Earth. This
AB
:
(
OC
Propofition ferves alfo to prove the
third
fifth
of the
Book of Trigonometry.
THE
s
C
* 8?
"J
THE
3
Fourth Book
OF THE
Elements of
EV CLIT>.
is
Fourth Book
exceeding ufe
a Circle, we fcribing Polygons learn the Methods of Compofing the Tables of Subtendents, Tangents, and Secants; a Practice mod neceflary for taking all forts of Dimenfions,
in
c
THIS
Again,
ful
in
Trigonometry.
For by
in
we
find
which
infcribing Polygons in a Circle, divers Afpetts of the Stars, alfo take their Names from thofe Po
By
the
lygons. ' Thirdly,
ful.
Quadrature of the
The fame Operations give us the Circle, as exad as is needAnd by them we alfb demonftrate, that
Circles are in the duplicate Proportion of that
of their Diameters.
4
Fourthly,
Military
Architecture
'
does
ire
184
c
e
c
The Elements if Euclid.
frequently require to infcribe Polygons in ;l Circle, tocompofe the Defigns and Platform I I of regular Fortifications.
jr.
DEFINITIONS.
(cribi'din a Circle, or Circle is defcrib'd about i
A
Re&ilineal Figure
is
ir
when
Circle.
ail
]ts
Angles sre'
11
the Circumference of the fa m'
< <
As the Triangle ABC is defcrib'd if) a Cii is inferib'd about the Tf cle, and the Circle becaufe its Angles A, B, and Cy do a angle;
1
<
< «
<
The Tr terminate at the Circumference. is not infcrib'd in the Circle, bi angle DEF caufe the Angle I>does not terminate at !r. Circumference of the Circle.
2.
A ReS'ilmea! Figure
and
is
inferib'd
about
Circle,

>N>
J^—y
\0
a Circle defcrib'd within that Fj gure, when all the Sides of th
.
R
Figure touch the Circumfi ' As th rence of the Circle.
*
c
I is defcrib' Triangle about the Circle KLM, be 1 caufe its Sides touch the Cii cumference of the Circle in K, L, and M. A Line is apply'd to, or inferib'd in 3.
K
GH
v
c

Circle
The Fourth Book?
Circle,
185
when its two Extreams touch the Cir* O. As the Line umference of the Circle, in the is not infcrib'd But the Line
N
RP
Circle.
PROPOSITION
•A
injcribe in
I.
Problem.
a Circle a Line, that does not exceed its Diameter.
'
ET
A
__/ to
ircle
5
a Line be propos'd be infcrib'd in the EB D, not exceeding
Diameter. Take the length the Line propos'd upon the 'ameter; for Example, Let e BC. Place the Foot of the Compafsupon e Point B, and defcribe a Circle at the Diof BC, which may cut the Circle AEBD jince and E. Then draw the Line BD, or BE.
;
D
is
tion
evident they are equal to of a Circle. )
BC, (by
the Defi
The
USE.
r
'This Propofition is neceflfary for the Perormance of what is required in the following,
PRO
i8<5
The Elements of Euclid.
PROPOSITION
A Problem.
To
infer ibe in
•
III.
a Circle a Triangle equiangular n
another Triangle.
L
is
ET the Circle be
in
EGH ABC FED
which a Triangk
to be inferib'd, equian gular to the Triangle
the Tangent the 17. 3.) and at the Point of Contad I (by make the Angle E equal to the Angle B and the Angle F E equal to the Angle C, (b
Draw
D H
G
the 25. 1.
angle
EGH
ABC.
the Tri ) and draw the Line G ; will be equiangular to the Triangle
H
Demonflration.
and confequently the Angles B and G ar< equal. By the fame reafon the Angles C and F
are alfo equal 3 and (by CoroU. 2. of the ;2. 1.; the Angles A and E will be equal. There
fore the Triangles
E is equal to the Angl< the alternate Segment, (by the $2. ^\ But the Angle E is equal to the Angle B
EGH of
The Angle
D H
D H
G H EGH
and
ABC
are equi
angular.
*
*
PRO
Tfo Fourth Book*
187
PROPOSITION
A Problem.
To
defcribe
HI.
a Triangle about a
Circle,
Equiangular
to another Triangle*
defcribe a TriIF
you would
angle Equiangular to the Triangle
ABC
about
the Circle
GKH.
Continue one of the Sides of the Triangle given and F, and make the Angle G I B C to to the Angle ABD, and equal equal to
D
HIK
H
the
Angle ACF: Then draw the LGM, LKN, and NHM, through
Tangents
the Points
G, K, and H.
Thefe Tangents will concur ; becaufe the Angles I L and I L being right G, the ngles, if you (hould draw a Line
K
G
and would be lefs than two Angles Therefore the Lines and right Angles: muft concur, ( by the ir. Axiom. )
KGL
GKL
K
GL
KL
Demonfiration.
All the Angles of the Quadrilateral
ire
G IHM
equal
to
four
be divided and Angles
lay
IGM
right Angles, becaufe it into two Triangles. The
IHM,
which are made by
the
1 88
the Bementi of Euclid,
the Tangents are right Angles ; therefore th< and I are equal to two right Angles Angles as are alfo the Angles A B C, and A B D. Bu is i the Angle equal to the Angle A B will be equal to the An therefore the Angle ABC. By the fame reafon the Angle Arigle
M
i
G H
M
D
N and
A
angles
LMN
CB
are equal, and therefore the Tri are equiangular. and
ABC
mm
PROPOSITION
A Problem.
To mfcribe a
Circle in
IV*
h
k
k
a Triangle*
infer i be a Cir
IF
D
you would
clein the Triangle divide the Angles
ABC
am
If
ABC
Parts,
(V drawing the Line B and C D, which will con cur at the Point D. This done, from the Poin G F, and draw the Perpendiculars E,
the 9. 1.)
ACB
into
two equal
D
D
D
D
to
which will be equal ; fo that a Circle from the Centre D, at the Diftance F and G. pals through
Demonfiration.
defcrib'c
D E,
D:
wil
4
DEB and DFB have the both right Angles D EB and D F B equal, being The Angles DBE and DBF are Angles:
The
Triangles
!
N
ft
alfo
equal
The Fourth Booh
.equal, the
"
189
Angle
ABC
Kmto
two equal Parts *
be equal in
having been divided and the Side DB is
common:
les will
f'ides
therefore (hyjbe bstti) theTrian
all Refpects, and the and DF will be equal. After the Ufame manner might I demonstrate the Sides DF and DG to be equal. 'tis polKbfe thereFore to defcribe a which {fall pafs Circle, the Points E, F, and G h and becaufe through the Angles E, F, and G are right Angles, the Sides AB, AC, and BC will touch the Circle, which by confequence is iiifcrib'd ira
DE
he Triangle.
1 1
ill
PROPOSITION
A PROBLEM.
To
defcribe
V.
a
Circle about a
TfiamUi
Fyoii would
It'll
defcribe a Cir
cle about the
livide the Sides
:6
AB and BC
Triangle
ABC,
in
two equal Parts, at the Points b D and E, drawing the PerpenDF and EF, which will concur at the diculars Point F. Which done, if you defcribe a Circle from the Center F at the Diftance FB, if Ni\\ pafs through A and C 5 that is to fay, the Lines FA, FB, and FC are equal.
Deihojiftration.
The
Triangles
ADF
and
N
BDF
.
have the
Sidg
The Elements of Euclid. Side DF common, and the Sides AD and
icjo the Side having been equal, and the Angles at 5 qually in
DB
e*
AB
divided
D
D
are equal,
being right Angles. Therefore (by the 4. 1.) the Bafes AF anc^ BF are equal, as alfo the
Bafes
*
* c
BF and CF
The USE. have frequent Occafion to infcribe
a,
I
Triangle in a Circle*, as, for Inftance, in the third Book of Tr$ firft Proportion of
my
*
gonometry.
c
<
This Performance alfo is neceC for meafuring the Area of a Triangle fary and upon many other Occafions.
PROPOSITION A PROBLEM.
Jo
infcribe
VI.
a Square in a Circle.
infcribe a Square in th Circle ACBD, draw th
1
let
lltl
TO
the Lines
FG.i
lar to it
Diameter AB, and perpendici the Line DC paffin: IV through the Center E then drat
,
AC, CB, BD, DA, and you
Demonfration.
wi]
v.
have
infcrib'd in the Circle the Square
ACBI
QJs
%
The Triangles AEC and C£B have
the:
Sides equal, and the Angles
AEC and CEB
qua.
Hoe fourth Booh
being both qual, their Bafes AC and
c
i9±
therefore
right Angles: are equal, (by the 4. and are i ) Further, becaufe the Sides and will be equal % the Angles equal, and the Angle E being a right Angle* they
CB
EAC
AE ECA
is
EG
will be
therefore
halfright
Angles,
(by the
32. 1.)
half a right and confequently the Angle ACB will Angle, be a right Angle. And the fame Reafon holds is for all the reft therefore the Figure
the
Angle
ECB
:
ACBD
a Square.
PROPOSITION
A
To
VII.
PROBLEM.
1
defcribs a Sqitai'e about a Circle ,
dra wxu+he two Dia
HAving AB and CD, meters
which
cut each other perpendicularly at the Center E, draw the Tangents
FG,GR HI, and IF,by the Points
A, D, B, C, and you
Square
will have defcrib'd
tfca
FGHI about
the Circle
ACBD.
The Angles E and
therefore^
CD are Parallels,
prove, that
Demovjlration. are right Angles, and tbeij. %) the Lines
A
FG
After the fame
AB
may
CD
manner I and HI, FI and AB,
Therefore the
2
and
GH,
are Parallels.
V
Figure
1
92
The Elements of
fiuclid .
Figure
FCEGis
34. 1 J the Lines alfo the Lines
a Parallelogram, and {by tbt are equal, as FG and
CD
CD and IH,
FI and AB,
AB
GH^ andconftquently the Sides of. the Figure FG and HI are equal. Further, fince the Lines FG and CD are paiallels, and the Angle CDGisa right Angle, the Angle G will
alfo be a right Angle (by the 29. 1.) After the fame manner I may demonftrate the Angles F, H, and I, to be right Angles. Therefore the
and
Figure FGHI
is
a Square, whofe Sides touch
the Circle.
—
*m
PROPOSITION
A PROBLEM.
To
VIIL
ivjcribe a Circle in a Square,
JF FGHI,
FG,GH,
which
yod would
infcribe a Circle in the Square [fee Fig. preced.J divide the Sides HI, IF, in the Middle at the Points
A, D, B, C, and draw
the Lines
AB
and CD,
I
may cut each
other at the Point F.
EA, ED, EB, and EC are equal, and the Angles A, D, B, C, right Angles and that therefore you may defcribe a Circle from the Center E, which will pafi through A. D, B, and G ? and touch the Sides of the Square FGHt
demonftrate that the Lines
:
The Fourth Book.
DemoTiftration.
193
Lines
AB and GH do conjoyn. the and BH, which are parallel and equal, they alfo will be parallel and equal
Since the Lines
AG
:
therefore the Figure
and the Lines
equal.
Further, AG and CD being parallel, and the Angle G a right Angle, the Angle D
fo
and and equal .and being equal, 3 will be equal alio. Tis after the fame manner that the Lines AE, EC, EB, are proved
AG
AGDEisa Parallelogram ^ AE and GD, AG and ED are
GD
AE
ED
Therefore the Circle the Center E which will pafs through the Points A, D, B,G* * and touch the Sides of the Square.
likewife.
will be
ADBC may be defcrib'd from
PROPOSITION
A PROBLEM.
ire
IX,
le
To
defcribe a Circle about a Square.
i
iJfTpO defcribe a Circle about the Square X ACBD, [fee Fig. in Prop. 6 .] draw the Diagonals AB and CD, which will cut each oPoint E h the Point E will be the jCenter of the Circle, which will pafs through Points A, C, B, D. It ought therefore to [ithe be demonftrated, that the Lines AE, EB, CE,
jther at the
and
ED are equal,
N
^
Di
194
W
Sides
e
Ekments of
Euclid.
The
Angles. C is
feACandABC
the Angles
Demonjtratiov. are equal, and the a right Angle ^ therefore the Angles
AC and CB
are equal,
(by the j. i.)
and
that
are
halfright Angles, (by the 32. 1.) After the fame manner I demonftrate,
ACD, ADC, BDQand BCD,
halfright Angles. Therefore the Triangle
AEC
having the Angles EAC and ECA halfright Angles, and confequently equal, will have
r
k\£o.(by the 6. l.) its Sides
AE arid EC
equal.
The fame may
EB, EB,
equal.
be prov'd of the Lines
that they
EC
and
and ED,
likewife are
lie
'
USE.
<
c
t
«
4.
We fhow in the 1 2th Book, that Polygons infcribd in a Circle, degenerate into Circles, andasthefe Polygons are always in the duplicate proportion of that of their
Diameters, fo likewife are Circles.
ctical Geometry,
Jn pra
we have frequent Occafion
.4.
to infcribe a Square and other Polygons in * Circle, or to defcribe them about it, to reduce
a Circle to a Square.
PRO
The Fourth Booh
195
PROPOSITION
A PR03LEM.
v.
X.
To
defcribe
an Ifofceles (or
having
its
eqmcrural) Triangle each of them Angles at the Bafe,
double to the third
£ngk.
Angles
TO ABDandADB,deubleto ABD,
A
.
defcribe
an Ifofceles having each of its
'
the Angle
j
divide the
Iine^B
(by the 1 1 2.) fo that the Square ot may be equal to the Re&r
AC
the Genangle under ABandBC* pndfropi ter A at the Diftance AB defcribe the Circle ii 5 and BD, in which infcribe equal to the Line DC, defcribe a Circle about drawing
BD
AC
i
the Xrxangle
*
ACD, QptheiJ
I
1 I
1
Depovftration. or Since the Square of the Re&angle contained under
AC
tine BD will touch the Point D, (by the 37.3.) therefore the Angle BDC will be equal to the Angle A, being in
the alternate Segment CAD, (by the 32. 3.) Now the Angle BCD, being an external Angle in refpeft ol the Triangle ACD, i§ equal to the Angles
BD is equal to AB and BC, the Circle ACD at the
A and CD A N4
5
therefore the
Angle
BCD
1
1
95
The Elements of Euclid.
is equal to the Angle BDA. Further, the Angle is equal to the Angle ABD,
BCD
ADB
and (by the 5. 1.) therefore qual, and {by the 6. 1.) the Sides
will be equal : and fince likewife the Angles and
DCB
DBC are eBD and DC
*,
[
BD
is
A
CDA.
equal Therefore
and fo
E
the Angle
ADB is
^«
double the Angle A.
I
PI
PROPOSITION
A PROBLEM.
To
infer ibe
a
XL
—
Ml
regular Pentagon in a Circle.
O
1*i
lar
5
infcribe a reguPentagon in a
Ifofceks
Q
Circle .defcribe (by the
to.)
an
ABC
Anat
having each of its
DEF
the gles ABC, ACB, Bafe, double tp the AnInfcribe in the Circle the Triangle gle A. then divide the equiangular to
ABC
:
fti
Angles DEF and DFE into two equal Parts, drawing the Lines EG and FH. Laftly, joyn the Lines DH, DG, GF, EH ? and you will h have defcruVd a regular Pentagon that is to h fay, a Pentagon having equal Sides, and eft
*,
u$I Angles,
Demon*
TheFonrth Book.
Demcmjlt atwn.
197
The Angles DEG, GIF, DFH, and HFE,
being the Halves of the Angles DEF, and PFE, each of which is double to the Angle
and conare equal to the Angle ^ the five Arches, which are their fequently
EDF,
EDF
Bafes, are equal, (by the 26. 3 J and the Lines PH, HE, EF, FG, and GD, are equal, (by the
29. 3 .) Secondly, the Angles DGF, GFE,and fo of the reft, having each three of thofe Arches for its Bafe, will be alfo equal „ equal
(by the 27. 3.) Therefore the Sides and Angles are equal. of the Pentagon
DHEFG
PROPOSITION
A
To
XII.
PROBLEM.
q
a Circle* defcribe a Pentagon about
INfcribea gon ABCDE in the Circle, (by the 1 1 .) and having Ey drawn Tangents through the Points A, B, C, D, E, h' (by the 17. 2.) you will
have deferib'd
a regular
Circle.
regular Penta
Pentagon about the
Draw
the Lines
FA, FG, FE, FH, FD.
Demonflration.
The Tangents
GE and GA aie
equal, (by Co
198
The Elements of Euclid.
Cor oil 2. of the 36. ;.) as alio and fh Lines FA and FE are alfo equal (by the Dcpiit. of a Circle $) therefore (by the 8. 1 ) the Triangles FGA and FGE are equal in all
;
EH
HD
refpettSj and the Angles equal, as alio the Angles
AFG and EFG are EFH and PFH. the Angles EFA Av&becd\i&(bytbe 27.3.; and EFD are equal, their Halves EFH and FFG will be equal and (by the 26. 1.) the 'Iriangles EFH and EFG will be equal in all refpecis, and the Sides EG and EH will be
^
alfo equal.
monftrate
all
After the fame manner I can dethe Sides, to be divided into
two eqn a! Parts , and confequently, lince the Lines C£ ai G \ as equal, GH and GI will
be alfo equal, Further,!] Being double to the Angfeg
alfo
equal.
Therefore
G and and FHE>are we have defcribd a
singles
H
FGE
regular Pentagon about l
Circle.
PROPOSITION
A PROBLEM.
To hfcribe a
XIII.
Circle iv a regular Vent agon.
np jL
/j^ B
gles
j\
inferibe a Circle in
le
ABCD.E, divide
regular Pentagon the An
anctB into two equalPa. is by the Lines AF and BF, which concur at
the
199 Then drawing the line FG perhe Point F. to AB, defcribe a Circle from the pendicular F at the Diftance FG. I fay it will Center
:ouch all the other Sides, that
zing 7 will be equal.
is
The fourth Book.
to fay,
ha
drawn FH perpendicular
to
EC, FH
and
G
Demoiiftratiotu
and B were diSince the equal Angles into two equal Parts, their Halves vided md GBF will be equal and iince the Angles it are right Angles, the Triangles
A
GAF
:
G
AFG
and
'be
BFG
1 .)
26.
equal in all refpe&s (fy and GB are therefore the Lines
will
fee
AG
?qual.
BH,
and Further, I may prove the Lines as alfo the Lines FG, and FH, to be eand BC of a regular the Sides qual and and Pentagon being equal, the Lines and confequently the Angles will be equal $
*,
BG
AB
BH
HC
at the Point
HFC will be equal, the Triangle all refpects, and the Angles FBH and equal,in FCH will be equal And fince the Angles B and C, are equal, the Angle FCH will be half
BFH
and
the Angle C. So parting from one to the other, I will demonftrate, that all the Perpendiculars, FG and FH, and the reft, are equal.
H being
alfo right
Angles,
and
PRO
2 go
The Elements of Euclid.
PROPOSITION
A PROBLEM.
To
XIV.
defer ibe a Circle about a regular Pentagon.
*TP O
defcribe a Circle about
the
ABCDE,
its
Sides
AB
regular Pentagon divide equally two of
and
BC at G
and
zt\
:
H, and draw the Perpendiculars GFand HF. The Circle
£rawn from
the Center F, at the Diflance FA, will pafs through B, C, D, E. Demonjtration. Scppofe the Circle defer ibed, it is evident
(by tbe !.•$.)
to
at
ia
lin
that having divided the Line the Middle in G, and drawn the PerABin pendicular GF, the Center of the Circle muft
be in that Perpendicular
therefore
4
*
it is
alfo in
HF,
3G
it is
at the Point R.
1
c
*
*
*
c
The USE. Thefe Propolitions are folely ufeful for the compofing the Table of Sines, and drawing the Platforms of Citadels, for their Obferve ordinary Figures are Pentagons. alfo, that thele Methods of defcribing Pentagons about a Circle, may be applied likewife to other Polygons. But in my Book of ' Mili
I
x
"(
c
The Fourth Book.
13
201
Military Archite&ure, I have mown another Way of infcribing a regular Pentagon in a
Circle.
PROPOSITION
A PROBLEM.
To
infcribe a regular
XV.
Hexago n } n a Circle.
TO draw Hexagon
fcBCDEF,
neter
?
infcribe
a regular in the Circle the Diafixing
AD, and
D,
the
A
oct of the
Compafs
at the
Point
defcribe a
Circle
:
at the Diftance of
DG
t lraw the Diameters
EGB
then ? and
the
CGF
*,
and the
Lines
AB, AF, FE, and
reft.
Demonjlraiwn*
Tis evident,
DGE, CGD, Top, BGA, and AGF,
third Part of
that the Triangles CDG, and are equilateral ^ therefore the Angles DGE, and thofe opposed to them at the
are each of
•,
them the
is
two right Angles
that
to fay,
contain 6o Degrees. Now ail the Angles that can be made about the fame Point are equal to four right Angles, that is to fay, %6o DeTherefore taking away four times 60, grees. that is 240, from 360, there will remain 120 for EGG and FGE* which therefore each con?
tain
202
tain
at the
The Elements of
Euclia.
60 Degrees. Therefore all the Angles Center being equal, all the Arches anc all the Sides will be equals and every Angle. as A, B, C, &c. will be compounded of twc Angles of 60 Degrees each, that is, 120 De grees, and therefore will be equal.
CorolL *The Side of a the Semidiameter.
Hexagon
is
equal
U
The
1
USE.
*
*
1
*
c
Becaufe the Side of a Hexagon is the Bafc of an Arch of 60 Degrees, and is equal to th< Semidiameter,its Half will be the Sine of 3c by which Sine we begin the Table of SineJ Euclid treats of Hexagons in the laft Boo! of his Elements.
•mm.
1
11
1
in
PROPOSITION
A PROBLEM.
To
infcribe a regular Pejite decagon in
XVI.
1
a
Circle,
in
the
Circl
an equilateral IlSJfcribe
_H
Triangl
regu
A^BC,
lar
(by the 2.)
anda
f
p
^
Pentagon, (by the 11, ma: fo that the Angles meet at the Point A. Th Lines BF, BI, and IE, wiJ
j
be the Sides of a Pentedecagon
and
if yoi
ii
The Fourth Booh
incribe in the other Arches Lines equal to and BI 7 you will compleat the Polygon.
De?novJlratio)t.
205
BF
the Side of an equilaAEB will be the third Part of the whole Circle, that is, five fifteenths. Bur the Arch AE being the fifth Part will contain three fifteenths^ therefore the
Since the Line
is
AB
teral Triangle, the
Arch
Arch
EB
in the
and if you divide it contains two at the Point I, each Part will be Middle
:
a Fifteenth.
The
c c
USE.
f
i
This Proportion
to other
res cp}y to
s;
*
Way
F
;i
We
in
open the h ve in the
ft
Conipafs of Pi'opo'
infcri
I
torn
eafy
Me
'thodsof
*.
ordinary Polygons, but they are r winded on this here, ^ox it > would be im ;;"ilible to n\ark)PolygoP3 upon ' that Inftrument if their Sides yerenot fjift * found by this, or other like Piopoikions,
ail
TF
[ 204 1
THE FIFTH BOOK OF THE
ELEMENTS
O F
EUCLID
fifth
i
Book
Is
abfolutely
ne
THIS
it
ceflary to demonflrate the Propo
rtions of the fixth. The Do&rine contains is of univerfal Ufe, and it&
Manner
of Argumentation by proportion, II the moft fubtil, folid and brief. Infomuch ft that all thofe Treatifes, that are grounded
are obliged to make lift a kind of Mathematical Logick
on Proportions,
thereof, as
Geometry,
Statich,
Aritbmetick y
and in a "Word,
Mnfick, dftronomy, all Parts of Ma
thematzch, are conflrained to borrow feme of their Demonstrations from the Proportions of this Book. The greater!: Part of
*
'I
Meafuring in PraSical Geometry
is
dorteiu
l
h7
The F/fih Booh
205
by Proportion. All the Rules of Aiithmttick are demonftrable by the Theorems that
fo that there is no ^ NecefFity of having Recourfe to the fevenrh, eight or ninth Books for that purpoie. The of the Antients is fcarce any Thing Mujick elfe but the Doctrine of Proportions apply 'd The fame may be faid of Stato Sounds.
occur here
the proportion of moft certain, that if the Knowledge of Proportions which this Book affords, was taken away from the Mathematich , what remain'd would be
tich y
coniider
Weights.
which In
fine, 'tis
very inconfiderable.
DEFINITIONS.
A
5V. compar'd
Small Quantity with
*
A—— j—«— J.B
C—^«D
be call'd 6
£
[art.
greater, is call'd a 4 As for example,
iftheLineCD,of 2 Foot long, be compar'd with
AB of
6, it will
its
Part.
Which Name alfo it obtains, though indeed it be not contain'd in AB, provided AE> a
Line equal to CD, be therein found* The whole is anfwerable to the Part* and therefore will be the greater Quantity
O
*
com
2c6
t
The Elements of Euclid.
*,
compar'd with the lefs
whether
it
do
real
*
1
ly contain the lefs, or not. c Part taken in general is ordinarily di vided into (that which is call'dj an Aliqm
A
j
Part, and an Aliquant Part.
i.
An
Aliquot Part (which alone Euclid
de
[
Book) is a Magnitude of a Magni tude, a lefs of a greater, when it exactly mea ' fures the greater. That is to fay, Tis a lei * fer Quantity compar'd with a greater, whicf c precifely meafures the greater. As a Lin * two Foot long taken three Times, is equa^ * to a Line of fix Feet in length.
fines in this
is a Magnitude of a Magni R a greater of a lefs, when it is exactl; F tude, c That is to fay, a Mul P« meafur'd by the lefs, * is a greater Quantity compar'd with an tiple ' which it contains exactly fo man] i lefs, * Times. For example, a Line fix Foot lonj * is Triple a Line two Foot long.
2
.
A Multiple
ffe
ret
An
Aliquant Part,
is
a leffer Quantity con*
'F
par'd with a greater, which it does not exact ly meafure. As a Line of four Feet in lengtl is an aliquant Part of a Line ten Foot long * In a Word, An Aliquot Part fo many Time
c *
1
* *
Id
repeated will equal the Whole: hut an Al: quant Part, though it contains fuch a Quan tity of the Whole, yet repeated as you pleafe will never exactly equal, but either com fliort of, or exceed, the Whole.
Equi
The Fifth Booh
Equimultiples
207
[2.
are
Magni
tudes which
equally contain
their Aliquot Parts. 'That is to fay, fa many Times. As for example, if contains B, as many Times as contains
12, 4^ 6, A, Bj C,
D.
A
3
C
D,
.
A
*
and
C
will
be Equimultiples of
B
andD.
Proportion is a refpect of one tude to another of the fame Kind.
Magni
*
Gr&c.hiy®. Gall. Raifen.
4. ifWwfzfrVjarefaid to have a certain pro" )ortionto each other, when being multiply 'd
:hey
oij
can exceed each other. For which Reafcn they ought to be of the fame KindFc r indeed a Line has no proportion to a Superficies, becaufe a Line taken matbemath colly, is confider'd without any Breadth at all, and therefore multiply'd as much as you pleafe, will never give any Breadrh, which
'
yet a Superficies contains. * For as much as Proportion is a Refpect, or Relation founded upon^Quantity, it ought to \i\ have two Terms. That which fome Philoor fophers would call the Funiameritiim, Mathematicians name the Ante* Foundation, cedent, and the Term is calfd by them the T ^Confequent. As if we w ere to compare the with the Quantity B, that ReQuantity fpect or Proportion would have for the A ntecedent the Quantity A, and for the ConfeOn the contrary, juent the Quantity B.
A
O
2
'if
2o8
if
The Elements of Euclid.
be compar'd with A, that proportion °* would have B for the Antecedent, and B for the Confequent. ' Proportion, or Refped of one Quantity to another, is divided into Rational Propor
to
B
A
A
tion,
'
and
Irrational.
Rational Proportion is the Refpecl of one Quantity to another, which is commenfurable to it, that is, when both the Quanti ties have the fame common meafure, bj which both may be exaclly meafur'd. the proportion of a Line four foot long t( another that is fix, is rational, becaufe i Line two Foot long may exa&ly meafun
A
both.
tities
And when
have the
this
fame
Number
to another.
happens, thefe Quan Proportion as on For Example, fince th«
Line two Foot long, which is their commoi Meafure, is found twice in the four Foo Line, and thrice in that which is fix Foo long ^ the firft has the fame proportion t<
the fecond, as 2 to
*
3.
tw< Proportion is betwixt of the fame Kind, which are in Quantities
Irrational
commenfurable,
fure.
f.
e.
have no
common Mea
the Proportion of the Side of 1 Square to its Diagonal. For there is no Mea fure fo fmall, as will precifely meafure both
As
Quantities will be Proportionals the proportion of the firft to the fe cond, is the fame with, or like to, that o
c
Four
when
<
the
Tfie Fifth Book.
209
to fpeak a Similitude
the third to the fourth \
r
fo that,
properl) , Proportionality is of Proportions. But it is noeafy Matter to tindeiftand in
what
this Similitude of
Pro
portions conilfts^ that is to fay, how two Refpe&s or Relations may be alike. For Euclid has not given us a juft Definition
thereof, or fuch an one as might explain the Nature of the Thing, but contented himfelf to fet down fome Marks or Signs, by
be known, whether or no have the fame proportion. And Quantities 'tis the Obfcurity of this Definition, which has render'd the whole Book fo difficult to be underftood, which Defect therefore I fhall endeavour to fupply. 5. Euclid makes four Magnitudes to have the fame proportion, when taking the Equimultiples of the firft and the third, and likewife the Equimultiples of the fecond and the fourth, according to any Multipliit
which
may
cation
firft
whatfoever If the Multiple of the exceed that of the fecond, the Multiple of the third will alfo exceed that of the and if it be equal to, or lefs than fourth the fecond, the thiid will be equal to, or lefs than the fourth. In fuch a Cafe the firft has the fame rroportion to the fecond, as the third to the fourth,
:
•,
O
3
A,
B
:
:
The Fifth Book.
c
211
*
4
4
4 4
Similar Aliquot Parts, then, arefuch as are contain'd in their Wholes as many Times one as the other * as 3 in refpeft of 9 and 2 in refpect of 6, are fimilar aliquot Parts^ becaufe they are each contain'd three Times
in their refpedive Wholes. ' The firft Quantity will
4 4 4
have the fame to thefeeond, as the third to the proportion fourth, if the firft contains fo many Times fuch aliquot Parts of the fecond, as the third
contains the like aliquot Parts of the fourth. As if contains
*
*
A
A,B,C,D.
4
4
the hundredth, thoufandthor 1 hundredthoufandth Part of B as oft as
C
or
*
4
4
contains the hundredth, thoufandth, hundredthoufandth Part of D* (and the be faid of all other aliquot Parts like
may
I
4
will be the lame proimaginable :) There as of C to D. to B, portion of A
4
To render
this Definition ftill
more clear,
I
c
*
4
I will prove firft proportion to B,
A has the fame that, as C to D, A wilL contain
if
*
4 4
the aliquot Parts ol B, as oft as C does the contain the like of D^ and fecondly, if Parts of B, as oft as C does the like aliquot of D, then there wi!Vfee_the fame proportion
A
of
4
A to B,
firft
as of
C to D.
4
f
1
Point feems fufficiently evident The the very Notion of the Terms for if from A contains the tenth Part of B once more the than an hundred Times, and C contains tenth I 4
:
O
212
c
The Elements of Euclid.
:
* *
c
,
ot D an hundred Times only the Quantity Awill be agreatcr Whole compared theretcre it to B, than C is compared to D cannot be cempar'd alter the fame manner,
tenth Pait
•,
4
c
*•
c
the Refpedt or Relation being not the fame. c The fecond Point feems more difficult, viz. if a Quantity, fuppofe AB, contain the aliquot Parts of arother, CD, as ott as a third, E, contains the like ot the fourth, F
*,
*
there will be
G
A
the fame proportion ot 'to CD, as otE toF.
AB
H
I
I
—B
1
^ But
'
K
6
C
E
F
*
'
1
c
it it be otherwile, to us fuppofe have a greater proportion to CD, than
let
AB
E
has to
F}
that
is
e
to fay, that is too great to have the fame
AB
*
*
' *
* *
1
proportion to CD, that E has to F. Therefore a Quantity lefs than AB, as AG, will have the fame proportion to CD, as E to Divide theretore in the Middle F. in the Middle in I, and ID in H, and in the Middle in K continuing the likeDiyiiion till you arrive at an aliquot Part of
CD
HD
*,
CD
1
lefs
than
GB, which
I
will fuppofe to
<beKD.
Demonjfratkn
*
Since there is the fame proportion ci A will cent in KD, to CD, as of E toF;
G
AG
*#n aliquot Iart of CD,
'•
>
as eft as
E
contains 4 the
The Fifth Book.
'
'
%
z'13
:
*
Noiv will the like aliquot Part of F. once more than h contains the contain like aliquot Part ot F j which is contrary
AB
KD
to the Suppoiition.
£The firftQuantit}
7
is
faid to
have
a greater
proportion to the fecond, than the third to the fourth, when the« firft contains a certain
aliquot Part ot the fecond, cf'tner than the third contains the like aliquot Part of the fourth :' As io i has a greater proportion to i o
1
*
1
1
than2oot0 2o,becauie I oi contains the tenth Part ot ic, that is, t, once above a hundred Times 5 and 200 contains the tenth Part of 20, i. e. 2, a hundred Times only.
7. Magnitudes, or Quantities having the tame proportion, are call d Proportionals. 8 * Proportionality, or Analogy, is a Si
militude of Proportions or Refpects. * 'hv&teya.. End. In each Proportionality are required at 9 the leaft three Terms. For that there may be * a Similitude of Proportions, there mult be e two of them And every Proportion having
' :
*
two Terms,an Antecedent and a Confequent,
there feems to be a NeceJlity of fourTerms^ has the fame proporas when we fay, that
4 *
A
4
*
tion to
B
as
C
to
quent of the
fuffice
5
ilrft
but becaufe the Confe* proportion may be the An*
D
tecedent
*
as
ot the fecond, three Terms when is laid to have the
A
may
fame
*
proportion to
B
as
B
to C. 10.
Mag
214
io.
r fl° e
^foments of Euclid.
Magnitudes are faid to be continually proportional, when the intermediate Terms are taken twice, i. e> both as Antecedents and c Confequents. As if there be the fame propor* tion of to B, as of B to C, and of C to D. 1 1 . In that Cafe will have the duplicate^
A
A
proportion to C, what it has to B.
'
and the
triplicate to
D, of
But here it is to obferv'd, that there is a great deal of Difference between double Proportion, and duplicate. We fay that the proportion of four to two is double, becaufe four is the Double of two 5 the Number two
giving the Name to the Proportion, or; rather to the Antecedent thereof. Accordingly,
double, triple, quadruple, quintuple, &c% are Denominations drawn from the Numbers
two, three, four, five, &c compared with
Unity ^ which I infiancein, becaufe the more eafily we conceive the Proportion, the lefs are its Terms. But, as I faid, thefe Denominations do rather affedt the Antecedents, than the Proportions themfelves, for we call that double, or triple Proportion, whofe Antecedent
is
double, or triple
its
Confequent.
But by duplicate Proportion we underftand fuch an one, as is compounded of two fimilar Proportions. As, if there be the fame proportion of two to four, asof fourto eight: the proportion of two to eight being compounded of the Proportion of two to four, and
1
The Fifth Book.
' ' '
21 5
and that of four to eight, which are fimilar and equal, will be the duplicate of eacn of
So three to twenty feven is the duoi three tonine. plicate Proportion of that The proportion of two to four is calf d the
them.
,
' c
c
'
4
*
j
Subdouble, becaufe two is the hal ot rour^ but that ot two to eight is the Duplicate^ of the Subdouble which is as much as to fay, that two is the Half of the Half of eight, as three is the third Part of the third Part of
•,
4
*
twenty feven ^ where you may obferve, that; the Denominators 4. and K are taken twice. ' In like manner, the proportion of eight to
*
* *
two
a duplicate proportion of that of to four, becaufe eight is the Double of eight four, but it is the Double of the Double of
is
*
*
* *
Terms in continual the proportion of the firft to the proportion, ]aft is triplicate of that of the firft to the fetwo.
If there be tour
*,
*
cond \ as in thefe four Numbers, Two, Four, the proportion of two to Eight, Sixteen I fixteen is a triplicate of that of two to four^ 'becaufe two is the Half of the Half of the * Half of fixteen. So alfo the proportion of ' fixteen to two is a Triplicate oflhat of fix*
*
teen to eight, becaufe fixteen is the Double of the Double of the Double of two.
' 1
2.
Antecedents to Antecedents, and Con
c
4
* 1
(equents to Confequents, are call'dHomologous Magnitudes. As if there be the fame
proportion of A to B, as of C to
are
D A and G
^
and D,
4
Homologous,
The
1
216
4
The
\L\enients
of Euclid.
The
•
following
c
Definitions explain the
divers
nals
*
4
Manners of arguing by Proportiofor the Demonfiratir
n of which this
Book was
4
13.
4 4 4
principally compos d Alternate Proportion iswhen
of the other,
wecom
pare the Antecedent of the one with the Antecedent
and the Confequent
* 4 '
of the one with the Confequent of the other. As for example, if becaufe there is the fame proportion of A to B, as of C to D, I
infer, that there is the to D. to C, as of
*
*
'
A
B
feme proportion of This manner rf Ar
Terms
'
*
gumentaticn holds only when all the four are of the fa\mfpekr$ or Kind*, i. c.
either all Lines, or Superficies's, Solids. Tis demonftrated Prop 1
Ml
or all
L
'
14. *In\*erted Proportion isthecomparing of the Confequents with the Antecedents.
AvcLTftth.iv End. Convcrfe. Gall. As, if becaufe there is the fame propor' * tion of A to B, as of C to D, I conclude that * there is the fame proportion of B to A, as 4 of to C. Cor oil of Prop j 6 4 j 5. Composition of Proportion is the comof the Antecedent and the Confequent paring taken together, with the Confequent alone. 4 As if, becaufe there is the fame proportion 4 of A to B, as of C tnD, I conclude that * there is the fame proportion of A and Bto 4 i5, a.s of C and D to D, Piop. 1 8.
4
*
*
D
;
.
1
16. Di
The Fifth Book.
16. Divifion
217
of Proportion is the compaof the Excels of the Antecedent above ring the Confequent to the fame Confequent. ? As, if there be the fame Proportion of AB to ' ; from thence I B, as of CD to infer, that
;
D
4
there
4
is
the fame Proportion of
A
is
to B, as
of
Prop. 17. 17. Converflon of Proportion
CtoD.
the com
paring of the Antecedent 4 of the Terms: As, if * of AB to B, Proportion 4 thence conclude, that * proportion of AB to A,
*
with the Difference there be the fame as of CD to D ^ I
there
as of
is
the fame
CD to
C. Co
roll of Prop.
1
18.
Proportion of Equality is the compaof the extream Magnitudes, and omitring As A. B. C. D. ting thofe in the Middle * if there be the fame Proportion E. F. G. H. of A to B, as of E to v , and ' of B to C, as of F to G h and of Cto D, as
8.
*
of
G to H
$
I infer, that there
is
the
fame
*
proportion of A to D, as of Eto H. 19. Proportionality of Equality orderly placd, is that in which the Terms aie com' As in par'd together in the fame Order.
the foregoing Example. Prop. 22. 20. Proportionality of Equality diforderly plac'd,is that in which the Terms are com' As par'd in a different Order. there be4 4
if,
*
ing the fame Proportion of
G
to
H
A
to B, as
of
5
and of
B
to
C, as of F to G* and c of
2i 8
4
4 4
of C to
there
I conclude, that the fame proportion of to D, as of E toH. hop. 23. 4 See in fhort all the different Manners of
is
The Elements of D, as of E to F,
Euclid.
A
4
Argumentation by Proportion.
4
As A
to B, fo
C
to
D
:
,
*
By
4
alternate Proportion
therefore, as to 0, foB
A
'toD.
Inverted.
Divifion.
*
4
Cbrr.pofition.
As B to A, fo D to C. As AB to B, fo CD to D.
If as
then as
*
A
to B, fo
Convcrfion.
As
AB to B, fo CD to D C to D. AB to A, fo CD to C.
:
:
Orderly Equality. If as Ato B, 10C to D^ and as B to E, fo D to F then
as
Ato
E,
foCtoF.
Diforderly Equality .If as as B to E, fo C to
as
e 4
4
A to B,fo D to F,and D then
:
A to
E, fo
C to F.
2 5 Pro
Euclid's Fifth
Book contains but
4
4
pofitions, to which nine more have fince been added, and are commonly receiv'd. And the firft fix in Euclid, ferving only for the
4
4
4
4
Prccf of thofe that follow by the Method of Equimultiples, to fince I intend not make Ufe ot that Method, I fhall wholly omit beginning with the Seventh, without changing either the Order or Number of the
5
*
Propofitions.
Demands
The Fifth Book
Demands, or Suppcftmts.
219
Three Quantities, A, B, C, being propos'd*
that there is a is required to be granted, has fourth poiYible, to which the Quantity to B. the fame Proportion, as
it
C
A
PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.'
VII.
Equal Quantities have the faint Proportion tv another Quantity, and another Ghiawtity has
the
fame Proportion
to
Quantities that art
equal.
1
F the'Quantities A and B be
equal,
X1T
they will have the fame Propor
tion to the third C.
Demonftration.
If one of the two, fuppole A, had a greater Proportion to C, than B bastoC ^ A would contain any aliquot Part efC, uftner thanB could contain the fame, and conftquentiy would be greater than B, which is contrary to
A
what was fuppos'd. Again, I fay, if the Quantities A and B be equal, the Quantity C willhave the lame Proportion to
v
A
as to B.
Dejnon
220
If the
The Elements of
Demovfl ration.
Euclid.
Quantity
C had a greater proportion
would contain a certain Part of A, oftner than the like Part aliquot muft be of B which Part therefore of lefs than the like aliquot Part ot B, and conwould be lefs than the Quantity fequently
to A, than to B,
it
•,
A
i]
A
;;..
B, which
is
contrary to the Suppofltion.
lei
PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
The
greater
VIII.
00l
an
ill
Proportion the fame Quantity has a lejfer Proportion than to the lefs. the
greater,
has a greater of two giiavtities than the lefs ^ and to the fame,
to
AS
k
tB D
GI
the
SUppofe Quantities AB
and
par'd
C
be
com
E
MllF
the with and that fameEF,
AB
exceeds C.
I
will have a greater proportion fay, that to EF, than C will have to the fame. Cutoff EF in the Middle, equal to C, and divide one Half in the Middle, and fo on, and again come to an aliquot Part of EF lefs till
AB
AD
you
thanDB, asGF.
Demon'
The
Fifth
Booh
221
has the fame
Dcffionftrafion.
AD and C
being equal,
AD
to EF, (by the 7.) and proportion to EF, as an aliquot Part will contain therefore of EF, as ott as C will contain the fame, (by
C
AD
GF
Dtfn. 5.) But AB contains the fame aliquot D art once more than AD, 'DB being greater han GF ^ therefore (by Defin. 6,) the proporion of AB to EF is greater than that of C to he fame EF Secondly, I fay, that EF has a lefs proporto C. Take a certain ali* the fourth, of C, as oft as you juot Part, as :an in EF, which fuppofe to be five times ;
ibn to
AB, than
fomething of the Quantity EF,or nothing ^ nothing rcmain,it is evident, that five times the fourth Part of AB making a greater Line than fo many times he fourth Patt of C, the fourth Part, of AB •ould not be five times contained in EF. But f the fourth Part of C, taken five times reach 00 farther than G, the fourth Part of AB
either there
will remain
if
:aken fo
many
AB,
ar as F, or to I, •each as far as F,
times will proceed either as fomething fhort of F,.. If it
portion to
as
edivg Part)
EF
EF will have the fame proEG to C. But (by the pre*
•
2 } than
1
EG
EI
to the
has a greater proportion to fame C therefore EF has
greater proportion to C, f the fourth Part of
AB
than to AB. But reach no farther
han
I,
will have the
fame proportion to
P
AB
i 2
2
TA* Elements of Euclid.
to C. But EI has a greater proC, than EG to C^ therefore EF greater than EI, has a greater proportion .to C, than the fame EF to AB
AB as EG
portion {to
PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
Quantities that have the *^ther Qiiantity, or to
IX.
fc
w
fame Proportion
to
ano
which another ^uantit) has the fame Proportion, are equal
F
; b, c,j
j
and B have the Quantities the fame proportion to a third
I
A
lfi
sal
Quantity C,
equal
fay,
A
and
B
are
re
Demonflration.
If one or the two, v.g. B,
it
A were greater than
would have a greater proportion to the Quantity C, (by the i .) which is contrary to
theSuppofition. Secondly, if the Quantity C has the fame proportion to the Quantities A and B I fay A and B are equal. For if A were greater than B, C would have a greater proportion to the
\
Quantity B, than to A, (by
the 8.)
which
is
alfo contrary to the Supposition.
P RO
The Fifth Book.
223
PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
'he
X,
another
{ghiantity that has the greater Proportion to is the greater Quantity ^ and that the
lejfer, to
which that other Quantity has the
greater Proportion.
F
.
fame C ^ I fay A is For if A and B, Were e" ;reater than B. ual, they would have both the fame proporon to C and if A were iefs than B, B would
lan
has a greater the Quantity to the Quantity C, Proportion
A
A
.
B. C.

B
to the
•,
ave a greater proportion to C, than to the ime C 1 both which are contrary to the Suprfition.
A
ian B.
ave the
lefs
)th
)s'd
For if A and B, were equal, C would fame proportion to both, (by the 7.) nd if A were left than B, C would have
Secondly, if C has a greater proportion to than to A, I fay that A will be greater
which
proportion to B than to (by the S.) are contrary to what was fup
A
P
2
PRO
124
The Elements of Euclid.
PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
Proportio7is
XL
that ate equal to another y
are alfo e
qual amovgfl themfelves.
A, 4, 2
I
B

5
C,
D
5
LF.I
.j
T F A
L
•,
b, 4, 6, ?
D
•
has the fame pro portion to B, as C t(
F
'
%
and
C
the
to F I fay that will hav* portion to D,as E fame proportion to B, as E to F. the
A
fame pro
<
for
Demovftration,
C
has the fame proportion to B, a will contain any certain aliquo to Part of B, as oft as C contains the like ali
Since
A
Si
D
•,
A
Andinlik quot Part of D, (by Defrih. 5.) manner as oft as C contains that aliquot Par of D, fo oft will E contain the like aliquc
So that as oft as certain aliquot Part of B, fo
Part of F.
i
jfl
A
contains an
1
^
times alf r;< will E contain the like aliquot Part of I ^ Therefore has the fame proportion to B, a f
many
A
EtoF.
A(
PRO
The
Fifth
Boob
225
PROPOSITION
A
[j
XII.
THEOREM.
one Antemany Quantities be proportional, cedent will have the fame Proportion to his Antecedents taken toConsequents as all the taken together. gether to all the Consequents
*•
[
has the fame proportion to B, asC toDj I fay that AandCtacen together will have the fame proto B. portion to B and D, as
FA
u
(2,
B,
3, 12,
A
C, D,
8
Demonjlration.
has the fame proportion to B, as will contain the Quantity } any :ertain aliquot Part of B, as oft as C contains he like aliquot Part of D, (by Defih, 5 ) fU p>ofe the fourth Part. Now the tourth Part \i B and the fourth Part of D, make the
Since
to
A
D
A
burth Part of will h and accordingly ontain the fourth Part of BD, as oft as ontains the fourth Part of B j and the like nay be faid of any other aliquot Parts.
DB
AC
A
Therefore
ts
A hgs AC to BD.
the fame proportion gto B,
P
3
PROp
2^6
The Elements of Euclid.
I
PROPOSITION
A
XIII.
THEOREM.
<
If of two equal Proportions one is greater than tvvf'l\ the other will befo likewife.

A, B: C,
:
—
D
;
EF^i
•:
T F Abas the fame
1
P rc
D
j
:
portion to B, asCt< but a greater propoi
]
I fay, that C. alfi tion to B, than E to F will have a greater proportion to P, than has to F.
Demottjlration.
Since
E
to F,
A has a greater proportion taB tha A will contain a certain aliquot Pai
i
of B, cftner than E contains the like aliquc Part of F> (by Defin. 6.) But C contains like aliquot Part ot D» as oft as contair that of B j becauie has the fame proportio.
A
A
to E, as C to and therefore C contains certain aliquot Part of D, oftner than E cor tains the like aliquot Part of F 5 and corifi
:
D
quently,
C
has a greater proportion to E
(by Defin* 6.)
than
E to F,
PRO
The Fifth Booh.
227
PROPOSITION
A
XIV.
THEOREM.
to
If the frft Quantity has the fame Proportion
accorthefecond, as the third to the fourth ; ding as the firft is greater, or equal, or lefs 7
than the third, thefecond will be greater^ equal, or lefs, than the fourth.
or
has the fame proporC to D I fay' be greater than C, firft, if B will be alfo greater than D.
TFA
1
tion to B, as
Ja^b7c~5
1
•,
—

A
Since
A is greater than
Demovf ration.
C,
A
C
:
will have a to the
greater proportion to B , than B, (by the 8.) But there is the
to B, as of C to therefore C has a greater proportion to D, than C to B, and confequently (by the jo.) B is greater than D. be equal to C, B will be Secondly, if
tion of
A
D
fame fame propor
A
alfo equal to
Since
A
fame proportion of A to B, as of C to the fame B, (by the 7.) But as A to B, fo C to D therefore C has the fame proportion to B, as the fame C to D, and confequently B and D
,
D. Demonf ration. and C are equal, there will be the
are equal, (by the p.)
P 4
Third
32.8
The Elements of Euclid.
Thirdly, if A be lefs than C, B willalfobe lefs than D. Demonf ration. is lefs thau C, A will have a lefs Since
A
proportion to B, thanC, to the fame B,
(by
is to D: therefore is to B, fo the 8.) But as will have a lefs proportion to D, than the will be lefs fame to B, and coniequently
A
C
C
C
B
than D,
(by the io.)
PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
Equhmvtiples,
XV.
and Jimilar A'iquct in thefame Proportion.
Parts,
are
A
I F
*
the Quantities C and
D be
and the Equimultiples of will B, their aliquot Parts $ have the fame proportion to B, as C to D.Divide the Quantity
A
A
F, G, and the Quantity D into Parts equal Becaufe C and D are the Equimultiples to B. of A and B, there will be as many Parts or one, as ot the other. Let the Parts of D therefcie be ? I, K.
C into Parts equal
to A,
v. g.
E,
H
'
E
L
Demcnfration. has the fame Proportion to H, and F to to B, becaufe they are and G to K, as
A
all
The Efth Book.
Therefore (by the 1 2. ) all equal. fo E, F, G, to H, I, K, i. e. fo
Coroli
as
229
A
to B,
C to D.
The fame Numbers of the aliquot two Quantities are in the fame proportion that the Quantities are, For fince E has the fame proportion to H, as C to D and F to I, as C to D^ E and F will have the fame proportion to H and I, as C to D.
Parts of
&<
PROPOSITION.
A
Jf four
XVI.
THEOREM.
alternativelyjo.
Alternate Proportion.
Magnitudes of the fame Kind be proporbe aljo tional, they mil
proporti
A has the fame
on IF toB as C to D,
U
'
and
all
the four Quantities are of the
q U^—%\ — — —

BCD A
—

fame Kind, that is either all Lines, or all Suwill have the or all Solids ^ perficies's, lame proportion to C, as B to D. For if not,
A
fuppofe
A
to have a greater proportion to C,
than
B to
D.
Demonjlration
Since
'tis
fuppos'd,
to
that
A
proportion
C than
B
to
D,
has a greater the Quantity
A
v. g. will contain a certain aliquot Part of oftner than B contains a third a third Part,
C
Part
2$o
The Elements of Euclid.
Part of D. Let therefore contain a third Part of C four times, but B the third Part of only three times , having then divided into four Parts, each will contain one third Part of C$ but B being divided into four Parts, they will not contain each of them a third Part of D$ therefore three Fourths of A v/ill contain three Thirds of C, that is, the whole Quantity C \ but three Fourths of B
A
D
A
not contain three Thirds, or the whole But on the contrary, fince there Quantit}? D. is the fame proportion of to B, as of C to
v/ill
A
D,
there will bealfo the
three Fourths of
A
lame proportion of
to three Fourths of B, as of
C
Fourths of B will be equal to D therefore cannot have a greater proportion to C, than
•,
to B, by the Cor oil. of the \$.) and (by the be equal to C, three 14.) if three Fourths of
I
A
A
B to D,
A
If the
fir
LEMMA.
Proportion to
:,
f
have the fame
the
any Aliquot fecond, as the third to the fow th Part of the firfi will have the fame Proportion to the third as the like Aliquot Pa) t
tbefecend,
foil)
of
to the
th
.
t$ 9
%T
32, 6
If
A has the fame proporD, andE of A, and
A,' B} C,
D
j j
£
?
F.
8.
tiontoB, as C to be an aliquot Part
4J
—r
Fa
like aliquot Part of
C
:
I
The Fifth Book.
I fay*
231
that
to B, as
E F to D.
will have the fame proportion
If E had a greater proportion to B than F to D, E would contain a certain aliquot P^rt of B, oftner than F contains the like aliquot
•
Demorfrathn.
Part of D, and confequentiy,
E taken twice, or four times, would contain an alithrice, than F, taken twice, quot Part of B oftner or four times, contain'd the like alithrice,
quot Part of D.
equal to A, is equal to
an aliquot Part of B, oftner than C contain'd the like aliquot Part of D, and by cona greater proportion fequence A would have to B, that C to D i which is contrary to the
Suppofition.
1
But E taken four times is andlikewifeF taken four times C , therefore A would contain
A
COROLLARY
after his $tb Propofit.
which Euclid places
Invented Proportion. has thejame Proportion to the fecond7 Tf the frf the fecond will have as the third to the fourth
•,
the
fame Proportion
to thefirfi,
as
the
fow th
to the third.
A has the fame proporIFtiontoB,asCtoD* B will
have the fame proportion to A, asDtoC.
A, B h C D,
4
4j8
.
12,24,
g
?
p
?
U.~\3De
232
The "Elements of Euclid.
Demovft ration.
than If B had a greater proportion to to C, B would contain an aliquot part of \ contain dF iuppofe a fourth E, oftner than the fourth Part of C. Let us fuppofethen that B contains eight times the Quantity E^ mufl contain but feven times the Quantity F. Now flnee A has the fame proportion to B, as to D, E will have the fame proportion to
A
D A
D
D
C B as F
(by the
to D,
i
[by the preceding
Lemma,) and
taken eight times will have the fame prop rtion to B, as F taken tight times to D} bur E taken eight times is contain d "in B, therefore F taken eight times muft be
contain'd in
5J E
D, notwithftanding
thereiore
to
what was
fliewn to the contrary,
B
cannot
have a greater proportion
The
c
A, than D to C.
USE.
The Followers
ufe of a
of Ave'rroes feem to have
rrade
manner of Argumentation
not much unlike this, to prove, that the World bad exified from ttermtjy urging
fame proportion between Will of God, and the eternal Production of the World, as between a temporal A£r, and a temporal Effect 9 therefore by a Kind of Alternation, there is the fame proportion of a temporal Ad of the Will, i. e.an Ac~t beginning in Tim?, to an etcriial Effecl j as of an eternal Will to a tern"
that there
is
the
an eternal
^d of the

1
poral
The Fifth Book
Effect. Now it is evident,
233
that the Will, poral an Act of the Will that begins in Time, or cannot produce an eternal Effect 5 therefore
the eternal Acl; of God could not produce an Effect in time. But this Argument is faulty in two RelpeSs; firft, in that it fuppofes it
poiTible for
an
Ad
of Divine Will to begin
in Time, and fecondly , in that it is 5 from alternate P roportion, tho the be of a different Kind or Species.
drawn Terms
PROPOSITION
A THEOREM,
The
XVII.
Divifion of Proportion.
nnded Quantities be proportional, they If compo mil be fo likewife being divided.
IFportion
D,
AB
has the fame proto
AB, B
t
B
as
CD
to
A
will have the fame
proportion to B, as
C
to
D.
Demov.Jlration.
fuppos'd to have the fame proto r> as to D, AB will contain a portion certain aliquot Part of B, as oft as contains the like aliquot Part of D. Now that aliquot Part muft be found as oft in B, as the
Since
is
AB
CD
CD
like
234
The Elements of Euclid.
like aliquot
Part is found in D Therefore from CD, taking away B from AB, and will contain as many aliquot Parts of B, as C contains the like of D, and confequently
D
A
A will have the
toD,
fame proportion to B,
as
C
PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
The Compofitions of
If
will befo likewije
XVIII.
Proportion.
Quantities , hehtg divided, he proportionable y tbey
when compounded.
A, B,
i,
7
h
Q
D,
io, 6.
6,
AB,B*CD,D,
8,
35 16,
Since
D, have the fame proportion to B as CD to D.
alfo will
fame has FA to be the as C to proporti* on AB B
Demonstration.
fuppcs'd to have the fame proto B as C to D, A will contain any portion as oft as C contains the aliquot Part of B, like aliquot Part of D. N6w the Quantity B contains any oi its own aliquot Parts, as oft therefore adas contains the like ot his
A is
D
•,
A, and D to C 7 AB will cdntain any ding Part of B as oft as CD contains the aliquot like aliquot Part of D, and confequently (by the fame proportion Defin 5.) AB will have A C Oto B as CD to D.
B
to
The Fifth Book.
.
23
A
COROLLARY.
C onverfion
of Proportion.
The
If
to
to
AB
D, then
as CD to C. For (by the preceding) : and has the fame proportion to B, as C to {by the CorolL of the 16.) B will have the fame and therefore to C proportion to A, as them, AB will have the fame compounding proportion to A, as CD to C.
A
has the fame proportion to B as AB will have the fame proportion
CD
A
D
D
*,
frequent Ufe of this manner Argumentation in almoft all Parts of the " Mathematicks.
'
"
The
USE.
,
We have
of
PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.'
XIX.
If the Whole be in the fame Proportion, as the Parts that are taken away from them, the Rein ainders will
be alfo hi the fame Proportion.
F
the Quantity
AB
has
'ABTcdTbTd,
16,
J the fame proportion to CD, asl the Part B to the
Part
8
h
4.
2,
A,C^AB,CD,
12, 6, 16,
i,
D,
I
fay,
A
will
have
236
The Elements of Euclid.
as
have the fame proportion to C,
TJimofifiration.
AC to CD.
to
fuppos'd to have the fame proportion therefore alternatively (acCD, B to to the 16. has the lame proportion cording to and by Converfion of Proto B, as ^ to portion ABwill have the fame proportion there to C 5 and again alternatively, A, as to CD, as wj!1 be the lame proportion of
is
AB
as
D
•,
1
AB
CD
D
CD
AB
of
A to C.
c
The
* 1
USE.
c
c
This Proportion is commonly made ufe of of in the Rule of Fellowship. For inftead the Rule of Three tor every parworking by ticular Aifociate or Partner, having done
it
for the reft,
in the laft they aifign the
•
c *
*
c
Remainder of the Gain fuppofing that if there be the fame proportion of the whole. Sum of all the Principals to the whole
Gain, as of the Principal of one Aflociate to Gain 5 there will be alio the fame propoition of the Principal that remains to the Remainder of the Gain. c The 2 b and 2 1 Propofitions are not ne«
his Part of
ceffarv.
c c '
*
PRO
The Ffih Booh
23?
PROPOSITION
A THEOREM,
The Proportion of Equality
If divers
XXII.
orderly placed.
Terms be proposed and an equal Numher others compared, whb the.nl, Jo that of thofe
in the
which anfwerto each other
be proportional
•,
fame
the
\j\der
the Firjls and
Lafis wilt
be alfo proportional
F
1
D
the Quantities A, P,C, andthe Quantities D.E.F,
ii 2 ,6
3
26,3,
a ^
.ni
B
1,
F
of
e proportional 5 that is, it to there be the fame proportion of to E, and of B to C as of E to F^
A
as
A will
as
alfo have the fame proportion to C, toF.
t)e?jionfiratioii.
D
If to F,
A has a greater proportion to C than D A will contain an aliquot Part, v. g. the
D
can contain the Ialf of C, oftner than Let us fuppoie then the Halt of Half of F. C to be contain'd twelve Times in A,' and the
td the Quantity B will contain the Half of F, C ? as oft as E contains the Halt of F Sup^
i
caufe
Half of F only eleven Times in D. B has the fame proportion to
Now
C
as
be
E
Q,
'pofa
2^8
The Elements of Euclid.
.
pofe then thofe Halves to be contain'd fix Times in each, Band E. A* which contains the Half c f C twelve times, will have a greater proportion to B, which contains the fame Half of C fixtimes^ than D which contains! the Half of F eleven times only, to E, which contains the fame Half of F fix times $ andj have a greater proportion confegaently A will to B, than D to E, which is contrary to what
j
fras fuppos'd.
PROPOSITION
A
The
XXIIL
THEOREM.
plac'd.
Proportion of Equality diforderly*
be in the farie Propor If tiro Orders of Term, d iforderly plac'd: the fir avd the kj ft tkiij
of both Orders
will be ProjportMtal.
AJB CD,E,F.G,
}
12,6,3. 8,4,2.1.
and IF the others D,
equal in
the Quantities, A, B,(
Number,
E, f be in th
A has the fame B to C, as D to E A will have the fam proportion to C, as D to F, Suppofe B to hav
if
fame^ proportion,
diforderly plac'd, that i\ proportion to B, as E to t
:
and
thefiame proportion to Cl as
F
to G.
th
The Fifth Book:
Demonfiration.
23$
Since there is the fame proportion of to as of E to F, and of B to C, as of F to p, has the fame proportion to C, as E to G G, (by the 22.) Further, fince B has the fame
,
A
A
and alfo as F to fame proportion to E ? as F to G, (by the it.) and alternatively, (according to the 16.) D will have the fame proportion to F, as E to G. Now we have before prov'd , that as E to G, f A to Cj
proportion to C, as
D to E,
Gj
D will have
the
:herefore, as
A to C,
fo
D to
F.
PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
XXIVi
If the firft Quantity\ha% the fame Proportion to
:
the fecond, as the third to the fourth $ anl. alfo the fifth to the fecond, ajthe fixth to the fourth: the firft with the fifth will have the
fame Proportion
to the fecond, with the fixth has to the fourth.
as the third
to IF B,
s
F
has the fame proportion as C to D, and E to B, to will have the
A
ffi
F
2 > 9>
%
D
•,
AE
ame proportion
to B, as
CF
67
A»B,QD,
Since
A
Demoyfiration*
has the fame proportion to B, as
Q
2
id
240
to
The Elements of Euclid.
aliquot Part of B, like aliquot Part of l)t(byt)efin 5.) In like manner, E will contain the fame aliquot Part of B, as oft as F will and fo that contains the like of
D,
A will contain any
C contains the
as oft as
D
,
A
E
contain any aliquot Part of B, as oft as C and F contain the like aliquot Part of * therewill have the fame proportion to B, fore
D
AE
as
CF
to
D.
— —uJ—L—i*
i
v
r
PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
are
XXV.
the
proportional, tffour Magnitudes and the leaji will exceed the other two.
greatejl
the four Magnitudes AB CD E, F, be proportional 8, £ and AB the greateft and F th ea ftj AB ail(i F w iU exceec f'I A,t\E CD and E. Since AB has thi fame proportion to CD as E to F, and AB fuppos'd greater than E, CD will be alfi
B,D,
1
TF
?
'
"
'•
i
D
of
greater than F, (by fore fo, that the
the
AB
14.)
Divide there
equal to Ft, and fo, may be equal to F.
C
CD
Magnitude
that the
A may
I;
b<
Magnitud<
Since
A to
AB has the fame proportion
B will alfo have
Demonjlration,
to
CD at
C,
the fame proportion
The Fifth Booh
to D, as
241
AB
to
CD,
(by the 19.^
will be greater and E, which are equal, be added F and C, which are alfo equal, and F will be equal t© C and E h and adding to the two firfl: B, which is the greater, and
fuppos'd greater than than D. Now if to
CD, B
And AB being
A
A
to the
!
two
laft
F
will be greater than
'
D, which is the leiler, CD and E.
The
AB and
USE.
1
By
r
this
r Property
r whereby
PropoCtion is demonftrated a of Geometrical Proportionality,
diftinguilhed
from that which' For in this latter the. * two middle Terms are equal to the two Ex' treams*, but in the former, (as has been r prov^d,) the greateft and the leaft exceed the r two others.
it is
iscall'd Arithvietical.
Tho' the nine following Propofitions are not Eacli d's , yet, becau'fe many make ute of them, and quote them as if they were his, I thought I ought not to omit them.
*
Q.3
PR<
242 * 
The Elements of Euclid.
PROPOSITION
!
i
XXVI,

A THEOREM.
has a greater Propoition to the fecoiti Jf the frft than the third to the fourth, the fourth will have a greater Proportion to the third than
the fecoid to thefirjr.
fi
I
1
F A has
to
B
a greater proportion
than
C to D, D
will have
I
a greater proportion to
to A. Suppofe E proportion to Bas
than B to have the fame
C
A
f;
C
to
D, A
will be greater than E, (by the 10J Demonfration. There is the fame proportion of
of
E to B, a* therefore (by the Corollof the i&. has the fame proportion to C, as B to E. But B has a greater proportion to E than tc
€ to D:
t
D
1
has a greater proporA,(fy the 8 ) therefore P tion to C, than B to A.
k
D
i
PRO
The Fifth Booh
' 1

243

PROPOSITION,
A THEOREM.
XXVII.
If the fir has a greater Proportion to the fecottd ft than the third to the fourth, the firft will alfo have a greater Proportion to the third than
thefecond to the fourth.
*•
will have a greater propor E. tion to C than B to D. Let E have the fame proportion to B, as C to in that Cafe muft be greater ^ than E.
A
F A has a greater to B than C to D,
!
proportion I fay that
9/4'
6, 3,
A,B*C,D,
&
D
A
Demonftration,
has the fame proportion to B, as C to D: therefore (by the 16.) E has the fame proportion to C, as B to D. And becaufe A is greater than E, the proportion of A to G will be greater than that of E to C. Thererore the proportion of to C, is greater than that
E
A
ofBtoD.
Q.4
PRO
244
The Eh went s of Euclid.
PROPOSITION
XXVIII.'
I
A THEOREM.
has a greater Proportion to the feIf the ftft cond than the third to the fourth, thefrft aid thefecond will have a neater Proportion ta
thefecond, than the
the fourth.
third
and the fourth
tat,
I F
*
A, ii,C,D
3.
the proportipn of to B le greater than that of C to I),
A
the proportion of
alfo be greater to D. Suppofe
AB
to
B
will
than that of CD E to have the fame
proportion to B, as
C tp D.
C
to
De?nopJlratiott.
the fame proportion to B, as D: therefore (by the 18.) EB has the to And proportion to B, as
.
E has
fame
being
con*
greater than
EB,
CD D AB will have a
:
AB
greater pro
portion to B, than EB to the fame
B
;
and
frrmemly than
CD
to D.
PRO
The Fifth Book.
245
PROPOSITION
ATHEOREM.
If the
firft
XXIX.
with the Jecond has a greater Prothan the third with the fecond, portion to the fourth the the firft will have* fourth
to
•,
a greater Proportion to the fecond,
third to the fourth.
than the
1 F
*
the proportion of AB to B be greater than the proporto D,the proportion tion of ef A to Bwill be alfo greater
9,4;
CD
than that of C to D. Suppofe EB to have the fame proportion to B, as to D then EB will be lefs than AB, and lefs than A.
:
CD
E
Demonfiratioju
Since
EB
CDtoD,
has the fame proportion to B, as dividing them, E will have the
fame proportion to
to D, (by the 17 .) E, the proportion of to B will be greater than that of E to the fame B, and confequently than that of C %o D.
B
as
C
And
A
A being greater than
246
The Elements of Euclid,
PROPOSITION
ATHEOREM,
If
the Proportion
XXX.
of the
firft
the fecond, be greater than with the fourth to the
with the fecond to that of the third
•,
the Proportion fourth with the to the firjl^ will firjl of fecond be lefs than that of the third with the fourth to the third.
the
A,B J* 4
.
.
c, £5
DJ
3J
lefs
*"
A
will be
be greater than that of CD to D, the proportion of AB to than that of CD to C.
Demonfration.
A
TF the proportion of AB
to
B
proportion of AB to B is fuppos'd to be greater than that of CD to therefore to B will be the 29.) the proportion of (by greater than that of C to D ^ and (by the 26.) to C will be greater than the proportion of
The
D A
:
D
that of
B to
A
j
therefore being
(by the 28) the proportion of to A. be greater than that of
CD
compounded to C, will
AB
PRO*
S
The Fifth Book,
247
PROPOSITION
1
XXXI.
A THEOREM.
are in a greater Proportion If many Quantities among themfelves, than an equal Number of
ner
other ghiantities, placed after the fame manthe frfi of the frfi Order will be in a 1
to the lajl of that Order , greater Proportion than the fijt of the fecond Order to the lafi
of
that,
IFAhasagreaterproportion to B, than D
to
E
j
and
portion
B a greater proto C, than E to F
A, B, C,D,E,F, JJj^io, 3[i9,6, 2.[
~*
5
greater proportion to C, than
A will D to F.
have a
Demonjlration.
D
has a greater proportion to B than to E, A will alfo have a greater proportion to than B to E, and becaufe B has a greater proportion to C than E to F, B will alfo have a greater proportion to E than C will have a greater, protoF. Therefore than C toF^ and alternatively portion to will have a greater proportion (by the 27.) to F. toG, than
Since
A
D
A
D A D
PRO
148
The Elements of Euclid.
PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
XXXII.
If many Qjtantities are in greater Proportion among themfelves^ than an equal Number of ether Quantities placed after a different manner y the fijl of the firjl Order will have
,

a greater Proportion to thelafi cf that Order , than thefrji of the fecond Order to the laft of
that Order.
13, 6, 2,
IF A has a greater proporI
A,C,e'
B,
12,
tiontoCthanItoK,and
proportion to
,
F,
H,I,K C a greater
than
E
34, 2,1
H to I A will have a
H to K.
tion to to
C
F
as
H to I
'tis
greater proportion to E,than Suppofe B to have the fame proporas I to and C the fame proportion ?
K
\
then
A will "be
greater than B,
and
F
than E.
Demonftration.
fuppos'd that B has the fame proto F as to C as I to K, and tol* portion will have the fame proportion to F, as has a greater proporto K, (by the 23.) But
Since
C
H
B
H
A
tion to F, than B to the fame F, (by the 8 J and the proportion of A to E is greater than to F, becaufe F is greater than E : that of
A
therefore the proportion of to K. than that of
A
H
to E, is greater
PRO
The Fifth Book.
249
PROPOSITION
If the Whole has
XXXIII.
A THEOREM.
Ifhole than
the Part
a greater Proportion to the taken away bo the Pari
taken away, the Remainder will have a greater Proportion to the Remainder than the Whole to
the Whole.
F AB
I
than B to D, A will have a greater proportion to G than AB to CD.
to
CD
has a greater proportion
A ^ £j^ ~— —
l
l
CD is greater
We fuppofe
Demonftration. that the proportion
of
AB
to
to
than that of
B
to
D;
there*
fore (by the 27.) the proportion of to D: and is greater than that of
AB
B
therefore alternatively, that of CD to C the proportion of AB to CD is lefs than that
•,
50) the proportion
of
CD AB to
(by the
A,
is lefs
than
of
A
to C.
PRO
2^0
The Elements of
E'i:liJ.
PROPOSITION XXXIV.
A THEOREM.
If two Orders
the
1
of Magnitudes be proposed,
mil
to the Proportion of the firfi of the firfi, that of firfi of the fecond, be greater than the fecond to the fecond; and that greater
the. than that of the third to the third, whole firfi Order will have a greater Proportion to the whole fecond, than the whole firft
&c
Order except its firfi Magnitude, to the whole fecond Order except itsfrft Magnitude, But a lefs Proportion than thai of the firfi Magnitude of the firfi Order, to the firfi Magnitude
.
of the fecond andlafily, a greater Proportion than that of the laft Magnitude of the firfi
*,
Order,
to the laft
of the fecond,
112,6.4,4,3,3,1 1A,B, C, E,P,G,
tion of
B
to
F
that greater jr £ tQ p^ ancj t j ie proporI greater than that of C to
]FE be proportion than 1
the
of
A to
:
G
fey, that A, B, C, will have a greater proportion to E, F, G h than the proportion of
BCtoFG.
fupposM the proportion of A to E is greater than that of B to F , and therefore
'Tis
Demonftration.
gu
The Fifth Booh
alternatively, the proportion of of E to F ^ and greater than that
251
A
to
B
to
is
by com
pounding them, the proportion,
•,
ot
•
AB
B
to F and again greater than that of EF the proportion of AB to EF alternatively, And becaufe the greater than that of B to F. of the Whole AB to EF is greater proportion than that of the Part B to the Part F, the to the Reproportion of the Remainder mainder E, will be greater than that of the
A
Whole
I
AB
to the
Whole EF. In
like
manner,
5
may prove the proportion of B to F greater than that of BC to FG, and confequently that of A to E r much greater than that of BC to FG. Therefore alternatively, the proporto BC is greater than that of E to tion of
A
and compounding them, the proportion of A , B, C, to BC, greater than that of E,F,G, therefore the proportion of A, B, G* to FG to E, F, G, will be greater than that of BG
;
:
FG
toFXj.
to E, is Secondly, the proportion of than that of A, B, C, to E, F, G. greater Demovjlratvm. I have demonftrated, that the proportion of the Whole A, B, C, to the Whole E, F, G, is greater than that of the Part BC to the Part FG therefore the proportion of the to the Remainder E, will be Remainder greater than that of the Whole A, B, C, to the
1
A
:
A
Whole, E, F,
G,(bytbe&)
Third'
252
.
The Elefnents of Euclid.
Thirdly, the proportion of A, B, C, to F, G, is greater than of C to G.
Demonjlration.
^
The proportion of
that of
B
to
F
$
that of
A to B is
A to E is greater than and therefore alternatively,
greater than that of
E to F 5
AB to B will be greater than that of EF to F, and again alternatively, that of ABtoEF But the will be greater than that of B to F. proportion of B to F is greater than that of C
to
to therefore the proportion of to 5 and that of greater than that of
and compounding them, the proportion of
(X
AB
EF is
C
G
AB to
G, and therefore 5 the proportion, of A, by compounding them, B, C, to G,will be greater than that of E,F,G, to G * and that of A, B, C, to E, F, ? greater
C greater
than that of
EF to
G
than that of
C to G.
PRO
53
THE SIXTH BOOK
.
OF THE
O

ELEMENTS
F
CLI
~>
His Book begins to apply the Do^
dtrine
in
of
Proportions
in
general
particular Matters 5 the moft Ample Figures, i. e. Triangles, it gives Rules to determine, not only the proportion of their Sides, but alfo that of their
, explain'^ the preceding, to and taking its Rife froni
Capacity, Area, or Superficies. In the next Place we learn from it, how to find out pro* portional Lines, and to augment, or diminifh
any Figure, according to any proportion aflign'd. Here alfo is. demonstrated the moft ufetul Rule of Three, rand the Forty feventh of the Firft extended to any Figure whatfoever. Laftly, it lays; down the moft facile and moft certain Principles to con
dud us in taking any manner
oi
Dimenfions,
R
D
E^
2<j4
21b*
Elements of Euclid.
DEFINITI ONS.
I
.
T3
fimilar, when thei: are equal, and tto Angles Sides, that form thofe Angles
c
XV
Edtilineal Figures ar
proportional.
*
As
the Tri
will b
angles
*
ABC, DEF,
5
fimilar, if the
D,
B and
E,
C and F, be equal
2.
Angles
and
A ant AB ha
DF
the fame pioportion to
and
AB
to
AC, as BC, asDEtoEE.
when
DE
to
b
*
r »
when
Figures are reciproca the}'' may be fo con par'd, that the Antecedent ( one Proportion and the Cor fequent of another are bot
1
* *
found in the fame Figure a the Analogy begins and en< That is, in the fame Figure. As if AB has the fam
evi
CD, as DE to BF. \ Line is divided according to e: 3. tream and middle Proportion , when th whole Line has the farr.
proportion to
jut
A
ICC

——
.
1
A
*
C
proportion
to
the
great<
B
Part, as the greater Part t c the leffer. hi As if
AB
the fame proportion to
AC,
as
AC
to
CB
tl
The Sixth hook
the Line
*>$j
AB is divided
a
according to extream
and middle Proportion. 4 TheHeighth of any Fi.
gure
{
is
Perpendicular
its
lrawn from
its
Sum miry
to
Bafe.
'
As
in the Trian

gles
ABC, EFG,
thePer
« F GB »
c
pendiculars
AD
and EH,
within or without the
whether
they
fall
Triangles, are their Heights. Fierce it follows, that all Triangles and Parallelograms,
that have
equal Heights, may he placd within the fame Parallels. For having fet
their Bafes
pendiculars
5
)f
.
EA and HC will be Parallels.
upon the Line HC, if the PerDA and HE be equal, the Lines
is faid
A
proportion
others,
many
when
to be compounded the * Quantities of
hofe proportions being multiply'd, make c nother. To underftand the true Intent of
this Definition, it
every proportion,
mufi be obfery'd, that at leaft every t rational
proportion, takes its Denomination from a certain Number, denoting that Refpect or Relation that the Antecedent of the propor*6
tion bears to the Confequent.
As
if
two
Magnitudes were proposed, one of twelve Foot in Length, and the other of fix we mould call that proportion of 12 to 6 the
•
* Demminators.
f
Exprcflible by true
Kum'ers,
*
R
2
double
256
The Elements of Euclid.
double proportion. In like manner, if 4 and 12 were propos'd, we mould give that
the
its
Name
Denominator
of fubtriple proportion, { being importing as much as,
,
that the proportion of 4 to 12, is the fame as that of ~ to Unity, or as one to three. This Denominator is call'd the ^iianuty ot\l
Suppofe therefore three 12, 6, and 7\ the firft of 12 to 6 being double, its proportion
Proportion.
the
Terms were given,
Denominator
is
two,
the fecond of
6
to
V
2 being Triple, its Denominator is three$ the proportion therefore of 1 2 to 2 is faid to be compounded of that of 12 to 6, and of 6 to 2, the double and the Triple pro
k
an
To find therefore the Denomina a portion. K tcr of the proportion of 12 to 2, multiplj
r
three by two, and the Product 6 will fhou the proportion of 1 2 to 2 to be fextiiple to fix. This is that whicl f. e. as one is
Mathematicians
*
c
commonly underftand
though
call'd
.11
1
bj
'it
compound Proportion,
it
might more properly have been ^portion multiply 'd.
methink: Pro
"8
h
PRO
The Sixth Booh
257
A
2
58
equal to ing equal among themfelves are the aliquot Parts of the Triangle DEM. As oit there contains thofe aliquot lore as the Bale of EM, fo oft does tho Triangle AGC Parts contain the aliquot Parts of the Triangle DE
ThelElements of Euclid. which be thofe contain'd in ,
1
DEM
GC
i
M
will happen in every Diviflor h which alfo whatfoever therefore the Triangle AGC ha: the fame proportion to the Triangle DEM, a; the Bafe GC to the Bafe EM.
:
Mow
fame
.
Parallelograms,
defcrib'd
upon th
v.
Bafes.
and
inclos'd
between the fam
Parellels, are double the Triangles, (by th 41 1 .) therefore they are in the lame propoi tion as the Trangles, 2. e. as their Bales.
Tie USE.
not only ferviceablei thofe that follow, but alio demcnftrating great life in dividing large Fields, or Plain As for Example, fuppofe you were to tal 4 the third Part of the Tr
is
<
c
This Proportion
ill
c
i
i
c
*
4
pezhm ABCD, having tl Sides AD and BG parallel
t
F
1
•
c
*
"
and taking BG tl AD, third Part of BE, draw AG, I fay the Tr 5
'
produce the Line BC to E,#i i that CE may be equal
&
angle
1
AEG is the third Part of the Trapeziv
to
1
t
ABCD,
I
J
The Sixth Booh
Demonflration.
*
259
are Equiare
The Triangles ADF, and ;FCE,
angular, becaufe the Lines Parallels 5 and their Sides
:
AD
and
and
AD
CE CE
arc
the Trianequal the Triangles are equal, and confequently gle ABE, is equal to the Trapezium ABCD. is the third Part of But the Triangle
therefore (by the
26. 1.)
iS
ABG
(
the Triangle
ABE,
fore the Triangle
ABG
by the preceding) thereis
the third Part of
the Trapezium
ABCD.
PROPOSITION
ATHEOREM.
A
divides
II.
Line drawn in a Triangle parallel to its Bafe, and the Line its Sides proportwially,
Sides
that divides the
of a Triangle proporti
to its Bafe. onally , will be parallel
<
F
Bafe
iwill
z.
in the Triangle
I" Line
DE
ABC the be parallel to the
BC,
the Sides
AB
and
AC
be divided proportionally. will have the fame to proportion to DB, as AE, the Lines DC and EC, Draw
e.
AD
Triangles DBE, and ECD, having the fame Bafe DE, and being enclos'd within4
BE.
The
R
s6o
(by the 37.
The Elements of Euclid.
in the fame Parallels
1.)
DE
and BC,
are equal
DejnGvftratioTi.
The
Triangles
ADE
and
DEE
fame Height E, and taking
their Bafes they
AD
have the and DB for
may be plac'd within the Line AB, and another Parallel to it drawn through the Point E, and confequently have the lame proportion as their Bates, (by the il 2. e. the Triangle ADE has the fame proportion to the Triangle DBE, or its Equal CED. as AD to DB But the Triangle ADE ha< like wife the fame proportion to the Triangle CED, as AE to EC, and therefore AL) has the
1
fame proportion
to
DB,
as
AE
to
to
EC
Secondly, frppofe I fay to DB proportion to EC. as Lines DE, and BC will be Parallels.
:
AE AD
have the farm
th(
Demoyjlration.
AD
has the
ADE to the Triangle to DEB,(fl the i ) and AE has the fame proportion DC, as the Triangle ADE to the Triangl<
the Triangle
tc
fame proportion
to
DB,
a
CLDi
and conic quently the Triangle ADI has the fameproportion to the Triangle 1 EB has to the Triangle CED as the fame Therefore (y the 9. 5.) the Triangles BDI and CED, are equal, and (by the 29. \ ) be uveen tie fame Parallels. Therefore th
ADE
t
Lines
>
LE and EC are
1
arallels.
Th
The Sixth Book.
The.
261
necelTary
U
is
S E.
'This Propofirion
t
•
abfolutely
for the
It
Demonftration of thofe that follow.
may
c
lions
•
As
'
•
were to meafure the Height of BE ^ having creeled a Staff or Pole DA, there will be the fame proportion of CD to DA, as of
alio b« ferviccable in taking in the following Figure,
Dimenif you
'BCtoEE.
PROPOSITION
A
two
Pai
ts
III.
THEOREM.
Triangle into
into
A Line that divides an Angle of a
equal Paits,
divides its
Eafe
two
which have the fame
Proportion as the
Sides.
And
if
it
Pai ts yrovdHional to the Sides, the Angle into two equal Parts.
divide the Baje into two it will divide
I F
1
the Line
AD
divide the Angle
equal Parts, will have the fame proportion to
BAC into two
AB
AC as BD to DC.
CA,and
The
two
Produce the Side take A.E equal to AB^
Demonjlration.
then draw the Line EB.
external
Angle
5
internal Angles
1
CAB is equal AEB and ABE:
.
to the
which
being equal,
by the
1
.
)
becaufe the Sides
AE
262
The Elements of Euclid.
AE and AB are equals the Angle BAD, which is the Half of BAG, will be equal to one of them, fuppofe ABE: therefore (by the 27. 1.) the Lines AD and EB are parallel, and (by the 2.) there is the fame proto . portion of EA or AB to AC, as of if AB has the fame Secondly, proportion to AC as BD to DC, the Angle BAC will be
DB
DC
divided into two equal Parts.
DemoTiJlrathn*
AB
AC,
as parallel
or
EB and AD are and (by the 29. 1.) the alternate Angles EBA and BAD,asalfo the internal BE A and the External DAQwill be equal and the
:
EA has BD to DC
5
the fame proportion to
therefore
:
Angles
fore the
BEAand EBA
Angle
BAD an&DAC
equal Parts.
BAC
being equal,the Angles will be alfo equal. Therewill be diviaed into two
The USE.
*
*
make Ufe of this Proportion chiefly to find the proportion of the Sides oi Tri'
'
We
angles.
PRO
The Sixth Book
r
263
PROPOSITION.
A THEOREM.
The. Sides of equiangular Triangles
portional,
IV.
are pro~
IF DCE, be equiangular,
if the
the Triangles
ABC
and
i.
e.
Angles ABC and DCE, BAC and CDE be equal, AB
will have the fame proporto CE, and B tion to BC as will have the fame proportion to alfo
DC
AC as DE to
CB
EC. Joyn the Triangles after fuch a manner, that the Bales BC and CE may be upon the fame Line, and produce the Sides
,
BA and ED till they meet in F fince the Angles 'ACB and DEC are equal, the Lines AC and EF are Parallels, (by the 28. 1.) and by the fame Reafon CD andBF are Parallels, and therefore AFDC is a Parallelogram.
De?nonftration.
In the Triangle BFE,
FE
is
parallel to
AC, therefore (by the 2.) proportion to AF, or, which
CD,
as
AB
BC
to
CE
has the fame is equal to it,
as
:
and alternatively, AB has
to
the fame proportion
BC,
CD
to
CE.
In
264
The Elements of Euclid.
In like manner in the fame Triangle,
ing parallel to BF, proportion to DE, as
CD be
FD or AC
,BD
to
has the fame
CE,
{by the 2 )
and alternatively,
tion to
AC has
CE.
the fame propor
BC,
as
DE to
The
USE.
it
This Propofition isfo of general life, that may pais for a moil univerfal Principle in taking all manner of Dimenfions. For in
place all the Methods of meafuiing inaccejfible Lines, by defcribing a fmall Trifimilar to that which is form'd upon
firft
'
the
angle
it, as alfo the of thofe mathematical Ivftruments, upon which are defoiVd Triangles, fimiliar to thofe of which we defire to take the Dimenfions, as the Geometrical Square^
the ground,
preatefl:
is
founded upon
Part
the
Sec.
Pantometer,
the Arbaleft or
Crqfsftaff,
Nor could we knew how to raife the Plane of any Place, but by the Help thereof.
So that in
fine,
to
it
this Propofition,
unfold all the Ufes of would be neceffary to
firft
tranferibe the
whole
Book of
frafiical
Geometry.
PRO
The S:xth Book.
265
PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
Triangles,
V.
which
have proportional Sides, are
equiangular.
IF Triangles DEF have proportional
Sides,
the
ABC and
has the
A
^
I
e.
if
AB
fame proportion to
DE. to EF \ anr alfo fame proportion to
BC as B AB the
c£
<j
^
AC
as
DE to DF,
FEG
to the
the Angles and DEF, D, C and F, will be equal. Make the equal to the Angle B, and
ABC
A and
Angle
equal
EFG
Angle C.
Demonjlration.
ABC and EFG hare two Angles equal, therefore (by CorolL 2. of the 32. 1.) they are equiangular*, and (by the 4.) Aft has the fame proportion to BC as GE to EF. Now 'tis fuppos'd, that DE has the
The
Triangles
fame proportion
fore
to
EF
as
AB
to
BC,
there
DE
EG to DE and EG are equal. After the fame manner DF may be prov'd equal to FG, and con* the Triangles DEF ) fequently (by the 8. and GEF are equiangular. But the Angle GEF
1
has the fame proportion tp EF as EF, and cenfequently (by they. 5.)
was
266
The Elements of
to
Euclid.
the
was made equal
B,
therefore
Angle
DEF DFE
is equal to the Angle B, and the Angle and confequently, the to the Angle C
•,
Triangles
ABC and DEF
are equiangular.
PROPOSITION
A
VI.
'
THEOREM.
T) tangles, which have each one of their Angles
the other, and the Sides com* equal to one of that Angle Proportional, are equiaUtahring
gidar.
and tfeefg. the Triangles B and E equal, preced~\ have the Angles has the fame proportion to and the Side and to EF, the Triangles as Make the Angle will be equiangular. and the Angle EFG equal to the Angle B,
ABG
DEF
IF
t
AB
BC
DE
ABC
DEF FEG
equal to the Angle
C
Demonjlration.
The Triangles
(by Coroll.
ABC
2.
and
the
GEF
are equian*
fore (iytfee 9
of gular has the fame proportion to BC, fo is EF (by the 4.) But as has the fame proporroJEF, therefore to the fame EF h and theretion to EF as are e 3 ual > and
AB
32. 1.) therefore to to BC, as
AB
GE DE
DE
GE
*•)
DE
EG
and the Triangles DEF Angles DEF and GEF, D
and GFE, having the
each equal to the
Angle

The Sixth Book.
167
Angle B, and the Sides DE and FG equal, with the Side EF common to both, will be the 4, 1 .) therefore equal in all Refpe&s, (by will be equiangular ^ and the Tiiangle they
EGF being equiangular to ABC,the Triangles ABC and DEF are equiangular.
The Seventh Propoftion
is
of no Ufe.
PROPOSITION VIII.
A THEOREM.
A Perpendicular,
drawn from the right Angle of a rectangular Triangle to the oppojite Side, di*
it.
videsthe Triangle into two others fimilar to
drawn from the IF
the Perpendicular
BD
he
right Angle to the oppofite Side AC, it will divide the rectangular A" into two TrianTriangle
ABC
ABC
which will be fimilar gles or equiangular to the Triangle ABC.
De?no7iftration.
ADB and BDC,
Triangles
ABC and ADB have the fame Angle A, and the Angles ABC and ADB
The
right Angles, therefore they are Equiangular, (byCoroll 2. of the 32. 1.) In like manand have the ner, the Triangles
BDC
ABC
Angle
C common
ABC
and
BDC
and the Angles right Angles ^ therefore they
to
both,
alio
268
The Elements of
and
Euclid.
I
alio are equiangular
Therefore the Triangle's
:f
ABC, BDC,
c
ADB,
The
USE.
are iimilar. Triangles.
I
Help of this Proportion inacceffible liftances may be meaiur'd by a Carpen
By
s
the
ter
Square.
As
tor
Example,
It I
were to
meafure the Diftance
DC
I
.,
having
drawn
A
the Perpendicular Bi), and plac'd Square upon the Point Bin 'filer) a m.aimr, that
my
BC I could obferve the the other the Point by 'tis evident, there would be the fame proto DC. to DB, as of portion of Therefore multiplying DB by it felf, and dividing the Product by AD, the Quotient
by oneoj
Point
its
Sides
C) and
A
:
,
AD
DB
m
j
^
would be DC.
PROPOSITION
A PROBLEM.
from a Line givsn
to cut off
IX.
i
what Part you pleafs,
F
T
ET
the Line
propos'd
,
J
t!
X'j be AB, from which defire to take away 3 you fifth Parts. Make an Angle FXD, and upon one of its
Sides
Parts, three of
me
n;
CD
take five; equal
iri
til
which fhall be contained
CF:
The Sixth Book

$$$
»
then taking CE eijual to AB, dratv the Line DE r and another parallel to that FG j :he Line CG will contain three fifth Parts of
!F
:
:£,
<r
AB.
Demonjlration,
In the Triangle ECD, FG being parallel to hp Bafe DE, CF will have the fame proporion to FDas CG to GE, (by the 2.) arc compounding them (by the 18. 5) CE will have" he fame proportion to CG as CD to CF * and the Coroll of the 16. 5.) CG will have the 'by ame proportion to CE as CF to CD. But 3F contains three Fifths of CD, therefore CG
/ill
contain three Fifths of
CE or AB.
**sr
PROPOSITION
A PROBLEM.
To divide a Line after the ther Line given
is
X.
*
fame manner
divided;
as atto\
the [F Line AB
you would divide
after the
~
•
ame manner
livided,
as
AC
*^'C t&X
\
I
is
make with
**cil_i
\
\
the
wo Lines the Angle
>f
L what Magnitude you X>»''£ then draw the )leafe: LineBC, and parallel to it the Lines EO, TV* and S
CAB
^V^tl^4> B
.Ljjj'H
2 fO
The Elements of Euclid. and the reft. The Line AB will be after the fame manner that AC is.
divided
and AC proportionally (by the 2.] fame may be faid of all the reft. To do this more eafily'you may draw th< Line BD parallel to AC, and transferring the Divifionsof AC^toBD, draw Lines from one
Sides and the
Demonftrathn, is drawn Since in the Triangle BAC, to the Bafe BC, it will divide the parallel
HX
t
AB
I
to the other.
PROPOSITION
A PROBLEM.
Two Lif@ s
XI.
being given to fid a third Proportional
et
*
I
F you
find a thirc Proportional to the Line
would
T,
4
tion of AB to BC, as to the Line fought h
ABand BC, i. e. thatthep may be the fame Propoi
ofBC
ED
and upon one AE and BC, one immediately after the other; and upon the other Side take AD equal toBC then draw the Line BD, and parallel to it the Line CE and the Line DE will be that which
*,
at pleafure the Angle of its Sides take the Lines
mab EAC
A!
br
you feek.
m
I
The Sixth Book.
Demojijlratlon.
271
In the.Triangle E AC the Line DB is parallel the Bafe CE, therefore (by the 2 J there is ilhe fame proportion of AB to BC, as of AD
I
ji
LrBCtoDE.
PROPOSITION
A PROBLEM.
fa'es
XII.
Lines being given to fold a fourth
portionah
£<?•
f l_j .propos'd, to which you re to find a fourth Propdrional,
ET
the
three Lines
A
c
*><
"
B
§ZT^ r
be
AB,BC, and DE.
/lake at pleafure the
the Lines and to DE ; C, and upon AF the \lm equal icn draw the Line DB, and parallel to it FC:
AC, and take upon
AC
Angle
^L
B
AB
AD
;
fay, that DF is the Line fought, u e. there the fame proportion of AB to BC as of
DE
r
AD
to
DF.
Demonjlration.
d
In the Triangle F AC the Line DB is parallel the Bafe FC there is therefore the fame to DF, (by ropcrtion of AB to BC, as of
=,
AD
>*2.)
2
Tf»
2 j2
c
c
<
The Elements of Euclid. The USE.
of the Co?npafs of Proportion
i
The Ufe
grounded upon thefe four Proportions, fc that Inftrument teaching us to divide a Lin
as we pleafe, to make ufe of the Rule ofthre without the help of Arithmetic^ to extrai the ftjuale^ arid cubick Roots, to double th Cube } to meafure all forts of Triangles ; t find the Capacity of Superficies's, and theSc lidity of Bodies and to augment or diminif!
r,
<
«
4
c
1
*
c
any Figure, according
delire^ all thefe
to
what proportion w
El
Operations are demonftratei
n
'
by
the preceding Proportions.
PROPOSITION
APROBLEM.
Two
Lines being given to
ajfign
XIII.
a middle Pt b
LV
lie
portionah
JT
TF
you
defire
t
a
midd
betwec
to
JL Proportional the Lines LV,
and
VK
f<
yr~\ having
that
—v
'V
plac'd
them
***
right that Line into
they make Line LR,
defcrib'd
but 6r
divic
equj
two
Parts in
M,
and having
a Sem
die
I
The Sixth Booh
275
from the Center, draw the Perircle pendicular VT, which will be a middle Pro* and VR. Draw the )ortional between
LTR
LV
^ines
LT, andTR.'
m
Demoyjlration.
The Angle LTR,
nicircle, is
being defcrib'd in a Se~
a right Angle, (by the. 31.3.) and are and the 8.) the Triangles by therefore there is the fame proporimilar*
LVT
TVR
LV to VT in the Triangle LVT, as VT to VR in the Triangle TVR (by the 4) ierefore VT is a .middle Proportional beween LV and VR.
ion of
f
9
The
c
USE.
any rectangular Pabe reduc'd to a Square. For rallelogram may Example, in the Re&angle contained under LVand VR. the Square of VTls equal to
By
this Prcpofition
,
the Rectangle under hereafter demonftrate.
LV
and
VR
•,
as I fhall
Sj
PRO:
274
The Elements of Euclid.
I;
K
PROPOSITION.
A THEOREM.
equiangular £gi/^Z Sides reciprocal
XIV.
r
have
the]
Parallelograms
,
and equiangular
Parallel*
a\
grams, which have their Sides reciprocal,
equal

b c
D
H
£
'
F
*•
M
the Parallelograms
L
to
an
ar
r
[,
be
i.
equiangular
e.
equal,
thejr Sides will be
M
ciprocal,
CD
will hai
FG
the
as
1
fame proportion to FD. to DS* .Since
D
thi
t
have equal Angles, they
gether, that the Sides XB, will concur in two
Coroll.of^the is>
I.)
CD
may ire'To
join'd
and DE,
FD
ar
right Lines,
(byt
AB arid logram BDEH.
Sides'
producing therefore t! GE, you compleat the Parall
Demonjlrathn*
^The Parallelograms
L and M
being
equ;
will have the fame proportion to the Paral i But the proportion of L logram
BDEH
is as
BDEH,
the Bafe
the Bafe
or
CD to
the Bafe
D
\
and that of
M,
DFGE,
to
FD
to the Bafe
DB
BDEH,
is
(by the
Thej
The Sixth Book.
I Therefore
275
CD
has the fame proportion, to
IDE, asFD toDB.
Ibe
jprocal,
Secondly, if the Parallelograms L and equiangular, and have their Sides recithey will be equal.
De?no7tfiratio7U
M
The Sides of
(proportion but as the Bafe
rallelogram
(by the 1.)
Ipos'd to be reciprocal, i. e. there of to DE, as of
the Parallelograms are fupis the fame
CD CD is
FD
to
DB
;
to
DE
7
fo is the Pa
L
FD M to BDEH therefore L has the lelogram fame proportion to BDEH as M to the fame
and
^ ^
to the Parallelogram as to DB, fo is the Paral
BDEH
BDEH,
grams
L
therefore (by the 9. 5,; the Paralleloand are equal.
M
S 4
PRO
$j$
*£he
Elements of Euclid.
PROPOSITION
A
XV,
THEOREM.
And
red
that have one Avgle equal each 'Equal Triangles, to the other, have the Sides that jorm that
reciprocal. if thofe Sides be will be equal frocaly they
Avgle
I F
*
the Triangles
equal,
being
F and G, have the
Angles
ACB
and
DCE
e?
qua), thofe Angles, will be recii. e. will have procal the fame proportion to CE
•,
their Sides that
form
BC
as
to CA. Place the Triangles fo, that the and Sides may majee one right Line and DCE and then becaufe the Angles are fuppcs d to be equal, BC and CE willalfo
CD CD
CA
•„
ACB
make one right Line, praw the Line AE.
The Triangle ABC
(by Coroll.
of the
i
j
.
i .)
Demonftration.
has the fame proportion
to the Triangle ACE, as the Triangle equal to the former, to the fame ACE, (by the to ACE, fo is the Bafe 7. 5.) Eut as
LCD
ABC
EC
to the Bafe
fa n^e
CE,
(by the 1.)
the
Height $ and as
ECD to ACE,
having both
fo is
the
The Sixth Book.
277
to CA, (by the fame:) therefore the Bafe to has the fame proportion to CE, as ]BC CA. But if the Sides be fuppos'd reciprocal, i. e. that BC has the fame proportion to CE to CA, the Triangles ABC and as will be equal, becaufe they will both have
CD
CD
CD
CDE
the fame proportion to
ACE.
PROPOSITION
A
XVI.
THEOREM.
the ReBangle conIffour Lines be proportional, tain d under the fir[t and the fourth, will be equal to the Rectangle contain d under the
And if the ReBangle fecond and the third. contain d under the Extreams be equal to that
contain
d
under the middle Terms, the four
Lines will be proportional.
T F the
*
Lines A, B, C, D, be
proportional, i. e, if as to D, the Rectanto B, fo
A
A
C
gle contain'*! under the flrft A, and the fourth D, will be
[U
A
c
equal to the taiiul under
B and C.
Re&angle
con
D
Demonftration.
Rectangles have one Angle equal each to the other, becaufe 'tis a right Angle in both ^ their Sides alfo are reciprocal there:
The
fore
they are equal, (by the 14 J
In
278
The Elements of Euclid.
their
In like manner, if they are equal,
will have the Sides will be reciprocal, i. e. to B, as C to D. lame proportion
A
PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
If
tabid under the
XVII.
three Lines be proportional, the ReSaftgle con* and the third, will be firft
ReBangle Lines are proportional.
And the middle Term. equal to the Square of the Square of the middle Term he equal to if under the Extreams^ the three the
the three Lines A, B, D, be proportional, the Rectangle will and contained under
}F
A
D
'
he equal to the Square of B. Take C equal to B, and there will be the fame proportion of therefore to B, as of C to j
A
D
the four Lines are proportional.
Demonfir ation.
The Rcdangle under
A and D will be equal
to that under B and C, (by the preceding) B but the laft Rectangle is a Square fthe Lines and C being equal) therefore the Re&angle the is equal to and contain d under Square of B.
A
D
The Sixth Book.
In
*^nd
279
D
have and B and C being equal, fame proportion, to B, as B
The
c
like manner, if the Rectangle under be equal to the Square or B, will to D: the fame proportion to B as
A
A
C
A
will
have the
to
D.
USE.
c
be demon' Rule in Arithmetick, which is 'commonly call'd the Rule of Three; and
By thefe four. Proportions may
the Rules of
flrated that
i
*
confequently,
Falfe,
FellowJIrip,
of
and
all thofe others that
depend upon
fuppofe three
•
c
proportion.
For Example,
c
c c c c
c '
Numbers given, 8, B 6, and C 4, and it be requird to find a fourth proportional Number, which taking as found, I will call D. The Rectangle then contain'd under
A
A
and D,
I
'
1
plying B by C, i. e. Six by Four the Product will be Twentyfour 5 therefore the Rectangle is alfo contain'd under and twenty
•,
may
equal to that under Band C. But have this latter Rectangle by multiis
A
D
4
four*, and therefore dividing that Number by A, which is 8, the Quotient Three will
I
be the
Number fought.
PRO
280
The Elements of Euclid.
ww
PROPOSITION.
A PROBLEM.
To
defcribe
XVIIL
a Polygon fimilar Line given.
to another
upon a
ET A B be the Line
afllgn'd,
upon
are
re
you
JF
quired
to
defcribe
a
make a Triangle ABH fimilar to the Triangle CFE, h e. make the Angle ABH equal to the Angle CFE, and BAH equal to FCE for then
:
Polygon fimilar to the Polygon CFDE, having divided the Polygon CFDF into Triangles, upon the Line
&&
will be equiani. of tbe 32. I.) Make alfo gular, (byCoroll. a Triangle equiangular to upon the Line
the Triangles
ABH
BH
and
CFE
FDE.
Demonjlration. Since the Triangles, which are Part of the Polygons are equiangular, the two PolyFurther, fince the gons are equiangular. and CFE are equiangular, Triangles will have the fame Proportion to as CF to FE, (by tbe 4J In like manner, the
ABH
AB
3H
Triangles
BH will
HBG and EFD being equiangular, have the fame Proportion to BG as
The Sixth Booh
281:
EF
to
FD
:
Defin. 18. 5 .) tion to BG, as
and by Equality^ (according t& AB will have the fame ProporCF to FD. And the fame may
be faid of
Defin.
1 .)
all the other Sides. Therefore (by the Polygons are fimilar.
The
€
USE,
this Proportion is grounded the Part of Pr attic al Geometry, that greateft relates to the raifing the Plan of any Place, as of a Building, Field, Foreft, or a whole For having divided a Line into Country equal Parts, to anfwer the Feet or Yards contain'd in the Plan, you may defcribea Figure fimilar to, but lefs than, the Original, in which you may fee the proportion! of all its Lines. And having by Experience
Upon
:
found
it much more eafie to travel upon Paper, than to take a tedious Tourney either
by Land
or Water, this Proportion will like
wife afford us Afliftance in this refpect ^ informing us in almoft all the Parts of Geode*
Jia,
and Cborography ^ and giving Inftruilions how to compofe Geographical Charts, and Maps h which are nothing elfe but Methods
,
of reducing great Figures to fmall. Further, the Ufe of this Propofition extends its felf to almoft all thofe Arts, that require the
Defign and Model of their Works beforehand.
PRO
q.%2
The Elements of Euclid.
PROPOSITION
•
XIX.
A THEOREM.
of
duplicate Proportion ibeir homologous Sid: s.
Similar {Triangles are hi the
EG
C
7
£
£
BC EF, e. the proportion of the Triangle* ALC to the Triangle DEF will be the Duplicate of the proportion of BC to EF fo that
BC and iF, and making EC to have the fame pr portion to EF, as EF to HI, the T Jangle EC'will have the fame proportion to DEF as the Line BC to the Line HI v which is to have to it a duplicate proportion (by J) fin. Take BG equal to HI, and draw the j S Line AG.

or equiangular, they will be in the duplicate proportion of their homologous Sides
IF be fimilar, DEF
the Triangles
ABC and
iding a third Proportional
HI
to the Lines
i
.
Deviojijlraticn.
The*Angles B and E of the Triangles ABG and DEF are equal} and befide.% j(jnce the ABC and DEFare firhilar, AB lyill Tria, have the lame proportion to E)E as BC to
;
I> (h
the fourth.)
But as
BC to
Er,
fo
EF
to
The Sixth Book
to

285
fo
HI or BG toBG} and
•,
therefore as
AB to DE,
EF
eonfequently,
the Sides of the
'
and DEF being reciprocal, Triangles And the Triangles will be equal, (by the 15; (by the 1.) the Triangle ABC has the fame proportion to the Triangle ABG, as BC to or HI} therefore the Triangle ABC has the fame proportion to the Triangle DEF, as BC
ABG
J
BG
to
HI.
The
e
USE.
may
help
to correct
Thefe Proportions
c
the Error of thofe,
who
c
c '
fimilar Figures to have as their Sides, For it
two.
are apt to imagine the fame proportion
two
or
Squares,
two
f
Circles, Hexagons, Pentagons be proposed, and the Side of the firft be c double that of the fecond, the firft Figure c will be quadruple the fecond: if the Side of c the firft be triple that of the fecond, the * firft Figure will be nine times greater than ' Therefore to make a Sauare the fecond. * triple to another, you muft feek a middle ' proportional between one and three, and
c
two
*
you'll find for the Side of your triple Figure almoft 1 ~,
PRO
284
The Elements of Euclid
«—
PROPOSITION
ATHEOREM.
Similar
Polygons
XX,
Number
may be divided into an equal of Triangles, and are in the duplicate Ft oyortion of their homologous Sides.
the Polygons
IF ABCDE"
GHILM
laiy
and
fimi*
e
be
they
mzy b©
of
divided into an
qual fimilar Triangles^ which will be the fimilar Parts of their Wholes. Draw the Lines AC, AD, GI, GL.
Since
Number
the
will Angles have the fame proportion to BC as GH to HI, (by Defin. 1.) therefore the Triangles ABC and G HI are fimilar, (by the 6.) and (by the 3.) BC has the fame proportion to CA
5
B and
H will be equal
Polygons
Demonflration. are
fimilar,
their
and
AB
<
has the Further, becaufe fame proportion to BC as IL to IH, andBC as HI to IG ^ by Equality* the fame to as will have the fame proportion to
as to GI.
HI
CD
CA
CD
IL
CA
to
GL Now
the Angles
BCD
and
HIL
being
T/je
Sixth
Booh
285
and GI.H, King equal, if the Angles be taken from them, the vhich are equal, will remain equal. Angles ACD and GIL the Triangles ACD and Therefore (by the 6.) jIL will be
fimilar.
all
ACB
In like
the
afie to run over fimilar. Polygons, and to prove them that the Triangles I add further,
manner, 'tis Triangles of the

are in
he fame proportion as the Polygons.
Demo7ifirati on.
Since all the Triangles are fimilar, their Sides will be proportional, (by the 4.) but sach Triangle to its fimilar is in the duplicate proportion of their homologous Sides,' (bytb$
'
1
therefore every Triangle of one'T"^to every Triangle of the other, is in the gon duplicate proportion of their.Sides which be19.)
•,
the duplicate proportion muft r be the ame ? and there will be the fanne proportion of each Triangle to its Similar, as of all the Triangles of one Polygon to all
ng the fame,

Triangles of the other Polygon, (by the 2. e. of one Polygon to the other. Coroll. 1. Similar Polygons are in the duplicate proportion of their homologous Sides. Coroll 2. If three Lines be in continual proportion, a Polygon defcrib'd upon the firft will have the fame proportion to a Polygon defcrib'd upon the fecorid, as the firft
the
12. %.)
T
Line
$$6
tine to the
The Elements of Euclid.
third,
i.
e.h will be in the d plicate proportion, of that of the firft Lii to thefecond.
PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
Tolygovs,
XXI,
fa
J
that
an Jo
are fimVar a Jo
to
another
Polygo
I
amov^Jl them]elves.
IFmilar
will
two Polygons be
to a
fo
to: i
be
third, the alfo betwi: P
Pg,
its
themftlves. For they ms each be divided into
many
are in the third.
But
fimilar Triangles, Triangles fimilar to
h
an:
i
third, are alfo fimilar
amongft themfelvei becaufe Angles equal to a third, are equ; amongft themfelves^ and the Angles of tl
thofe
urn
ofthePolygoi Triangles being equal, being compounded of them, muft be fo life
wife.
I add, that the Sides of the Triangles b< ing proportional, thofe of the Polygons mri! be fo alfo, becaufe they are the fame.
prii
to!
tati
»
!L
tie
h
• jt
.
.
The Sixth Booh
287
—
XXII.
PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
\Sitnilar
Polygons defcrib'dtiponfour proportio7ial And if the Poly* Lines, are alfo proportional. Lines arefo too. the gons be proportional?
,
IF portion
toMN,
will
alfo
BC
has the fame proto
EF
as
HI
the Polygon have the fame
ABC
to the flmilar to Polygon DEF, as fimilar Polygon MO. its
proportion
HL
to the Lines BC Seek a third Proportional and LF, and to the Lines HI and MWanother
third Proportional P, (by the 11.) Since has the fame Proportion to EF as HI to to P ^ by equality, and EF toG as will have the fame proportion to G, as
G
MN
MN
BC
f
BG
HI
to
proportion will be the Duplicate of that of BC to EF, or HI to MN.
P : and this
in the duplicate proportion of that of BC to EF, (by the 20) that is, as BC to G, and the Polygon has the fame proportion to
The Polygon ABC
Demonftration. to the Polygon
DEF
is
HL
MO,
as
HI to
P.
Therefore
ABC
has the
fan?*
T
2
a88
The Elements of Euclid.
to
fame propprtiorL
DLF^
as
HL
to
MO.
Ant if the fimilar Polygons be proportional the Lines being, in thefubduplicate proportion
to them, will be alfo proportional.
The
'
1
USE.
h
#V^ M
jp'.p'
'
!
W&l CTD, A
n
.
T his
, c
eafily
'
Proportion may apply d to Numbers,
>
h
li
the
Numbers
A B C D; U
:
'
j
>." .u'.
*
*
*
which is more in
proportional, their Square; < E, F, G, H, will be to too very ferviceable in Arhbmetick, and
/
'
algebra.
'
"
: ',
;
PROP O SITION
f
XXIII.
A
THEOREM.
are in the ProportiEquiangular Parallelogra??is on compounded of the Proportions of their tit.
Sides;
K
Ml
b H
D
TF the Parallelograms L and X M be equiangular, the proportion of
L
to
M
will
be
toj
compounded
of that of
AB
to
P
&
,FG
BE, and
Joyn
that of
BD
DF.
lb,!
the Parallelograms
that their Sides
BD
may make
DE another
but one right Line, as 5 which, the Parallelograms ^be
and DF; alfo CD and
jng
»"J
Tfje
Sixth Book.
be done
289
iilg equiangular, may ir6*i?.i.) and compleat the
(by the Coroll, of,
Parallelogram
BDEH.
Demovjlration.
The Parallelogram
tion to the
,
(by the 1) and the the fame proportiParallelogram to the Parallelogram DFGE, i. e. M, as thd iBafeBD^tt) DF. But the proportion of the Pa:
to the Bale
r
AB
has the fame proporParallelogram BDEH, as the Bafe
L
BH or DE BDEH has
on
I
rallelogram
pounded
of that of
L to the Parallelogram M, is comL to the Parallelogram
logram M. Therefore the proportion of E is compounded of that of AB to DE, [to land that of BD to DF. For Example, let A& and make as4 to, 7, jbe8, DE$,BD 4, DF7 to 8{ by which means you will have* jTo :hree Numbers, 8, 5, and 8^, 8 to 5 being the
BDEH,
and of that of
BDEH to
the Paralle
M
<>
^
•,
proportion of the Parallelogram and to ; ivhich is that of
AB
the Parallelogram jway therefore the middle
Df
tfill
DE BDEH
L to BDEH,
5 to
8f that
M. Taking Term five, there
to
remain 8 to 8 ~ for the proportion compounded of the two.
T
3
PRO
290
'
The Elements of Euclid.
/
•
"
>
1 1
PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
XXIV.
In aU Parallelograms, thofe through which th Diameter pajjes, are Jimilar to the great one.
Parallelogram pafs thro the Parallelograms EF,  fay they are fimilar to the Paral lelogram AC.
s Uppofe
the Diameter of thc
AC
GH
:
F
t
Demovjlration.
a
1
Parallelograms AC and EF, have th feme Angle B, and becaufe in the Triangl BCD, IF is parallel to the Bafe DC, the Tri angles BFI and BCD are equiangular. There fore (by the fourth) BC has the fame Propoi
The
/I
lei
tion to Sides are
and confequently thi ii In lik< proportion. manner 1H being parallel to BC, wii b; to BC have the fame proportion to HI as lei. the Angles are alfo equal, all the Sides beinj Parallels: therefore (by Defn. 1.) the Paralle
as
CD
BF toFI,
in the fame
DH
DC
lograms EFand logram AC.
*
'
GH are fimilar to
The
the Paralle
fc
USE.
laft
I:
I
*
have made ufe of this Proportion to de
1
monftrate the
o Progofition of my
Bool
<0
The Sixth Booh
i
$<)i
of
to
Perfpe&ives', where draw an Image fimilar
I
have fhown a
way
to the Original,by
I
a Parallelogram composed of four Rulers.
PROPOSITION
A PROBLEM.
o defcribe
XXV.
dfii
a Polygon, fimilar to one given >
equal to another.
F you
lal to
defire
to de*
e«*
fcribe a
Polygon
the Rectilineal and fimilar to the 3lygon B i make a Pae
Uelogram CE equal to the Polygon B, (by 44 i J and upon the Line DE make anoer
Parallelogram equal to the Re&ilineal A* ythe 45. ii) Then find a middle proporti* and DF, (by the 13.) between lal
GH
ftly,
make upon
A.
CD GH a Polygon O, fimilar
B,
(by the 18.)
which will be equal to the
s&ilineal
Demonftraiion*
a continual the Rectilineal B defcrib'd upon •oportion, e firft, will have the fame proportion to e Rectilineal defcrib'd upon the fecond,
Since
CD, GH, and DP, are in
O
'DtoDF,
CD to
DFj
(byCoroll. i.tif the 20J fo is the Parallelogram
But
T4
CE to FEJ
zgi FE,
The Elements of Euclid.
or
B
to
Therefore
B
A, which are equal to them as has the lame proportion to
(by the 9. 5.)
B
to
A, and conflquently
O A and
O
*
c
TbeU S E. 7 his Propcfition teaches how to change one Figure iiito another, retaining ftill its ui etui ill equality to 3 third:, which is very
c
are equal.
'•
c
Ft attic alGeometr j, tor the reducing all 'gures to Squares.
Fi
PROPOSITION XXVL
AIf
in one
lefs,
THEOREM.
vpn
the Angle, of the
1
Jimilar the greater will fall
ibei Angle of a Parallelogram you defer to the .former, the Diameter
left
....

F
__ i
in the Angle D of the Pa rallelogramAC you defcrifo
Parallelogram DG, fi miiar to the other,, the Diameter BDwill pais by the Point G For if it do not pals by that Point, fuppof< and t( Point I, it then to pals by. the
a leflei
make
lei
the Line.BlD.
Draw the Line IE
paral
to'HD.
Demonstration.
The Parallelogram DI would
be fimilar
tc
the
The Sixth Be ok.
the Parallelogram
295
Parallelogram
DG
AG, (by the 24.) But the is alfo fuppos d iimilar to
it, therefore the Parallelograms DI and would be fimilar, which is impoffible * for if fo, HI would have the fame proportion to IE
DG
or
6.
GF,
as
HG to the
fame
GF
5.) the Lines
HI and
GH
and (by the would be equal,
•,
PROPOSITION
A PROBLEM.
To
divide a
XXX.
Line
according to the extreme and middle Proportion,
\
LE
ding
T AB
be the Line pro
pos'd to be divided accorto the extreme and middle
A
C B
may have the proportion, z. e. fo, that as to CB. fame proportion to Divide the Line by the 11. 2.) fo, that the Redand CB may be angle contain'd under
AC
of
AB AC
ABC
AB
equal to the Square
AC.
Demonjiration.
Since the Rectangle under qual.to the Square of AC,
fame proportion
AB and CB is eAB will have the to AG as AC to CB, (by thz
lie
17)
'
USE.
is
This Proposition
'
tecnth
Book of
Euclid,
neceiTary in the Thirfor the finding the Side
294
c
The Eleme?its of
EuctidL'
* *
Sides of the five regular Bodies. And Friar Lucas, of the Holy Sepulcber, has composed a' whole Book concerning the Properties of a
Line divided according
middle proportion.
to the
extreme and
*
PROPOSITION XXXL
A THEOREM.
A Polygon defcriVd upon the Bafe of a
lar Triangle,
is
ReBangu
equal to the two fnnilar Polygons defcrib'd upon the other Sides of the fame
Triangle.
J
C
Angle BAG of the Triangle ABC be a right Angle, the Polygon D, de* fcrib'd upon its Bafe BC, will be equal to the two fimilar
the
*
T&
upon
the Sides
AB and
Polygons
F and E
defcrib'd
AC.
Demonfiration.
F, are amongft in the duplicate proportion of their homologous Sides BC, AC, and AB, (by and if Squares were defcrib'd the 20.)
the Polygons D, E, and
themfelves
upon the fame Sides, they alfo would amongft themfelves be in the duplicate proportion of their Sides*, but (by the 47.1.) the Square of
>>1J!
The Sixth Booh
*95
and !BC would be equal to the Squares of defcrib'd upon the Polygon therefore the Bale BC, will be equal to the fimilar Po
AC
AB
:
D
lygons E, and F, defcrib'd upon J5
AB
The
US
is
and AC.
E.
* *
4
This Proportion
or diminifh all
made
ufe of to aug
6
*
manner of Figures, bement more univerfal than the 47. 1. which ing
yet
is
exceeding ufeful, in as
much
as almoft
all Geometry is
grounded upon that Principle.
is
The
3 2 Proportion
vfelefs.
PROPOSITION.
XXXIIL
A THEOREM.
In equal Circles, the Angles as well at the Center as a as the Seltors, are in lfo Circumference^
the
fame proportion
as
fa
Arches upon which
fbeyftan'i.
the Circles
Atf IF C and DOF
are
equal,
the
will
Angle ABC have the fame
proportion to the as the Angle
Ag
tt
Kl
Suppofe AG,
let
Arch and HC,
DEF AC to the Arch
DF.
GH,
be
di
to be equal Arches, and confequent
ly the aliquot Parts of
AC* and
DF
29 6
it
The Elements of Euclid.
divided into as
contains the veft.
,
many
Parts,
equal to
AG,
as
and draw the Lines EI, EK, and
Demovflrathn.
All the Angles, ABG, GBH, HBC, DEI, 1EK, and the reft, are equal, (by the 27. 3.)
fo that AG, an aliquot Part of the Arch will he cohtain'd in the Arch DF, as oft as the Angle ABG, an aliquot Part of the Angle ABC,,
AC
therefore the is contain'd in the Angle DEF 5 Arch AC will have the fame proportion to the Arch DF, as the. Angle ABC to the Angle DEF. And becaufe N and Q are, the halves
of the Anglei ABC and DEF/ tney will be in therefore the the fame proportion as thefe has the fame proportion to the Angle Angle O, as the Arch AC to the Arch DF.
:
N
holds likewife in the Sectors for il you draw the Lines AG, GH, HC,DI 3 IK, and the reft, they will be equal, (by the 29/ 3, J and each little Sector will be divided into a
.
The fame
:
Triangle, and a Segment. But the Triangley will be equal, (by the 8. 1.) and the little Segments will alfo be equal, (by the ^4. 3.) there*, fore the whole little Sectors will be equal
x
;
f>
and confequently, as many the Arch AC as are contain'd
aliquot Parts of in the Arch DF*
fo many aliquot Parts of the Sector ABC will; be contained in the Sector DEF. Therefore the Arch has the fame proportion to the Arch,
.
as the Seftor to the Sector
THE
398
c
* * '
The Elements of
Euclid.
*
and the Tra&s concerning the cutting of precious Stones, arifing chiefly from their Eminences, and rais'd Parts, not eafily reand their being conprefented upon Paper,
tain'd under
many
Superficies,
are jender'd
4
'
*
4
and eafy by the previous Knowintelligible of the Doftrine of Solids. ledge 4 have omitted the feventh r eightjh, I ninth ancl tenth Books of the Elements of
Euclid,
*
c
€ *
being of little, or no ufe in any And I have Part of the Mathematicks oft wondred how they obtain'd a Place the Elements, finee tis evident
amongft Euclid compilM them
for
no other End but
*
to fettle the Dodlrine of Incommenfurables ^ * which being little better than a vain Curio*
c c
fity,
* *
*
the ought n~t to be receiv'd into the which treat of Books, f ft Principles of the Science, but to make a particular The fame may be faid Treatife by it felf. of the thirteenth Book, and thofe that fok
low
it.
And
therefore
'tis
my
the
Opinion, that
*
*
f
almoft all Parts of the Mathematicks miay underftood by the help of fufficiently be
thefe
Eight
Bpojcs
of
EletnwtS
of
f Euclid.
DE
The Sixth Booh
2 99
DEFINITIONS.
J.
A
Solid
Body
is
a
Quantity, hath length, breadth, and "
depth, or thicknefs. the Figure DL,
length
2.
is
that
K
X
thicknefs
As
whofe
f
NX,
breadth
NO, and
"LN.
The Extremes or Terms of
a Solid
Body
are Superficies's.
or peris right, to a Plane, when 'tis pendicular perpendicular to all the Lines,
q.
A
Line
meets in the Plane. will be right " to the Plane CD, if it be perpendicular to " the Lines CD and FE, which being " drawn upon the Plane CD, pafs by the Point
"
which
it
As the Line AB
"
B.fo that the Angles
iC
ABC, ABD, ABE,and
ABF, are right Angles. 4. One Plane is perpendicular to another, when a perpendicular
Line drawn upon one of them
to the
common
Section, is alfo
perpendicular to the other. c We call the Line that is common to the common Section of I both the Planes,
'
^
fthe
goo
t
The Elements of
Euclid.
the Planes: As the Line AB, which is as well in the Plane AC, as in the orher AD. *f therefore the Line DE, drawn on the
Plane
AD
the Line BE the Angle ? Is the Inclination of the to the Plane Line,

perpendicular to AB, be alfo perpendicular to the Plane AC, the Plane will be right to the Plane AC. 5. If the Line AB be not perpendicular to the Plane CD, and from the Point a Perpendicular be drawn to it, AE, and alfo
AD,
A
ABE
AB
CD.
6. The Inclination of one Plane to another, is the acute Angle fornrd by the two Perpendiculars drawn upon each Plane to their common Sectic As the Inclination of the Plane AB on. * to the P^ne AD, is nothing elfe but the * Angle BGD, form'd. by the Lines BC and
' 1
CD, drawn upon the two Planes, pendicular to their common Sc&ion AE.
7.
per
Planes are inclin d after the fame
man
ner, if their Arigks of Inclination are equal. 8. Planes. are parallel, if being continu'd
as far as
you pleaft, they ftill retain the difiance one from the other.
fame
Solid Figures are Similar, which are 9. contained within, or terminated by, an equal number of limilar Planes j as two Cubes.
c
This
The Eleventh Book
\
c
3 or
?
This Definition does not agree to thofeFias the gures, whofe Superficies are crooked Sphere, the Cylinder, and the Cone.
j
1
o.
Equal and Similar Solid Figures are con
tained within, or terminated by, an equal numc ber of equal and fimilar Planes. Infomuch, c that if they were fuppos'd to penetrate each
r other, neither of them * other, having their Sides
1 t
.
A
folid
Angle
is
would exceed each and Angles equal. the Con
courfe, or Inclination, of divers ' As the Lines, in different Planes.
*
'
'
and
Concourfe of the Lines AB^ AC, AD, which are in different Planes
1 2.
a folid Figure, terminated by Triangles,whofeBafesare in the fame Plane. As the Figure ABCD.
is
A Pyramid
13. Parallelepipedon is a folid Figure contained within fix quadrilateral Planes, of which the Oppofites are parallel. Prifm is a folid Fi14.
A
A
gure,
having
two
parallel
Planes fimilar and equal y and c the others, Parallelograms. As
I
in the Figure
AB.
is
Its oppofite
I
Planes
15.
A
may
be Polygons.
a folid Figure,
3
Sphere
terminated
from which divers Lines being drawn to a Point in the middle Some the Figurfy they will be all equal.
by one only
Superficies
&
£
Y
'
define
50 2
*
The Elements d[
Euclicf.
motion of a Sem? upon its Diameter*! * which remains immoveable. 16. The Axis of a Sphere, is that immovel able Line about which the Semicircle isfe
'
define a Sphere by the turned about circle,
:
turn'd.
17.
The Center of
fame with that of the Motion it is made.
18.
is the Sphere, Semicircle, by whofe
the
fil
The Diameter of
a Sphere,
its
is
any Line
whatfoever, paflihg through terminated at the Superficies. 15. If a Line, immoveable at onel of its Points, taken above the Plane of a Circle, be mov'd about the Circumference, it will defcribe a Cone
e
Center, and
As if
the
LineAB,
c
the Point A, be Circumference BED, it will defcribe the * will be its SumCone ABED. The Point
*
being nYd at mov'd about the
I
A
1
P
*
*
mity or Vertex, and the Circle
Bafe.
BED
ront;
1
its
fell
frill
20.
*
The Axis of
from the
a Cone, is the Line drawn Vertex to the Center of the Bafe, 2i.
it
be
As AC.
If a Line be mov'd about the Circumference of two parallel Circles, fo that it remains always tne P ara ^ e l tG a ^ine drawn fr°
J
Kll{
d 1'"Ib v
m
V_y
J
Center of one of the Circles to that of the other, h e the Axis, it
t
to
will defcribe a Cylinder,
22.
The Eleventh Book*
30^
22. Cones are faid to be right, when the Axis is perpendicular to the Plane of theBafe.
Alfo Right Cones are fimilar, when their Axis's and the Diameters of their Bafes are in But Inclin'd Cones are the fame proportion.
tion
hot fimilar, unlefs they have a third Condi* that their Axis's be equally inclined to 5 the Planes of their Bales.
PROPOSITION
A THEOREM,
I.
A right Line
cannot have one of its Parts upon a Plane, and the other above, or below it.
the Line
AB
it
IF AD, plane
be upon the
will not, being continu'd, either rife above, or fall below it, but all its Parts
will lie upon the fame. For if it be poffible that BC can be a Part of AB con* the Line tinud, draw upon the fame Plane
AD
BD perpendicular to AB, and dicular to BD upon the fame.
Demonjiratioft.
alfo
BE
perpen*
The Angles
ABD
and
DBE
are two right
Angles ; tnakebutone right Line,
therefore (by the 14. 1.)
AB
and
BE
and confequently
V
2
BC
3C4
The Elements of Euclid.
!
is no Part of the Line continued otheiwife two right Lines CB and EBwculd have the fame Part AB in common, which is repugnant to the 13. Axiom of the firft
•
EC
AB
Book.
The
c
USE.
is
LT pon
this Picpcfition
built a Piinciple
in Gtiomojiicks,
prove, that the Shadow of the Style cannot fall out of the Plane of a great Circle, in which is the Sun. For the Extemity of the Style being
by which we
taken for the Center of the Heavens, and confequently of all the greater Circles, and the Shadow being always in a right Line with a Ray drawn from the Sun to the opacous Body, and this Ray being in the Plane of this great Circle , the Shadow muff be fo
likewife.
PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
Lhiesthat cut each other, are
as are
alfo all the in the
II.
fame Plane]
Paits of a Triangle.
F the two
I
Lines
BE
and
CD
cut each other at
j
the Point
A
v
anda Triangle be form'd by
c
I fay, drawing the Bafe BC, all the Parts of the Triangle
ABC
TTfe
ABC are in
BE
the
305 fame Plane, and alfothe Lines
Eleva t ) Booh.
and CD.
Demovfiration,
.
cannot be faid that any Part of the Triangle ABC is in a Plane, and another Part of the fame Triangle not in the fame Plane, but it muft be alfo affirm'd, that one Part of a right Line is in a Plane, and another Part of the fame Line is not in the fame Plane, which
It
And becaufe the Sides is contrary to Prop 1 of the Triangle muft be in the fame Plane in which is the Triangle, the Lines BE and CD will be alfo in the fame Plane.'
.
.
,
The
'
US&
c
*
This Propofition fuffieiently determines a Plane, b)r the concourfe of two right Lines, I'have alfo made ufe of or by a Triangle.
it
in Opticks,
4
rallel
c
to prove that ubjedHve paLines,which meet upon a
Table,ought
in
'
to be reprefented
by Lines that concur
r
a Point.
,
V
3
PRO
%c6
The Elements of Hiclid.
PROPOSITION
A
The common
III.
I
is
THEOREM.
Planes
Seffion of two
one right
Line.
F
the Planes
AB and CD
EF
i
t~d
cut
common
their other, Se&ion will be
each
one right Line. For if not, take two Points common to Loth Planes as E and F, and draw a right Line from the Point E, to the Point F upon the Plane AB, which fuppofe to be EHF. Draw likewife upon the Plane CD a right Line from the fame Point E to F; and if it be not the fame with the former, fuppofe it to he EGF. Demonfration. Thefe Lines drawn upon two Planes are two different Lines, and enclofe Space ^ which is contrary to the 12. Axiom of the 1. Therefore they will make but one right Line, which being in both the Planes will be their com
mon
*
Se&ions.
The
This
is
*
USE.
?
Propofition, fuppos'd in divers Parts of the Matbematicks, though it be not always quoted. Particularly, it is taken for granted in
a fundamental
f
Gnomomch',
'
when?
The Eleventh Booh
jo 7
the HourLines are reprefented upon Dials, by marking only the common Section of their Plane, and that of the "Wall.
when
PROPOSITION
•
IV.
A THEOREM.
to two others that If a Line be perpendicular cut each other, it will alfo he perpendicular to the Plane of the fame Lines, _
perpenLines CD and EF, which cut each other at the Point B, fo that
•*
TF
the Line
AB be
dicular to the
and ABF,
(which
the Angles ABC, ABD, ABE, be right Angles,
cannot conveniently be reprefented a Plate,) it will be alfo perpendicular to upon and EF, i. e. to all the Plane of the Lines the Lines that (hall be drawn upon the fame
CD
Plane through the Point B as, for example, the Line GBH. Let the Lines BC, BD, BE, and BF, be equal, and draw the Lines EC, DF, AC, AD, AE, AF, AG and AH.
•,
Demonftration.
The four Triangles ABC, ABD> ABE, and ABF, have each a right Angle at the Point B and the Sides BC, BD, BE, and BF equal,
5
y
4
with
ocS
The Elements of Euclid.
wjth the Side
their Bafes
(by
all
the. 4. i.)
AB common
EBC
•
to
all.
Therefore
are equal,
will be in
AC, AD, AE, and AF,
and
2.
The Triangles
DBF
their Sides BC, BD, refpecjs equal, having BE, and BF, equal and the Angles CBE and
DBFwill
fes
being opjv.fite at the top, equal
:
there
fore the
AngksBCE, BDF, BEC, and BFD,
4.
1 )
be equal, (by the
and
alfo .the
Sa
EC and
DF.
3. The Triangles GBC, and the oppofite Angles CBG and
DBH, DBH,
having
equal
5
as alfo the
Sides
BC
Angles BDH, and BCG t and BD, the Sides BG and
and the
BH,
1.)
CG
and
4.
the ihe Bafes
The Triangles ACE and AFD, having Sides AC, AD, AE, and AF, equal and
•
DH,
will be alfo equal, (by the 26.
EC
and
ADF
5.
DF alfo equal
*,
Sides
ACE will be equal, (by the 8. The Triangles ACG and ADH have the AC and AD, CG and DH equal, with
and
1 .)
the Angles
the Angle's Bafes and
AG
Laftjy,
all their
ADH and ACG, therefore their AH are equal. the Triangles ABH and ABG have
ABG
Sides equal} therefore (by the 8. 1.) the Angles and will be equal, and the Line AB perpendicular to GH. Accordwill be perpendicular to ingly, the Line any Line drawn through the Point B upon the Plane of the LinesCD and EF, which I call
ABH
AB
lx ing perpendicular to their Plane.
The
The Eleventh Book.
The
c
309
USE.
:
t
c
This Proportion occurs very oft in the for example, to firft Book of Thcodofms (kmonftrate that the Zixli of the World is
Equiperpendicular to the Plane of In like manner in Gnomonich, 'tis noctial. demonftrated by this Propofition, that the
EquinoBical Line in Horizontal Dkh Nor is pendicular to the Meridian
is
the
c
i 1
per
i.
it lefs
1 c
ufeful in other Mathematical Treadles,
as
thofe concerning Ajlrolabes,
and the cutting
of precious Stones.
PROPOSITION
A
V.
.
THEOREM.
at the
If a Line he perpendicular
cut each, other
to three others,
which
fame
Point,
they will
he
all
three in the fame Vlane.
IFlar
be perpendicuLines BC, BD, and BE, which cut each other at the fame Point B \ the Lines
to three
the Line
AB
BC, BD, and BE are in the fame Plane. Suppofe the Plane AE to be that of the Lines AB and BE, and CF that of the Lines BC and BD. If BE be the common Se&ion of both the Planes, it will
be
3io
was
The Elements of Euclid.
be in the Plane of the Lines
aflerted
:
BC
and BD,
z%
but if
Section.
BE
be not, let
BG
be
their
common
perpendicular to the Lines BC and BD, therefore it is perpendicular to their •Plane CF, (by the 4.) and (by Defn. 3.} A3 will be perpendicular to BG. But it is alfo fuppos'd perpendicular to BE 5 therefore the
AB is
Demowjlration.
Angles
ABE and ABG are right Angles,
and
be but part of the other. Therefore the two Planes can have no other common Section but BE. BE is therefore in the Plane CF.
confequently equal though one
PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
are parallel.
VI.
Lines that are perpendicular to the fame Plane,
TF
*
the Lines
AB
to
and
CD
be
perpendicular
'Tis evident,
the fame
Plane EF, they will be parallel.
Angles
ABD
that the internal are right and
BDC
.,
it remains 'Angles* but that is to be prov'd, that AB and CD are in the fame and flane. Draw perpendicular to BD, to AB 5 draw alfo the Lines BG, AG, equal
not enough
DG
and AD.
De z
The Eleventh Book.
Demonftration.
g
i
x
Sides
ABD and BDG have the and DG equal, and BD common to both} and the Angles ABD and BDG are right Angles, therefore their Bafes AD and BG
The
AB
Triangles
are equal, (by the
4..
1.)
ABG
and
ADG
have
a right Angle, becaufe AB is and is alfo a to the Plane, perpendicular is perTherefore the Line right Angle. to three Lines CD, DA, and DB, pendicular which confequentfy are in the fame Plane, {by the %) But the Line AB is in the Plane of the Lines and DB, (by the 2.) therefore are in the fame Plane. AB and CorolL Two parallel Lines are in the fame Plane.
therefore the Angles
ABG and ADG are equal,
Further, .the Triangles all their Sides equal:
ABG being
ADG DG
AD
CD
The
c
USE.
c
\
*
c
By this Propoiition we demonftrate, that the Hourlines, in all Planes that are parallel to the Axis of the World, as the Polars,
Meridional, and others, are parallel
themfelves.
among
PROS
*
/
313
The Elements of Euclid.
PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
VII.
A Line drawn from
^
P
JL
one Parallel to another, the fame Plane with them.
is
in
being drawn Point B of the .Line AB to the Point C of the Parallel CD, is (I fay; in the Plane with the Lines AB and CD.
'Tp HE Line CB,
from the
:
Demonfi ration.
.
The Parallels
Plane
:
AB
and
CD are
in the
fame
from the fame with CB^ otherwife two right Lines would enclofe Space, contrary to the 12.
in which if you draw a right Line the Point B to the Point C, it will be
Axiom of
the 1.
PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
VIIL
1
If one of two parallel Lines be perpen&i&iilar a Plane, the other will hefo alfo. V
to
of the two parallel Lines and &P, ee be perpenFig. Prop. 6.3 the one dicular to the Plane EF, the other will
IF U
AB AB
CD
be
The Eleventh Book.
be fo alfo.
312
:
Draw
the Line
DB
fince the
is a right and Angle Angle, and are fuppos'd to be Parallels, the Angle will be a right Angle, (by the 29. 1.) there
ABD
AB
CD
is
CDB
fore if I can prove, that the
f
Angle
CDG
alfo a right Angle,
that
to
CD
•
is
Make
will follow (by the 4.) perpendicular to the Plane EF.
it
AB
a right
then draw the Lines
Angle BDG, and take DG equal BG and AG.
Demo?iJ}ration.
The
Sides
Triangles
ABD
and
BDG
have the
AB
and
DG
•,
and the Angles ABD and BDG are right Angles ^ therefore (by the 4, The 1.) their Bafes AD and BG are equal. ADG and ABG have all their Sides Triangles
equal, with the Side
BD
common
to both
equals
ADG and ABG
ADG
therefore (by the 8. 1.) the Angles are equal : but the latter is
is a right Angle, becaule fuppos'd to be perpendicular to the Plane EF, therefore the is a right Angle, and the Line Angle and being perpendicular to the Lines DA, will be perpendicular to the Plane of the Lines and DA, which is the fame, in which are the Parallels AB and CD. Therefore the Angle is a right Angle, (by De
AB
DG
DB
DB
GDC
falk. 2
PRO
314'
«»•»•
the Elements of Euclid.
m«—
»
PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
Lines that are parallel to a third ,
rallel
IX;
rfrg
^//b
pd~
the
among tbemfelves,
though not
all
in
fame
Plane.
I
L
F
the Lines
AB
parallel to the
and CD are Line EF,they
I
the Plane of the Lines
Line
HG
not in the fame Plane; Upon AB and EF draw the to AB ; which will be perpendicular
D
will be parallel to each other* though all the three Lines be
EF and CD draw the Line HI pendicular to EF and CD.
the Lines
Demonftration.
alfo perpendicular to EF, (by the Lemma after the 26. 1.) In like manner, upon the Plane of
per
being perpendicular to the Lines and HI, is ib alfo to the Planes of the Lines HG and HI, (by the 4.) therefore and CI are perpendi(by the 8.) the Lines of the LinesfiH and Hl,and cular to the Plane
The Line
EH
GH
AG
(by the 6
1
.)
parallel to each other.
The
'
USE,
This Proportion is frequently us'd in Pfr* to determine the reprefentation fpetfives,
The Eleventh Book.
•,
315
c
i
t
i
c
c
(.
of parallel Lines upon a Table asalfo in the cutting of precious Stones, to prove the Sides of the Pannels to be parallel among themfelves, becaufe they are fo to a Line in a different Plane. In Gnomonlch likewife we are fometimes oblig'd to prove, that the Vertical Circles ought to be defcrib'd on becaufe the Walls by perpendicular Lines
•,
i €
C
Lines, that are the common Sections of them and the Walls, are parallel to a Line drawn from the Zenith to the Nadir.
PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
&
X.
If two Lines, which concur, are parallel
others concurring,
pill
to
two
they
in
different Flane %
make
equal Angles.
the Lines AB and
CF IF
not
CD,
AE and
yet the Angles BAE and DCF will be equal. Let the Lines AB and CD, AE and CF be equal, and draw the Lines BE, DF, AC, BD, and EF.
be parallel, though they be all four upon the fame Plane, <"\
and CD are fuppos'd to be and equal, therefore (fy ^033.1.) both parallel,
Demoitjtration.
The Lines
AB
the'
316
the Lines
as alfo
The Elements of
Euclid.
AC and BD AG and EF
and and
are parallel and equal*
BD
and
EF are parallel,
equal.
fequenrly (by the
alfo parallel
and (by the preceding) and equal, and con35. 1.) BE and DF will be
^
Therefore the Tri
DCF have all their Sides eangles and (by the 8. r,) the Angles BAE and qual } will be equal. Coroll. Many the like Propositions might Be made, which would not be altogether unufeful^ as for example, if upon a parallel be drawn parallel to the Plane the Line Line AB, and the Angles BAE and DCF be e
BAE
DCF
CD
cjual,
theLines AE and
CF
S
will be parallel. 
IheU
c
%
* *
f
f
demonftrate, that the Planes of the Hourcircles with a Plane parallel to the Equator , are equal to the Angles made by them with
the;
By this Propofition we
Angles made by
the Plane of the tquator.
PRO
The Eleventh Booh
3*7
PROPOSITION A PROBLEM,
To draw a Perpendicular
given out
to
XL
a Plane from a Point
of
the Plane.
IF pendicular
draw a perfrom the Point C to the Plane AB, draw the Line ED at pleafure, and CF
you
defire to
perpendicular to it, (by the 12. i.) And again (by the ii. i.) upon the Plane AB draw
dicular to
I fay,
ED, and
FG perpenCG perpendicular to FG.
CG
AB. Draw
GH parallel to FJE.
Demonjlratioyu
will be perpendicular to the Plane
The Line [EF being perpendicular to the Lines CF and FG, will be perpendicular to the Plane CFG, (by the 4.) and being parallel to EF, will be alfo perpendicular to
HG
the fame Plane, (by the 8.) And becaufe is perpendicular to the Lines GF and GH,
will be
the
CG
it
^
perpendicular to the Plane
AB,
(by
X
PEO
318
The Elements of Euclid.
PROPOSITION XII.
A
PROBLEM.
to
To draw a Perpendicular
a Plane through a
.
Point of thefavie Plane
Perpendicular AB through the Point C. Draw from the Point E, taken at pleafure out of the Plane, the Line ED perto the fame Plane, (by the 1 ) pendicular
F E
/
T* O
draw
a
X
to the Plane
^
1
.
Draw
CF
alfo (by the 3 1 1 .) parallel to will be perpendicular to the Plane
.
CF
DE. AB,
(by the S.)
PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
Iwo
Lines perpendicular to
XIII.
a Plane cannot be
drawn through the fame Pomt.
through Point C 7 were perpendicular to the Plane AB and CF the common Section of the Planes of thofe Lines, with the Plane AB 3 the Angles
_m /
E \
D
TF the two Lines CE
A 1
drawn
•
and
CD
fame
the
^
\/_ \ 5 F \
ECF
The Eleventh Booh.
319
ECF and DCF
which
to
the Plane
would be both right Angles,
is impoflible. I add, that two Perpendiculars
be drawn from the fame Point for having drawn the Line CF there would be two right Angles, DCF and DFC, in the fame Triangle, ^contrary to
AF cannot
:
DC and DF,
D
the 32. I.
The
c
USE.
c
This Proposition is necefiary to fhow,' that a Perpendicular to a Plane was fufficiently .defcrib'd, in as much as but one fuch
can be drawn through the fame Point.*
c
PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
Flanes, to which the fame Line are parallel,
is
XIV.
perpendicular}
IF
lar
be perpendicuthe Line to the Planes and
AB
=
AC
Bt), they will be parallel, ;. e. they will in all places be equally diftant from each otherDraw the Line parallel to A B, (by the ai^d join the Lines and'AC.
DC
3 1
.
1 .)
BD
X
2
JBr
ja'o
The Elements of Euclid.
Demonjlration.
AB
Planes
is
AC and BD,
fiipposM to be perpendicular to the therefore the Line CD,
which is parallel to it, will be alfo perpendicular to them, (by the 8.) and coniequentand C, will be ly the Angles B and D,
A
right Angles and and BD will be
^
(by the 28. 1.) the
Lines
AC
ABDC a Parallelogram, Therefore the Lines AB and CD are equal, (by the 34. 1.) the
i.
Parallels,
and the Figure
e.
Planes in the Points
equally
difiant.
and D, are Accordingly the Line CD
A and C, B
I
may be drawn through arty other Point whatfoever j therefore the Planes AC and BD are equally diftant, in all Places, the one from the other.
The
*
1
i
i
I
J
USE.
and
c
*
*
Tbeodofms demonftrates the Circles, that
have the fame Poles, as the Equator,
*
the two Tropkks, to be parallel, becaufe the Jxh oi the World is perpendicular to i
their PJane«.
k
md
fRO
The Eleventh Booh
$21
PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
If two Lines, meeting at a Point,
Lines of another Plane, thofe Lines will be parallel.
tjpo
XV.
be parallel to
the Hanes
of
x
TF
the Lines and parallel to the Lines
AB
AC be
DE £
Huk v JX \S
3
and DF, which are in another Plane, the Planes BC and FE
are parallel.
dicular to the Plane the 1 1 J and GI and
Draw AI perpenBG, (by
DE
:
and IH, parallel to will be alfo parallel to the Lines they
(by the 9.)
FD
ABandAC,
Bmonjlratfan.
Xhe Lines AB and GI
Angle IAB
is
are parallel, and the a right Angle, AI being perpen
dicular to the Plane 1.) the Angle AIG
BG
is
:
Therefore (by the 29.
a right Angle, as alfo the Angle All}. Therefore (by the 4.) the LineAi is perpendicular to the Plane GH'j
and being
alfo perpendicular to the Plane
the Planes
BC and GH,
1^.)
BG,
or
FE,
will be pa
rallel, (by the
X
3
PRO^
322
The Elements of Euclid.
PROPOSITION
A
If a
Fictiie
XVL
\
THEOREM,
two
others which
will
cut
are parallel,
together
their
cemmon
SeBions
with
them he parallel.
F
the Plane
AB
cut
two
o
BD
For
ther parallel Planes, and I fay their common Secti3 ons and BE will be parallel:
i
AC
AF
if not,
Would at length concur,
e.
being continu'd, they g. at the Point G.
The Lines AF and BE
AC and BD
Demovflration. are upon the Planes
and therefore (by the i .) can never be either above, or below them therefore if they concur at the Point G, the Planes muft do fo likewife, and confequently they would not be parallel, which is contrary to what
,
•,
Was fuppos'd.
The
6
USE.
*
'
* '
*
By thisPropofition we demonttrate, in the Treatife of Conick and Cylhdrick Sections, that if the Cone or Cylinder be cut by a Plane parallel to its Bale, the Sections are Circular, By the fame we defcribe AJtrolabes 5 and prove in Gnomonich^ that the Angles, which
the
•.
The Eleventh Booh
the Hourcircles
325
Plane parallel to a great Circle, are equal to thofe which they make in the Circle it felf 5 and
again
that the Images of the objective Lines perpendicular to the Table,concur at the Point of Sight.
in Perfpeftives,
make with a
PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
Two
Planes.
XVIL
Lines are divided proportionally by parallel
the Lines
AB and CD
divided by parallel Planes, I fay, AE will have the fame proportion to EB
as
IF be
CFto FD.Draw the Line
palfing through the Plane EF at the Point Draw alfo AC, BD, FG, aud GE.
AD,
G
:
The Plane of
ons
Demonftration. the Triangle
are parallel
ABD
cuts the
three Planes, therefore (by the
it.) the Sectiaiid (by the 2. 6.)
BD and EG
,
has the fame proportion to EB, as to GD. In like manner the Plane of the Tricuts the Planes EF and AC, thereangle are parallel ^ and fore the Sections and FC has the fame proportion to FD as to
AE
AG
ADC
e.
AC
'
FG
AG
GD,
i,
asAEtoEB.
X4
PRO
:
r
'j
24
^de ^em€nts °f Euclid.
XVIII.
'
PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
If a Line be perpendicularpendicular
to a Plane, all the in which that Line is found, are perPlanes, to the fame Plane.
be perpendithe Line to the Plane ED, all cular the Planes in which it is found
F
AB
i
be perpendicular to the Plane ED. Suppofe AB to be in
will
the Plane AE, having for a common Section with the Plane ED the Line BE * to which draw a Perpendicular FI.
Demovflration.
The Angles ABI and BIF
therefore the Lines $ and (by the 8.)FI will ke perpendicular to will the Plane ED. Therefore the Plane
AB
are right Angles,
and Ff are parallel
AE
be perpendicular to thePlane ED, (by Defin. 4.) * The fame may be prov'd oi the Plane AD. The USE. Vp
<
m
The
firft
*
*
*
Propofition
in
Gnomonich,
which
may pafs for a fundamental one, is built upon this Propofition 5 which is alfo
*
frequently madeufe of, in Spherical Trigonoin jail metry, in PerfpeSives, and .generally 1 thofe
The Eleventh Booh
*
*
325
thofe Treatifes which arc oblig'd to confider divers Planes.
PROPOSITION
A
XIX.
THEOREM.
to the fame.
each other he perpendicuIf two Planes cutting lar to another, their common SeSion will be
perpendicular
I ED,
dicular
F the Planes AB and
which
to
cat
each other,
IK, their ction EF
be perpenthe Plane
common
is
Seper
alfo
pendicular to the Plane IK.
Demonjlration.
AB being perpendicular to the Plane the Line GF will be perpendicular to the IK, fame Plane. Draw likewife perpendicuit will be lar to the common Section DF fhall alfo perpendicular to the Plane IK. have therefore two Perpendiculars to the
the Plane
be not perpendicular to the Plane IK, upon the Plane AB draw the Line GF : perpendicular to the common Sedtion BF and
If
EF
FH
•,
We
fame Plane drawn through the fame Point
F
526
The Elements of Euclid.
P, (contrary to the 13. Propof.) it lnuft therefore be granted that EF is perpendicular to
the Plane IK.
The
c
USE.
'
*
c
Proportion we demonftrate, that the Circle which paiFes through the Poles of r the World and the Lenith, is the Meridian, and cuts all the diurnal Arches into two equal Parts, and that the Stars fpend as much time in their Motions from their Ri
By this
*
fings to this Circle, their Settings.
WHMVfc««*M
as
from
this
Circle to
PROPOSITION
'
"
XX.
A T H E O R E M.
If three plain Amies make one folii one, any tiro of them ought to he greater than the third.
F the Angles BAC, BAD, and I CAD, make the folid Angle A,
eft
and the Angle BAC be the greatAngle h the two others, taken
are
together,
Suppofe the Angle
CAE
greater than BAG. to be equal to the
Angle CAD,
equal
\
and. the Lines
AD
and
AE to
be
and draw the Lines

CEB, CD, and BD.
Sides
:
The Triangles CAEand CAD have the
Demovfiration.
AD
and
At
Side equal; and the
AC
com
mon
The Eleventh Book.
327
and
mon to both, and the Angles equal 5 therefore (by the 4.
the 20.
CAD
1 .)
CAE
their Bafes
CD and CE are equal But the Side CD and DB are greater than the Side CB alone, {by
1.) therefore taking away the equal Lines CD and CE, the Line BD will be greater than BE. Further, the Triangles BAE and BAD have the Sides AE and equal, and the Side BA common, and the Bafe BD greater than the Bafe BE: therefore (by the 18. 1.) the Angle BAD is greater than the Angle
.
AD
BAE
CAD
1
adding therefore the equal Angles and CAE, the Angles BAD and CAD will be greater than the Angles CAE and
•,
BAE,
7.
r
.
e
1
1
the Angle
,
BAG
1
1
1
PROPOSITION
ATHEOREM.
All the plain Angles,
are
lefs
XXL
that make one Jolid Angle, than four right Angles.
*
T F the plain Angles BAC, BAD and CAD, make the folid An
gle A, they will be lefs than four right Angles. Draw the
Lines BC, BD, and CD, and you will have a Pyramid, whofe Bafe
angle BCD. The folid Angle at
gles
is
the Tri
Demonjlration. the Point B, has the
Anthe
ABC
and
ABD greater than that of
Bafe
Elements of Euclid. Bafe alone C£D. In like manner ACB and ACD are greater thanf^CD alone, and the
528
TJ:e
and are greater than Angles alone. But all the Angles of the Bafe are equal to two right Angles, therefore the Angles
ABC
ADB
CDB
ABC, ABD, ACB, ACD, ADC, and ADB, are And becaufe greater than two right Angles. all the Angles of the Three Triangles BAG, BAD, and CAD, are equal to fix right Angles *
taking away more than two right Angles, there will remain lefs than four, for the Angles made at the Point A. But if the folid confijft of more than three plain Angle io that^he Bafe of the Angles, Pyramid be a a Polygon, it may be divided into Triangles $
A
and the Computation being made, you
find,
up
will that all the plain Angles, which make the fblid one, are always lefs than four
right Angles.
The
c
USE.
c
Thefetwo Proportions fhow when many plain Angles may make up one folid one,
often neceiTary in the Treatifes of of Stones, and in the following cutting Proportions. The 22, and 23. Propoftms are of no life.
*
which
is
c c
.'
PRO
The Eleventh Book
329
PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
If a
folict
XXIV.
the
Body be terminated by parallel Planes, Sides mil be Jimilar and $qual apptijite
Parallelograms.
the Solid
IF parallel Planes, the oppoby
lite Superficies's will
AB be terminated
be fimilar
and equal Parallelograms.
Defnonftration.
The
BE
and
parallel Planes are cut by the Plane
AC and
FE
:
therefore their
(by the 16.)
common
Sections
are parallel,
fo likewife
DF
and
AE
:
therefore
AD
Parallelogram. After the fame manner I may demonstrate, that AG, FB, CG> and the reft are Parallelograms. I add, that and FB, the oppofite Parallelograms, e. g. are fimilar and equal. The Lines AE and
will be a
AG
EG
there* are parallel to the Lines and are equal, fore the Angles (by the 10) Accordingly I may demonstrate
:
FD
and
AEG
DB FDB
all the Sides
and all the Angles of the oppofite
Parallelograms to be equal, therefore the raHelograms are fimilar and equal.
Pa
>
PRO
3
3°
The Elements of
Euclid.
PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
XXV.
If a Far allele'pipe'don be divided ly a Plane parallel to one of its Planes , the two Jolid Bodies which arife by that Divijion, will have
thefame
Proportion as their Bafes,
be IF
CD,
the Parallelepipedon divided by the Plane which is parallel to the
AB
Planes
AF
will have the fame proas the Bafe AI portion to
AC
and BE, the Solid
BD
to the Bafe
fliov/s
DG. Suppofe the Line AH, which
the height of the Figure to be divided
equal Parts as you pleafe j for ten thoufand ^ which we may take .example, as Indivifibles, i. e. without reflecting upon
into as
many
the poifibility of their being further fubdivided Suppofe alfo fo many Superficies's parallel to the Bafe AI, as there are Parts in I have defcrib'd only on OS ^ the Line fo that the Solid AB be compounded of all
AH
•,
fame thicknefs, as a Ream of Paper compounded of all its Tis laid one upon another. .Sheets and Quires fo the Solid AC will be com.evident that
is
thofe Superficies's of the
pounded
The Eleventh Booh
331
pounded of ten thoufand Superficies's equal to the Bafe AI, (ij the preceding) and the
Solid
DB
ficies's
will contain ten thoufand Superequal to the Bale DG.
JDemovJlratlun.
Every Superficies of the Solid fame proportion to any ot the of the Solid DB as the Bafe A I
AC
has the
Superficies's to the Bafe
becaufe they are every one of them equal to their Bafes therefore (by the 12. 5.) all the Superficies's of the Solid taken towill have the fame proportion to all gether,
,
DG
:
AC
thofe of the Solid
Bafe
lid
DB, as the Bafe AI to the DG. Brit all the Superficies's of the SoAC make up the Solid AC, which has no
other Parts but thofe Superficies's: and all the Superficies's of the Solid DB are nothing therefore the Solid elfe but the Solid DB } has the fame proportion to the Solid DB, as
AC
the Bafe
AI
to the Bafe
DG.
which
The
1
USE.
•,
This is Cavaler jus's Demonftration
very
clear,
1
is
'
and that the Line, by which
c
*
*
4
ought > meafur'd the thicknefs of the Superficies's, be taken in the fame refpe&in both the Terms. I iliall make ufe of it hereafter, to render fbme intricate and perplex'd Demonftrations more
is
provided
it
beus'd as
it
feci land* cleat,
PRO*
352
The Elements of
Euclid.
<
PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
Parallelepipedon
is
XXVI.
A
B
divided
into
two
equal
Parts by the diagonal Plane.
Y
H
The Eleventh BooK
The
27.
331
are of
and 28.
Proportions
no ufe
according to this way of demonjlrating.
PR OPO
S.
XXIX, XXX, XXXI.
thet
A THEOREM.
Paralklepipedons of the fame height, having fame or equal Bafes, are Equal,
B
T>
u?
"Vs.
KH
534
iriariy in
tJieir
Th* Elements of Euclid.
one Solid as in the other becaufe thicknefs, which I take perpendicularly
,
Recording to their
refpeftive
Heights,
is
equal.
,
has the fame proportion to The Bafe the Bafe CI, as each Plane KL to OM. But they being equal in number in both, all the Antecedents (by the 2.5.) will have the fame proportion to all the Confequents, i. e. the whole Solid AB to the whole Solid CD, as the to the Bafe CI. But 'tis fuppos'd Bafe that the Bafes are equal, therefore the Solids are equal. Coroll To find the Solidity of a Parallele'tis ufual to multiply the Bafe by' jfnpedon, the height taken perpendicularly, becaufe that Perpendicular mows how many Superficies's equal to the Bafe are contain d in it. As for example, if I take a Foot for my Indivifible Meafure, z. e. which I will not after wards fubdi vide 5 if the Bafe contain twelve
AH
DemonJ!ratio?i.
AH
Feet fquare, and the perpendicular height ten,, Ifhallhave an hundred and twenty cubick Feet for the folidity of the Body AB. Foi the height containing ten Feet, I may make ten Parallelelograms equal to the Bafe, having but the Bafe with each a Foot in thicknefs one Foot in thicknefs makes twelve Cubicfc Feet the whole therefore will make an hun dred and twenty ,if the height contain ten Feet
,
:
PRO'
The Eleventh Booh
«XXXII.
PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
the Tarallelepipedovs of
fame
height
are in the
fame Proportion as their Bafes,
in the prethat the Paralleled ceding, demonftrating, has the fame proportion to the pipedon
(
I
Have prov'd
this Propofition
AB
to the Parallelepipedon CD, as the Bafe Bafe CI. (See Fig. pecel) Cor oil. Parallelepipedons that have equal Bafes, are in the fame proportion as their
AH
Heights. As the Parallelepipedons AB and AL, whofe perpendicular Heights are AKandAE. For if you divide the Height AK into as many aliquot Parts as you pleafe, and AE into as
as it contains equal to the former, and draw, according to each Part, Planes parallel contains of the to the Bafe} as many as
many
AE
aliquot Parts of AK, fo many will the Solid contain of the Superficies's equal to the Bafe, which are the Aliquot Parts of the Solid* AL*, therefore (% Defou 5. 5.) the Solid will have the fame proportion to the Solid
AB
AB
AL,
as the
Height
AE
to the Height
AK.
The
Y
3
M
33^
The Elements of EuclidJ
The
USE.
e
The
*
c
three preceding Proportions contain
all the
c
€
c
*
ways of meafuring Parallelepipedons, and msy be efteem'd as nrft Prin3 Tis after the fame ciples for that purpofe.
almoft
manner alfo that we take the Dimensions of the Solidity of Walls, by multiplying their Bafes by their Heights.
PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
Similar
XXXIIL
Parallelepipedom
are
in
the
triplicate
Proportioii of their homologous Sides.
IF ABParallelcpipeand CD be dons
fimilar,
i. e.
the
if
all
the
like
Planes of one be thofe of the other
all their
,'
and
Angles equal, fo that they may be plac'd ana right Line, z. e. that AE and EF,HEand EI, GE and EC, may make right Lines*, and
AE has the fame proportion to EF
EI, and asGE to
7
as
HE
to
EC
:
I fay, that here are four
Solids in continual proportion according to the proportion of the Side EA to that, which
is
homologous to it,
EF
or JDI.
De
The Eleventh BooK
Demonjtration.
jj7
Parallelepipedon AB his the fama proportion to EL of the fame Height, as the to the Bafe EO, (by the 5 2.) But' the .Bafe has the fame proportion to the Bafe Bafe
The
AH AH
as
EO,
AE to
EF,
to El, and of GE to EC, was fupposM to ba and confequently, the Solid the fame has the fame proportion to EL as EL to EK, and as EK to CD. Therefore (by Dfot. 1 t. 5.) the proportion of AB to CD will be the tri* plicate proportion of that of AB to EL, or
*,
to ED, li e. that of the Solid EK has the fame prolaftly, to portion to the Solid EN, as the Height the Height EC, (by the Coroll. of the 32.) or the Line EF for their common Height) jf taking as the Bafe GI to the Bafe CI, 7. e. as to to EF, of EC. But the proportion of
to the Bafe
EO
ner, the proportion of Solid EK, is the fame
(by the 1. 6.) In like manthe Solid to the
EL
what that of the Bafe
HE
EL
And
GE
GE
AE
HE
AS
of AE to its homologous Side
E F.
Coroll. If four Lilies be in continual proportion, the Parallelepipedon defcrib'd upon the firft, has the fame proportion to another
funilar Parallelepipedon defcrib'd upon the fecond, as the firft to the fourth } for the proportion of the firft to the fourth, is the triplicate proportion of that of the firft to the
fecond.
c
The
US
a
E.
this
You may
perceive
y
by
Propofition that
33S
\
'
The Elements of Euclid.
1
that that famous Problem of the Duplication of the Cube, propos'd by the Oracle, confiftsj
c
,
two middle Terms in continual proportion. For if you make the fide of the firft Cube the firft Term, and the double of that the fourth ^ having found two middle Proportionals, the Cube defcrib'd upon the firft Line will have the fame proportion to
in finding
that defcrib'd upon the fecond,
as the firft
Line to the fourth,
.
By* thisPropofition alfo may be corrected their Error, who fancy fimrar Solids to have the
t.
,
e.
as one to two.
fame proportion as their Sides as if a Cube of one foot in length was the half of a Cube two Foot long when indeed it is* tut the
•,
1
eighth
4
*
c
*
i
Part thereof. This is likewise the Foundation of the Rule concerning the fize of the Bores of cannons and is applicable not oply to Bullets, but to all forts of fimiFor example , fhould a Man,alar Bodies. bout to build a Navy, and refolving to retain the fame proportion in all his YelTels, reafon thus with himfelf if a Ship of an
:
,
,
hundred Tun require fifty Foot in Keel anc other of two hundred Tuns ought to have an \ hundred Foot in Keel*, he would be guilty * of a great Miftake: for inftead of making
:
:
c
*;
.,
a Yeflel twice as large as the former, would make one eight times fo much.
He He
,£ lefs
ought toafiign to the fecond Veffel foiiiewhat. than fc ty three Feet. PP.O
'The
Eleventh BooK
Zl9
PROPOSITION XXXIV.
A THEOREM.
Equal Parallelepipedom have their Bafes ani Heights reciprocal, and thofe that have their Bafes and Heights reciprocal are eqiial.
the Paralle
IF lepipedons ?AB
and
CD
be equal,
and Bafes Heights will be reciprocal, i. e. the BafeAE will have the fame proportion to to the Height) the Bafe CF, as the Height AG. Having make CI eqnal to AG, draw the Plane IK parallel to the Bafe CF.
their
CH
Demonftratlon.
has the fame pro^ Parallelepipedon to £K, being of the fame height, as portion the Bafe AE to the Bafe CF, (by the 32.) BuC. as AB to CK, fo is to the fame CK, be
The
AB
CD
caufe
CK,
are equal ^ and as which have both the fame Bafe,
AB and CD
CD
to
is,
,
lb
to the Height CI, (by the CorolL the Height the 3 2.) therefore as the Bafe to the of Bafe CF, fo is the Height to the Heighfi ~ CI or AG.
CH
.
AE
CH
X
4
I add
34a
The Elements of Euclid.
Bafe
I add, that if the
A£
has the fam e
proportion to the Bafe CF as the to the Height AG, the Solids
AB
Height CH and CD will
be equal.
Demowjlvatiort.
CD to
has the fame proportion to CK, being fame Height, as the Bafe AE to the Bafe CF, (by the 22.) Alfo the Height CH has the fame proportion to the Height CI or AG, as
fcf the
AB
CK;
but
we fuppofe
as
that
to
AE
CI
has the
or
lame proportion to CF,
CH
AG
d
has the fame therefore the Solid tion to the Solid CK, as the Solid.
AB
CD
proporto the
fame CK, andconfequently the Solids AB and
;
CD are equal,
(by the 9.5.)
r
the
*
US
E.
*This
*
c
*
Reciprocation
of the Bafes arid
Solid very eafy to be mea« And the Proportion feems to bear fur'd. feme Analogy to the 14. Prop, of the 6. which
aflerts,
Heights mates the
That equiangular and equal
Paralle
*
lograms have their Sides reciprocal ^ and the Practice of the Rule of Three may be de* aicnftrated from botb.j
'
L
The
35. Prop,
may be
omitteH.
PRC
The Eleventh BooK
34*
PROPOSITION
Tf three Lines be
ralleleplpedon to an equal
XXXVI.
A THEOREM.
in continual proportion,
a Pa^
made of
thoje three
Lines
is
equiangular
Sides
which has
Line.
all its
equal
Farallelepipedon, to the middle
£
P
IF portion,
the Lines A, B, C, be in continual prcr the Parallelepipedon EF made of
the Points Hand K draw KQ_ perpendicular to the
thofe three Lines, the SideFI being equal to the Line A, equal to B> and HI equal to C, is equal to the equiangular Parallelepipedon KL; whofe Sides LM, MN, and KN, are each of them equal to the Line B. From
HE
the Lines HP and Planes t)f the Eafes$
which Lines will be equal, becaufe the folid Angles E and K are fuppos'd equal, (fo that if ^tney could penetrate, neither would exi
ceed
3 42
Th e Elements of
Euclid.
ceed the other,
and the Lines
EH and KN
are alfo fuppos'd equal. Therefore the Heights
HP and NQ. are equal.
Deinovjlration.
There is the fame proportion of or of FI to LM, as of B to C, or
therefore
A
to
LM to HI
B,
:
Parallelogram under FI and IH, is equal to the Paralleloand MN, both gram LN contain'd under
the
FH
contain d
LM
equal to B, (by the i6> 6.) therefore the Bafes are equal. But the Heights and NQare
HP
1 .)
therefore (by the 3 lelepipedons are equal.
^
alfo equal
the
Par'al
PROPOSITION
If four Lines be
proportional,

XXXVII.
A THEOREM.
the Parallelepiped
:
defcviVd upon thofe Lines are proportional : and if the Jimilar Par allelepipe dons be their homologous Sides will bs proportional,
alfo proportional.
dom
C to proportion to B as the fimilar ParallelepiP, the Lines pedons, whofe homologous Sides are be In the fame proportion. A, B, C, D, will
*'
Demonjlratmi. The Parallelepipedon is ia the triplicate of proportion to the Parallelepipedon B, " that
!
A
.
The Eleventh Boofc
545
to the Line B, or that of that of the Line the Line C to the Line D. But the Paralleleis alfo pipedon C to the Parallelepipedon in the triplicate proportion of that of the Line C to the Line D, (by the 33.) Therefore has the fame, proporthe Parallelepipedon
A
D
A
tion to the Parallelepipedon B, as the Parallelepipedon C to the Parallelpipedon D.
PROPOSITION
XXXVIII.
A THEOREM.
If two Planes be perpendicular to each other , a Point in one ^Perpendicular drawn from a
of the Planes
to the other
will fall
upon the
common
Se&ion.
TF
*
the Planes
AB
and
CD being

B
a
'
perpendicular
to
you draw from
each other, the Point E in
the Plane a Line perpend icular to the Plane CD, it will fall upon the common Sedion of the
Planes.
AB
\*
AlF &
c
i
Draw EF
perpendicular to the com
mon
Sedition: AG.'
Demonftration.
The Line EF, common Se&ion
fuppos'd
to be
the perpendicular to of the Planes, which are perpendicular, will be per
AG
pendicular to the Plane
j
CD,
(by Defn. 3.)
and
becaufe
344
becaufe
The Elements of Euclid. two Lines cannot be drawn from the
»
Point E perpendicular to the Plane CD, (by the it,) every Perpendicular will fall upon
the
'
common Section AG.
.
Th USE,
'Tis of ufe to us in the
This Proportion ought to have follow d next aftjer the 17$, becaufe it refpe&s So*
lids in
*
general.
Treadfe of Apoiabe^ to prove that in the Analemma all the Circles, perpendicular to
the
Mm Jim,
*
ought to be markf by right
Lines.
PROPO SITION

XXXIX
A
If
'
THEOREM.
in a Paralklepipdon be drawn two Planes^ which divide the vppojite Sides into two dqual the DiameParts, their common SeBion and ter will divide each other into two equal
atfo
Parts.
CD and EF, their common Se&ion GH and the Diameter
of the Parallelepipedon AB to be divided into two equal Parts by the Planes
Qi O Uppofe
the oppofite Sides
BA
each other at the Point O.
will equally divide Draw the Lines
I
fiiall
. .
£G, GK,
AH
and HL.
prove
firft,
that;
The Eleventh Booh
that the two io likewife
firft
345
(and
of thefe,
BG
and GK,
AH and HL.) make but one right For the Triangles DGB and have becaufe they their Sides DB and equal, are the Halves of equal Sides $ as alfo and GM. Further, DB and being parallel, the alternate Angles BDG and will be equal, (by the 29. ij and therefore (by the will be 4. 1.) the Triangle DBG and and confequently the equal in all refpe&s, and (bytbeCoroll of Angles BGDand the 15. 1.) BG and GK make but one right
Line.
KM
KMG
GD
KM
GMK
KGM
KGM
•,
and therefore ALBK Line, as alfo is one Plane, in which are found both the Diameter AB, and the common Sedtion of the Planes GH. The Plane ALBK cutting the and CD, their common parallel Planes will be parallel Sections «and and
:
LH
HA
AN
GH
AK
:
will have the fame proporto and therefore tion to GK, as \ to GK, fo the 18. 5.) as to BO* (by
(by the 2. 6.)
BG
BO BK
fo
OA
BA
and
to
(by the 4.
6)
GH
or
AK
to
OG.
is
But
BK is
double to
BG,
therefore
BA
double
equal to GH, double to GO. Therefore the Lines GH, and AB divide each other equally at the Point CoroU. 1 All the Diameters are divided at the Point O.
BO, and AK,
O
.
Here we may add fome Corollawhich depend upon divers Proportions. ries, for example, that triangular Prifms of
CoroU. 2.
M
the
5 4"
The Elements of
Euclid.
the fame height are in the fame proportion as for the Parallelepipedons, of which they are the halves, are (by the 32.) in the fame proportion as their Bafes therefore the halves of their Bafes, and the halves of the Parallelepipedons, i e, the Prifms, will be in the fame Proportion.
their Bafes:
:
.
Coroll. 3.
Polygon Prifms of the fame height
are alfo in the fame proportion as their Bafes, becaufe they may be refolv'd into triangular
ones, each of which will have the portion as their Bafes.
Coroll. 4.
fame pro<
of the Proportions concerning Parallelepipedons are alfo applicable as for example, that equal Prifms to Prifms have their Heights and Bafes reciprocal 5— and that fimilar Prifms are in the triplicate proportion of that of their homologous Sides.
reft
:
The
The
*
USE.
*
c
1
'
This Proportion may help us to find out the Center of Gravity in Parallelepipedons^ and to demonftrate fome other Proportions in the thirteenth and fourteenth Books of
Euclid.
PRO
The Eleventh Book.
347
PROPOSITION
ATHEOREM.
A Prifm,
double to the triangular
XL.
that has a Parallelogram for its Bafe Bafe of another Prifm,
height,
is
and of the fame
equal to
it %
LE
and CDG be two triangular of the fame height, and the Prifms, Bafe of one the Parallelegram AE, double to the Triangle FGC, the Bafe of the other I fay thefe Prifms are equal. SupPrifin the Parallelepipedon and GI were pofc
T ABE
:
AH
compleated.
H
B
348
The Elements of
•,
1
Euclid.
GK are equal and confequently, the Paralfelepipedons AH and GI, having the fame Bafes
and the fame Heights, are equaU and
there
fore the Prifms, that are the Halves, (by the 26.) will be likewife equal.
THE
imnw«Mi
£ 349 3
THE TWELFTH BOOK
O
F
TH
E
ELEMENTS EUCLID
after having in the preceeding Books deliver'd the general PrinciETJcVilyof folid Bodies, and explain'd ples the manner of Meafuring the moft regular of them, that is, fuch as are terminated by
plain Superficies's; treats in this of fuch Bodies as are contain'd in Superficies's thai are crooked, as the Cylinder, Cone, Arid
Sphere comparing one with another, and giving Rules, relating both to their Solidity, and the manner of taking their Dimenfions. The Book is of exceeding great
:
ufe,
becatife in it
we
find the Principles,
upon which the moft learned Matljema* tlciam have built fo many famous Demonfixations concerning the Cylinder, the Cone,
I
and the Sphere;
Z
PRO
350
The Elements of Euclid.
PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
I.
Similar Polygons, infcrib'd in Circles are in the fame proportion as the Squares of the Diameters oj the fame Circles.
IF ABCDE,
FGHKL,
bed
be
will
the Polygons
and
infcri
in
Circles,
fimilar,
they
the
be
in
fame
as the Squares of the f)iameters
proportion
AM, FN.
Draw
the Lines
BM, GN, AC,
#
and FH.
I
Demonjiration.
toBCas FGto GH: from whence
'Tis fuppos'd that the Polygons are Similar* that is to fay, that the Angles B and are has the fame proportion and that equal,
G
j
AB

I infer,
and (by the 6. 6.) that the Triangles are equiangular, and that the Angle9 are equal $ fo that likewife and
ABC
FGH
ACB
FHG
(by the 1\.
•are equal.
%.) the Angles But the Angles
AMB and FNG ABM and FGN,
.XH^ fore
fy
being in a Semicircle, are right Angles, (£§ the%i. 3.) and confequently, the Triangles
ABM and FGN
are equiangub
Twelfth Booh 351 ( the 4. 6.) AB has the fame proportion to by to FN, and (by the 22. 6.) if two FG, as fimilar Polygons be defcrib'd upon AB and FG, as thofe that are propose!; and two and FN, other fimilar Polygons upon which fhall be two Squares $ the Polygon ABCDE will h&ve the fame proportion to the
The
AM
AM
Polygon
c 1
FGHKL^
FN.
as the Square of
AM
to
the Square of
ftrate that
This Propofitkn is neceflary to demon* which follows.
LEMMA.
If a
^iianttiy be lefs than a Circle, 4 regular Tolygon may be htfcrWd in the fame Circle greater than that Quantity.
certain
f he
SUppofe A Figure
'
c
to
be
lefs
*
than
Circle
\ c
B
the a
5'
* c
*
c
regular Polygon may
be inferib'd
in the
%
fame Circle* which fhall be greater than the Figure A. Let the Figure G be the and the difference between the Figure
A
Circle,
lb that the Figures
A
and
G
taken
to
£
2
35^
*
The Elements of Euclid.
together,
« *
may
fcribe in the Circle the 6. 4.)
be equal to the Circle B. InB the Square CDEF, (by and if the Square be greater
<
4
t c
c
c
.
c
than the Figure A, we fhall have what we wanted. If it be lefs, divide the four Quarters of the Circle CD, DE, EF, and FC, each into two equal Parts at the Points H,I, K, L, that fri you may have an O&ogon. But if the Oclcgon be fiill lefs than the Figure A, fubdivide its Arches, and you will have a Polygon of flxteen Sides, afterwards of thirtytwo, and then of iixtyfour. I fay, at lergth 37011 will have a Polygon greater than the Figure A, 2. e. a Polygon whofe difference from the Circle is lefs than that of the Figure A, that is, lefs than the Figure G. Demovjfratzon. ' The inferib'd Square is more than half of
the Circle, being half of the Square defcrib'd about the Circle ^ and in jdefcribing the Oclbgon you take more than half of the Remainder, i.e. of the four Segments CHD,
•
*
1
DIE,EKF,andCLF. For the Triangle CHD isthehalfof the Re&angle CO, (by the 34.
r.)
{
therefore it
c
Arches. In like manner, in dethe Polygon of fixteen Sides, you 'fcribing c take more than half of what was left of the c Circle ^ and fp in all the others. Therefore
all the other
*
'
Segment
CHD
5
is more than half of the and the fame may be faid of
you will leave
at laft a
lefs
Quantity than 6,
355 G. For 'tis evident, that two unequal Quanr tities being proposed, if you take away more than half 01 the greater, and afterwards more than half of what remains, and again more than half of what is ftill left behind y at

The Twelfth Booh
length that which remains will be lefs than the fecond Quantity. Suppofe the fecond Quantity to be contain'd in the firft an hun.
*
dred times: 'tis evident, that dividing the into an hundered Parts, in fuch fort, that the firft Part may have a greater proportion to the fecond, than two to one 5 the laft will be lefs than the hundredth Part fo that at laft you will obtain a Polygon, which will be lefs exceeded by the Circle, than the Circle exceeds the Figure A, that is to fay, that what will remain of the Circle, when the Polygon is taken; away, will be lefs than G. Therefore the Polygon will be greater than the Figure A.
firft
:
PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
IL
Circles are in the fame proportion as the of their Diameters.
Squares
A
I the Circles
and
prove that
B
(
A
Z
*
are [c
in the
fame
3
proportion 3
as
554
The Elements of Euclid.
and EF. Sappofe the as the Squares of to have the fame proportion to Figure
CB
G
the Circle B, as the Square of to the of EF if the Figure G be lefs than Square the (Circle A, (by the preceding Lemma^) a regular Polygon, may be infcnb'd in the Circle A, greater than G. Let a fimilar regu? lar Polygon bealfo infcrib*d in the Circle B.
:
CD
will ha ve* the fame proportion to the Polygon of B, as to the Square of EF, i. e* the Square of to the Circle B but the Quanthe fame as is lefs than the Polygon infcrib'd in; tity
.
The Polygon
Demcwflratioiu of the Circle
A
CD
G
•,
G
accordingly therefore (by. the 14, 5.) the Circle B muft be lefs than the Polygon infcrib'd in it,
jnufl:
A:
which
is
manifeftly
falfe.
It
1
therefore be granted that the Figure G, being lefs than the Circle A, cannot have
the fame proportion to the Circle B, as the Square of CD to the Square of EF, and con« fequently, that the Circle A, cannot have a greater proportion to the Circle B, than the Square of CD to the Square of EF : Nor can it be faid to have a lefs ? for then the Circle
*
B
would have a greater proportion to ths Circle A, and the f$me Dernonftratjon would be applicable to it,
Coroll. 1
.
Circles are in the duplicate pro
portion of that of their Diameters 5 becaufe ihe Squares being fimilar Figures, are in the du? V»^*j
ft
The Twelfth Booh
duplicate proportion (by the 20. 6.) Cor oil. 2. Circles are in the fame
369
of that of their Sides
propor
tion as the fimilar Polygons, that are infcrib in them.
d
Cor oil 3. This ought
:
to be well obferv'd
as a general Rule fimilar Figures, beinfcrib'd in others, fo that they aping
When
may
nearer and nearer to them, and at laft degenerate into the Figures themfelves, are in the fame proportion ^ the Figures that contain them are alfo in the fame proportion.
proach
ftill
What
I
would fgy
is
this,
That
fimilar re
gular Polygon^, infcrib'd in divers Circles, are always in the fame proportion as ths Squares of the Diameters * and being made of more Sides, fo as to approach ftill nearer and nearer to the Circles, they ftill retain the fame proportion , and the Circles themfelves the Squares of are in the fame proportion as This manner of meafuring their Diameters. round Bodies, by infcribing in them others,
is
of great
ufe.
The E. This being a very general Propofition,
* ' c
US
c
'
enables us to argue about Circles, in the fame manner as we do of Squares. For example, we fay (in the 47. 1.) That in a redfcangle Triangle the Square of the Bafe alone is equal to the Squares of both the S;des
taken together.
We may
Z 4
fay the fame of
Circle!
356
The Elements of Euclid.
Circles, f. e. That the Circle defcrib'd upoi* the Bale of a Rectangle Triangle, is equal to the Circles, whofe Diameters are the Sides.
And in
the fame
manner we may augment
or diminilh Circles, according to what pro? prove alfo by it in portion we pleafe.
We
^
in the duOptichy that Light decreafes diftances plicate proportion of that of the of the lucid Bodies.
PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
III.
Every Pyramid, whofe Bafe is triangular, hay be divided into two equal Ptifms, whub make the Pyramid, and into up more than half of
two equal Pyramids.
IN *
the
Pyramid
EBFI,
be
ABCD
EHKC,
than
may
be
found two equal
Prifms,
and
which will
greater
half the Pyramid. Divide the fix Sides of the Pyramid equally at the Points G, F, E,
J,
H, K, and draw the Lines EG, GF, FE, EI, Jil, FH, IK, and EK. ;
jDemonJlration.
In the Triangle
proportion
to
ABD, AG
Tias the
Tame
GB as AF to FD,
becaufe
AB
The Twelfth Book,
and
357
and
are
AD are
equally divided in G,
F
•>
and therefore (by the 2. 6.) will be the half of rallels*; and
GF
ED
Pai. e.
GF
BI, FE and HI, will be parallels, and equal and (by the 15. 11.) the Planes GFE and BHI will be parallel, and confequently EBFI will be a Prifm. The fame may be laid of the Figure HEKF, which will be alfo a Prifm equal to the other, (by the 4©. 11.) the Parallelogram Bafe HIKD being double the Triangular BHI,
equal to
BH. In
like manner,
GE and
BD,
:
(by the 41.
1.)
Secondly, I fay, the Pyramids
AEFG, and
ECKI,
are fimilar and equal.
Demotifiratioy.
The
Triangles
(by the 8.
1.) as alfo
AFG and FDH are equal, FDH and EIK* and
:
likewifeAGE, andEIC, and fo of all the other Triangles of the Pyramids therefore the Pyramids are equal, (by Befn. 10. 11.) They are alfo fimilar to the great Pyramid ABDG lor the Triangles AGE and ECI are fimilar (by the 2.6.) the Lines GE and BC being Parallels*, and the like may be demon:
firated of all the other Triangles of the leffer
Pyramids.
Laftly, I fay the Prifms are more than half of the firft Pyramids. For if each was equal to one of the lefler Pyramids, both would be equal to the half of the greater Pyramid. But they are each of them greater than one of
thofe
35^
thofe
Th e Elements of Euclid*
the
Pyramids; as the Prifm GHE contains Pyramid GBHI, and fomewhat more, and that Pyramid is equal and fciilar to the others, having all their Triangles equal and fimilar to thole of the Pyramid AGFE, as
be eafily prov d by the Prallelifm of their Sides: from whence I infer, that the two Prifms taken together, are greater than
may
the two Pyramids j and confcquently greater than half of the great Pyramid.
PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
IV.
Jftwo Tiicmguhr Pyramids of the fame height be divided into two Prifms and two Pyramids, and the latter Pyramids fub divided after the all the Prifms of one Pyramid fame manner
•
have the fame proportion to all thofe of the other, as the Bafe of one Pyramid to the
will
•
Bafe of the
other.
the
two
IF mids
DEFG,
Pyra
ABCD,
of the fame
^
height,
and having
triangular Bafes, be two divided into
Prifms and two Pyramids, according to the in the third Propofition
•,
method
laid
down
and the two IciTer be fubdivided alter the fame manPyramids
ner,
ner,
The Twelft h Booh andfo inorder,that,having made
359
as
many
Divifions of one as of the other, you have the fame number of Prifms in both^ I fay, that all the Prifms of one will have the fame proportion to all the Prifms of the other, as
Demonftration. or the fame height, the Prifms produced by the firft Divifions, will have alfo the fame height, becaufe they have
their Bafes.
The Pyramids being
each the half of that of their Pyramids. But Prifms of the fame height are in the fame proportion as their Bafes, (by theCoroll. of the 39. 1 1 ,) The Bafes BTV and EPX are fimiand having lar to the Bafes BDC and EGF for their Sides the half of thofe great Bafes, they can make but the fourth Part of them ^ but they are in the fame proportion as the great Bafes are h therefore the firft Prifms will have the fame proportion as the great Bafes. After the fame manner I may prove that the Prifms produc'd by the fecond Divifion, i e. of the lefTer Pyramids, will be in the fame proportion as the Bafes of thofe lefler Pyramids, which are in the fame proportion as the great Bafes. Therefore all the Prifms of one have the fame proportion to all the Prifms of the other, as the Bafe to the Bafe.
*,

.
The
cc
ct
USE.
Thefe
to
two Propofitions are neceflary compare Pyramids together, and to take
<c
their Dimensions.
PRO
360
The Elements of Euclid.
PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
Triangular Pyramids of the
V
fame height are in the fame proportion as their Bafes.
proportion as their BaFor if *hey were not, H one of them, e. g. ABCD, would have a greater proportion to the Pyramid EFGH, than the Bafe BCDtotheBafe FGH* fo that a Quantity lefs than ABCD would have the fame pro, portion to the Pyramid EFGH, as the Bafe BCD to the Bafe FGH. Divide the Pyramid
fes.
and EFGH THE Pyramids fame
ABCD
are in the
of the third Propodivide alfo the Pyramids that refult rtion $ from the firft Divifion, into two Prifms and two Pyramids, and thofe again into two other Prifms, continuing the Divifion as long as there fhall be cccafion. Since the Prifms of the firft Divifion are more than half of the
ABCD after the manner
Pyramid ABCD, (by [the 3.) and the Prifms of the fecond Divifion more than half the remainder, i. e, of the two leffer Pyramids,
$
and
thofe of
the third Divifion ftill
more
than
The Twelfth Booh
than the half of what
36 1
is left ^ it is evident, that fo many Divisions may be made, that that which remains fhall be lefs than the excefs of the Pyramid above the Qaan*
ABCD
tity L, that
is,
that all the Prifms taken to
Make
gether fhall be greater than the Quanty L. as many Divisions of the Pyramid
JEFGH, fo
that
as there are in
you may ABCD.
have as
many
Prifms
Demonjlration.
have the fame proportion to the Prifms of EFGH, as the Bafe to the Bafe but the proportion of the Bafe BCD to the Bafe is the fume with that of the Quantity L to the Pyramid therefore the Prifms of have the fame proportion to the Prifms of EFGH, as the Quantity L to the Pyramid EFGH. But alfo the Prifms of are greater than the Quantity L therefore {by the 14.5.) the Prifms contain'd in the Pyramid
The Prifms of
ABCD
BCD
FGH
:
FGH
EFGH
:
ABCD
ABCD
:
EFGH
would be greater than the fame Pyramid EFGH, which is evidently falfe 5 becaufe the Part cannot be greater than the Whole. Therefore it muft be granted, that no Quantity lefs than one of th e Pyramids can have the fame proportion to the other as the Bafe to the Bale and confequently neither or the Pyramids can have a greater proportion to
,
the other than the Bafe has to the Bafe,
PRO
^G i
The Elements of Euclid,
V
i.<
O
P
O
S
I
TION
r
VI.
A TH
Ail J oris of lyrtwiids
the
FOR P.M.
have
Jamc
of the J ame height % Proportion as their jiaj'es.
THE
vide the
Pyramids ABC and DEJFIG, of" the
fame Height* are in the fame proportion as the DiBafefl BC and FFG.
Bats
into Triangles,
Ikmovjlratiov.
and I)F, bearc in the fame Height, proportion as (heir Bafts, fiy fie 7.) So alfo and DP arc in tile tii;u::Mil;ii' Pyramids
in^
TIic triangular Pyramids of the fame
AB
AC
the lame proportion as their; Baft*. There fore the Pyramid' ABC has the lame proportion to the Pyramid DEE, as the Bafe BC;fO the Bafe \A'\ (bftbe 12. 5) Fmther, Una: the Pyramid 1)1 F has the (a flic proportion to the Pyramid ABC as the Bafc EF to the Bafe
BC
\
and again,
fame proportion
Bafe
G
to
will alfo
Pyramid DG has the Pyramid ABC, as the the Bkfe BG > the Pyramid DEfW have the fame proportion to
the
to
\h.c
1
t
Pyramid ABC, BC.
as the Bale
PPG
to the Bafe
PR
j
'•
TbeTwelfth Booh
>*«.
36 j
V R
O POSI T O N
I
VII.
A T Hi: OR KM.
r.uny Pyramid
h
upon the fains Bafi,
firft
the third Part of a Prifm heiyg and of the fame height.
SUppofe lar Prifm AB
pO&*t!t:
the triangubfe
pro
I
ving ono
ACHE
or
BDF
lay a Pyramid, haof the Triangle
for
its
Bafe,
"
F
as the
and being of the fame height
Pyramid
ACEF,
Draw
will be the third
Part
the three Diagonals
AV\
of the Prifm. IX', FC, o£ the
three Paiallelogiams.
Donmijlrat'um.
The Prifm is divided into three equal IV ramids, ACFE, A( Fl), and CFBD* then
i
ore each will be the third Part
firft,
of the Piilin.
Bafefc the
The two
Triangles
AEF and
having API), which
for
their
ft) the 34. 1.)
are equal, and for their Height the Perpendicular drawn from the Tap C to t!ie Plane of their Males AF, will be the prei equal* (by
ting,)
for their Bafes
have the equal Triangles ADC and the fame Top F, will be alfo andDCB,
(by
the
The Pyramids ACFDandCFflD, which
Therclorc one
equal,
fHceditg.)
ol
thdfe
The Elements of Euclid. thofe Pyramids, e. g. AFCE, having the fame
^64
Bafe
BDF with the Prifm,and the fame height,
is
Point
the Perpendicular drawn from the the Plane of the Bafe ACE, is the third Part of the fame Prifm. If the Prifm
which
F to
be a Polygon it muft be divided into divers triangular Prifms $ and the Pyramid, which has the fame Bafe and the fame Height, will be alfo divided into as many Triangular Pyramids, each of which will be the third Part
Therefore (r<y the 12. 5.) the will be the third Part of the JPolygoh Pyramid Prifm. Polygon
its
of
Prifm.
^PROPOSITION
A
VIII.
THEOREM.
Similar Pyramids are hi the triplicate proportion
of that of their homologous Sides.
the Pyramids be triangular, compleat the which will be alfo fimiiar, becaufe will have certain Planes the fame with they thofe of the Pyramids. But the fimiiar Prifms are in the triplicate proportion of the homo? logons Sides, (by Coroll 4. of the 39. 1 1 j there
JF
I rifins,
fore:
the Pyramids, which (by the preceding) are the third Parts of the Prifms, will be in the triplicate proportion of that of their ho* the
iriologoui Sides.
Eeduc'd to
Pyramids be Polygons, they muft be PJKOTriangular Pyramids.
The
Twelfth Booh
IX.
365
PR QPOSITION
A THEOREM.'
Equal Pyramids have the Heights arid Bafes recihave their Heights atti procal; and tbofe that
Bafes reciprocal, are equal.
two equal triangular Pyramids be promake Prifms upon the fame Bales, and of the fame height. Since every Prifm is
IF pos'd,
triple his Pyramid (by the 7.) they will alfa be equal. But equal Prifms have their Bafes and Heights reciprocal (hy Cor oil 4. of the 39. 11.) therefore the Bafes and Heights of the Pyramids which are the fame with thofe of the Prifms, will be alfo reciprocal. Secondly, if the Bafes and Heights of the Pyramids be reciprocal, the Prifms will be equal, as alfo the Pyramids, which are the third Parts of the Prifms. If the Pyramids proposed be Polygons, they; muft be reduced to triangular Pyramids. Coroll. Other Proportions may be made
concerning Pyramids: as for example
,
That
Pyramids of the fame height, are in the fame proportion as their Bafes*, and thofe that have the fame Bafes, are in rhe fame proportion as
their Heights.
The
*"
USE.
*
From thefe Propofitions is drawn the manner of Meafuring Pyramids, which is,
Aa
.
I
by,
%66
The Elements of Euclid.
2
by multiplying their Bafes by the third part of their Heights. Other Propofitions may alfo be made, as, That if a Prifm be equal to a Pyramid, the Bafe and the Height of the Prifm, with the third part of the Height which of the Pyramid, will be reciprtical is as much as to fay, that if the Bafe of the Pyramid has the fame proportion to the Bafe of the Prifm, as the Height of the Prifm to the third part of the Height of the Pyramid, the Prifm and the Pyramid will be equal.
•,
A
LEMMA.
If a Quantity lefs than a Cylinder be proposed, a Polygon Prifin maybe infcrib'd in the Cylinder greater than that Quantity.
A IF be lefs
the
the Quantity
than
is
Cylinder,
whofe
Bafe B,
the Circle
a
Polygon
Prifm
Cylinder
circum
may
in
'
' « <
c
1
be infcrib'd
the
greater than the Quantity
A.
The Square
CDEF
PJLQ.
infcrib'd
in,
and
GH1K
is fcrib'd about, the Circle, Draw the Tangent an O&ogon incfrib'd. had fo many Pnfms and
CLDMENFO
all
f
fuppofe you
as there are
Polygon Bafes, and
of the
lame
The Twelfth Booh.
c
367
That which
*,
fame height with the Cylinder.
will
has the circumfcrib'd Square for its Bafe, arid that encompafs the Cylinder whofe Bafe is the infcrib'd Square, will be
alio infcrib'd in the Cylinder.
'
.
4
Demoujt. Prifms of the fame height are in the fame proportion as their Bafes,( by CorolL 3. of the 39. 1 1.) and the infcrib'd Square
*
being the half
fcrib'd,
its
of
that which
is
circum
Prifm will be the half of the
c
and therefore, more than the half of the Cylinder. And making the Prifm with c the Odogon Bafe, you take away more than 6 half of what remain'd of the Cylinder, after * the Prifm of the infcrib'd Square was taken c from it, becaufe the Triangle is the c Half of the Redangle CQ. And becaufe c Prifms of the fame height are in the fame * proportion as their Bafes, the Prifm, whofe * Bafe is the Triangle CLD, will be the half of 4 the Prifm, which for its Bafe has the Red* c angle DCPQ: it will therefore be more c than the half of that part of the Cylinder, ' whofe Bafe is the Segment DLC* The fame * may be faid of all the other Segments. 6 After the fame manner I may demonftrate, i that making a Polygon Prifm of fixteen * Sides, I take away more than half of what ' remains of the Cylinder* after the Odogon * Prifm is taken from it fo that there will * reiBainat laftapart of the Cylinder, lefs a 2 { then
other,
CLD
:
A
568
*
*
The Elements of Euclid.
c
than the exeefs of the Cylinder above the Quantity A. We fhall have therefore a
*
*
Prifm infcrib'd in the Cylinder, which fhall be lefs exceeded by the Cylinder than the Quantity A. i.e. which {hall be greater than the Quantity A. The fame way of arguing
will hold of the Pyramids infcrib'd in a Cone.
PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
X.
A Cone
is the third Part of a Cylinder, having the fame Bafe, and being of the fame Height.
a Cone and a C ylinder have the Circle A for their Bafe, and be of the fame height,
I
F
the Cylinder will be triple the Cone. For if the proportion of the Cylinder to the Cone was greater than the the Quantity B lefs than triple Proportion, the Cylinder would have the fame proportion and (by the preto the C one as three to, one a Polygon Prifm may be inceding Lemma) fcrib'd in the Cylinder greater than the Quantity B. Suppofe that whiclr has for its Bafe to be fuch an one the Polygon y
:
CDEFGH
Make alio upon
icrib'd in the
the fame Bafe a
Pyramid
in
Gone.
Cylinder,
the Cone,
Demonflr.
The
the
Prifm, and the Pyramid, are of the fame
The Twelfth Booh
Height
is alfo
j
369
the Pyramid,
therefore the Prifm is the triple of {by the 7.) But the Quantity
B
the triple of the Cone ^ therefore the Prifm has the fame proportion to the Pyramid, as the Quantity B to the Cone : and {by
the 14. 5.)
the Prifm being greater than the B, the Pyramid Would be greater Quantity than the Cone, in which it is infcrib'd,
which But
is
impoflible.
it
if
be faid,
that the
Cone has a
greater proportion to the Cylinder than one to three, the fame Method may be made ufe
of to demonftrate the contrary.
PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
XL
in
Cones of the fame height are Cylinders ani the fame proportion as their Bafes.
LET Cones,
or
two
two Cyof linders, the fame
height,
L
be
:
propos'd having for their Bafts the Circles and B I fay, they are in the fame proportion as their Bafes. For if not, one of them, would have a greaterproe.g. the Cylinder
A
A
portion to the Cylinder
B, than the Bafe
a 3
A
A
has
jjo
The Elements of Euclid.
lefs
B, fuppofe then that the than the Cylinder A, has the fame proportion to the Cylinder B as the Bate A, to the Bale B. Therefore a Polygon Prifm may be iijfcrib'd in the Cylinder A, Which (hall be greater than the Quantity L. Suppofe it that therefore, whofe Bafe is the
has to the Bafe
Quantity L,
and infcribe a fimilar PolyPolygon CDEF in the BafeJB, which is alfo the gon GHIK Bafe' of a Cylinder. of the fame height. Demovjlr. The Prifms of A and B are in the fam? proportion as their Polygon Bafes, {by Coroll 4. of. the 39. 1 1.) and the Polygons are in the fame proportion as the Circles, (by Coroll 2. of the 12.) therefore the Prifm A has the fame proportion to the Prifm B, as the Circle A to the Circle B. But as the Circle
*,
A to the Circle B,
Cylinder B
B.
;
fo is the
therefore as the
Quantity L to the Prifm A to the
Prifm B, fo is the Quantity L to the Cylinder But the Prifm A is greater than the Quantity L, and confequently (by the 14. 5.) the Prifm B, infcrib'd in the Cylinder B, would be greater than its Cylinder, which is impoffible.
Therefore neither of the Cylinders has a greater Proportion to the other, than its Bafe to the other's Ba(e Coroll' Cylinders are triple the Cones, of the fame height, therefore Cones of the fame height are in the fame* proportion as their
Bafes.
4
FRO
The Twelfth Booh
371
PROPOSITION XII.
A
THEOREM.
Cylinders and Cones, that are fimilar, are in tlfi that of the Diameters triplicate proportion of
of their Bafes.
LET
two
two
or
Cones
Cylinders, that are fimilar,
be propos'd, ha*
I fay, that the pro^ of the Cylinder to the Cylinder B portion is the triplicate proportion of that of the Diameter to the Diameter EF. For, if it be not the triplicate proportion ; let the Quantity G,lefs than the Cylinder A, be to the Cylinder, in the triplicate proportion of that of the Diameter to the Diameter EFs
A
vingthe and B
Circles, for their Bafes
A
DC
DC
and
infcribe a
Prifm in the Cylinder A greater
:
than G, and another fimilar to it in the Cylinder B they will be of the fame height with the Cylinder, becaufe fimilar Cylinders; have their Heights and the Diameters of their Bafes proportional, as well as Prifms, (by De:
fin. 22.
11
J
has the fame Demonftr. The Diameter proportion to the Diameter EF as the Side Dl to the Side EL, or as to EF, as I have
DC
DC
fiown in the firft.
But fimilar Prifms A a 4
are in
the
57^
The Elements of Euclid.
the triplicate proportion of that of their ho
mologous Sides, {by the Cor 611/^. of 39.1 1.) thereis to the Prifm Bin the trifore the Prifm
A
plicate proportion of that of we fuppos'd that the Quantity
DC
to
EF.
But
pro
G
in refpedt
of the Cylinder
B
was in the
triplicate
^
Prifm A will have the fame the Prifm B. as the Quantity G to the Cylnv der B ^ and (by the 4. 5 J the Prifm A being greater than the Quantity G, the Prifm B,
1
portion of that of
DC
to
EF
therefore the proportion to
anfcrib'd in the Cylinder B, will be greater than the Cylinder B, which is impoifible. Therefore fimilar Cylinders are in the triplicate pioportion of that of the Diameters of
their Bales.
Cones
(by the 10.) therefore fimilar
triplicate of their Bafes.
of Cylinders, Cones are in the proportion of that of the Diameters
are
the third Parts
PROPOSITION
ATHEOREM.
If a
XIII.
that is parallel to Cyli7icler be cut by a Plane, its Bafe, the Parts its Jxis will be in the of
as the Parts of the Cylinder.
fame proportion
the Plane parallel to its Bafe: I fay, the Cylinder AF will have the fame proportion to the Cylinder FB, as the Line AF to the
LE
T the Cylinder AB be cut by DC
Line
The Twelft h Book. 375 Line FB. Draw the Line BG perpendicular to the Plane of the Bafe A. Draw alfo upon
the Planes of the Circles
DC
and
A the
Lines
FE
and AG.
Deviovjlrat'iott.
The Plane of
parallel Sections
A and DC^ therefore and AG are parallel, (by the FE
Planes
the Triangle
BAG
cuts the
the
i^.
11 J So that
AF
has the fame proportion to
FB,astheHeightGEtoEB. Take any
Part of EB, and having divided
GE
aliquot
and
EB
into Parts equal to it, draw fo many Planes Bafe A^ then will you have parallel to the fo many Cylinders of the fame height ^ which
having
their Bafes
and Heights
equal, will be
yided
Further, the Lines AF and FB will be di* after the fame manner as EG and EB, the 17. 11.) fothat the Line AF will as (by oit contain any aliquot Part of the Line FB, as the Cylinder AF contains the like aliquot Part of the Cylinder FB \ therefore the Parts
the 11.) equal, (by
of the Cylinder will be in the fame proportion as the Parts of their Axis.
Parts of the Perpendicular are in the fame proportion as the Parts of the
Coroll.
The
Cylinder.
PRO
574
The
&eMe?rts of Euclid.
XIV.
are
PROPOSITION
A
THEOREM.
Cylinders of equal Sabeing proposed, as AB
and Cones, havhtg the fame Bafes, Cylinders in the fame proportion as their Heights.
TWO
fes
and CD, cut in the greater a Cy4 linder of the fame Height with the lefs, drawing a Plane EF parallel to its Bale.
Tis evident
the Cylinders CF has the fame GH, or (by the Cor oil. of the preceeding) as the Height of CF to the Height of CD;, therefore has the fame proportion to CD, as the
CF and AB
(by the 1 1 J that are equal ^ and that proportion to CD, as GI to
AB
Height of
CF
or
AB to the
Height of GD.
of Cylinders,
Cones being the
third Part
If their Bafes he equal, wi 1 be alfointhe proportion as their Heights.
fame
PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
Cylinders
XV.
and Cones, that are equal, have their Baand Heights reciprocal: and thoje that have fes their Bafes and Heights reciprocal, are equal.
CZ>c ^—^
T F the Cylinders AB and CD
^
will .1 be equal, the Bafe ha\e the fame proportion to
B
the Bafe D, as the Height
CD
to
The Twelfth Book. 37 ^ to the Height AB. Take the Height DE equal to the Height AB. Demovftr. The Cylinder AB has the fame proportion to the Cylinder DE, of the fame
\
height, as the Bafe B to the Bafe D, (by the 11 J But as the Cylinder AB is to the Cylinder DE,
fo
is
the Cylinder
linder
CD (equal to AB) to the CyDE} i.efo is the Height CD to the Height
Therefore as the Bafe
is
ABorDE.
Bafe D, fo
B
to the
the
Secondly, if the Bale B to portion to the Bafe D, as the Height will the Height AB, the Cylinders AB and be equal. For the Cylinder AB is in the fame as the Bafe B , proportion to the Cylinder and the Cylinder CD will to the Bafe have the fame proportion to DE, as the to the Height therefore Height
HeighyCD
Height AB. has the fame proto the
CD CD
DE
D
:
CD
has the fame
proportion to
5.)
and
(by the 9.
the
AB CD to DE % DE, Cylinders AB and CD
DE
:
as
will be equal.
"
and 17. Propositions are very and of no other ufe but to prove 'difficult, " the 18. which may more eafily be done by " the following Lemma's.
16.
" The
m
L E M
M
A
I.
If a
Qiiantity be proposed lefs than a Sphere, Cylinders of the fame Height may be infaWd in
the fame Sphere greater than that
ghmthy.
Sup
%"j6
The Elements of Euclid.
•
\
\
I
J
1
'
cor
f
*
eT~
a
:
*f^f
^te^o
c
be a great Semiof the circle Sphere, whereot
C ^PP°f BC
we
e
A
*
treat,
lefs
and the Quantity
D to be the
Quantity
I fay, feveral Cylinders than that Sphere c of the fame height may be infcrib'd in the c Sphere, which taken together will be greater * than the Quantity D. For if the Hemifphere * exceed the Quantity D, it will exceed it by * fome Magnitude^ let it then be the Cylinder MP, fo that the Quantities and c taken together may be equal to the Hemi
D
MP
4
'
1 * c
Makea great Circle of the Sphere fphere. to have the fame y^roportion to the Bale to the Height R. Then MO,as the Height
MN
divide the Line
as
1 1
you pleafe, drawing Parallels
into as many equal Parts and each being lefs than
EB
R
:
to the
Line
AG,
defcribe
the infcrib'd
and
*
* c
grams. will exceed that of the infcrib'd by But all the Rectangles circumfcrib'd
The number of
circumfcrib'd Parallelothe circumfcrib'd
one.
will
* c
*
furpafs all the infcrib'd by the little Redanof gles through which the Circumference
ft
*
*
the Circle palTes^ all which taken together I imagine are equal to the Rectangle AL. the Semicircle to be turn'd about upon then
the
Diameter
EB
^
the Semicircle will
by
that
The Twelfth Book.
that
377
and the
Motion
defcribe a Hemifphere,
Keclangles inferib'd fo man)*" Cylinders in* and thecircumfcrib'd in the Hemifphere icrib'd, other Cylinders circumfcrib'd.
•,
'
Demnytftr.
The
circumfcrib'd
Cylinders
furpafs the inferib'd more than the Hemifphere furpaffes the lame inferib'd Cylinders, it being contain'd within the circum: the the Cylinder therefore the Hemifphere will furpafs thofe
fcrib'd Cylinders. pafs the inferib'd
But the circumfcrib'd
fur
by
AL
inferib'd Cylinders by lefs than the Cylinder defcrib'd by the Rectangle AL. But the
Cylinder
AL
is lefs
than the CylinderMP
:
for there is the fame proportion of a great Circle of the Sphere, which is the Bale of
to the Cylinder AL, to MO, as of the preceding) a Cylinder, which therefore (by fhould have a great Circle of the Sphere for
,
MN
R
its Bafe, and the Height R, would be equal to but the Cylinder AL, tho* the Cylinner
MP
i
it
have the fame Bafe, yet
•,
its
than R therefore the Cylinder AL is lefs than the Cylinder MP. Confequently the Hemifphere, that exceeds the Quantity by the Cylinder MP, and the inferib'd Cylinders by a Quantity lefs than AL^ exceeds the inferib'd Cylinders by lefs, than it exceeds the Quantity D ^ therefore the is lefs than the Quantity Cylinders inferib'd in the Hemifphere.
lefs
Height
CL
is
D
D
PRO
378
c
The Elements cf Euclid.
That which
is
I
have faid of the Hemi
*
fphere,
applicable to an entire Sphere.
LEMMAII.
Similar Cylinders, ivfcrib'd in two Spheres, are in the. triplicate proportion of the Diameters
of the Spheres,
two
linders
fi
IF milar CyCD
and
the
EF
and
inferib'd
be in
A
Spheres B, they will be in the triplicate proportion of and NO. Draw the Lines the Diameters
LM
GD and
c
The
*,
lar
KD DG asPF to FI. Confequently the Triangles GDK and IFP are fimilar, the fame (by the 6. 6) therefore KD has as LM to proportion to PF as GD to IF,
to
DR
Demovjlration. and EF are fimiright Cylinders has the fame proportion therefore to FS, as alfo has the fame as
IF.
CD
HD
QF
proportion to
ON. But the
fimilar Cylinders
CD and EF
the
12J therefore the fimilar Cylinders CD and EF, inferib'd in the Spheres A and B,
x
and are in the triplicate proportion of the Semidiameters of their Bafes (by PF,
KD
are in the triplicate proportion of the DiaPROmeters of the Spheres.
The Twelfth Bock
379
XVIII.
PROPO SIT ION
j
A THEOREM.
Spheres are in the triplicate proportion Diameters.
of their
and EF. Spheres, fuppofe A, will be in a greater proportion to B, than the Triplicate of that of the t)iameters CD and EF*, therefore the Quantity G lefs than the Sphere A, will be to the Sphere B, in the triplicate proportion of and then fome Cylinders that of CD to EF to Lem. 1.) be inferib'd in the may {according Sphere A, greater than the Quantity G. Infcribean equal ijufiiber of Cylinders in the Sphere B ? fimilar to thofe in the Sphere A.
meters
•,
THE CD
Spheres
A and B
cate proportion
are in the tripliof that of their DiaFor if not, one of the
Demonfir. The Cylinders of the Sphere A to thofe of the Sphere B are in the triplicate proportion of that of CD to EF,but the Quantity G to the Sphere B is alfo in the triplicate proportion of that of CD to EF: therefore the Cylinders of the Sphere A have the lame proportion to the fimilar Cylinders of the
Sphere
380
The Elements of
Euclid.
Sphere B, as the Quantity G to the Sphere B. Confequently the Cylinders of being greater than the Quantity G, the Cylinders of B, i.e. infcrib d ir* the Sphere B, will be greater than the Sphere B, which is impoffible. Therefore
A
the bpheres and B are in the triplicate proof that of their Diameters. portion Cor oil. Spheres are in the fame proportion as the C ubes of their Diameters becaufe Cubes
•,
A
being iimilar Solids, are in the triplicate proportion of their Sides, (by the 33. 11.)
The
END.
Knapton.
:
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