Submitted in partial fulfillment of Bachelor’s Degree in Electronics & Communication Engineering Of

(University of Technology of Madhya Pradesh)



SESSION 2011-2012



This is to certify that project report entitle “SOLAR POWER
COMPRESSOR” presented by Mr. AVINASH NARANG and Mr.

HARSH SHRIVASTAVA the bonafide presentation of their work done by them under my supervision and guidance. They have submitted this project report towards partial fulfillment for the award of degree of bachelor of engineering of Rajiv Gandhi Prodyogiki Vishwavidhyalya during the academic year 2010-11.It is further certified that this work has been submitted elsewhere for the award of any degree .

DR.Y.K SHARMA (Director Sir)



We feel proud privilege to express our deep sense of gratitude and indebtness to Mr. Komal Singh Rajput “Mechanical Engineering” department, Bansal college of engineering (Mandideep) for providing his painstaking and untiring supervision and his constant encouragement. We also wish to express our thanks to Prof. N.K. Agarwal HOD mechanical engineering department and the Director of our college Dr. Y.K. Sharma for providing and extending the necessary facilities for completion of the project. We also express our thanks to all faculty members and the staff of Mechanical engineering department, Bansal college of engineering without their constant support and guidance, this project would not be completed.



Examiner (Internal) …………… Examiner (External) .APPROVAL SHEET PROJECT REPORT ENTITLED SOLAR POWER COMPRESSORS Presented by AVINASH NARANG HARSH SHRIVASTAVA Is approved for the partial fulfillment of degree of Bachelor of Engineering in Mechanical Engineering ……………….



While the belts and shafts may be gone. drills.from corner gas stations to major manufacturing plants. compresses it and then delivers the same under a high pressure to a place where the supply of compressed air is required. impact wrenches. Already many non-renewable energy dependent companies have started implementing solar power air compressors for their industrial applications . The nonrenewable resources to produce electricity have becomel i m i t e d a n d a r e n e a r e x t i n c t i o n . It is based on the energy stored in air under pressure and the heart of the system is the air compressor. I n s u c h situations. tool dealers and mailorder catalogs. is a machine to compress the air and to raise its pressure.1.Years ago.workshops. as the name indicates. basements and garages. The power was routed around the work space by mechanical means. The air compressor sucks air from the atmosphere. the use a mechanical system to move power around the workspace still exists. l e a d i n g t o h i g h e n e r g y c o s t o r e n e r g y c r i s i s . sanders. Many more kinds of air compressors are finding their way into homes. Air compressors are used in a wide range of situations .To run these air compressors. a lot of electrical energy is required depending upon the output pressure of the air. These are now available through local home centers. it was common to have a central power source that drove all the tools through a system of belts. Models are sized to handle every job . renewable sources like solar power are very helpful and the application of this technology to run air compressor is known as solar power air compressor.from inflating pool toys to powering tools such as nail guns. wheels and drive shafts. staplers and spray guns. INTRODUCTION A i r c o m p r e s s o r : Air compressor.

It can also be used to charge a battery bank that can be used as a backup when the sunlight is considerably dim or at night. PRINCIPAL The solar power air compressor has a number of solar panels that consist of photovoltaic cells.2. MAIN COMPONENTS OF AIR COMPRESSOR . This direct current is used to power a motor that works the compressor unit.These cells create direct current electricity by the reaction of photons with Silicon dioxide.

There is an urgent need to address this constraint to theso cial and eco no mic d ev elo p men t of ou r coun try. Ind ia f aces a sign ificant g ap b etween electricity demand and supply.especially provision of electricity in rural areas.3. According to leading Surveys. face situations of limited energy resources . Demand is increasing at an alarming rate when compared tosupply. BASICS NEED OF SOLAR ENERGY : Developing countries in particular. around 40 percent of India does not have electricity provision ENERGY FROM SUN : .

It is commonly expressed as average irradiance in watts per square meter (W/m2) Types of Insolation : • Direct Insolation.Insolation : Insolation is a measure of solar radiation energy received on a given surface area at a given time. excluding diffuse insolation. • Diffuse and Reflected Insolation Direct Insolation : It is the solar irradiance measured at a given location on the earth with a surface element perpendicular to the sun‘s rays. for example) to the earth‘s surface . Diffuse and Reflected Insolation : Diffu se insolation is th e so lar radiation th at is scattered or ref lected b y atmo sp h eric components (clouds.

Photo-voltaic energy uses photoelectric cell that converts light into electricity Solar photovoltaic power or PV takes the advantage of the photovoltaic effect in which solar cells convert sunlight into electricity.BASICS OF SOLAR PHOTO-VOLTATIC SYSTEM : Solar Panels : Solar panels are devices used for the conversion of solar energy into other form of energy like electrical or heat or light. This can be broadly studied under three categories. • Panels used to generate electricity • Panels used to generate heat • Panels used to heat water in home Solar cells : Solar cells were originally developed to provide electrical energy for space satellites. BASICS OF AIR COMPRESSORS : Classification of Air compressors .

Positive displacement types compressor are those who mechanically displace a fixed volume of air into a reduced volume. Each movement compresses a fixed quantity of free air at a specific pressure. (a) Rotary Screw Compressor. According to the type of construction Rotary Compressor can be further classified as (a) Rotary Screw Compressor (b) Rotary Vane compressor. in enclosed casing. The compression took place in gradually reducing space between these two parts. B) Rotary Air Compressor. If the consumption of air is more then discharge pressure falls below the cut-off pressure & compressor works on load condition. Compressor when operated at fixed speed can deliver the constant volume. The discharge pressure is determined by the system load conditions. Single stage or double stage or multi stages and single acting or double acting is the further classification of Reciprocating Air Compressor. produce this action. (b) Rotary Vane compressor. Positive Displacement Air Compressors. Dynamic Air Compressors. This type of air compressor can be further classified as single stage or double stage rotary air compressor. 02) Dynamic Type. These types of Air Compressor further classified as A) Reciprocating Air Compressor. The impellers rotating at a high speed.The two main classification of Air Compressor are. The dynamic type air compressors mechanically impart velocity to the air. In this type compressed air is generated by to & fro movement of piston inside the cylinder (compression chamber). 01) Positive Displacement Type. This type of compressor is further classified as (a) Centrifugal Air Compressor . In this type air is compressed by two rotating or inter meshing rotors. Air is compressed between two rotating screw (male & female screw) and casing. Air is compressed between casing & rotating rotor by the help of moveable rotor blade. The volumetric flow will vary inversely with the differential pressure across the compressor. The air is forced into a progressively reduced volume.

This direct current is used to power a motor that works the compressor unit. It can also . This is the example of positive displacement compressor in rotary type air compressor.2 bars is obtained from double stage. the velocity being converted to pressure in stationery blades. The diffuser surrounds the impeller and act to convert the kinetic energy of air into potential energy at a higherpressure level. The discharge air pressure obtained from this type of machine is very low. (a) Centrifugal Air Compressor. The velocity to the air can be imparted by the high-speed rotation of impeller. one row rotating & the next row of blade is stationary. 4. The discharge pressure achieved by two rotors. where one form of energy is transformed into another. high-speed machine withy characteristic quite different from the centrifugal air compressor. The cells create direct current electricity through the reaction of photons with silicon dioxide. It is the classic theory of conservation of energy. The basic set up of a solar power air compressor is a number of solar panels that are made up of photovoltaic cells.(b) Axial Flow Air Compressor (c) Roots Blower Compressor. which have separate. The axial flow type air compressor is essentially a large capacity. parallel axis and rotate in opposite directions. The rotor blades impart velocity and pressure to the air as the motor turns. WORKING Solar power air compressors are the application of solar power technology to power the compressing of air that powers a drill or other device. The discharge pressure of 1 bar can be obtained in single stage and pressure of 2. Each stage consist of two rows of blades. In a centrifugal air compressor an impeller is mounted on a shaft and positioned within housing. This type is generally called as blower. (b) Axial Flow Air Compressor. consisting of an inlet duct. (c) Roots Blower Compressor. a volute and a diffuser.

In our project we basically use Reciprocating Air Compressor which consists of a connecting rod. Both are simply thin metal flaps–one mounted underneath and one mounted on top of the valve plate. or particles of solar energy. As the piston moves up. the air above it compresses. Special electrical properties of the PV cell—a built-in electric field—provide the voltage which is stored by the battery inbuilt in the inverter. By leaving this position. and the motor cycles on and off to automatically maintain pressure in thetank. Sunlight is composed of photons. While there are small models that are comprised of just the pump and motor. When photons strike a PV cell. Only the absorbed photons generate electricity. With each stroke. These photons contain various amounts of energy corresponding to the different wavelengths of the solar spectrum. With its newfound energy. The air moves from the discharge port to the tank. you'll find a valve head that holds the inlet and discharge valves. This stored electrical energy is then used to drive a motor in the Air Compressor. When this happens. most compressors have an air tank to hold a quantity of air within a preset pressure range. The "photovoltaic effect" is the basic physical process through which a PV cell converts sunlight into electricity. As the piston moves down. This allows outsideair at atmospheric pressure to push open the inlet valve and fill the area above the used to charge a battery bank that can be used as a backup when the sun is not shining or at night. The compressed air in the tank drives the air tools. they may be reflected or absorbed. . holds the inlet valve shut and pushes the discharge valve open. more air enters the tank and the pressure rises. the electron is able to escape from its normal position associated with that atom to become part of the current in an electrical circuit. the electron causes or "hole" to form. the energy of the photon is transferred to an electron in an atom of the cell (which is actually a semiconductor). cylinder and a valve head. The crankshaft is driven by either an electric motor or a gas engine. or they may pass right through. a piston. a vacuum is created above it. At the top of the cylinder.

Cut section of Reciprocating Air Compressor 5. This system‘s main function is to supply the energy required to run the air compressor. 3. 5.2 Solar charge controller : .1 Solar Photo-Voltatic System : Solar Photo-voltaic System is the source of energy generated from the irradiationfrom the sun. 2. 1. COMPONENTS 1. 4. Solar Photo-Voltatic System Solar charge controller Battery backup or Battery bank Inverter Air Compressor (Reciprocating Type) 1.

which is used at night or in cloudy weather. There are numerous methods of air compression. •Solar energy is clean. . 6. To avoid the overcharging of battery bank. i. helping to protect our environment. • Low / no maintenance. • Reduces dependence on centralized sources of energy. can be released in quick bursts. ADVANTAGES • Solar power can be useful in such industrial applications where small kilowatt energyis required. • Solar power air compressors are used in the regions where gas and oil companies drillis remote and does not have a reliable source of power. • Photo-voltaic arrays are not easily available. • Th e mo st co mmo n app lication of this techno log y is the co mmo n o r gard en air compressor. renewable (unlike gas oil and coal) and sustainable.4 Air Compressors An air compressor is a device that converts power (usually from an electric motor. a diesel engine or a gasoline engine) into kinetic energy by compressing and pressurizing air.Sol ar Ch arg e Con tro ller also kno wn as SCC. It is the device that regulates thevoltage and current from the solar photo-voltaic system to the battery bank. 1. divided into either positive-displacement or negative-displacement types.3 Battery backup : Battery Backup or Battery Bank is the temporary source of energy. which is very high for charging the battery bank and may also lead to the drying up of battery bank due to overcharging. LIMITATIONS • High initial cost. which. The no-loadvoltage. SCC is used.e. 1. Most commonly. to run the air compressor. Open Circuit Voltage Voc of a photo-voltaic array increases more than 220 voltson a bright sunny day.. on command. 7. lead acid batteries areused to run the air compressors.

Its inverting input is biased by the voltage obtained from the junction of 100k resistor R1 and the collector of phototransistor T1. This makes the output of IC1 high. which is indicated by the glowing of LED1. it does not require an aligned light beam to illuminate the photo-sensor. and when it is towards right IC UM3561 (IC3) activates to give a loud alarm simulating a police siren. This low pulse triggers the monostable (IC2) designed for a delay of 51 seconds using R6 and C3. When a shadow falls on the photo sensor. A dim light in the room is necessary to detecSolart the moving shadow. When it is towards left the buzzer beeps. So it can be used at night by shopkeepers to protect the valuables in their showrooms. It is portable and can be used at any place that is to be monitored. In the presence of ambient light. The non-inverting input of IC1 gets a controlled voltage from potential divider R2 and VR1. . Unlike opto interruption alarms based on light-dependent resistors (LDRs). Op-amp μA741 (IC1) is used as a voltage comparator. the phototransistor conducts and the inverting input (pin 2) of IC1 gets a lower voltage than its noninverting input (pin 3).• High capacity DC motors cannot be manufactured easily. Slide switch S2 is used to select either the buzzer or siren.1V DC to IC UM3561. This opto-sensitive circuit sounds an alarm whene shadow falls on it. The circuit is powered by a 9V PP3 battery and uses the most sensitive photo-sensor L14F1 to detect shadows. The output of IC2 is used to light up LED2 and activate the alarm. • Using an inverter incurs some loss of energy due to conversion of DC to AC. the output of IC1 goes low. Resistor R8 and zener diode ZD1 provide 3. • Solar charge controllers involve complicated circuits management.


IC3 UM3561 2. 100 Ohm 5. 220 K 9. 0. 4.RESISTORS 1.1 IC NE555 IC PIN DIAGRAM .SPEAKER 8Ohms/0. 47UF 5.ZENER DIODE 3. CAPACITORS 2 No‘s 1No 1No 1No 1No 1No 1No 1No 1No 1No 1No 1No 1No 1No 1.1V 8. IC PIN DESCRIPTION 2. 100K 3.5w 47K 1No 1No 1No 2No‘S 1No 1No 2. IC‘s 1.LED 7.7K 4.TRANSISTORS 1. 680 Ohm 6.1. 1 K 4. 1 Megaohms 8. 10UF 2. IC1 741 2. T2 BC548 3. IC2 NE555 3.PRESET 6.01UF 3. T1 L14F1 2. 47 Ohm 7. 10 2.

(Trip points and output . no crowbarring of supply during output transition • Can be used with higher-impedance timing elements than the bipolar 555 for longer time constants • Timing from microseconds through hours • Operates in both astable and monostable modes • Adjustable duty cycle • High output source/sink driver can drive TTL/CMOS • Typical temperature stability of 0. and is a true 50% duty cycle square wave.005%/oC at 25°C • Rail-to-rail outputs Internal Block Diagram:- OPERATION: ASTABLE OPERATION:- The circuit can be connected to trigger itself and free run as a multivibrator.The ICM7555 is a CMOS timer providing significantly improved performance over the standard NE/SE555 timer. while at the same time being a direct replacement for those devices in most applications. see Figure 2A. The ICM7555 is a stable controller capable of producing accurate time delays or frequencies. PIN DIAGRAM:- FEATURES:• Exact equivalent in most applications for NE/SE555 • Low supply current: 80mA (typ) • Extremely low trigger. The output swings from rail to rail. threshold. and reset currents: 20pA (typ) • High-speed operation: 500kHz guaranteed • Wide operating supply voltage range guaranteed 3 to 16V over full automotive temperatures • Normal reset function.

See Figure 3. MONOSTABLE OPERATION:In this mode of operation.swings are symmetrical.2 IC 741 DESCRIPTION :The Operational Amplifier is probably the most versatile Integrated Circuit available.) Less than a 1%frequency variation is observed over a voltage range of +5V to +15V. the internal flip-flop is set which releases the short circuit across the external capacitor and drives the OUTPUT high. APPLICATIONS:• Precision timing • Pulse generation • Sequential timing • Time delay generation • Pulse width modulation • Pulse position modulation • Missing pulse detector 2. The most common Op-Amp is the 741 and it is used in many circuits. the timer functions as a one-shot. the comparator resets the flip-flop. It is very cheap especially keeping in mind the fact that it contains several hundred components. Initially the external capacitor (C) is held discharged by a transistor inside the timer. The voltage across the capacitor now increases exponentially with a time constant t = RAC. which in turn discharges the capacitor rapidly and also drives the OUTPUT to its low state. TRIGGER must return to a high state before the OUTPUT can return to a low state. When the voltage across the capacitor equals 2/3 V+. . Upon application of a negative TRIGGER pulse to pin 2.The duty cycle is controlled by the values of RA and RB.

The polarity has been ‗inverted‘.a little like a Darlington Pair. This time if it is positive going into the 741 then it is still positive coming out.
 In an inverting amplifier the voltage enters the 741 chip through leg two and comes out of the 741 chip at leg six. FEATURES:      Short Circuit Protection Excellent Temperature Stability Internal Frequency Compensation High Input Voltage Range Null of Offset PIN DIAGRAM: CONNECTION DIAGRAM: . An inverting amplifier.
 In a noninverting amplifier the voltage enters the 741 chip through leg three and leaves the 741 chip through leg six. Leg three is the input and the output is not reversed. 2. and one output at pin 6. it negative by the time it comes out through leg six. Its main purpose is to amplify (increase) a weak signal . The 741 is used in two ways:1. If the polarity is positive going into the chip.
 The OP-AMP has two inputs. Polarity remains the same. Leg two is the input and the output is always reversed.The OP AMP is a ‗Linear Amplifier‘ with an amazing variety of uses. INVERTING ( . A non-inverting amplifier.) and NON-INVERTING (+).

low-power CMOS LSI designed for use in alarm and toy applications.2. The M3561 contains a programmed mask ROM to simulate siren sound FEATURES:     Four sounds can be selected Power on reset. a compact sound module can be constructed with only a few additional components.3 IC UM3561A DESCRIPTION: UM3561 is a low-cost. Typical 3V operating voltage A magnetic speaker can be driven by connecting 8-pin DIP package form an NPN transistor PIN DIAGRAM:- . Since theintegrated circuit includes oscillator and selector circuits.


PASSIVE ELEMENTS 3. very high wattage ratings Semiconductor Resistors . are the most commonly used of all electronic components.Made from conductive metal oxide paste. . to the point where they are almost taken for granted.Metallic bodies for heat sink mounting. low wattage values Film or Cermet Resistor .PLAYING MODES:- 3. that is they contain no source of power or amplification but only attenuate or reduce the voltage signal passing through them. Ω. very low wattage values Wire-Wound Resistors. When used in DC circuits the voltage drop produced is measured across their terminals as the circuit current flows through them while in AC circuits the voltage and current are both in-phase producing 0o phase shift.Made of carbon dust or graphite paste.High frequency/precision surface mount thin film technology .     Carbon Composition Resistor . the most commonly used resistor symbol is that of a "zig-zag" type line with the value of its resistance given in Ohms. In all Electrical and Electronic circuit diagrams and schematics. RESISTOR TYPES:All modern resistors can be classified into four broad groups.1 RESISTORS Resistors (R). They are "Passive Devices". RESISTOR SYMBOL:The symbol used in schematic and electrical drawings for a Resistor can either be a "zig-zag" type line or a rectangular box.

Colour Black Brown Red Digit 0 1 2 Multiplier 1 10 100 ± 1% ± 2% Tolerance . When resistors are small such as 1/4W Carbon and Film types. small resistors use coloured painted bands to indicate both their resistive value and their tolerance with the physical size of the resistor indicating its wattage rating. tolerance. The Standard Resistor Colour Code Chart. and watt rating of the resistor are generally printed onto the body of the resistor as numbers or letters when the resistor is big enough to read the print. These coloured painted bands are generally known as a Resistors Colour Code. these specifications must be shown in some other manner as the print would be too small to read. So to overcome this. The Resistor Colour Code Table. such as large power resistors.RESISTOR COLOUR CODE The resistance value.

Variable resistors rheostat with two wiper and just one as a potentiometer connections in use. usually called sliders.1% 0.01 ± 5% ± 10% ± 20% VARIABLE RESISTORS:CONSTRUCTION Variable resistors consist of a resistance track with connections at both ends and a wiper which moves along the track as you turn the spindle. and their physical size. The track may be made from carbon. The track is usually rotary but straight track versions. RHEOSTAT . may be used as a connections (the end of the track) or with all three Miniature versions made for setting up not require further Variable resistors are often called potentiometers in books and catalogues.5% ± 0.Orange Yellow Green Blue Violet Grey White Gold Silver None 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1K 10K 100K 1M 10M ± 0. linear or logarithmic track.1 0. called presets are circuits which will adjustment.25% ± 0. The standard spindle diameter is 6mm. are also available. cermet (ceramic and metal mixture) or a coil of wire (for low resistances). They are specified by their maximum resistance.

the other to the moveable wiper.000. Two terminals are used: one connected to an end of the track.2 CAPACITORS INTRODUCTION Just like the Resistor. Multiturn presets are used where very precise adjustments must be made.They are designed to be mounted directly onto the circuit board and adjusted only when the circuit is built. When a voltage is applied to these plates.This is the simplest way of using a variable resistor. Turning the spindle changes the resistance between the two terminals from zero up to the maximum resistance. Presets are much cheaper than standard variable resistors so they are sometimes used in projects where a standard variable resistor would normally be used. and one which stores energy in the form of an electrostatic field which produces a potential (Static Voltage) across its plates. a current flows charging up the plates with electrons giving one plate a positive charge and the other plate an equal and opposite negative charge.000000001 = 10-9 F . A small screwdriver or similar tool is required to adjust presets.000. At this point the capacitor is said to be fully charged and this is illustrated below. giving very fine control. This flow of electrons to the plates is known as the Charging Current and continues to flow until the voltage across the plates (and hence the capacitor) is equal to the applied voltage Vc. PRESET(OPEN STYLE) MULTITURN PRESET PRESET(CLOSED STYLE) 3. Capacitor Construction Q=CxV UNITS OF CAPACITANCE   Microfarad (μF) 1μF = 1/1. the Capacitor or sometimes referred to as a Condenser is a passive device.000 = 0. PRESETS Rheostat Symbol These are miniature versions of the standard variable resistor. The screw must be turned many times (10+) to move the slider from one end of the track to the other.000001 = 10-6 F Nanofarad (nF) 1nF = 1/1.000.000 = 0.

teflon etc. These include polyester (Mylar). metallized paper. polystyrene. CERAMIC CAPACITORS Ceramic Capacitors or Disc Capacitors as they are generally called.DIELECTRIC Dielectric Capacitors are usually of the variable type such as used for tuning transmitters. Ceramic capacitors have values ranging from a few picofarads to one or two microfarads but their voltage ratings are generally quite low. They exhibit large non-linear changes in capacitance against temperature and as a result are used as de-coupling or by-pass capacitors as they are also nonpolarized devices. 1.000. For very low capacitance values a single ceramic disc of about 3-6mm is used. FILM CAPACITORS Film Capacitors are the most commonly available of all types of capacitors. consisting of a relatively large family of capacitors with the difference being in their dielectric properties.000. They have a set of fixed plates and a set of moving plates that mesh with the fixed plates and the position of the moving plates with respect to the fixed plates determines the overall capacitance. receivers and transistor radios.000 = 0. Variable Capacitor Symbols As well as the continuously variable types. preset types are also available called Trimmers. . Picofarad (pF) 1pF = 1/1. polypropylene. The capacitance is generally at maximum when the plates are fully meshed.000.000000000001 = 10-12 F TYPES OF CAPACITORS There are a very large variety of different types of Capacitors available in the market place and each one has its own set of characteristics and applications from small delicate trimming capacitors up to large power metal can type capacitors used in high voltage power correction and smoothing circuits. Film capacitors also come in an assortment of shapes and case styles which include:    Wrap & Fill (Oval & Round) Epoxy Case (Rectangular & Round) Metal Hermetically Sealed (Rectangular & Round) 3. Film type capacitors are available in capacitance ranges from 5pF to 100uF depending upon the actual type of capacitor and its voltage rating. polycarbonate. 2. Ceramic capacitors have a high dielectric constant (High-K) and are available so that relatively high capacitances can be obtained in a small physical size. are made by coating two sides of a small porcelain or ceramic disc with silver and are then stacked together to make a capacitor. These are generally small devices that can be adjusted or "pre-set" to a particular capacitance with the aid of a screwdriver and are available in very small capacitances of 100pF or less and are non-polarized.

This insulating layer is so thin that it is possible to make large value capacitors of a small size. that is the voltage applied to the capacitor terminals must be of the correct polarity as an incorrect polarization will break down the insulating oxide layer and permanent damage may result.Ceramic types of capacitors generally have a 3-digit code printed onto their body to identify their capacitance value. For example. Electrolytic's generally come in two basic forms. ELECTROLYTIC CAPACITORS Electrolytic Capacitors are generally used when very large capacitance values are required. Some transistors are packaged individually but many more are found embedded in integrated circuits. Here instead of using a very thin metallic film layer for one of the electrodes. the transistor provides amplification of a signal. Electrolytic Capacitors are generally used in DC power supply circuits to help reduce the ripple voltage or for coupling and decoupling applications. Aluminum Electrolytic and Tantalum Electrolytic capacitors. 3. Because the controlled (output) power can be much more than the controlling (input) power. A voltage or current applied to one pair of the transistor's terminals changes the current flowing through another pair of terminals. It is made of a solid piece of semiconductor material. The majority of electrolytic types of capacitors are Polarized. The dielectric is a very thin layer of oxide which is grown electro-chemically in production with the thickness of the film being less than ten microns. with at least three terminals for connection to an external circuit.TRANSISTOR A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify and switch electronic signals. 103 would indicate 10 x 103 PF 4.3. a semi-liquid electrolyte solution in the form of a jelly or paste is used which serves as the second electrode (usually the cathode). .

.PIN CONFIGURATION:- L14F1 TRANSISTOR CHARACTERSTICS ADVANTAGES The key advantages that have allowed transistors to replace their vacuum tube predecessors in most applications are  Small size and minimal weight. allowing the development of miniaturized electronic devices.

4 V to violet. Extremely long life.4. Some transistorized devices have been in service for more than 30 years. Silicon transistors are much more sensitive than electron tubes to an electromagnetic pulse. All LEDs produce incoherent. electrons are able to recombine with holes within the device. to form an opto-isolator. This effect is called electroluminescence and the color of the light (corresponding to the energy of the photon) is determined by the energy gap of the semiconductor. The LED is based on the semiconductor diode. An LED may be paired with a photodiode or phototransistor in the same package. electron tubes have been developed that can be operated at tens of thousands of volts. releasing energy in the form of photons. carriers that cross the junction emit photons when they recombine with the majority carrier on the other side. high frequency operation. High power. LIMITATIONS    Silicon transistors do not operate at voltages higher than about 1.     Highly automated manufacturing processes. Lower possible operating voltages. In contrast. ―white‖ LEDs are actually combinations of three LEDs of a different color. Depending on the material.000 volts SiC devices can be operated as high as 3. The first LEDs were red and yellow. wavelengths (or colors) from the infrared to the near ultraviolet may be produced. narrow-spectrum light. battery-powered applications. and higher-frequency diodes have been developed over time. When a diode is forward biased (switched on). . such as gallium arsenide. resulting in low per-unit cost.000 volts). LIGHT EMITTING DIODES: A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor light source. The forward potential of these diodes depends on the wavelength of the emitted photons: 1. Higher reliability and greater physical ruggedness. such as that used in over-the-air television broadcasting. making transistors suitable for small. 2. such as generated by an atmospheric nuclear explosion. LEDs can also be used as low-efficiency photodiodes in signal applications. or a blue LED with a yellow scintillator coating. In a diode formed from a direct band-gap semiconductor. Lower power dissipation and generally greater energy efficiency. is better achieved in electron tubes due to improved electron mobility in a vacuum.2 V corresponds to red. 3.

As in other diodes. Charge-carriers—electrons and holes—flow into the junction from electrodes with different voltages. The materials used for the LED have a direct band gap with energies corresponding to near-infrared. When an electron meets a hole. or cathode. depends on the band gap energy of the materials forming the p-n junction.03 < ΔV < Gallium arsenide phosphide (GaAsP) Aluminium gallium indium phosphide . The wavelength of the light emitted. because these are indirect band gap materials.03 (AlGaInP) Gallium(III) phosphide (GaP) Orange 590 < λ < 610 2. the LED consists of a chip of semiconducting material doped with impurities to create a p-n junction. the electrons and holes recombine by a non-radiativetransition which produces no optical emission.63 < ΔV < Aluminium gallium indium phosphide 2. Colors and Materials: Color Wavelength (nm) Voltage (V) Semiconductor Material Infrared λ > 760 ΔV < 1.Like a normal diode.9 Gallium arsenide (GaAs) Aluminium gallium arsenide (AlGaAs) Red 610 < λ < 760 Aluminium gallium arsenide (AlGaAs) Gallium arsenide phosphide (GaAsP) 1. or anode. visible or near-ultraviolet light. it falls into a lower energy level. current flows easily from the p-side. to the n-side. and therefore its color. In silicon or germanium diodes. but not in the reverse direction. and releases energy in the form of a photon.

76 < ΔV < Indium gallium nitride (InGaN) 4.18 (AlGaInP) Gallium(III) phosphide (GaP) Green 500 < λ < 570 Indium gallium nitride (InGaN) / Gallium(III) nitride (GaN) 1.5 Blue/UV diode with yellow phosphor ADVANTAGES .10 (AlGaInP) Gallium(III) phosphide (GaP) Yellow 570 < λ < 590 Gallium arsenide phosphide (GaAsP) 2.4 White Broad spectrum ΔV = 3.7 or white with purple plastic Diamond (235 nm)[38] Boron nitride (215 nm)[39][40] Aluminium nitride (AlN) (210 nm)[41] Aluminium gallium nitride (AlGaN) Aluminium gallium indium nitride (AlGaInN) — (down to 210 nm)[42] Ultraviolet λ < 400 3.48 < ΔV < Silicon carbide (SiC) as substrate 3.48 < ΔV < multiple types blue with red phosphor.7 Silicon (Si) as substrate — (under development) Violet 400 < λ < 450 2. 3.0 Aluminium gallium indium phosphide (AlGaInP) Aluminium gallium phosphide (AlGaP) Blue 450 < λ < 500 Zinc selenide (ZnSe) Indium gallium nitride (InGaN) 2.9[37] < ΔV Gallium(III) phosphide (GaP) < 4. 2.2.0 Purple Dual blue/red LEDs.10 < ΔV < Aluminium gallium indium phosphide 2.1 < ΔV < 4.

Area light source Blue Blue pollution APPLICATIONS Application of LEDs fall into four major categories:     Visual signal application where the light goes more or less directly from the LED to the human eye. A conventional solid-state diode will not allow significant current if it is reverse-biased below its reverse breakdown voltage. Generate light for measuring and interacting with processes that do not involve the human visual system. to convey a message or meaning. Narrow band light sensors where the LED is operated in a reverse-bias mode and is responsive to incident light instead of emitting light. In case of large forward bias (current in the direction of the arrow).ZENER DIODES: Zener diode is a type of diode that permits current not only in the forward direction like a normal diode.5. but also in the reverse direction if the voltage is larger than the breakdown voltage known as "Zener knee voltage" or "Zener voltage". 3. a conventional diode is subject to high current due to avalanche breakdown. Illumination where LED light is reflected from object to give visual response of these objects.        Efficiency Size On/Off time Cycling Dimming Cool light Slow failure Lifetime DISADVANTAGES       High initial price Temperature dependence Voltage sensitivity Light quality. Unless this current is limited by circuitry. . the diode exhibits a voltage drop due to its junction built-in voltage and internal resistance. The amount of the voltage drop depends on the semiconductor material and the doping concentrations. the diode will be permanently damaged. When the reverse bias breakdown voltage is exceeded.

STAGE 2: LITH FILM MANUFACTURE Before beginning with the steps we prepare 3 trays of solutions: Tray 1: A+B tray which is Butyl + Sodium Carbonate with concentration 1 teaspoon in 1 litre of water both added in same ratio. While tolerances within 0. the so-called Zener voltage. 5. for an amplifier stage). a reverse-biased Zener diode will exhibit a controlled breakdown and allow the current to keep the voltage across the Zener diode at the Zener voltage. the most widely used tolerances are 5% and 10%. The Zener diode is therefore ideal for applications such as the generation of a reference voltage (e.1 PCB MANUFACTURING PROCESS STAGE 1: PREPROCESSING The first step to manufacture PCB requires a preparation of a layout. Tray 2: Ordinary water .A Zener diode exhibits almost the same properties.05% are available. The Zener diode's operation depends on the heavy doping of its p-n junction allowing electrons to tunnel from the valence band of the p-type material to the conduction band of the n-type material. as a result of the reduced barrier between these bands and high electric fields that are induced due to the relatively high levels of dopings on both sides. The breakdown voltage can be controlled quite accurately in the doping process. or as a voltage stabilizer for low-current applications. We can only use red light. In the atomic scale. By contrast with the conventional device. NOTE: All the processes for the manufacture of lith film are performed in the dark room under minimal amount of light. this tunneling corresponds to the transport of valence band electrons into the empty conduction band states. Breakdown voltage for commonly available zener diodes can vary widely from 1.g.2 volts to 200 volts. except the device is specially designed so as to have a greatly reduced breakdown voltage. The layout can be prepared by either using soft wares like PCB Artist or PCB Express or can be done manually on a plane paper using marker with proper spaces between components.

The basic purpose of applying photo resist material is that when this material is subjected to UV light and the circuit gets imprinted on the board. PCB consists of an insulating substrate material. Now put the door of the machine down for not more than 8 seconds and push the switch ON. 2. The circuit after the first tray appears transparent and the rest of the film turns black. The brown side of the lith film should touch the layout. 9. . 6. 5. Now dip the PCB in the dip coating machine so that a layer photo resist material is coated on the PCB. clad size of the layout. First of all we take a single sided copper clad board and cut it in 2. The negative is ready to be processed further. 8. 3. Lastly wash the lith film in the fixer tray for the same time interval. 10. Lith film is a sheet with two sides. Photo resist is an organic solution which when exposed to light of particular wavelength change their solubility in the developer. dry the film in air/oven at normal temperature say 40 degrees till the film dries. 4. the chemical is made by dissolving 2 teaspoons in 1 litre of water. STAGE 3: Photolithography After preparing the negative. Minimum time required is 2-3 minutes. Now. The lith film is now placed in the lith making machine with readable part on the upper side. 1. NOTE: All the processes for the manufacture of lith film are performed in the dark room under minimal amount of light. the next stage is photolithography. In dip coating copper clad board is clamped with the machine and when the machine is switched on the copper clad gets dipped in the material. The steps performed under this are mentioned below. Now shift the lith film in second tray and wash it for 2-3 minutes. After a layer of photo resist material is applied on the board surface. we dry the copper in the oven at 50 . The lith film is now cut to an approximate size of the layout at least half cm more than the size of layout.Tray 3: It consists of fixer (developer). 1. 4. 5. 3. Remove the lith film and wash it in the first tray continuously in movement till the complete circuit is developed. one side is brown and the other is gray. Clean it by metallic jute to see the shiny copper surface. 7.

8. After say about 8 minutes take out the sheet and check whether it‘s is well etched or not. we put the copper board in blue dye for approximately one minute. Ultimately we drop the copper board in the machine which consists of white die and blue die in separate tanks. 3. fix the sheet in the jaws and set the timer for 10 minutes 2. 4. 9. The next step is to wash the copper clad in simple water after which the circuit becomes completely visible on the board.The steps involved in etching are: 1. We immerse the copper board first in white die for approximately one minute for the visibility of the circuit. If not then fix the sheet again and set the timer again For 5 minutes.BIBLIOGRRAPHY . 7.6. Switch on the etching machine. STAGE 4: Drilling Drilling is us 6. 5. STAGE 3: Etching The next step after photolithography is etching The etching process is performed by exposing the surface of the board to an etchant solution which dissolves away the exposed copper areas other than the one deposited on the circuit . The blue dye covers the entire copper clad board. Now the copper clad board along with the layout is placed in the UV light machine to film (lith film) kept in glass frame.The different solutions used are as etchants and the most commonly used is FeCl3. Now dip the prepared copper clad or the sheet in etchant. Now wash the etched sheet in ordinary water and dry it in air for 10-15 minutes. for (2-3) minutes and after the time interval the circuit becomes partially visible on the board. After the above step. Extra copper is removed from the copper clad either manually or by a process called tinning.

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