<•

N

THE CUSTODY Or THE BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY.

SHELR N°

EVENING AMUSEMENTS;
oil,

THE

BEAUTY OF THE HEAVENS
-

DISPLAYED,
IN

WHICH

SEVERAL STRIKING APPEARANCES,
TO BE OBSEUVED ON VARIOUS EVENINGS IN THE

HEAVENS,
DURING THE YEAR
1817,

ARE DESCRIBED.

TO BE CONTINUED ANNUALLY.

By WILLIAM FREND, ESQ. M.A.
ACTUARY TO THE ROCK LIFE ASSURANCE COMPANY, AND LATE FELLOW OF JESUS COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE; AUTFIOR OF PRINCIPLES OF ALGEBRA, TANGIBLE ARITHMETIC, ESSAY ON PATRIOTISM, ETC.

JDOCENDO DISCO.

LONDON:
PRINTED FOR
J.

MAWxMAN, N° 39, LUDGATE biREET.

1817.
[Price 3s. boards.]

ADAMS

Printed by C.

WOOD,

Foppin's Court, Pieet Street.

ADVERTISEMENT.
The
of tins

kind solicitude for the success

Work^

expressed by several

correspondents, some anonymous, de-

mands
author.

this return

of thanks from the
it

In this volume,

will be

seen, that he has not been inattentive

to their remarks

;

and,

if his

opinions

should
differ

be found in some
theirs,

points to

from
to

they will be kind
that,
if

enough

consider,

every

writer was bound servilely to follow

the traces of his predecessers, and to
consult popular

opinions

only,

the

progress of

human knowledge would

be greatly retarded.
timents from a

To

differ in sen-

Newton

does not im-

ply a want of deference to superior
talents, but the author will not give his

assistance to any delusion,
riads should

though my-

deem him

perverse.

Digitized by the Internet Archive
in

2011

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EVENING AMUSEMENTS;
OH,

THE

BEAUTY OF THE HEAVENS

DISPLAYED.

TO THE READER,

The
not, as

intention of
I

my

little

annual volumes
to

is

have frequently mentioned,

make

my readers
in

perfect astronomers, but to introduce,

a familiar manner, those,
this

who
to

are entirely

unacquainted with

branch of science, to the
point out to

knowledge of the heavens, and
those, a very
it

numerous body, who have studied
what are the chief points
in their constant recollec-

only

in

books,

worthy of being kept
tion.

This

is

done by giving them the paths of

the

Moon

and planets in the heavens, with the
motions,
points,

peculiarities of their respective

their
thei

retrogra dations,

their

stationary

B

Kodes, and the increase and
latitudes.

decrease of
in

their,

These things are taught

books;

but the learner,

when he
at

is

placed

in
is

an opert
not un-

space, with clear heavens above him,

frequently as

much

a loss

as one,

never read a syllable upon the subject.
real path of a planet in

who had The
is

the
it is

heavens

to

him

perfectly

unknown; and

sometimes amusing
a planet
is

to see hira^

when he

is

told

in

a

certain sign then visible,

loolc to

the opposite

quarter of the heavens to discover

it.

Now, by

a very small degree of attention,

by
fa-

following the course of the
for one year only, all

Moon,

for

example,

these things

become

miliar to
will

an observer.
in
is

He

sees at once,

and

keep

remembrance,

why

one season of
to the

the year
elevation

more favourable than another

of the

Moon and
;

planets above the

horizon
if I

at

Sun-rise or Sun-set
it,

why

a lunar day,

may

so express

is

so

much

longer at one

time than another; and
so

why

a planet emerges

much
it

sooner from the solar rays at one time
does at
another,

than

though the distance

from the Sun

in both cases is the same.

As

the

instructers

in

astronomy have now

3
pretty generally

adopted these books, I have
as circumstances occur,

taken care, that,
should

they
skill
it
is

have an opportunity of trying the

of their learners.
said, that

As

for

example, when

in

the passage through the nodes
is

by

the

Moon

there

not an eclipse for obvious rea;

sons, those reasons will be asked
is

or

when

there

not

an eclipse owing to the latitude,

then

the learner the Sun and

may shew the Moon to each

relative

situations of

other,

which render
In the

an eclipse in that situation impossible.

same manner, when an
ecliptick or
is
is

inferior planet passes the

in

its

node, the reason

why

there

not a transit will be obvious.

The

positions of

Venus and Mars

afford

in-

structive questions on the degree of brightness of

those planets;
at certain

why

the former should be visible

times the greater part of the day, or

should have a very inferior degree of brightness
at the

times,
to

when

it

is

declared in books ac-

cording

theory

to

be the greatest.

The
is

variety in the appearances of Mars,
so

who
is

for
less

much

a longer time visible to us,

no

applicable to these questions.
questions of this kind, the

In fact,
is

by leading
iai-

mind

gradually

B2'

4
proved,

and accustomed
all

to

take into

its

con-

sideration

the circumstances, in which they

are involved.

For

as,

according to the

maxims

of B great nation unacquainted with the writings

Greece and Rome, one of the three bases of

good government
so
it is

is

attention to circumstances,

in science.

A

person,

who

is

accustomed
danger

to reason from his books alone, will be in

©f

perpetual

errour,

called forth into

when his knowledge is practice. The want of attention
his

to

a

minute circumstance renders

answer

futile; and thus the

man

of the world laughs

frequently, and with
clusions of the

great reason, at the con-

man

of the closet.

As

globes are

now very much

used, and

by

occasional

amusement with them the chief points,

to which I call

my

reader's attention, are easily

explained,

I

could wish that teachers would not
I

disregard the hints, that

have throwrn out

;

and

at least, at the beginning of every month,
rectify, as 1

would

would

call

it,

the celestial globe for

the appearances of that day, and thence to the

course of the moving objects for the whole of the

month.

I

mean, that on the

1st

of the

month

ihe places of the

Moon

and planets on that day

should be marked by the

little

pieces of cards, of
If

various colours, to represent these objects.
the globe
is

large enough, the

Moon
in

should be

represented by a small piece of card, as near as

can be to
to the

its

apparent magnitude,

proportion

degree on the globe.

The

smallness of the

apparent diameters of the planets does not admit
of the

same thing with respect

to

them.

course of each object should then be marked,

The by
and

noticing

its

greatest latitude in

the month,
its first

carrying a thread from thence to

place.

The
the

learner should be accustomed, from taking

number of days between

its

place on the

1st of the

month and
be

that of the greatest latitude,

to calculate the

diurnal motion
far

of the object,

which

will not

from the

truth.

Thus, on

every day,

the positions of the cards for the

Moon

and planets

may be changed,

and the

length of their stay

above the horizon made
iii

known, together with the time when each

upon the meridian.
have given,

I

in

this

volume, the time that
This

the

Sun enters

into

any sign.

may

be

compared with the time given on the wooden
horizon of the globe; and thus the learner, if

his globe

is

of some age^ will
the

be led

to

the

question

of

precession

of the

equinoxes.
of the

But we

will

now

go to the consideration

appearances in the heavens

m the month of

JANUARY,
THE
Moon

1817.

latitude

of the

is,

on the 1st at
in

noon, fifty»seven minutes north,
teenth degree of the third sign
to the 7th,
;

the sevenit

and

increases

when
it

it

is

at

noon

five

degrees

nine minutes in the eighth degree of the sixth
sign.

Thence
and

decreases to the 13th, passing
its

the ecliptick in
five

descending node, between
afternoon, in the fifth de-

six in the

gree of the ninth sign.

Her southern

latitude
at

now

increases to the 20th,

when

it

is

noon

five i3egrees five

minutes, in the sixU) degree of

the twelfth sign;
the 27th,

and
it

it

decreases afterwards to
its

when

passes the ecliptick in

as-

cending node, between nine and ten
the
fifth

at night,

m

degree of the third sign.

Her northern
midnight at the

latitude

now

increases,

and

is

at

end of the

month four degrees four minutes, in
.

the twenty eighth degree of the fourth sign.

The Moon
on the
1st

is

seen in the eastern hemisphere

before Sun-set, as

she passes the

me-

S
ridian

JANUARY,
at thirty-six minutes

1817.
past ten at night,

being then under the second of the Bull, and having the fine constellation of Orion directly

under her, and being herself between the second
and sixth of the Bull, the former
star to the west,
little

the latter to the east of the meridian, a
fore midnight.

be-

On

the 2d, she

is

on the me-

ridian at thirty-one minutes past eleven, having

near

to

her on the east the

fifth

of the Twins,

and below her on the west the seventh and
twelfth of this constellation.

At her

first

ap-

pearance she

is

seen above but near to these

latter stars, her retreat

from them and passage

by

the

fifth is

the chief feature of her progress

during

this night.

On
],>'ast

the 3d
;

is full

Moon,
eclipse.

at forty-four

minutes

noon

but

I'roai

her too great northern la-

titude ^vithout

an

Her passage under
course,

the two

first stars
is

of the

Twins marks her

and she

directly under them about midnight.
;

On

the 4th she travels through the Crab
tiie

and, on

the 5th, rises under the Lion,

small stars in the head of
first till

but does not reach the

her

next appearance.
the sevenih and

On

the 6th, she rises between

first

of the Lion, but near to the
to

former

star,

directing her course

the small

JANUARY,
stars

1817.
Virgin,

9
passing

in

the

head

of

the

through the body of the Lion on the 7th.

On

the 8th, she rises in the head of the Virgin, di-

recting her course through the third and fourth
of this constellation.

On

the 9th, she rises un-

der the five stars in triangle of the Virgin, nearest to the third;

and during the morning of the
first

10th

is

seen to direct her course above the

to the tenth

and eleventh.

On
at

the 11th, the

Moon
and
is

rises
first

in the

morning

some distance from the

of the Virgin

now
the

to the west of her,

soon followed by the

tenth and eleventh of this constellation12th, she rises nearly with the
first

On

of the Balance,

passing

it

about three.

On the

13th, she rises un-

der the two

first stats of the

Balance, directing

her course
Jupiter.

to

the second

of the Scorpion and

On

the 14th, she rises under the second

of the Scorpion and Jupiter, being followed

by

Mars,
ance.

whom she passes before her next appearOn the 17th is new Moon, at thirty-eight
after

minutes

noon, but for obvious reasons with-

out an eclipse.

On the 1 9tb,

the crescent of the

Moon

is

seen

in,

south-west-by-soutb, below but to the east of Sa-

B5

10
turn,

JANUARY,
who
is

1817.
stars
is

between her and the four small

in the tail of the Goat.

On

the 20Lh, she

in
;

the barren region under the four stars in square

and on the 23d
minutes past four

is

on the meridian

at thirty-five

in the afternoon,

having above

her

to the

west the four
first

stars in square,

and
at

to the

east the three

stars

of the

Ram,

con-

siderable distances, Saturn being near the horizon

in the south-west.

On the

24th, the

Moon
first

is

on the meridian

at

fourteen minutes

past five after noon,
stars of the

having
the

above her the three
smallest

Ram,

being also on the meridian,

and the

small stars in the head of the
to the east.
at fifty five

Whale
is

near to her

On

the 25th, she
five,

on the meridian

minutes past

having above her
to the west,

the three

first

stars in the

Ram

and

the small stars in the head of the

Whale with

Menkar below
she
is

her to the east of

it.

On

the 26th,

on the meridian

at thirty eight

minutes

past six, beins;in a line almost with the Pleiades

and Menkar, the former above her
the latter

to the east,
it.

below her

to the

west of

On

the

27th, she passes the ecliptick in her ascending
liode,

but for evident reasons without an eclipse,
t»n

^he

is

the meridian at

twenty-five minutes

JANUARY,
past seven, having
to the west,

1817.

It

now

the Pleiades above her

and Aldebaran with the Hyades
it.

below her

to the east of

On

the 28th, she

is

on the meridian

at a quarter past eight,

being in

a

line nearly with
;

the second of the Bull and

Aldebaran
to the
it.

the former above and nearest to her

east, the latter

below her

to the

west of
at eight

On

the 29th, she

is

on the meridian

minutes past nine, having to the west of her the

two

stars in the tips of the Bull's horns,

and
and

below and near
meridian
the

to her to the east the seventh

twelfth of the Twins.
at five

On the

30th, she

is

on the
first

minutes past ten, the two
to the east,
it.

of

Twins being above her
below her

and the
fifth

third

to the west of

The

and

the fourth are near to her, the former to the west,

the latter to the east.

On

the 31st, she

is

on the

meridian at three minutes past eleven, having

now above
stars

her to the west the two

first

stars of

the Twins, and to the east of her the two small

with the nebula of the Crab

;

which

latter

stars she will

have passed before her next ap-

.pearance.

Mercury
the 1st
is

is

an evening

star.

His latitude on

two degrees

six minutes south,

m
it

the
de-

eighteenth degree of the tenth signj and

12

JANUARY,
when he

1817.
passes the ecliptick

creases to the 24th,

in his ascending node, in the twenty-third

degree

of the eleventh sign.
increases,

His northern latitude then

and

at the

end of the month

is

one

degree

fifty-six

minutes north, in the twenty-

seventh degree of the eleventh sign.
est elongation
is

His great-

on the 24th, when he presents

himself favourably to those,

who have

a clear

horizon in the south-west, as he will at an hour
after Sun-set

be ten degrees above the horizon.

Saturn

is

our guide to him, as they are within a

degree and a half of each other.

A

few

da3's

before and after his elongation he will be viewed,
if

the weather

is

fine,

by many astronomers.
19th.

The Moon
Venus
1st is
is

passes

him on the

an evening

star.

Her latitude on

the

one degree forty-nine minutes south, in
;

the nineteenth degree of the eleventh sign
it

and
the

decreases during the whole

month,

ending
in

with a latitude of twenty-three minutes,
twenty-fourth degree of the twelfth sign.

Hev

motion
grees.
to the

is

direct through about thirty-seven deis first ser:n

She

under Saturn, and near
tail

small stars in the

of the Goat, and

her progress

by

this planet will

amuse the spec-

tator for several evenings.

Being south of the

JANUARY,
ecHptick, her course
is

1817.

13

through the barren space

under the four

stars

in triangle of the

Water-

bearer, passing the eleventh of this constellation

on the 18th, and the twenty-first on the 23d.

The Moon
Mars
is

passes her on the 21st.

a morning star.

His latitude on the
degree

1st is ten

minutes south,
;

in the fourteenth
it

of the ninth sign

and

increases to the end of

the month, ending at nearly thirty-two minutes,
in the sixth degree of the tenth sign.

His pio-

tion

is

direct through nearly
1st

twenty-two degrees
is

and a half; and on the
Herschel, from

be
is
;

a good guide to
little

whom

he

distant

more

than a quarter of a degree

but at Sun-rise they

are only about eleven degrees above the horizon,

so that an observer must have a good view of

it

near south-east-by-south to take advantage of
this proximity.

His progress

is

from the western
to

edge of the western branch of the Milky-way
the
eastern

extremity of the eastern branch,

passing between the eleventh and twelfth of the Archer> but under the
latter star

on the 25tb, and

above the former star
passes

on the 28th.

The Moon

him on the

14th.

Jupiter

is

a morning star.

His latitude on the

U
1st
is

JANUARY,
;

1817.

forty-eight minutes north, in the second

degree of the ninth sign
not
quite two minutesfive

and

it is

increased
is

by

His motion

direct

through

degrees and a quarter, from a point

near to the second of the Scorpion.

He

passes

under the twenty-third of
ends
his

this constellation,

and

course a

little

above the twenty-fourth,
enliven the lower

Jupiter, Antares, and Mars,

region before Sun-rise to the south of south-east-*

The Moon
Saturn
1st is
is

passes Jupiter

on

the 13th.

an evening

star.

His latitude on th$
in the
;

one degree sixteen minutes south,

twenty-second degree of the eleventh sign
it

and

remains nearly the same during the month.
is

His motion

direct through a

little

more than
below him
the

three degrees and a half.
at
first

Near

to but

are the four small stars in the tail of

Goat, the nearest being the fourth of this constellation
;

and from them he slowly recedes
east.

towards

the

The passage
the
first

of Venus

by
first

him and these

stars in

part of the

week

will

be a pleasing feature of the lower
after

regions in the south-west

Sun-set.

The

Moon

passes Saturn on the 19th.

Herschel

is

a

morning

star.

His latitude on the

3.ANUARY, 1817.
1st is

15
degree

one minute north,

in the fourteenth

of the ninth sign, and continues

the same with
is

scarcely any variation.

His motion
half,

direct

through one degree and a

within the western

branch of the Milky-way, near the western edge.
His place being best discovered by Mars on the
1st.

The Moon

passes

him on

the 14th.

The

Sun's apparent diameter on the 4th

is

thirty-two minutes thirty-five seconds, and on
the 18th thirty-two minutes thirty-four seconds.

The Moon's apparent diameter on
noon
is

the 1st at

thirty minutes

thirty-six seconds,

and
then
to

increases to the

9th,

being

then

at

midnight
It

thirty-two minutes eighteen seconds.
decreases,

but scarcely perceptibly at
at midnight, when
it
is

first,

the

23d

twenty-nine

minutes thirty-six seconds, increasing afterwards
to the
at

end of the month, closing
minutes
fifty

it

at

midnight

thirt3''-one

seconds.

The Sun

enters the eleventh sign at fifty-six minutes past

seven

in the

morning of the 20th,

The
for

places of the fixed stars will be

known

any hour of the night by consulting the volume for 1806, according to the following table -—
;

10

JANUARY,

1817.

TABLE OF POSITIONS.
<

1

Pos.
h.
h.

S

]

16

24
h.

m.
12
13 19 9

h.

m.
38 39 45 35
38

m.

X.
XI. XII.
I.

4
6
8

43

4
6
8

3

10

44 50 40
43

5 7
9 11
1

5 7
9
11

5
11
I

10

II.

12

4
53 14
5
1

III.

2

IV.

4
6

32 53

o

1

4
6
8

22
13
9

3

V. VI.

44

5
7

27 48 39 35

3 5 7

17

FEBRUARY,
ONE of the

1817.

three bases of good government
;

is

attention to circumstances

and

if this,

with the

other two were written in gold

letters,

on the

thrones of kings, they might at least keep in
the view of
all parties

certain paints of practical

importance, of far greater value than the great
farrago of political disquisitions, with which the

world

is

overwhelmed.
to

But Greece might have
if

been led

one truth with great advantage,

she had properly contemplated a
of

maxim

of one

her

greatest
first

men.

This was

Hippocrates,

whose
the

aphorism points out the inefticacy of
physician,
if

most

skilful

minor circum-

stances are disregarded.

His aphorism
;

may

be

applied to

all

sciences and arts

the politician,

the philosopher, the divine, the mechanist, the

merchant, and the manufacturer

;

men

in public

and
in

in private
it.

life

continually require to be put
fail,

mind of

Their schemes
thought
it;

and they say,

who would have

but nine times out
not haye

of ten they should have said,

who would

18

FEBRUARY,

1817.

foreseen this result, if he had duly considered
the matter before he engao^ed in
it.

We

have a

fine

example of inattention

to cir-

cumstances in the knowledge handed

dovv'n to us

from the Greeks, and which
our places of education.

is

pretty current in

The Greeks* were

very much

like the

modern French, excessively

self conceited,

and persuaded that they had made

some

great discoveries,

when

in

fact they

were

only marring what they had received from better
hands.

The

Earth, according to

the

Grecian

system, was divided into five zones; the middle
loo het, the
istence.

two exterior too cold

for

human ex-

Their theory was plausible enough;

in the frigid zones,

man cannot
is

exist in darkness

and cold without vegetation, nor
zone, where
all

in the torrid

vegetation

burnt up.

Now,
zone,
it

if

any person had

told

any of these wise

philosophers, that, in several places of the torrid

was cooler

in the
in

middle of summer than
the frigid
zone, there
to

in Greece,

and

that,

were days of

heat,

which would appear

a

Grecian intolerable, they would have laughed at

FEBRUARY,

181?.
and

19
if their in-

the information as a chimaera;

former had been a barbarian,
served for
their

he would have
contempt.

ridicule

and

The
to the

philosophers would have reasoned as some persons

do

at the present

day

:

the heat
its

is

owing

Sun, and consequently, by

shining on a globe
at different places,

with differently inclining rays

the degree of heat will depend on the place's
shortest distance

from the equator.

But

in

our days

men have ascended

in balloons,

and travellers have frequented parts of the world
of which the ancients had no conception.
it

Heat,

is

now

clearly

known, does not depend en;

tirely on the solar ray

for

at the

extremity of
sea,

Europe, on the borders of the frozen
veller
cessive
sit

a tra-

may be tormented

vi^ith

musquitos and ex-

heat; and under the torrid zone he

may
to

at his ease

under the shade of a tree familiar
fruits

Europe, plucking the

of our country, and

seeing around him fields of corn.
that in general the

The

fact

is,

mean

heat of the

year

is

greatest on or near to the equator, provided

the

place

is

but

little

above the level of the sea; but

the climate varies, not according to the imaginary
distinction of climates in the glohe, but accord-

ing to the height of the place above the level of

20
the sea.

FEBRUARY,

181?.
two thousand
in the

Ceteris paribus, a place at

feet elevation
torrid

above the level of the sea

zone will be warmer than a place

of

similar elevation in the temperate, and the

mean

temperature of the

air will

be warmer

in the latter

place than at a similar elevation in the frigid

sone.

But

a city, elevated at the height of six

thousand

feet

above the level of the sea

in

the

torrid zone, will enjoy a cooler

temperature than

many
The
to

towns

in the south of

Europe.

account of Mexico, which

is

now

familiar

every English reader,
in

would have excited
philosopher,

astonishment

a

Grecian

and
It

changed completely

his ideas of our Earth.
to

might have

led

him

contemplate nature
;

in a

very different point of view

and, in fact, the
if

philosophers of the present day,
sidered a
little

they had con-

more attentively the phcenomena

of that city, would have been

more

careful than

they have been in protruding their crude ideas on
the extraordinary weather, which prevails at the

time

I

am

writing,

and which has astonished

the inhabitants of this island for
varieties in the state of an

some

time.

Tfie

atmosphere over any

place have not as yet been brought to any rule,

and perhaps

it

may

be

many

years before the

FEBRUARY,
subject will be understood.

181?.

21

Facts are however

accumulating, which are increasing our knowledge upon this head, and in the
serve to put us

mean time they
prejudices.
facts grais

upon our guard against
:

Prejudice

is

the bane of knowledge
it.

dually undermine
blessing,

But freedom of mind

a

which cannot be appreciated by those
it

who who
it

have

not, nor too highly valued
it.

by those
time,

are in possession of

At the same
for
I

cannot be denied, that the temper of some
is

persons
to

such,

that

it

may be happy
all

them
write

go

in

leading strings

their

lives.

not for such persons, but for those,

who will allow
;

me

the same
will

fi

eedom

as I

wish them to enjoy

and we

now go

together to

observe the ap-

pearances in the month of February.

The
is

latitude of the

Moon on
sign
is
;

the 1st at noon

four degrees twent3'^-four minutes north, in the

fifth

degree of the

fifth

and

it

increases to

the 3d at noon,

when

it

five

degrees one misign.

nute in
It

the

fourth

degree

of the sixth

then decreases to the 9th,

when

she passes the

eclipfick in

her descending node, between six

and s«ven
ninth sign.

a.^ier

noon, in the third degree of the
latitude increases

Her southern

now
fifty-

to the 16th;

when

it is

at

noon four degrees

S3

FEBRUARY,
half,
it
:

1817.
second degree of

nine minutes and a
the twelfth si^n

in the

and

then decreases to the

23d,

when

she passes the ecliptickin her ascendlittle

ing node a

before midnight, in the second
lati-

degree of the third sign; and her northern

tude increases to the end of the month, being at

midnight of the

last

day four degrees
in

thirty

two

minutes and a half,
fifth

the sixth degree of the

sign.

It is full

Moon

on the 2d,

at a

quarter past
a latitude

two

in the

morning, but with too great

to permit of an eclipse.

She

rises in the

evening

under the small

stars

in

the head of the Lion,

passing the seventh of this constellation at two

minutes past eleven, between
first.

this

star

and the

We

shall see her the

foiiownng night di-

recting her course to the small stars in the head

of the Virgin; and, as she moves

now

with a

very rapid motion, we

shall

see her rising with

them on th^

4th,

and nearly between the third
five

and fourth of the
Virgin on the 5th.

siars
is

in

triangle of the

She

directing her course

to the tenth of this constellation,
rises

and on the 6th

nearly with the
it ;

first,

but at some distance
rises

from

and on the 7th she

under the tenth

and eleventh,

directing her course during th^

FEBRUARY,
inorning of the 8th to the

1817.

QS

first'

of the Balance^,

which star she passes soon after Sun-rise.

On

the 9th, the

Moon

rises in the
first

morning
stars

at

some distance under the two

of the

Balance, and will be seen to direct her course to
the second of the Scorpion, which star she passes
in the afternoon,

and

to Jupiter

beyond

it.

On

the 10th, she rises nearly with Jupiter, and her

progress from this planet
the

is.

the chief feature of

morning.

On

the

llth,

she

rises

under
is

Jupiter, at

some distance now from him, and
Mars.

seen to direct her cour«e to

On

the 12th,

she rises near the eleventh of the Archer, as she
.passed this star at a quarter past one, and
is

soon

followed by Mars,

whom

she will have

passed

before her next appearance; and on the 13th
she rises under him and the small stars in the

head of the Archer.

On

the 16th

is

new Moon,

at nineteen minutes past four in the morning,

but with too great a southern latitude to admit of

an eclipse.

The

crescent of the

Moon
;

is

seen in the even-

ing of the 17th about Sun-sefc near the horizon
in south-west-by-west

and on the 18th we per-

ceive that she

is

directing her course to the south

|4
of Venus,

FEBRUARY,
at

1817.
her.

some distance above
the 19th, she

She

is

traversing the region
square.

under the four
is

stars ia

On

perceived to have
will

approached so near to Venus, that she

have

passed the planet before her next appearance.

On

the

20

h, she

is

seen to have passed Venus,
this planet

being now between
in the head

and the small

stars
is

of the Whale.
first stars

On

the 21st, she

between the three

of the

Ram

and the

small stars in the he'ad of the Whale, but near to
the latter
stars.

Venus

is

now

at

some distance

below

her.

On

the 22d, the

Moon

is

on the meridian, at
in the afternoon,

thirty-two

minutes past four

being almost directly above Menkar, and having above her to the west the three stars of the
ilam, and the Pleiades to the east.

This groupe
to the

with Venus will easily be pointed out
instructed.

ua-

On

the 23d, she

is

on the meridian
almost diher course
to

at sixteen minutes past five,

being

rectly under the

Pleiades, directing

between the Bull's horns, but nearest
northern
tip.

the

Aldebaran and the Hyades are
the east, and she passes them at
a

below her

to

some distance;
dicate to

circumstance which will inin her

you the change

course since

FEBRUARY,
this

1817.

25
the 24tb,
six,

work was
is

first

undertaken.
at four

On

she

on the meridian

minutes past

having now below her Aldebaran near to but to
the west of
is
it
;

the tip of the Bull's northern horn

above her

to the east.

On

the 25 th, she

is

on the meridian

at fifty-five
tip

minutes past

six,

having below her the

of the BulTs southern

horn, and above her to the west the tip of the

northern horn.
splendour.

Below her

also
is

is

Orion

in great

On

the 26th, she

on the meridian

at fifty minutes past seven, having near to her
to the east the fifth of the

Twins, and below her
this

at

some distance the third of

constellation.
to,

The
she

seventh and twelfth are near

but below
the 27tb,

her to the west of the meridian.
is

On

on the meridian

at forty-seven

minutes past
first

eight,

having above her the two
first to

of the

Twins, the

the west the second to the east
at a considerable distance is

of
the

it.

Below her

first
it

of the Lesser Dog, having above and
the second of this constellation to the

near to

west of the meridian.

On

the 28th, she

is

oft

the meridian at three quarters past nine, having

near to her to the east the two small

stars

of th^

Crab, with the nebula between them.

Mercury

is

in his inferior conjunction

on the

C

26
9th,

FEBRUARY,

1817.

and consequently afterwards a morning star;
is

but, from the unfavourableness of his path, he

too near the horizon to be detected
observers.

by many
from the

At

his greatest distance

Sun he

is

only about seven degrees above the

horizon at Sun-rise.

On

the

1st,

his

latitude

is

two degrees twelve minutes north,
creases to

in the
;

twentyit

seventh degree of the eleventh sign
the
11th,

and

in-

when
in the

it

is

three degrees

and three quarters,
of the
the 21st,

eighteenth degree
is

eleventh

sign.

He

stationary

on
in

when

it is

two degrees and a quarter

the twelfth degree of the eleventh signj and, at

the end of the month,
in

it

is

thirty-nine minutef

the fourteenth degree of the eleventh sign.
passes

The Moon
Venus
is

him on the
star,

15th.

an evening

being on the meridian
in the afternoon the

about three quarters past two

whole month.

Her motion is direct through about thirty-one degrees. Her latitude, on the
1st, is

twenty-nine minutes south, in the twenty;

sixth degree of the twelfth sign
to the 8th,

and

it

decrease*

when

she passes the ecliptick in her
in the fourth

ascending node,
sign,

degree of the

first

but for evident reasons without a transit.
latitude then

Her northern

increases, being at

; ;

FEBRUARY,

1817.

27

the cnJ of the months at noon, one degree forty-

minutes, in the twenty-sixth degree of the
sign.

first
first

Her favourable
at this

position places her at

near the borders of the middle region

at Sun-set,

and her height

time

is

daily increasing,

and consequently she
the
in a barren region, at

will attract the attention of

commonest observer.
firet

Her path

is

however
stars ia

under the four

square

;

but her progress between the

fifth

and

sixth of the Fishes will point out these small
stars

on the ISth and 20th, and she finishes her
first

course under the three

stars
fifth

of the

Ram

on the 18th ghe passes the
being to the north of her.

of the Fishes

at the distance of only nineteen minutes, the star

The Moon

passes her

on the 20th.

Mars

is

a morning

star.

His motloB

is

direct

through about twenty degrees «nd three quarters.

His latitude on

the

1st

is

thirty-two

minutes

south, in the seventh degree of the tenth sign

and

it

increases to the end of the month, being
last

on the

day one degree forty-three minutes,

in the twenty-seventh degree of the tenth sign.

He
this

is

only about ten degrees above the horizon

at Sun-rise on the 1st, near south-south-east,

and

hetght increases very slowly.

He is

*eeR at

C2

28
first

FEBRUARt,

1817.

to the west of the small stars in the head of

the Archer, and he passes under the thirteenth

of this constellation on the 7th, and he directs
his course through the barren space between the

Archer and the Goat, finishing
tance from the two
stellation,
first stars

it

at

some

dis-

of the latter conto the east,

which are above him

Th©

Moon

passes

him on

the 12th.

Jupiter

is

a morning

star,

being on the me-

ridian at twenty minutes past seven in the morn-

ing of the

1st,
is

and every future morning
direct

earlier.

His motion

through somewhat more

than three degrees.

His latitude on the

1st is

fifty minutes north, in the seventh degree of the

ninth sign, and
nutes.

it is

increased

by nearly two minear to the

He

is

first

seen above and

twenty-fourth of the Scorpion, forming with the

second and
that will

first

of this constellation a groupe,

be noticed.

The

superiority

of his

splendour over that of Antares will be remarked.

The Moon
Saturn

passes

him on

the lOth.

is

in

conjunction with the Sun on the
itt is

15th, and will be hid in the splendour of

beams during the whole month.
on the
1st

His latitude

one degree sixteen minutes south, in

FEBRUARY,
it is

1817.

29

the twenty-fifth degree of the eleventh sign, and

increased
is

by nearly two

minutes.

His mo-

tion

direct through

degrees and a half.
the 10th.

somewhat more than three The Moon passes him on

Herschel
the

is

a morning star,

moving nearly

in

plane of the ecliptick, during the whole

month, with a direct motion through about three
quarters of a degree
;

his first place

being

in the

forty-eighth minute of the fifteenth degree of the

ninth sign.

He

is

on the meridian at fifty-two
1st,

minutes past seven in the morning of the

and
ad-

every future morning

earlier.

He

is

now

vanced into the western branch of the Milky-

way, but does not

arrive to the middle of

it.

A line drawn
The Moon

from the second of the Scorpion,

through Jupiter, will pass near to but above him.
passes

him on the

10th.

The apparent diameter of
thiriy-two minutes

the

Sun on the 3d

is

thirty-two minutes and a half, and on the 14th

twenty-six seconds, and on

the 25th thirty-two minutes twenty-one seconds.

The apparent
of the
1

diameter of the

Moon
it

on the noon
increases to

st is

thirty-two minutes, and
it
is

the 5th,

when

thirty-two minutes forty-tw»

30
seconds.
is

FEBRUARY,
It

1817.
when
it

decreases then to the 21st,

twenty -nine minutes thirty-two seconds, and

thence increases, ending with a magnitude of
thirty-two minutes two seconds.

The Sun

enters

the twelfth sign on the 18th at thirty-eight ml*

nutes past ten at night.

The

places of the fixed stars will be

known by

referring to the descriptions of their positions in

the volume for 1806, according to the following
table
:

TABLE OF POSITIONS.
1
1

1

Pos.
h.

5

22
h.
ra.

m. 32 38 28
31

h.

ra.

h.

m.

XI.
Xil.
I.

4 6
8

4
6
8

4
10
3

II.

10

10
11

5 7 9
11

42 32
35

5 7 9

15 5 8

III.

20
2 4
6
41

52
13

24
45 36 32

10
I

57
18

IV.

2

1

V. VI.

32 28

4
6

4

3

3 5

9
5

5

SI

MARCH,
TWO
what
fore
;

1817.

modes of instruction are practised in

the world.
is

The one has
is

in view to teach only

known, or
duly

supposed to be known, be-

the other to teach a person
his

preciate

how to apown knowledge. The on«

teaches persons what to think, the other teachei
thern

how

to think.
;

By
by

the former a generation
the latter knowledge
ip

remains stationary

gradually improved.

In Spain the former me:

thod

is

cultivated with great success

in

England
latter

and the United Statesof North America the
has numerous advocates.

We

have a striking

instance of the former method even in our

own

country.

In an illustrious seminary, the pupil,
is

on

his admission,

obliged to subscribe his be»

lief

of some hundred propositions, on the mean;

ing of which his teachers are not agreed
the fact
is,

and

that if

any two of the most learned
to write

men

in

England were

down

apart their

©xplanatioH of these propositions, the disagree-

St
nient between

MARCH,

1817.

them would be manifest ; and no
to the
is

other two could be found to maintain, that the

opinions of either were strictly conformable
original
:

and the probability

is,

that

there

not a single
these

man

in the

kingdom, who believes
in

famous propositions

the sense of the

persons

who made them.
is

This
land
:

the case with oae of the eyes of
its

Eng-

the other permits
for a certain

pupils to use their
;

own eyes

time

but,

after

an in-

terval of about seven years to gome,

»nd tea

years to others^ the

same subscription
required.

to the fa-

mous
is,

propositions

is

The consequence
is

that access to these places

debarred to

fo-

reigners in general, and to about

somewhat more

than half of the population of our
for,

own country:

in

the interval that has elapsed since the

establishment of these propositions, the minds of

men have
in

very

very

little

much changed. They are held ^repute by the majority of those,
;

wtio are supposed to believe in them
the others,
absurd, and

and,

by

many
it is

of them are considered to be

thought disgraceful to set their
believe.

names

to

what they do not

The

heir to the throne of Holland

is

supposed

MARCH,
by many
to

1817.

^^
at

kave been educated

at the university

of Oxford.

The

fact

is,

that

he was educated

Oxford, in the town of Oxford, but he could not

be matriculated

there.

He

could not undergo

the ceremony required of every

young Englishit,

man

;

for

he must,

if

he had submitted to
his

have incurred the contempt of

own countryin these

men, who happen not
numerous propositions.
at

to

be believers

A

similar thing occurred

Cambridge.
bj;-

A

foreigner,

one of those sent

out for study

the illustrious empress of Russia,

received the benefit of a university education at

Cambridge, and was naturally desirous of taking
a degree.

To

his surprise

however he was de-

sired previously to sign his

name

in a book,

by

which he would have declared himself a member of the church of England.
subscribe
this,''

"

How
a

can I

said he,

**

since I

am

member

of the Greek church, and what will be thought

of

me

in

Russia

if I

do?"

The reply was. No

subscription no degree: and the Russian quitted

our country without a degree, astonished at a
practice so

much

at variance with the general

tenour of our institutions.

It is

amusing to hear the conduct of our unireprobated by some persons,

versities

who have

C

5

34

MARCH,
is

1817.
which a

been educated
similar practice
diiferent,

in petty seminaries, in

adopted.

The
is

propositions are
assent
to

the

ground for requiring

them

is

the same.

The whole

founded on the

fear lest

men

should think for themselves, and a

degree of

infallibility is attributed to a

preceding
that ge-

generation.

The opinions however of
wear out
:

jieration gradually

but the practice of

subscribing to them remains from the fear of innovation.

Happily

for

England

it

contains nuexists:

merous seminaries, where no such practice
and from Englishmen thinking so
selves the country
is

much
its

for

them-

indebted for

prosperity.

My

great object

is

to lead

my

reader to think

for himself, to place

for himself,

him in the and the more he

situation to judge

exercises his

own

judgment, whether he embraces or
opinions, the better

rejects

my

am

I

pleased.

But there

are some to

whom
them

this liberty is not pleasing.

I pity their tastes, but I will not write
positions for
to subscribe
if
;

down

pro-

and

for this

plain reason, that, ductions of

these propositions are deor of

my own mind,
is

any other per-

son's mind, there

a probability, that they will

not bear the scrutiny of future generations.
this

On
v^^ry

subject let

me recommend

to

you a

MARCH,
valuable
titled
little

1817.

35

work, written by Locke, and en-

The Conduct of the Understanding. It for, whether you cannot be too much studied
;

tigree

with the author in every point or not, you
perceive
that
his only

will

wish

is,

that

you
facts,

should arrive at truth.

We will now go to
for the

and contemplate the heavens

month

of

March.

The
Very

latitude of the

Moon on
five

the 2d at noon

is

little

more than

degrees north, in the
fifth

twenty-seventh degree of the
decreases to the 8th,
tick in her descending

sign

;

and

it

when

she passes the eclip-

node between seven and

eight in the evening, in the thirtieth degree of
the eighth sign, and for obvious reasons without

an

eclipse.

Her southern
it

latitude

increases to

the 15th,

when

is

at

noon

five degrees

two

minutes and a half, in the twenty-eighth degree
of the eleventh sign; and
it

then decreases to the

23d,

when

she passes the ecliptick in her ascend-

ing node on that day about four in the morning,
in the twenty-sixth degree of the second sign.

Her southern

latitude increases to the
last

end of the

month, being on the

day

at

noon four degrees

forty-six minutes, in the nineteenth degree of th«

S6
sixth sign.

MARCH,
The Sun enters

1817.
the
first

sign at fifty-

four minutes past ten at night on the 20th.

The Moon

is

on the meridian, on the
at night,

1st, at

forty-

two minutes past ten
under the small

being then directly

stars in the

head of the Lion^

and bending her course
constellation,

to
will

the seventh of this

which she

have passed before
of the Lion will

her next appearance.

The

first

be noticed under her
is

to the east.

On

the 2d, she

on the meridian

at thirty-seven

minutes past
first

eleven, being in a line nearly with the

and

second of the Lion, the former star below her to
the west, the latter above her and at a considerable distance to the east.
at thirty-five

On

the 3d

is full

Moon,

minutes past one after noon, but from

her

g<^eat

northern latitude without an eclipse.

She* rises in the evening nearly with the second
of the Lion, and
is

directing her course to the

small stars in ihe head of the Virgin,

On

the

4th she

risfts

under the small
is

stars in the

head of

the Virgin, and

soon followed by the seventh

of thi^ constellation,

above which sh€ passes
it

to

the third, reaching

about Sun-rise.

On

the

5th, she rises uiider the five stars in

triangle of

the Virgin, and will pass the ^rst of this con-

MARCH,
stellation
rises

1817.

37
the Ctb, she

at

some

distance.

On

nearly with the tenth and eleventh of the

Virgin, passing between these two stars in her

progress this night.
the two
the
will at
first;
first

On

the 7 th, she rises under

stars

of the Balance, but near to

and, during the morning of the 8th,
to

be seen

be directing her course to Jupiter,
to the east of her.

some distance

On

the 9th the

Moon

rises

in the

morning
is

under the second of the Scorpion, and
followed

soon

by

Jupiter,

whom

she will evidently

pass before her next appearance.

On

the 10th,

she rises under and soon after Jupiter.

On

the

11th, she rises under the twelfth of the Archer,

passing between this star and the eleventh about
Sun-rise.

On

the

12th,

she

rises

under the
is

small stars in the head of the Archer, and

soon followed

by Mars,

at

some distance from
to the east of her,

her to the
the two

east.

On

the 13th, she rises under

first stars of the

Goat

and

will

evidently pass

Mars before her next

appearance.

On

the 14th, she rises under Mars,
is

now

to the west
at eleven

of her; and on the 17th
minutes past nine
in the

new

Moon,

morn-

ing, but from her great southern latitude without
sin eclipse.

38
On

MARCH,

1817.

the 19th, the crescent of the

Moon

is

seen

in the evening in the west,

under and
stars of the

at

some
and

distance from the three

first

Ram

Venus, directing her course under the planet.

On

the 20th, she

is

seen to have approached nearer

to these objects, and vvll

have passed between the

three

first stars

of the

Ram
is

and the small

stars in

the head of the
ance.

Whale

before her next appear-

On

the 21st, she

near to but

still

under

Venus, forming with the planet a beautifni object
till

Moon-set.

On

the 22d, she has

Venus
the

under her and the Pleiades above her.
23:1,

On

she

is

at a considerable distance

from Ve-

nus, having

now

botli the

Pleiades and Aldebais

ran under her.

On

the 24th, she

between the

horns of the Bull, passing the line between the

two

tips

about midnight.

On

the 25tb,

we

see

her passing above the seventh and twelfth of the

Twins.

On

the 26th, the

Moon

is

on the meridian at

forty-one minutes past six in the evening, having

under her the sixth of the Twins, and above her
to the west the fifth,

and below her

to the east
first

the fourth of this constellation; the two
at a greater distance

are

above her

to the east.

On

the 27th, she

is

on the meridian

at thirty-sevea

MARCH,
minutes past seven, having
virest

1817.

39
her to the

now above
stars

the two

first stars

of the Twins, and below

her to the east the

two small

with the inthe 28th, she

teresting nebula of the Crab.
is

On

on the meridian

at thirty-three

minutes past

eight, having

above her

to the east the small stars

in the head of the Lion,
stars

and below her the small

with the nebula of the Crab to the west.
is

On

the 29th, she

on the meridian

at

twenty-

eight minutes past nine, being

now
an^l

near to but
the
first is

under the seventh of the Lion,
almost directly under her
:

the third

is

above her
is

to the east of the meridian.

On

the 30th, she

on the meridian
Lion near

at tvi^enty-two

minutes past ten,

having above her the eighth and fourth of the
to the meridian,

and the second
it

at a
to the

much

greater distance from

to the east

:

west of her are the thiid, seventh, and
this constellation
is
;

first

of

and,

if

the night

is

fine, there

a good opportunity for pointing out the prinin this
constellation.

cipal stars

On

the 31st,

she

is

on the meridian

at a quarter past eleven,

having above and near

to

her the small

stars

in

the head of the Virgin, and below her the second.

She

is

traversing the space between the five stars

in triangle

of this constellation, direeting her

40

MARCH,
star.

1817.

course between the third and fourth, but near t«

the former

Mercury
is

is

a

morning

star,

at

his

greatest
1st

elongation on the 7th

His latitude on the

twenty-eight minutes north, in the fifteenth

degree of the eleventh sign; and he passes the
ecliptick in his descending

node on the 3d,

in the

sixteenth degree of this^isjn, but for evident rea-

sons without a transit.

His southern latitude in-

creases to the end of the month, being then

two

degrees twenty-one minutes,

in the

twenty-third
in

degree of the twelfth sign.

He

is

an un-

favourable position for observation,

his height

above the
greatest

horizon at

Sun-rise on

the

day of
six

elon station

being only about
passes

de-

grees.

The Moon
is

him on the

15ch.

Venus

an

evening

star,

at

her greatest

elongation on the 13th.
is

Her

latitude

on the

1st

one degree forty-four minutes north, in the
first

twenty-seventh degree of the
increases greatly, being

sign; and

it

more than four degrees
day, in the twenty-fifth

and a quarter, on the

last

degree of the second sign.

Her motion

is

direct

through nearly thirty degrees.

From

her great

MARCH,

1817.

41

-ilevation at Sun-set, during the

whole month, she

beautifully enlivens the evening walk.
first

She

is

seen under the three
first

first

stars of the Kara,

taking the

fortnight to pass

them; and she
passei

then directs her course to the Pleiades, but does
not arrive to

them this month. The Moon

her on the 22d.

Mars
1st
is

is

a morning

star.

His latitude on the

fifty-two

minutes south, in the twentyit

seventh degree of the tenth sign; and
to nearly a degree

increases

and a quarter,

in the twentieth
is

degree of the eleventh sign.

His motion

direct
is first

through about twenty-three degrees.
seen under and to the west of the two

He

first stars

of

the Goat, which he passes on the 7 th; and tra-

versing the barren space in this constellation directs his course to Saturn, passing near to

and

above the small

stars in the tail of the

Goat at

the end of the month. the ISth.

The Moon

passes

him on

Jupiter

is

a morning

star.

His latitude on the
in

1st is fifty-one

miiwtes north,
it

the tenth de-

gree of the ninth sign, and
nutes.
gree.

increases two mi-

His motion

is

direct through about a de-

He is thus

the

companion of Antares, mov-

42

xMARCH, 1817.
The Moon
is

ing very slowly from him, being stationary on
the 28th.
passes

him on the

9th.

Saturn
1st
is

a morning

star.

His latitude on the
in the
it

one degree eighteen minutes south,

twenty-ninth degree of the eleventh sign, and
increases nearly four minutes.
rect

His motion

is

di-

through nearly three degrees and a

half,

but

from the unfavourableness of his position and
southern latitude he will scarcely be visible
the latter end of the month, and on the last
his altitude
till

day
only

above the horizon

at

Sun-set

is

about eight degrees.

He

is

then directly under

the eighth and geventeenth of the Water-biarer,

The Moon
Herschel

passes

him on the

1

5th.

is

on the meridian
at

at six in the
tlie

morn-

ing on the 3d, and
alter

four on

21st, rising
is.

midnight the whole month.

His motion

direct to the 21st,

when he

is

stationary, in the

sixteenth degree of the ninth sign, being then in

the plane of the ecliptick.
ridian he
is

When

on the me-

directly under the seventh of the

Serpent-beaier,

having the seventeenth above,
to the east of,

and the eighth below him, both
and near
to the meridian.

The Moon

passe*

him on the 9th before midnight.

MARCH,
is

1817.
the

43
1st

The apparent diameter of
thirty-two

Sun on the
seconds,

minutes

nineteen

and

thirty-two

minutes six seconds on the 24th.
of the

The apparent diameter
at
it

Moon on

the 1st

is

noon thirty-two minutes sixteen seconds, and
increases to the 5th, being then at noon thirty:

three minutes ten seconds
20th,

it

decreases to the

being at midnight
;

twenty-nine minutes
it

twenty-eight seconds
to the end of the

and

increases afterwards

month,

ending at midnight

with a magnitude of thirty-three minutes sixteen
seconds.

For the places of the fixed

etars at

any hour of
1806, where

the night consult the volume for
their

positions
;

are
-<»

described

according to the

following table

44

MARCH,

1817.

TABLE OF POSITIONS.
'

1
Pos.
h.
1

8

16
h.

24.

m.
38
41

h.

m. 43 46 35

h.

m.

I.

6
8

6
8

II.

12 15

III.

10

30
51

10

4
25

5 7 Q
11
1

7 9
11

17 6

IV.

56
47 43 43

27
18 14 14

V.
VI. VII.

2
4.

42
38 38

2 4
6

6

16 12 12

1

3

3
5

5

45

APRIL,

1817.

THE

last

year was remarkable for the extra-

ordinary degree of wet weather, which prevailed

during the whole of the

summer.

A

circum-

stance of this kind naturally set curiosity afloat
to discover the causes of this

phcenomenon, and
to

numerous explanations were given, according
the situations of
life

of those,

who

philosophised

upon

this occasion.

A

general opinion prevailed,

that the

astronomers were more capable than
it
:

other persons to account for

and the name of
from the

an

illustrious

observer of the heavens was fre-

quently brought forward, as having

depth of
actually

his science discovered

the cause, and
It

prognosticated

the

event.

could
this
fa-

hardly be considered as a compliment by

gentleman

to

be put thus on a level with the

bricator of that composition, which goes under
the
so

name of Moore's Almanack, and which is much in the hands of the great and little
This strange publication, which
is

vulgar.

the

46

APRIL, 1S17.
we
live, prftteiids t#

<H5grace of the age in which
foretel events

by

certain configurations of th«

heavens, and keeps up a delusion in the minds of

many

otherwise respectable persons,

by whose

countenance of so ridiculous a work the lower
classes of society are errour.
I

k^pt in a very pernicious
least

have not the

knowledge, nor do

I desire to
sit

have

it,

of the person,

who can

coolly

down

to write this farrago of nonsense:
is

but

I

hope that he

not a mathematician of emi-

nence, as 1 would willingly persuade myself, that

no one of that description would
talents in such a

prostitute his

manner.

Are you

startled at the indignation vrith

which
it

I have expressed myself?

Perhaps you take
to

as you will say innocently

amuse yourself
it,

with the fantastical ideas, that occur in
to laugh at the coincidences

and
your

between the progi3ut others of

nostications and the events.
fellow

countrymen are not

so

good judges, and
its

conceiving from the greatness of
that
it is

circulation

held in high repute, they will naturally

be led

to conclude, that there is
its

some

truth in

the science from which
rive his knowledge.
It

author pretends to deboast indeed of very

may

high antiquity, and there are cabinets of sove-

A?RIL, 1817.
feigns,

4t

which, at the present day, do not en-

gage

in

an Hndertaking without consulting one

of these conjurers,

whom

they believe, or pre*

tend to believe, able to determine on the result

ef their undertakings.

Thus,

m

former times, the entrails of animals
flight

were consulted, and the

of birds was con-

sidered as a good or a bad omen.

The mind of
:

man

is

prone

to

this

kind of superstition

but,

with the Bible in our hands, and the knowledge
possessed

now

of natural causes and

effects,

it

is

astonishing that any one should be found capable

of entertaining,
errours.

much

less

of patronising, such

To
left

look at the feeding of chickens, or
flies to

to observe

whether a bird

the right hand

or the

would be a bad indication of the

talents of an admiral or general in the present

days

;

yet this

is

not less absurd than to pretend

by

the positions of the heavenly bodies to deterfate of

mine the

an individual, born at the moor

ment they were observed,
positions to settle

by means of
to

future

what

is

to

be the

fate of nations,

or the

month

in

which they are

take place.

It

would seem to be an

idle

waste of time to

;

48

APRIL, 1817.
when
number of our

enter into a serious argument upon this subjeet

yet

it is

right,

a

fellow crea-

tures are exposed to dangerous delusions, to put

them
to

at least

upon

their guard,

and to point out
to the reli-

them how contradictory they are

gion we profess, as well as to the deductions of
unsophisticated

common
arts

sense.

Severe are th«

denunciations of Scripture against those,
profess hidden

who
The
is

of diving into futurity, as

well as those

who

consult such deluders.

glorious objects in the heavens are displayed to

us for a very different purpose, and our time

innocently employed in contemplaing their
tions,

moto

and usefully when these motions are made

subservient to the uses of

common
is

life.

But

occupy

ourselves in propagating a
it

known

errour,

or to give

our countenance,

highly unworthy

of the Christian or the philosopher.
that
ful
:

The
is

gain,

may be
it is

derived

by a

delusion,

disgrace-

like the accursed

gold and the

Baby^

lonish garments,

which brought dismay

into the

armies

of Israel.

Far from the honest mind b$
;

such a species of covetousness
courages,
lusion.
is

and he, who en-

next to him

who

introduces the de-

Upon

this point I leave

you now

to

your

own

reflections,

proceeding to point out to you

APRIL, 1817.
certain positions and
control

49

motions,

which have no
in

whatsoever on the events
life,

public

or

private

that will take place in this month.

The

latitude of the

Moon
it

is

on the

1st at
fifth

noon

four degrees six minutes north, in the

degree

of the seventh sign, and

decreases to the 5th,

when

she passes the ecliptick in her descending

node, very soon after midnight of the preceding
day, in the twenty-eighth degree of the eighth
sign.

Her southern
it is

latitude increases to the 11th,

when
it

at noon five degrees

ten minutes, in
;

the twenty-fifth degree of the eleventh sign

and

decreases

to

the

]9th,

when she

passes the

ecliptick in her ascending node, in

the twentyfive in

eighth degree of the
the morning.
to the 26th,

second sign, about
latitude
five

Her northern
it is

increases

when

at

noon

degrees and

a quarter, in the thirtieth degree of the fifth .^ign;

and
at

it

decreases to the end of the month, being
the last

neon of

day one degree fourteen miof the eighth

nute?, in the fourteenth degree
sign.

The Moon
past eleven

is full

on the

1st,

at nine minuteis

at

night,

but from her too great

northern latitude without an eclipse.

She

rises

D

50

APRIL,

1817.
and
fourth of
;

in'the evening between the third

the Virgin, but nearest to the former star

and

she recedes considerably during the night from
the five stars in triangle

of this constellation.

She
first,

directs her course, at

some distance from the

through the space between the tenth and
first

eleventh, to the

of the Balance, which star

she reaches on the 3d,
tion.

when
at

it

suffers

an occulta-

This takes place

twenty-seven minutes
little

past eleven at night, the star being

more
it

than sixteen minutes south of the center; and

emerges
the star

at fifty-three
is

minutes past eleven, when

thirteen minutes south of the center.

The

shortness of the time elapsing between the
will render
this

immersion and emersion
teresting sight.

an in-

On

the 4th, she rises under the
is

two

first stars

of the Balance, and

perceived to

be directing her course under the second of the
Scorpion to Jupiter, at some distance of her.
to the east

On

the 5th, she rises under the second

of the Scorpion, preceded by Jupiter,

whom

she

passed under about nine at night, and her progress from

him

is

very rapid, as will be apparent

during the morning of the 6th.

On

the 7th, the the

Moon

rises

in the

morning
of the

nearly with

twelfth and

eleventh

APRIL, 1817.
Archer
to the east of her,

51

but she does not pass
the 8th, she rises under

them

till

after noon.

On

these stars,

now

to the

west of her, and soon after

them, being herself directly under the small stars
in the

head of

this constellation

;

and she directs
it

her course through the barren space between

and the Goat, rising under
the 10th,
is

its

two

first stars

on

when they are soon followed by Mars

to the

west of her, and

considerably to the east

of her.

On

the 11th, she rises with the small

stars in the tail

of the Goat near to her to the
arisen,

west.

Mars being

and

to

the east of her,

evidently to be passed before her next appear-

ance; and she

is

directing her course, from her

great southern latitude, at sonie distance under

Saturn.

On

the 12th, she rises under

Saturn,

and her unfavourable situation and great southern
latitude render her little visible

on the following
the loth,
at

mornings.

It

is

new Moon on

twenty-eight minutes past two in the afternoon,

but with too great a latitude to admit of an eclipse*

On

the 18th, the crescent of the

Moon

is

seefi

soon after Sun-set in the west, under the Pleiades^
directing her course between
des,

them and the Hyastars.

and Venus, but nearer to the former
is

On

the IQth, she

seen above them and between Ve-

D2

52!

APRIL, 1817.
On
the seen under the second of the Bull, or

nus and Aldebaran with the Hyades.
20th, she
tip of the
is

northern horn, to pass between the two

tips at nearly equal distances
is

from them

:

Venus

now between
is

her and the Hyades.

On

the 21st,

she

seen near to the seventh and twelfth of the
till

Twins, but she does not pass them
set.

after

Moonof the
is

On

the 22d, she

is

seen above the

fifth

Twins, near

to her to the west.
first stars

On

the 23d, she

seen under the two
the line

of the Twins, to pass

drawn through them and produced about

midnight.

On
stars

the 24th, she

is

seen near to the

two small

and nebula of the Crab, being

near to and above the third of this constellation.

On

the 25th, the

Moon

is

on the meridian at

twenty-four minutes past seven in the evening,

being uwder the small
the
fifth

stars in the

head of the Lion,
first

being directly above her, and the
to the east.

be-

low her

She

is

directing her course to

the seventh to the east of her, but does not reach
this star
till

after

Moon-set.
at sixteen

On

the 26th, she

is

on tne meridian
having

minutes past eight,

now
is

to

the west of her the seventh of the
first

Lion, and below her the

on the same

side.

The

third

above her nearer to the meridian on
fourth,

the west;

the

eighth,

and second,

at

APRIL, 1817.
some distance
«he
is

S3
On
the 27th,

to the east of her.
at

on the meridian

seven minutes past nine,

having the second of the Lion above her, and
near to her on the
east,

and the eighth and fourth

above her and at about double the distance from
it

to the west.

The

small stars in the head of the
east.

Virgin are near to her to the
she
is

On

the 28th,

on the meridian

at fifty-nine

minutes past

nine, having the

seventh of the Virgin almost

directly under her, the third to the east of her,

and the second below her

to the

west

;

she

is

directing her course between the third and fourth,

but nearest to the former
is

star.

On

the 29th, she

on the meridian at fifty-one minutes past ten,
first

having now the

of the Virgin below her,

and near

to the meridian to the east,

and the

five

stars in triangle

of the Virgin at iorae distance

from her to the west.
ilieridian

On

the 30th, she

is

on the

at three

quarters past eleven, having

the tenth and eleventh of the Virgin near to her
to the west, and the
first

and second of the Ba-

lance to the east of her.
course to the former
star.

She

is

directing her

Mercury

is

in his superior conjunction

on the

19th, but with too great a latitude for a transit.

His latitude on the

1st is

two degrees twenty mi«

,.

M

APRIL, 1817.
on the 19lh

nutes south, in the twenty-fifth degree of the
twelfth sign; and decreasing
is

thirty-

one minutes south,
the
first

in the

twenty-ninth degree of

sign.

He

passes the ecliptick on the 22d,

in the sixth

degree of the second sign; and his
till it

northern latitude increases

-becomes, at the

end of the month, one degree twenty-three minutes, in the twenty. third degree of the
sign.

second

His unfavourable situation, and southern

latitude, preclude general observations

on him in end of the
his situa-

the

first

part of the
is

month; and

at the

month, when he
tion
is

an evening star and

favourable, he will be lost in the splendour

©f the setting Sun.
the 16th.

The Moon

passes

him on

Venus
the 1st
is

is

an evening

star.

Her

latitude

oa

four degrees twenty-five minutes north,
;

in the twenty-sixth degree of the second sign

and
is

it

increases to the end of the month,

when

it

nearly five degrees and a quarter, in the nintli

degree of the third sign.
horizon at Sun-set
is

Her height above

the

daily decreasing, but she

will be a beautiful object in our

evening walks.

At first she is under the Pleiades, and her passage by them will engage attention. Her motion is di-.
reft to the 28th, through about seventeen degrees

APRIL, 1817.
when
passes

53
the

she

is

stationary.

On

17 th,

she

between

the

twenty-first

and twentyher

second

of the Bull, having under

Alde-

baran and the Hyades.

The Moon

passes her

on the 20th.

Mars
1st
is

is

a

morning

star.

His latitude on the

one degree and a quarter south, in the
it

twenty-first degree of the eleventh sign; and

increases to about a degree

and a

half,

in the

thirteenth degree of the twelfth sign.

His height
1st
is

above the horizon

at Sun-rise
;

on the

only

about eleven degrees

but

it is

increasing, so that

many
18th,

will observe his passage

by Saturn on the
be near to each
is

for the

two planets

will

other on that morning.
to

Mars

first

seen near

and above the four small

stars in the tail of the

Goat, whence

he- directs his

course to Saturn;
finishes
it

and,

having

passed

him,

in

the

middle of the

stream

from

the

urn

of the

Water-bearer, passing the eleventh of this constellation

on the 26th.

The Moon

passes

him

on the lllh.

Jupiter

is

on the meridian
1st,

at nearly four in the

morning of the

and three quarters past two
1st
is

m

the 20th.

His latitude on the

fifty-

56

APRIL, 1817.
and
His
increased
is

three minutes norths in the eleventh degree of the

ninth sign
rainute.

;

it is

by only about one
through

motion

retrograde

about a degree
the meridian
to
it

and three quarters.
is

When

on

Antares

below him, and near
passes

on the west.
-

The Moon
-

him on

the 5th.

Saturn

is

a

morning

star,

about seven degrees
Sun-rise;

»n!y above the
height
1st is
is

horizon

at

but this

daily increasing.

His latitude on the
in
is

one degree twenty-two minutes south,
;

the second degree of the twelfth sign
increased
cl'rert

and

it

by about four minutes.

His.

motion

is

tb.roup-h
half.

somewhat mere than two
is

desjrees

and a

He

at first almost directly

under

the eighth of the Water-bearer, tvyd he passes

near the eighteenth, a small
utellatioo,

star

in

this

con-

on the 15th.
the

The

chief feature in his
Tlie

course

is

progress of

Mars by him.

Moon

passes

him on the

12th.

Herschel
four in the

is

on the meridian
1st,

at a

quarter past
at

morning of the
His place on the

and

three on

the '22d.

1st is in

the sixteenth
in the

degree of the ninth sign, and he moves

plane of the ecliptick, with a retrograde motion.

APRIL,
through
nearly
forty

1817.

57"

minutes.

He

has

thus

above him, as

in the last

month, the seventh of
and below

the Serpent-bearer almost directly,

him

to the east the

eighth of this constellation.
6th.

The Moon

passes

him on the

The apparent diameter
is

of the Sun on the 7th
seconds,

thirty-one
1st

minutes

fifty-nine
fifty

and

on the 2

thirty-one minutes

-three seconds.

The apparent diameter of the
noon
and
is
it

Moon
when

on the 2d

at

thirty-three minutes twenty-eight seconds;
it is

decreases to the 16th,

twentythen in-

nine minutes twenty-six seconds;

it

creases to the end of the month, being on the
last

day

at

midnight thirty-three minutes and a

half.

For the

situation

of

any

fixed

star, at

any

hou): of the night, consult the

volume
:

according to the following table

for 1806,

BS

APRIL, 1817.

TABLE OF POSITIONS.
1

S

Pos.
h.

16

24
h.

m.

h.

m.

h.

m.
53

m.

IL
IIL IV.

6 8

48
37 58

6
8

22
11

5 7

42
3

7
9
11

13

10

10

32
23

10
11

34
25
21

V.

49
2

54 50
50 55

VL
VIL
VIII.

4

45 45

2 4
6

19 19

1

1

3

24

5

3 5

21

26

S9

MAY,
WHEN a
gipsey

1817.

woman examines

the hands

of some young lady of fashion, and holds out to

her imagination various delightful prospects of
futurity, the latier, receives

them with a mixture

of faith and incredulity.

She has not firmness

of mind to contemplate the whole as a cheat, and
at the

same time

it

is

seldom that she
to

is

so

com-

pletely deficient in

education, as

place im-

plicit confidence in these pretended

prophecies.

She has heard of

instances, in

which the events
to

have actually taken place according

the re-

presentation of the miserable vagrant, and

why

may

it

not happen to herself?
life

Thus

are wretch-

ed people in high

deluded by the most mithe lowest

serable of their fellow creatures in
class
:

for

they have not the sense to understand,

that, if a poor
it,

wretch should dole

out, as she calls

fortunes to a

number
is

of enquirers, the general

course of events

such, that in

some one or

tvs^o

jnstaHces they will correspond with her predic-

60
tions.

MAY,
The

1817.
fails^

times, in which the fortuneteller

are

not taken into the account; the successful

stor}' is

dwelt upon;'
;

it

is

repeated from

mouth

to

mo>Uh

and each ouivying the other in her
sui prise cries out,

gapin^s of

How

wonderful

I

Thus
nack.

it is

with the readers of Moore's Almasee a diagram,

They

marked out by
them

va-

rious curious characters, to

unintelligible,

though they are merely abbreviations used by
astronomers.

To

these

is

affixed a degree of im-

portance, and in proportion to the impudence of
the drawer of the figure increases the credulity of

the reader.
all

The

latter

does not consider, thaf
is

this aflectation

of science

nothing more

than the hard words of the gipsey, and the
poring over of the lines io the palm of a hand«

This species of delusion
is

is

more extensive than
dare say, that
for
I shall

generally imagined, and

I

be esteemed extremely presumptuaus
to

daring

impute

it

to

some of the admirers of one of the
of importance, that

greatest philosophers; that this nation ever pro-

duced.

But

it is

we should
and the

be

upon

our

guard against errour,
it

higher the quarter whence
should

proceeds, the more

we

take care to

call to

our aid that c^m-^

MAY,
mon
sense,
lis.

1817.
to,

61
will not

which/
'

if

duly attended

mislead

In the amusing romance, which goes under
the

name of the
sir

Principles of Natural Philosophy,
there
are

*by

Isaac Newton,

two

sections,

studied

by very few persons; but
in

the supposed

grand truths contained
rally

them
in

are very gene-

circulated,

and he'd

high estimation.

Newlon supposes

a particle to be placed at a dis-

tance from a globe, composed

of particles, and

the particle without as well as each particle within

the globe

is

supposed to be endued with a

power of
itself.

attraction, or

drawing every particle

to

A

figure

is

drawn, with a variety of lines
reader as unintelligible as

in

it,

to the

common

the diagram in

Moore's Almanack,

By meani
it

of these
is

lines,

and the reasoning upon them,

discovered, and very philosophically laid down^

in

what manner and proportion the outer particle

will be attracted or

drawn

to the globe.
if

And

in

the same

manner

it is

shewn,

we

place a globe

in the situation

of the outer particle, in what
this

manner and proportion
tracted,

globe will

be

at-

or drawn

to the other globe.

Now

all this is

very well, and the problem

is

6%

MAY,
Are we

1817.
it

amusing to a mathematician: but what does
tend to?
to believe,

that there

is

any
upon
be

thing in nature to which

these truths

may be

applied
the

?

If the globes in the heaven act
vice versa,
in

Earth, snd

then they must

made up of
scribed
:

particles
is,

the

manner above dein

that

each particle

our Earth must
re^

have a power, which extends
motest heavens
the
:

itself to the

and, as matter, according to
is

Newtonian opinion,
is

infinitely

divisible,

the smallest insect, that
est object perceptible to

cret^ping on the small-

our senses, has a power,
its

independent of those necessary to

existence,

which

is

exerted on objects
Herschel.

as small as itself in

the planet

Such a monstrous idea
it

strikes every one,

when
rate, this

is

fairiy

proposed to
it

him

:

and, at

any

he says, that

is

past

his conception.

Yet

must be believed by

every one, who embraces the generally received
doctrine of attraction, for without
to the ground.
it

the whole-falls

that

The Newtonian system requires^ every particle, in every globe moving in
is

the heavens, mu'^t be endued with what

called
to-

an attractive powder, or the pov/er of drawing

wards

itself particles

at

any distance; and the

minds of many, not considering the monstrosity
of the proposition, acquiesce in
it

from the repu-

MAY,
tation of the proposer,
scientific

1817.

63

and the number of the
h.

that

embrace

The moment, howand bringing the

ever, a

man

thinks for himself,
light

proposition to the

enquires,

what

is

the are

meaning of
particles to
as

particle and attraction, and

how

draw each

other, the

whole appears

nothing more nor

less

than dust thrown in our
as the con-

eyes, and just as

worthy of belief
Almanack.

jurations in Moore's

Beware then
to

how ye

prostrate

your understandings

any
and

man's authority.

Examine

for

yourselves,

be not induced to acquiesce in an opinion on the
authority of a name, for errours of
all

kinds have
will

powerful names in their support.

We

noW

proceed to notice the appearances in the heavens
in this

monih.

The Moon
in the

passes the ecliptick in her descend-

ing node on the 2d, about s^ven in the morning,
twenty-sixth degree of the eighth sign. Her
latitu'le

southern
at

increases to the 8th,

when

it is

midnight

^ive

degrees seventeen minutes, in the

twenty- eighth degree of the eleventh sign; and
it

then

decreases to the

l(jth,

when

she passes
ten

the ecliptick in her descending node, about
in the

morning,

in the

twenty-seventh degree of
latitude increases

the second sign.

Her northern

64
to the 23d,

MAY,
when
it is,

J817.
noon, five degrees seof

at

venteen miHUtes,
the
fifth

in the
it

twenty-sixth degree

sign

;

then decreases to the 29th,

when
node,

she passes the ecliptick in her descending

about

half past eight after

noon, in the
sign.
at

twenty-eighth degree cf the

eigh'-h

The
sevea

Sun enters the third sign on the
minutes before noon.

21st,

Full

Moon

takes place on the

Ist,

at thirty-

three minutes past seven in the morning, but from

her too great latitude without an eclipse.
rises in the

She

evening under the two

first

stars of

the Balance, directing her course under the se-

cond of the Scorpion and Jupiter.
Scorpion, and

On

the 2d,

she rises near to but under the second of th«
is

soon followed by Jupiter,

whom

she passes about Sun-rise; and her approach to
the planet with Antares under her will
afford a

Her monow rapid. On the 3d, she rises under tion On the 4th, Jupiter, now to the west of her.
pleasing prospect during the night.
is

she rises under the twelfth and eleventh of the

Archer

J

and during the morning of the 5th

is

seen to direct her course under the small stars
in the

head of

this constellation.

MAY,
On
.to

1817.
rises
in

65
the morning

the 6thj the

Moon

under the small

stars in the

head of the Archer
of the

the west, and the two

first stars

Goat

to

the east of her.
rectly under the

On
two

the 7th, she rises nearly difirst stars

of the Goat.

On

the 8th, she rises with the small stars in the tail

of the Goat, and directs her course under Saturn

and Mars,

at

some distance

to the east of her,

but from her great southern latitude they appear

with her

at

her rising near to the horizon.

On

the 9th, she rises under Saturn,,
east of her.

who

is still

to the

On

the 10th, she rises under Saturn
to the west, the latter to

and Mars, the former
the east of her.

On

the lith, she rises under

Mars, now
rises

to the

west of her.

On

the 12th, shQ

under the four

stars in square, at a consider-

able distance above her.
also

Mars and Saturn being
removed
from
her
to

now

considerably

the west.

On

the 16th, she passes the Sun, and
it is

an eclipse takes place, but
country.

not visible in this

The Sun
in

will be centrally eclipsed

on

the meridian, at fifty-three minutes past six in the morning,
thirty-one

longitude seventy-six degrees
east,

minutes

and

in

latitude six de-

grees thirty-six minutes north.

On

the 18th, the crescent of the

Moon

is

seen

;

66

MAY,

1817.

in the evening in the west-north-west, above the
sixth of the Bull, directing her course

above the
the 19th,

seventh and twelfth of the Twins.
she
is

On

seen above and near to the fifth of the

Twins.

On

the 20th, she

is

under the two

first

of the Twins, and

near to the second of them.
seen near to the two small

On
stars

the 21st, she

is

and nebula of the Crab, passing above them
before Moon-set.

a

little

On

the

22cl,

she

is

under and near
the Lion.

to the small stars in the

head of

On

the 23d, she forms nearly a pafirst,

rallelogram with the

seventh, and third of

the Lion, these stars being to the vrest of her

and on the

24'th she

is

under the eighth,

third,

and second of

this constellation,
stars.

nearly in a line

with the two former

On

the 25th, the

Moon

is

on the meridian at
the evening,

forty-nine minutes past seven in

having the small
near
to her to tbe

stars in the
we>it.

head of the Virgin
the 20th, she
is

On

on

the meridian at thirty-nine minutes past eight,

having the

five sfars in triangle
first

of the Virgin to

the west of her, and the

of the Virgin below

her
first

to the east; she

is

directing her course to the

of the Balance.

On

the 27th, she

is

on the

meridian at half past nine, having the tenth and

MAY,
and the
she
is

1817.

67
On

cievenlh of the Virgin near to her to the eastj
first

below her

to the west. at

the 28th,

on the meridian
first

twenty- four minutes

past ten, having the

of the Balance near to

her to the west, as this star has suffered very
lately an occultation.

This began at two mi-

nutes and a quarter past nine, the star being ten

minutes south of the center; and

it

ended

at four

minutes past ten, the star being three minutes

and a quarter south of

it.

She

is

directing her

course under Jupiter, considerably to the east of
her.

Ou

the 29lh, she

is

on the meridian

at

twenty-one minutes past eleven, the second of
the Scorpion being above and near to her to the
east of
it,

and Antares below her

also to the east;

Jupiter

is

nearer to her than the latter star, but

she does not pass hira before Moon-aet,

On
a

the 30th

is

full

Moon,^t twenty-one minutea
is

past three in the afternoon, but, as she

above
an

degree

south

of

the ecliptick,
in

v\ithout

eclipse.

She

rises

the

evening nearly with

Antares to the west of her, and under Juuiter.

On
by

the 31st, she

is

soon after her rising followed

the eleventh and twelfth of the Archer, under
stars she is directing her course.

which

Jupiter

68

MAY,
at

1817.
some distance from her

and Antares are now
to the west.

Mercury
set

is

an evening

star,

at

his

greatest

elongation on the 19th, on which day he does not
till

an hour and

tl)ree

quarters after the Sun.
after this

For several days before and
him.

day

will

be many favourable opportunities of observing
His latitude on the
1st is

one degree thirty-

two minutes north,

in the twenty-fifih degree of

the second sign; and on

the last daj" ten mi-

nutes south, in the tvventy-si^th degree of the
third sign, in

which he passes the
two

ecliptick in his

descending node on the 30th.
is

On
tips

the 19th, he
tlie

nearly between

the
to

of

Bull's
;

horns, but nearest

the
is

second of the Bull

and on the 20Lh he

directly

between them.
at five

The Moon

passes near to

him on the ISth

iTiinutes past

seven in the morning.

Venus
sition

is

in

her inferior

conjunction on the

21st at midnight, but from her favourable po-

and northern latitude will be seen
first

in the

west for the

week
is

as

an evening

star.

Her

latitude on the 1st

five

degrees twelve minutes

north, in the ninth degree of the third sign; and

MAY,
ber motion
degrees.
is

1817.

69

retrograde through about fourteen
in

She passes the ecliptick

her de-

scending node on the 29th, in the twenty-fourth

degree of the second sign.

The Moon

passes her

on the 17 th.

Mars
height
1st is

is

a

morning

star,

about thirteen degrees
on the
Ist,

above the horizon
is

at Sun-rise

but

this

daily increasing.

His latitude on the

one degree thirty-two minutes south, in the

thirteenth degree of the twelfth sign;

and

it

in-

creases to one degree forty-three minutes south.

His motion
degrees.

is

direct through nearly twenty-three
first

At

he

is

to the east of the

twenty-

second of the Water-bearer, which he passes on
the 3d, and directs his motion through the barren

space under the four stars in square.
passes

The Moon

him on the

10th.

Jupiter

is

on the meridian about 4wo
1st,

in

tht

morning of the

about one on the 13th, and His latitude on the
in the
1st is

midnight on the 27th.
fifty-tuur

minutes north,
;

tenth degree of

the ninth sign

and

it

diminishes nearly two

minutes,

his

motion being retrograde thr.mgh not

quite three degrees and three quarters.

At

first,

when. on the meridian, Antares

is

below him

to

76
the west of
24th.
it,

MAY,
but
it is

1817.
him on
the

directly under

The Moon
is

passes

him on the

3d.

Saturn
1st
is

a morning

star.

His latitude on the

one degree twenty-seven minutes south, in
degree of the twelfth sign; and
his
it

the

fifth

indi-

creases about six minutes,

motion being

rect through about a degree and a half.
sition
is

His po-

therefore nearly the
at

same during the
the Water-urn.

whole month, under and
the
four
stars

some distance from
of
9th.

in

triangle

The Moon
Herschel

passes

him on the

is

on the meridian at a quarter past

two

in the

morninoj of the 3d, and at one on th*
is

20th.

His place

in the sixteenth

degree of the

nin'h sign on the

1st,

and his southern latitude

becomes
motion
degree.
is

at the

end of the month a minute.
little

His

retrograde through

more than a
1st

When

on the meridian on the

he

is

nearly directly under the seventh of the Serpentbearer, but gradually that star at that time be-

comes
the 3d.

east of

it.

The Moon

passes

him on

The Sun*s apparent diameter on

the 7th

is

thirty-one minutes forty-four seconds, and on the

i

MAY,
24th thirty-one

1817.
thirty-seven
is

'71

minutes

seconds.
1st

The Moon's apparent diameter
and
it

on the

at

noon thirty-three minutes twenty-eight seconds;
decreases to the 14th,

when
it is

it

is

twentyit

nine minutes and twenty eight seconds;
increases to the 29th, w^hen

then

thirty-three mi-

nutes eighteen seconds at noon

;

and

it

then deenters

creases to the end of the month.

The Sun

the third sign at fifty-three minutes past eleven
in the

morning of the

21st.

For the appearances of the fixed

stars consult

the volume tor 1806, according to the following
table:


TABLE OF POSITIONS.
"'—

Pos.
h.

1

8

16

24
h.

m.
7

h.

m.

h.

m.

m.

IV.

9

8

40
31

V.
VI.

10

58

10

10
11

9

28

54
2

27
2 4

56
56
1

11

24
24
29

VII.
VIII.

54

4

59

27 32

I

I

4
6

3
5

IX.

4

32

JUNE,

1817.

A greater

calamity cannot befal a

human being
In
all

than to be deprived of his reason.

ages

some of our fellow creatures have been subjected
to a disease,

by which they

are said to have lost

their senses; and, from
it

an ignorance of the cause,

has been imputed to some influence or another,

too frequently engendered

by vain

superstition.

Thu«,

at

one time daemons, at another the Moon,
the furies, are supposed
to

at another

exert a

power on an unhapp}'^ being; and the terms daemoniack and lunatick become familiar*.
idea, that

daemons exercised such

a

power,

is

The now

pretty generallj'^ exploded; and the furies exist

only

in

books of poetry; but the
its

Moon

retains
it
is

the original prepossession in

favour, and

gravely asserted, that at
clearly indicated.

its

full this

influence

is

*
Orestes.

AuijULO'ji^o/itiKH

cgX>)yia^oyixfvo<

— Furiis

agitatvis

JUNE,
.

1817.

73
Moon,

Now we

maj^ grant, that insane persons maythe. full of the

be peculiarly affected about

without acceding to the vulgar notion of an influence in the

Moon

itself:

and the circumstance

may
came

be accounted for in a very easy manner.

This also explains to us how^ the term lunatick
first

into use

;

and the planet, composed of
Indeed, that a body two
off should turn

inert matter, will

be released from the stigma,
it.

which

is

cast

upon

hundred and forty thousand miles
men's brains
is

such a strange conception, that,

ifith^d not been so generally entertained,
should have supposed the bra'ns of the

we

men turnedj who first propagated the opinion.' Where tha affection of the mind prevails, which we call madness, it may be increased or diminished by
various causes.
ticular person,

Heat or cold, the sight of a parand various circumstances

may

produce an

effect ;-but
is

the diseased state of the
to its original source,

poor sufferer

to

be traced

and

for this

we

are not to go to the

the actionof causes within our

Moon, but to own atmosphere.

In the early stages of society individuals, la-

bouring under
to themselves.

this calamity,

were

left

very much

They were

not confined in asy-

lums, in wihch they are treated in general, though

E

74
this
is

JUNE,
their

1817.

not always the case, with the attention,

which

unhappy condition
in

requires.

They
their

T^andered

about

desolate

places,

and

howlings were heard to the astonishment of the
distant neighbourhood. It might have been remarked, that these bowlings were more frequent
in the nights enlightened

by the Moon than
Moon.

at

other times, and hence the idea arose, that they

were

to

be ascribed

to the

But does not
is

my

reader perceive, that the reason
their

evident

why

howlings should be more noticed at
at

these than

other limes; and
effect

it

was not the
dis-

Moon, which produced an
tempered brain, though
it

upon the

gave an opportunity
fits

to the disordered person to display the

of his

extravagance.

This will teach you how easy
errours to propagate
started,

it is

for

vulgar
is
it

themselves.

A

notion

which seizes the imagination, and
till,
it

passes current from one to another

by
a

dint

of time and numbers,
of authority.

it

carries with

degree

The

poets then

come

in,

and far-

ther propagate the delusion.

Moon-struck mad;

ness becomes a favourite topick
their business to

and, as

it

is

not

rectify popular opinions,
little

they

give themselves

trouble to enquire whether

JUNE,
they are true or false
to
:

1817.
is

15
them
its

it

sufficient for

produce an

effect

:

and the imagination, being

thus poisoned,

remains for a long time in

diseased state, incapable of attending to the dictates

of sober

reason.

Moon-struck madness
?

!

How
that

does the
the

Moon

strike a person
its

We

know,

Sun can by

rays

produce this

effect;

for

many

instances unhappily occur of

persons in the hot countries being affected
a vertical Sun, and suffering

by

what

is

called the

stroke of the Sun, or coup de

soleil.

Here we

can

easil}^

conceive, that the heat struck into the
disorder the faculties of the brain;
is

head

may

and

the same effect

said to be

produced by that exin

traordinary
life

instance of cruelty,

destroying
to

by exposing a

man bareheaded
a

drops of

water falling upon him from
height.

considerable

But the rays of the Moon can have no

such
light.

effect.

They

are

potent only in

giving

This light enables the lunatick to wander
to place,

from place

which on dark nights he
with madness

cannot do; and thus the whole mystery of the
connection of the
explained.

Moon

is

easily

Many
rected

persons will not, I dare say, be cor-

of their vague surmises, respecting the

E

2

76
Moon, from
expect
lous
it,

JUNE,
the
1

1817.
:

above explanation

nor can

I

when

consider what equally ridicuto

powers are attributed

the

Moon by
might
at

our

gravest philosophers.

But a

little

attention to

the diurnal course of the

Moon

once
is

have

rectified the

popular notion.

The Moon

supposed to
about the

affect the brain,

and this particularly

full,

because at that time the

Moon

is

longer above the horizon, and has therefore a
greater
action on
for this

a

man than
it

at

other times.

Unhappily

argument,

will not, as they
is

say, hold water; for the
a

new Moon

fre(juently

full

much longer time above the horizon than Moon. Consequently, if madness were fected by the Moon, we should perceive its
sometimes
at at the

the
afef-

fects

new,

at others

at

the full

Moon:

one time the disorder would be de-

creasing, as the
stead of being, as
that time.
V. ill

Moon
it is

approached

its

full,

in-

vulgarly said, increased at

1 he times in the year, in which this

take place, you can easily discover by your
;

globe

and trusting that your

faith,

if

you had

any, in

lunar influences, whether sanctioned by

the philosopher or engendered by superstition,
is

pretty well shaken,

I

proceed

to

note the
thi3

harmless

progress

of

the

Moon

during

month.

JUNE,
The
is

1817.
on the
1st at

77
noon

latitude of the

Moon

three degrees nineteen minutes south, in the
it

seventh degree of the tenth sign; and
to the 4fh,

increases

when

it

is at

midnight

five

degrees

and a quarter,

in the
it

twenty-fourth degree of the
decreases to
in

eleventh sign:

then

the 12th,

when
the

she passes the ecliptick

her ascending

node, between five and six in the evening, in

twenty-eighth degree of the second sign.
latitude increases to the 19th,

Her northern
it is

when
;

five degrees

twelve minutes, in the twentyfifth sign,
till

ninth degree of the
it

at

midnight

and

decreases thence

she passes the ecliptick
in the

in her

descending node, on the 26ih

morn-

ing, about five o'clock, in the twenty-sixth de-

gree of the eighth sign.
increases

Her southern

latitude

now
day
in

to the at

end of the month, being on
thirtj^-three

the

last

noon four degrees
twenty-ninth

minutes,

the

degree

of

the

tenth sign.

On

the 1st, the

Moon

rises at

night under the
;

small stars in the head of the Archer

and, on

the 2d, has above her at her rising these stars at

some
first

distance from her to the west, and the two
stars

of the Goat near to
tiie

her to the east;
3d, to be

and

is

seen, during

morning of the

78

JUNE,

1817.

moving under
pass
till

these stars, which she does not

after Sun-rise.

On

the

^th,,

the

Moon

rises

in

the

morning

r.early at the

same time wish Saturn, considerais

bly to the east of her, under which planet she
directing her course, and in the

way

to

him

will

be noticed the small

stars in the tail of the Goat.

On

the 5th, she has at her rising above her the
tail

small stars in the

of the Goat to the west,

and Saturn to ihe east of her.

On

the Gth, she

is

seen to have passed Saturn, as she rises under

and near

to this planet
is

now

to the

west of her.

On

the 7th, she

traversing the barren space
square, Saturn being at

under the four

stars in

some

distance to the west, and

Mars

to the east

of her.

On

the 8th, she rises below

Mars

to the

east

of her,

whom

she will have passed before her

next appearance.

On

the 9th, she rises undei

Mars now
been and
she is
still

to the west of her, but her
is

motion has
the 10th,

very slow

at this time.

On

seen at no great distance from
is

Mars;

and on the 14th

new Moon

at three quarters

past nine in the evening,

but from her too great

latitude without an eclipse.

JUNE,
On
in

181?.

70
Moon
is

the 16th, the crescent of the
in

seen

the evening

the west under th€ two first-

stars

of the Twins, which she wili have passed

before her next appearance.
is

On

the 17 ih, she of the Twins,

seen between the two
stars

first stars

and the two small

and nebula of the Crab,
stars.

but nearest to the latter
is

On

the 18th, she

seen under and near to the small stars in the

head of the Lion.
the Lion
is

On

the 19th, the seventh of

near to her to the west,
third

and she
before

passes between the

and the

first

Moon-set.

On

the 20th, the fourth, third, and

second of the Lion are conspicuous objects above
her,

and her great northern

latitude brings her

within five degrees of the eighth before
set.

Moon-

On

the 21st, she

is

seen between the se-

cond of the Lion and the second of the Virgin,
the former above, the latter below her: she has

thus passed the smaller stars at the extremity of

the head of the Virgin.

On

the 22d, she

is

seen above and near to the third of the Virgin,

having

juirt

past betv.een the third

and fourth,

the eastern limits of the five stars in triangle of
the Virgin.
at

On

the 23d, she

is

seen above and
of the Virgin,

some distance from the

first

evidently directing her course to the tenth and

eleventh of this constellation to the east of her.

,80

JUNE,
the S'lth, the rsloon

1817.
is

On

on the meridian at

eight minutes past eight in the evening, being

between the tenth and eleventh of the Virgin

and the
to her to

first

of the Balance,

the

former near

the west the latter to the east of her.
is

On

the 25th, she

on the meridian
it

at

nine,

having above her, but near to
second of the Balance, the
first

to the

\ve«;t,

the

being to the west
at a

of her, and the second of the Scorpion
distance to the east of her,
will attract our

greaier

beyond which Jupiter

attention.
at

On

the 26th, she

is

on the meridian

fifty-nine minutes past nine,
to

having now Jupiter above her
•Antares below her to the
east,

the west, and
to it;

both near

and the planet, the Moon, and
magnitude, in
this

a star of the first

position, will

form an
is

in-

teresting appearance.

On

the

27th, she

on

the

meridian

at

eleven,

Jupiter

and Antares

being now, from the rapidity of her motion since
her
last

appearance,
to the west.

at

a considerable distance

from her

On

the 28th

is full

Moon,

at

eighteen minutes

past eleven at night, but from her too great latitude without an eclipse.
rises

In

the evening she

under

the twelfth

and eleventh

of

the

Archer, and the small stars in the hea.d of this

JUNE,
the east of her.

1817.

81

constellation, the former to the west, the latter to

On

the 29th, she rises under the

small stars in the head of the Archer, and the two
first stars in

the head of the Goat, the former to

the west, the latter to the east of her.
30ih,

On

the

she rises almost directly under the

two

first stars

of the Goat, and

is,

in the course

of the

night, seen to be directing her course under Saturn, at a considerable

distance to the east of

her.

Mercury
12th,

is

in his inferior conjunction
will be

on the
lost, in

and during the whole month
His latitude on the
in the
it

the superior splendour of the Sun, to the

com-

mon
six

observer.

1st is

twenty-

minutes south,
;

twenty-sixth degree of

the third sign

and

increases to three degrees

fifty-three minutes, in
this sign.

the nineteenth degree of
is

His motion
is

retrograde to the 23d,

when he
the 14th.

stationary, in the seventeenth degree
sign.

of the third

The Moon

passes

him on

Venus
the
first

is

a morning star, too near the Suri in

part of the

month
its

to

be visible; but
is

it

rapidly emerges from

beams, and

before the

end of the month

at a considerable height

abov«

E5

821

JUNE,

1817.
Her
latitude

the horizon at Sun-rise.
is

on the

1st

eighteen minutes south,

in the twenty-fifth

degree of the second sign,

and

it

increases to

nearly four degrees, in the twenty-eighth degree

of the same sign, her motion being retrograde
till

the 12lb, in the twenty-third degree of this

sign.

She

will therefore,

when

visible,

be seen

Tender the Pleiades, directing her course above

Aldebaran.

The Moon
a morning

passes

heron the 12th.

Mars
ist is

is

star.

His latitude on the

one degree forty-three minutes south, in
first

the seventh degree of the

sign

;

and

it is

in-

creased

by only two

minutes, his motion being dihalf.

rect through about twenty-one degrees and a

He is seen

at first near the line

drawn through the

two eastern of ihe four stars in square,and produced,
being to the east of
it,

and he traverses the bar-

ren space in the constellation of the Fishes, near
the ecliptick, passing under the sixth on the 17th,

and under the fifteenth on the 27th.
passes

The Moon

him on

the 8lh.

Jupiter

is

on the meridian

at thirty-six

miat

nutes past eleven at night on

the

1st,

and

three quarters past nine on the 25th.

His
1st,

lati-

tude

is

fifty-two minutes north

on the

in the

JUNE,
about
five minutes,

1817.
it

S3
decreases

sixth degree of the ninth sign, and
his

motion being refrograde

through about three degrees and a quarter.
thus travels slowly towards
the
this

He

second of the
star

Scorpion, and

his access to
is

and recess

from Antares
gress.

the principal feature of his pro-

The

small star seen

above and near to
of the Scorpion,

him

at first

is

the twenty-tiilrd
s

the twenty-fourth being

>!iiewhat farther

from

him

to the east.

The Moon

passes

him on the

2Gth.

Saturn

is

a morning star, being on the meri1st,

dian about six in the morning of the a quarter past four on the 26th,

and at
about
1st

He

rises

midnight on the 12th,
is

His latitude on the

one degree thirty-three minutes south, in the
;

sixth degree of the twelfth sign

and

it

is

in-

creased

about seven minutes, his motion being

direct to the 16th,

when he

is

stationary, in the

seventh degree of the twelfth sign, and he retrogrades afterwards into the sixth degree of this
sign.

His place therefore, under and at some

distance from the four stars in triangle of the

Water-urn,
month.

is

little

changed during the whole
passes

The Moon

him on

the 5th.

84
Herschel
is

JUNE,

1817.
at

on the meridian
at three quarters

midnight on
the

the 5th, and

past ten on

22d.

His latitude on the

1st is

one minute south,

in the fourteenth

degree of the ninth sign, re;

maining the same the whole month

his

motion

being retrograde through nearly a degree and a
quarter.

He
its

is

travelling therefore out of the

western branch of the

Milky-way, but

will not

reach

to

western border this month.

When
him

on the meridian the seventh of the Water-bearer
is

above him to the

east.

The Moon

passes

on the 27th.

The apparent diameter
thirty-one minutes

of the Sun on the 2d

is

thirty-five seconds,

and on

the 26th thirty-one minutes thirty-one seconds.

The apparent diameter
noon
is

of the

Moon on
is

the 1st at
it

thirty-two minutes and a half; and
to the 10th,
it

de-

creases

when

it

twenty -nine mi-

nutes and a half:

then increases to the 25th,
fifty se-

being
conds
;

at

midnight thirty-two minutes
and
it

then decreases to the end of the

month, finishing with a magnitude of thirty-one
minutes forty seconds.

The Sun

enters

the

fourth sign at half past eight in the evening of

the 21st.

JUNE,

1817.
stars at

85
any hour

For the positions of the fixed

of the night consult the volume for 1806, accord"
ing to the following table
:

TABLE OF POSITIONS.
\

Pos.
h.

1

6

15
rn.

m.
55
51
51

h.

h.

m.
57 53

23 h. m.

V.
VI.
VII.
VIII.

8

8

26

7 9
11

10

10

22
22

9
11

20 20
25 28 23

53

2
4-

IX.

56 59

2 4
6

27

I

58
I

1

X.

30 25

4.

3

5

56

5

86

JULY,

1817.

A
ago,

small

party of soldiers was,

some years
they were

passing

along a road, when

suddenly struck wnth the agitation and exclamations of one of their comrades.
It

was

a fine

still

evening, the
the heavens
;

Moon

shining bright and high in

but the thick foliage of the trees,

not yet stripped off by the autumn, cast a gloom

on the place in which they were.
one of the party fixed
his

On

a sudden

haggard eyes on a par''

ticular spot, and exclaimed,

Do you
'*
!

not see

him

?

He

is

there

!

He

is

there

But being

pushed on by

his serjeant,

he recovered himself,
to
fits,

and attributed what had happened

to

which he had been subjected, and which were
always worse
as the

Moon was

nearer the

full.

With

this

explanation the party went on to their

quarters for the night, seemingly well satisfied,

and the man did not betray symptoms of any
thing more than might be expected from the

JULY, 1817.
cause, to

87

which

his

preceding agitation had been

attributed.

The

Serjeant

was however a shrewd
all in

fellow,

who

did not believe at

lunar influences, and

thought there might be something at the bottom
of this matter,

which might be discovered with-

out being a conjurer, or consulting the

Moon.
his sus-

He gave
to

a charge therefore to two of his party

keep a close eye upon the object of

picion, and

went himself

into the village,
its

where

he soon gotacquainted with

oldest inhabitants.

From them
back
a

he learned, that a great

many

years

murder had been committed on that very
to the perpetraters of the crime.

spot, but not a single trace couid be discovered
to lead

The
which

Serjeant collected all the facts he could respect-

ing the deceased person, and the
his

mode

in

body was discovered
his

;

and the next morning,

marching
were

party back to the spot where the

murder bad been committed, on the instant they
at
it,

proclaimed the names of the murdered

and the murderer.
left
little

The

agitation of the
guilt.

latter

room

to

doubt of his

He was
it

seized, confessed his crime, and expiated
bis death.

by

;

8S
The
exist,

JULY,
is

1817.

discovery of this horrid crime was natural
it

and happy

for

mankind, that such causes
attributes to

which superstition frequently
beings,

invisible

but which

really

are

to

be

traced to the formation of the
atrocious deed
is

mind

itself

An

scarcely ever perpetrated with-

out affecting the imagination in a very powerful

manner.

However a man may

disguise his feel-

ings from his fellow creatures, yet his thoughts
will frequently recur to the events
life.

of his past

Images

v/ill

arise

in his

mind, which are

almost as strong as the
place
:

realities, that

once took

and they are excited either by the inward

thoughts of the heart, or by some circumstance,

which unexpectedly connects the present mo-

ment with

that, in

which a guilty person had

committed the horrid deed.
is

At

that

no longer master of himself
his actions,

moment he The guard,
is

which he had placed on

removed.

He

feels

himself as

it

were a spectator of the
all
its

crime committed, acted over again in

glaring colours; and the secrets of his heart are

made

manifest.

Thus

it

was with the wretched man

in the case

above mentioned.

He was

not perhaps thinking

JULY,
of bis
crime,
till

1817.
when

89
the

the very instant,
trees

gloom of the road and the
brought
before
so
his

around him
in

mind the horrid scene,

which he had

many

years before been engaged.

Then the figurewith the wounds of the deceased presented itself as
it

were before

his eyes.

He

could

not contain himself. His exclamations arose naturally from the scene before him.

On

this

formation

of our minds of our poet,

is

grounded the

finely painted scene

when Richard
his

the Third seems to

have present before
of his cruelty
:

eyes the unhappy victims
bt d

and the

of Louis the Fourless disturbed,

teenth, of France,

was probably no

when
jects

the cries of his tortured protestant sub-

resounded

in

his ears,

and their mangled

limbs were present before his eyes.
bed,
the the

The downy
in

nectar

draft,

the

physician's balm,

confesser's

pliant

soothings,

vain

ad-

minister relief to the

mind
;

diseased.

Guilt will

not thus be expelled

and when the wretched
of the courtier

monarch wakes,

the knee

may

salute majesty, but the

homage of mortals can-

not compensate for the stings of a wounded conscience.

This subject would lead us forward to several
important remarks, and

many prejudices might be
tales of

removed, which

arise

from the

pretended

90

JULY,
in the

1817.
The
or

ghosts and apparitions.

influence of matter^

whether

Heavens

on the Earth, upon

the mind, will not
direct impulse
it

be allowed, farther than by

may

produce an

effect.

A
;

stroke

of the Sun, or a blow of a cudgel,
deprive a

may

indeed

man

of the use of his intellect

and an

evident reason can be given for this effect: but
the influence of the heavenly bodies, whether

upon
like,

ourselves or on each other,

by

certain oc-

cult causes, such as gravity, attraction,

or the

must be placed amongst the dreams of the

imagination.

To

us

it

is

given to wander

by
;

means of thought, over a widely extended
but that mere matter, at the distance of

field

many
is

millions of miles from us, should be endued with

the extraordinary powers, with which
vested

it

in-

by modern

philosophers,

is

not to

be

allowed to their affirmations.

We
:

may

not be

able to comprehend the whole of the wonderful

system, in which

we

are placed

yet confession

of ignorance

is

better than

the introduction of
in nature.

causes, which have not a foundation

The Sun
by
either of

affords us light
is

by day and

the

Moon
:

night, and this

a substantial benefit

that

them should
is

pull our globe to itself

by

invisible chords

about as wise as to imagine,

that Jupiter, Mars,
position,

and Saturn, by

a particular

produce the course of

life,

which a

JULY,
through.

1817.

91

child, born at the time of this position, is to pass

We

will

leave

now

these speculations,

and proceed
this

to the

appearances of the heavens in

month.
on the 2d at noon
in the

The Moon's

latitude

is

five

degrees nine minutes south,

twenty-sixth dedecreases to the

gree of the eleventh sign
9th,

;

and

it

when

she crosses the ecliptick in her ascending

node, about eleven at night, in the twenty-seventh

degree of the second sign.

Hernorthern
it is

latitude

now increases to the
of the 23d,
fifth

1

6th, when

at

midnight five

degrees four minutes, in the twenty-sixth degree
sign
;

and

it

then decreases to the

when

she crosses the ecliptick in her dein the

scending node, about nine in the morning,
twenty-sixth degree of the eighth sign.
southern latitude
it is

now

increases to the 29th,

Her when

at

midnight

five degrees

one minute, in the

twenty-seventh degree of the eleventh sign; and

on the

last

day

at

midnight

it

has decreased to

four degrees twenty-five minutes, in the twentythird degree of the twelfth sign.

The Moon

rises

on the

1st,

between ten and

eleven at night, near to but under the small stars in
the Goat, Saturn being at some distance from her

^2
to the east. to the east

JULY, 1817.
On the 2d, she rises under Saturn, still of her. On the 3d, he is to the west of
;

her.

On

the 4th, she rises under the four stars in

square, nearest to the two eastern of them

and on

the 6th, near midnight, in the barren space above

the fifteenth of the Fishes
the 7 th, she
is

;

and, on the morning of

seen to direct her course under Mars.

On
On

the

8th, the
first

Moon

rises

in

the

morning

tinder the three

stars of the

Ram

and Mars.

the 9th, she rises nearly with the Pleiades,
first

the three

stars of the

above her now
rises

to

the

Ram and Mars being On the 10th, she west.

under the Pleiades; and, on the 11th, has
at her rising to

them

the west of her, but from

the slowness of her motion at no great distance.

On

the 12th, she rises

under and near to the
;

second of the Bull, or tip of the northern horn

and on the 14th
nutes past ten

is

new Moon,

at

seventeen mibut from her

in

the morning,

great latitude without an eclipse.

On
in the

the 16th, the crescent of the

Moon
the

is

seen

evening soon
to

after

Sun-set in the west,

under but near

the

seventh of

Lion,

which she passes about Moon-set.
she
is

On

the 17th,

seen under the eighth, fourth, and second

JULY,

1817.

93

of this conslellation, directing her course to the
small stars in the head of the Virgin.
18th, she
is

On
in

the

seen

near to the small stars
to

the

head of the Virgin, being nearest
teenth.

the thir-

Above her

is

the second of the Lion,

and

below her the second of the Virgin,

between

which

stars she passes
is

about Moon-set.

On

the

19th, she

seen

in

the space included by the

five stars in triangle of the Virgin,

being

at first

nearly between

the

seventh

and fourth,
;

the
is

former below, the

latter

above her

but she

nearest to the former star, and directs her course

between the fourth and
is

third.

On

the 20th, she

considerably to the east of the five stars in

triangle of the Virgin, having below her to the
east the first of this constellation.

On

the 21st,

she

is

under the tenth and eleventh of the Virgin,
stars

between which
she
is

she passes before Moon-set:

directing her course to Jupiter, at a con-

siderable distance from her to the east.

On

the

22d, she
Jupiter,

is

between the

first

of the Balance and

but much

the nearest to the star.

On

the 23d, the

Moon

is

on the meridian at

forty-six minutes past seven in the evening, be-

ing then under Jupiter and the second of the
Scorpion, and her recess from them will form an

94
amusing object
24th, she
is

JULY, 1817.
in

our evening walks.
at

On

the

on the meridian

three quarters

past eight, being directly under the seventh of

the Serpent-bearer

;

Jupiter, the second of the

Scorpion, and Antares forming a pleasing groupe
to the

west of her.
at three

On

the 25tb, she

is

on the

meridian

quarters past nine, being al-

most directly under the twelfth of the Archer,
but she does not reach the eleventh
till

after

Moon-set.
at forty-six

On

the 26th, she

is

on the meridian

minutes past ten, having the small

stars in the

head of the Archer above her
first stars

to the

west, and the two

of the Goat at some

distance above her to the east.
is

On

the 27 th, she

on the meridian

at three quarters past eleven,
first

being now almost directly under the two
stars

of the Goat: she
at

is

directing her course

under Saturn,
her to the ea?t.

a considerable distance from

On tiie 28th is full Moon, at twenty-two minutes
past eight in
the morning, but from her great
latitude without

an
at

eclipse.

She

rises

in

the

evening under and
first stars in

some distance from the two
is

the Goat to the west of her, and
still

soon followed by Saturn at

a considerable
the 29th, she

distance from her to the east.

On

JXJLY, 1817.
rises

95
Goat

under the small

stars in the tail of the

to the west,

and Saturn

to the east of her, but

she will evidently have passed the planet before

her next appearance.

On

the SOth, she rises

under Saturn now
31st,

to the

west of her; and, on the

she rises under the four stars in square,

nearest to the two western, Saturn being at

some

distance to the west of her.

Mercury

is

a morning

star,

at

his

greatest

elongation on the 6th, being then about nine degrees above the horizon at Sun-rise, in east-northeast.

His latitude on the

1st

is

three degrees

forty-three minutes south, in the nineteenth de-

gree of the third sign; and
19th,

it

decreases to the

when he

passes the ecliptick in his as-

cending node, in the twelfth degree of the fourth
sign, but for obvious reasons without a transit.

His northern latitude now increases, and be-

comes on the

last

day one degree thirty-eight

minutes, in the seventh degree of the fifth sign.

The Moon
Venus
is

passes

him on the
star.

J

2th.

a morning

Her

latitude on the

1st is three

degrees

fif

y-seven minutes south, in
;

the twenty-ninth degree of the second sign
increases to the 5th,

and

it

when

it is

four degrees five

96

JULY,

1817.
ilie

minutes, in the second degree of
it

third sign

:

then decreases to three degrees twentv minutes

south, in the
sign.

twenty-third degree of the third
seen under the Pleiades, di-

She

is first

recting her course above Aldebaran, below the
sixth of the Bui], and she passes this star at the

end of the month.
about twenty-five

Her motion is direct through degrees. The Moon passes her

on the 10th.

Mars
1st is

is

a

morning

star.

His latitude on the
in the
it

one degree and three quarters south,
first

twenty-eighth degree of the
creases about ten minutes.

sign

;

and
is

de-

His motion

direct
is

through nearly twenty-one degrees.
at first to

He

seen

the west of the three
stars
in

first

stars of the

liam, and the small

the

head of the
to the

Whale, and he passes between them, near
latter stars,

being directly between the

first

of

the

Ram

and Menkar on the 16th, but he does

not reach the line

between the Pleiades and
passes

Menkar.
Jupiter

The Moon
is

him on the

7th.

on the meridian

at

nineteen minutes
1st,

past nine in the evening on the

and at eight
1st
is

on

the 19th.

His latitude on the

forty-

seven minutes north, in the third degree of the

JULY,
ninth sign; and
his
it

1817.

97

decreases about seven minutes,

motion being retrograde through about a de-

gree to the 28th,
first

when

he

is

stationary, in the

degree of the ninth sign.

He

is

thus slowly

directing his course to the second of the Scorpion, which star he passes on the 14th,
is

when

it

seventeen minutes and three quarters north of

him.

Thus

this star will

be fixed in the

memory
hereafter

of the commonest observer,
forget
it,

who cannot
him.

and Antares

belovi^

The Mooil

passes the planet on the 23d.

Saturn

is

on the meridian

at

three quarters

past three on the 3d in the morniagj and at three

on the 14th, rising about eleven
1st,

at

night on the

and every night
is

earlier.

His latitude on the
in the sixth

Ist

one degree forty minutes south,
;

degree of the twelfth sign

and

it

increases

nearly six minutes, his motion being retrograde

through somewhat more than a degree and a
quarter.

He

thus keeps nearly the same position

during the whole month, being, when on the meridian,-

under and

at

some distance from the four

stars in triangle

of the Water-urn.

The Moon

passes

him on

the 3d, after Sun-rise, and again

on the 30th.

F

.

98
Herschel
is

JULY, 1817.
on the meridian
1st,

at three
at

minute*

past ten at night on the
ters past eight
1st
is

and

three quar-

on the 20th.

His latitude on the

one minute south, in the thirteenth degree
it

of the ninth sign, and
his

continues nearly the same,
fifty

motion being retrograde through nearly

minutes.

He

will

thus be seen,

when on

the

meridian, having the seventh of the Serpent-

bearer above him to the east, and Antares below

him

to the west, the planet

being near the edge

of the western border of the western branch of
the Milky-way.
24.th.

The Moon

passes

him on the

The
22d noon
and

Sun's apparent diameter

on the

1st is

thirty-one minutes thirty-one seconds, and on the
thirty-one

minutes

thirty-three

seconds.
at

The Moon's apparent diameter on
is
it

the 1st

thirty-one minutes twenty-eight seconds;

decreases to the 8th,

when

it

is
:

at
it

noon
then

twenty-nine minutes thirty-four seconds

increases to the 23d, being at noon thirty-two

minutes twenty-six seconds, decreasing afterwards
to

the end of the month, being on the 29th at

midnight thirty-one minutes, and on the 31st at
the same time thirty minutes eighteen seconds.

JULY,
The Sun

1817.

99
on the 23d, at

enters the fifth sign

twenty-two minutes past seven

in the

morning.

For the positions of the fixed
according to the following table

stars, at

any

hour of the night, consult the volume for 1806>
:

TABLE OF POSITIONS.
1

Pos.
h.

8

16

m.
47 47

h.

m.
18 18

h.

ra.

h.

25 m.
10 10
15 18 13

VI.

8

8

VIL
VIII.

10

10

7 9
11

46 46
51

7 9
11

52
2 4

23
2 4
6

IX.

55

26
21

1

54
49 50

1

X.

50

'S

3

XL

22

5

5

14

V s

-

100

AUGUST,

1817.

AMONG
that,

the vulgar errours, which have been
effect
to

propagated with a very pernicious
morals and happiness of mankind,

on the

is

be placed

which

is

dignified

by

the professers of the
:

art

with the name of science

and astrology

is

fre-

quently confounded with astronomy.

presumes

to discover

The former mighty secrets, by means
the latter has no such

of an acquaintance with the motions and positions of the heavenly bodies
;

pretensions, but, simply attending to the nature

cf

thosi^e

motions, delineates their path and future

positions.

When

it

enters into the investigation

of the causes of those motions, farther than as

they arise from particular positions of the spectater,
it

goes beyond

its

true limits,

and hitherto

all its

speculations on this subject appear to have
fallacious.

been

Our
this

finite

capacities are pro-

bably not adequate
laws,

to ihe

comprehension of those
is

by which

wondrous frame

preserved.

AUGUST,
^nd what
"
is

1817.
by

101

so finely said

the holy writer,

Who

by searching can

find out

God/^ thcauworks

thor of nature,

may

also be applied to the

of his almighty power.

The
to be

astrologer and the astronomer then are not

confounded together.
it

The former narrows
by vain conceits: the

the mind, and enfeebles
latter

expands the mind, and by the contemplaits

tion of nature in

grandest features leads to the

awful veneration
seen or can see.
is

of

him,

whom
is

no eye hath

If the first fruit of our science

the fear of that God,

who
it,

so

mighty

in his

operations,

we might

naturally conclude, that no

one could be divested of
such a study.
said,
is

who

applied himself to

An

un.levout
folly

astronomer,

it

is

mad, and greater

cannot be than to
is

entertain the wicked conception, that there

no

God.
curred

Yet
in

this

madness,

and

this

folly, cot -

one of the greatest astronomers of
ttiey

whom

Europe can boast; and

prove to

us,

that the

modern system of the world may be'

contemplated as a piece of slender mechanism,
without impressing on the mind one single idea,

which such a work

is

calculated to produce.
is

A

world, according to these people,

easily

formed

by

certain attractive powers, attributed to par-

im
as easily, as

AUGUST,
if

1817.

tides of matter, and the machine goes on just
the world were formed, according

to the notion of ancient philosophers,

by

the for-

tuitous concourse of atoms.

The

extraordinary wet season of last
to

summer

was supposed

have been foreseen by the astroall

nomers, but they disdain

such
is

knowledge.

An

observer of the heavens

naturally led to
;

attend to the state of the atmosphere
the shepherd,
plain
;

and so

is

who guards

his flock

on Salisbury

but neither the one

nor the other can

determine any thing on the weather beyond
its

probable continuance for a short time, or
:

its

speedy change
two,
I

as

to

the predictions

of the

should place

much

greater confidence in

those of the shepherd than in those of the astro-

nomer.

Whence
knowledge
?

indeed
Is

is

the astronomer to gain his
it

he to look for

in the spots
:

of

the Sun, or the changes of the

Moon

one body

upwards of ninety
Earth

millions, the other

upwards of

two hundred and forty thousand miles from our
?

Yet both these bodies have been apit

pealed to; and

was

coi.fidentiy asserted, that

the extraordinary weather was

owing

to the spots

AUGUST,
of the Sun, and
at

1817.

S105

many

persons were looking out

every change of the

Moon

for

a change in the

weather.

I

should scarcely have
if
it

thought the subject
its

worthy of notice,
I
it

had not found

way

int6

believe every newspaper of Europe, in which

was

stated, that

an eminent astronomer of this

or that place had noticed a remarkable accumulation of spots in the

Sun

;

and

I

have been
v/hether

frethis

quently questioned by

persons,

was

really

the

cause of

the wetness

of the

season.

Not many indeed gave themselves the

trouble of considering the nature of the assumed

cause, and

much

less to

look at the Sun on the
us,

few days, that he shone on
there

to see

whether

was any difference

in his splendour at that

and former times.

The

idea of the spots of the Sun producing
is

wet weather

not however quite so absurd, as

that of supposing the

Sun

to pull the

Earth

to-

wards

it,

by a

certain

occult power called grait

vity, or attraction, because

is

possible,

though

we have
lieve
it

not the least reason in the world to be-

probable,

that the

surface of the

Sun

might be entirely obscured.

The consequence

104

AUGUST,
atiirnal

1817.

of such an accumulation would be total darkness,

and the dtstiuction of

and vegetable

life.

If then,

it

may be

said,

the covering of the

Sun entirely by opake matter may produce such
an
effect,

why may
Earth
?

not a partial
is

obscuration

affect our

This

a fair question, but

then the enquirer wiil
the Sun
is

reflect,

that at

all

times

partially covered

by

spots.

These

were
and

first

made known
last

to us

by

the teLescope,

the

summer had

not a greater accu-

mulation of them than has frequejitiy occurred

without the least surmise of the season's being
affected

by

it.

Besides, the greatest accumula-

tion of these

spots

ever

known
Sui-s's

covers but a
in propordif-

very small part of the
tion to the

disc,

whole of

its

surface;

and the

ference between the heat from the Sun,
the
that

when
and
to
is

accuniulation in spots

is

the greatest,

when

it

is

the

least,
its

is

not

equal
It

a

thousandth part of

average heat.

ab-

surd therefore to look to the spots of
as

the

Sun

the

cause

of any variation in our seasons

from the ordinary course.
did not

Besides,
'

it

strike

the

persons,

vi

ho

carried us to the

Sun

for the cause of

our ex-

AUGUST,
traordinary summer, that,
the true
reason,

1817.
if

10 e:

they had assigned

not

oniy our island and Eu-

rope,

but the whole Earth must have suffered

from the same cau>e.
globe

From every
But
a

part of the

we

should hear, a^ vessels arrived at our

ports, the

same complaints.
even
in

this

was not
of the

the case

so
for,

small

portion

Earth as Europe;
with
us,

whilst the rain prevailed

many

parts

of the

Russian

empire
err

were

.suffering

with drought.

Thus men
a
if

by

makioi^ general conclusions from
case,

particular

and by not considering,
for an

that,

the cause
its

they assign
"Will

effect is general,

effects

be generally discovered.

Away

then with,
af-

the idle notion,
fect us.
tion, or
l^et
it

that spots in the

Sun can

sleep with the gravity, or attrac-

puilmg,

of

sir

Isaac Newton,

and the

adherents to

a similar phantom.
are to

Within our

own atmosphere we
which operate

look for the causes,

any remarkable variation

from
f

the ordinary course of the seasons.

A

walk o

a coopie of hours, in certain situations, exposes

us to a change from heat to cold far greater than
if ui

the same time and in the
'.he

same place nine-

tenihs of

disc of the

Sun had been covered
have a good opporthis disc,

by

spots.

I

hope you

will

tunity this

month of examining

whence

F

5

106
you
will

AUGUST,
judge
of
for
its

181?. how
if
little
it

yourselves,
spots
is
:

must

be the effect

and,

should

happen, that there
tion of

a

very great accumuladay,

spots

and a very hot
a

my

argu-

ment

will

produce

greater impression.

We

will proceed to the appearances in the heavens
for this

month,

without

pretending to predict
in the

what

spots there

may

be

Sun, for here

our science cannot

assist us.

The Moon's

latitude

on

the 1st at noon

is

four degrees seven minutes, in the twenty-ninth

degree of the twelfth sign; and
the 5 lb,

it

decreases to

when

she

passes the ecliptick in her

j^seending node, about three in the

morning

in

the twenty-fourth

degree

of

the

second sign,

and

I

ben

htr-r

northern latitude increases to the
is

12th,

when

it

at

midnight

five

degrees,
:

in
it

the twenty-second degree of the fifth sign

then decreases

to the 19th,

when

she passes the

ecliptick in her descending node, about ten in

the morning, in the twenty-second degree of the

eighth

sign.

Her southern

latitude
at

now

infive

creases to the 25th,

when

it

is

midnight

degrees, in the twenty-third degree of the ele-

venth sign;

and

it

then decreases to the end
last

of the month,

being on the

midnight one

AUGUST,
degree twelve minutes,
of the second sign.
in

1817.

107

the seventh degree

The Moon
line

rises

on the

1st

about ten

at night,

under the four

stars in

square; having passed the
tw^o eastern of these stars

drawn through the

and produced, she will be seen to be directing
her course to Mars at a considerable distance to
the east of her.

She moves now

so slowly,
first

that

she rises on the 3d under the three
the

stars

of

Ram

still

to the east

of her.

On
risen,

the 4th,

she rises

under them,

these stars being just to
is

the west of her.
access to

Mars

just

and her

him

will be observed during the night.

On

the 5th, she rises with Mars, having passed

the planet at fifty-eight minutes past nine this

evening.
des and

On
Mars

the 6th, she rises under the Pleiato

the west of her,

being soon

followed

by Aldebaran and

the Hyades.

On

the 7th, she rises nearly with Aldebaran to the

west of her; and during the morning of the 8th
is

observed to be directing her course between

the tips of the Builds horns, but nearest to the

second of

this constellation, or tip

of the northern

horn, and above Venus^.

On

the 9th, the

Moon

rises in

the morning.

108
and
is

AUGUST,
soon followed

1817.
the seventh
is

by Venus and

aiid tvveSfih

of the Twins, above which she

ditill

recting ber course, not passing them however
after

Sun- rise.

On

the 10th, she rises

nearly

with the

tvt'o first

stars of the
fifth

Twins, being be-

tween them and the

of this constellation,

Venus being now
line with the

to

the west

of her.

On

the
in

11th, she rises almost directly under and

a

two

first

stars

of the Twins.

On

the 12thj she rises under the two small stars and

nebula of the Crab,
the 13th
is

to the
at

wesr of her; and on
in

new Moon

seven o'clock

the

morning, but from her great northern latitude
without an eclipse.

On

the 15ih, the crescent of the

Moon
;

is

seen

at San-set in the west- by-south, near to but to

the west of the seventh of the Virgin

and on

the 16th between the five stars in triangle of the

Virgin, and the
the 17th, she
is

first

of this constellation.

On

seen near to the tenth and ele-

Tenth of the Virgin, but does not pass between

them
is sf=en

till

after

Moon-set.

On

the ISth, she
first

near to but to the east of the

of the

Balance, as she passed this star between
six this afternoon
;

five

and

she

is

directing

her course

under J

t.piter, at

some distance

to the ea<>t of her.

AUGUST,

1817.

109

On the 19tli, she is near to but under Jupiter, whom she does not pass till after IMoon-set On
the 20lh, she
is

seen above Anrares, Jupiter and

the second of the Scorpion being to the west of
her.

On
forty

the 21st, the

Moon

is

on the meridian

at
di-

minutes past seven
her

in the evening,

recu'ng

course

under

the

eleventh

and
the

twelfth of the Archer to the east of her.

On

22d, she

is

on the meridian

at forty

minutes past

eight, having almost directl}'^
Stars in the
is

above her the small

head of the Archer.
at

On

the 23d, she
past

on the meridian

thirty-nine minutes

nine, having above her at
east the

some distance

to the

two

first

stars of the Goat,

and she di-

rects her course

under Saturn,

at

a considerable
is

distance from her.

On
tail

the 24lh, she

on the

meridian

at thirly-six

minutes past ten, having
of the Goat above her

the small stars in the
to the
east,

which she

will

have passed before
the 25th, she
is

her next appearance.

On

on

the meridian at twenty-eight minutes past ele-

ven, the small stars in the

tail

of the Goat being
at

near to her to the west, and Saturn
tance above her to the
east.

some

dis-

110
On

AUGUST,
the 26th
is

1817.
at thirty-six

full

Moon,

mi-

nutes past seven in the evening;, but from her
great souihern latitude without an eclipse;
rises

She

in

the evening' under Saturn, passing
;

him

soon after their appearance

and she

is

seen on

the following nights to be slowly receding from

him, her brightness eclipsing the few

stars

in

the barren space under the four stars in square,

through which she
three
first

is

passing,

not reaching the
till

stars of the

Ram

the 31st, and
line

then she

rises

under them, passing the
of this constellation and

be-

tween the

first

Menkar

about Sun-rise.

Mercury

is

in his superior

conjunction on the

2d, and consequently, for the remainder of the

month, an evening
is

star.

His latitude on the

1st

one degree forty-two minutes north,
fifth

in the

ninth degree of the
to the 27th,

sign

;

and

it

decreases

when

he passes the ecliptick in his
in

descending node,
the sixth sign.

the twenty-fifth degree

of

His southern latitude increases
first

to thirty-eight minutes, in the

degree of the

seventh sign.
will prevent

His very unfavourable position
failing

him from

under the observa-

tion of

any but those astronomers, who are said

AUGUST,
to
sitions.

1817.
hinii in

Ill
these po13th.

have the power of detecting

The Moon
is

passes

him on the

Venus
'

a

morning

star.

Her

latitude on the

1st

is

three degrees twenty-four minutes south,

in the twenty-fourth

degree of the third sign

,

and
it is

it

decreases to the end of the months
half, in the

when
is

about one minute and a

twenty-

/ifth degree of the fourth sign.

Her motion
She

direct through about thirty-two degrees.
first

is

seen near to the sixth of the Buii^ or tip of

the

southern horn, to the west of her, and she

directs her course under the seventh

and twelfth

of the Twins, passing

them

in the

second week,

near to the thirteenth, having then the third below
her,

which she

will soon
vi'hich

after

pass in her

way

to the sixth,

under

she passes on the 20th,

finishing her course before she arrives at the line

passing through the two

first

of

this constellation

and produced.

The Moon

passes her on the 9th.

Mars
1st

rises

between ten and eleven

at

night

during the whole month.
is

His latitude on the
in the
it

one degree thirty-five minutes south,

nineteenth degree of the second sign; and
creases to

de-

about a degree and

a quarter, in the

seventh degree of the third sign, his motion be-

112

AUGUST,
he
is

1817.

ing thus direct through abovit eighteen decrees.

At
tail

first

seevi

under the small

s^ars in the

of the Ra.n, being about three degrees from
;

the fourih of this consttliation

he passes the
the 18th,

Pleiades atsome distance uuder

them on

and

in the last

week

his

passage above the

Hya-

des and Aldebaran will
his course
:

be the chief feature in
splendour of

the

superioritv in the

Mars,

though
is

much

diminished, above that of

Aldebaran

wortiiy of notice.

The Moon
at night.

passes

near to him on the 5th near ten

Jupiter
ridian
ever}^

is

an evening
1st at ten
earlier.

star,

being on the me-

on the

minutes past seven, and

evening

His latitude on the
the
first

Ist is

forty minutes north, in

degree of the

ninth sign, deci easing about seven minutes.

His

motion

is

direct through about one degree forty

minutes

The

chief ft;ature of

his^

course

is

his

passage under the second of the Scorpion, which

he passes on the tenth, the star being twentythree minute« and a half north of him.
evenina:
In our

waiks we

shall

compare

his

solendour

with that of Antares.
the 20lh.

The Moon

passes

him on

Saturn

rises at

Sun-set about the end of the

AUGUST,
month, and
the 26th.
is

1817.
at

113
midnight on

on the meridian

His latitude on the

1st is

one degree

forty-six minutes south, in the fifth degree of the

twelfth sign

;

and

it

increases about three

mi-

nutes, his motion being retrograde through about

two degrees and

a quarter,

under the eighth of
passes

the Water-bearer.
the 26ih.

The Moon

him on

Herschel

is

on the meridian
ttie

at fifty-six
1st,

mi-

nutes past seven in

evening on the
earlier.

and

every succeeding evening

His latitude

on the

1st

is

one minute south,

in the twelfth de-

gree of the ninth sign, increasing to nearly two
minutes.

His motion

is

retrograde through about
stationary.
lines

ten minutes to the 26th,
place will

when he is be found by drawing

His

from An-

tares to the

eighth and seventeenth of the Seris

pent-bearer, as he

between them, near the
branch of the

western border of the western

Miiky-way, and near

to

the

latter line.

The

Moon

passes him

on the 20th.
of the Sun on the 1st

The apparent diameter
is

tbirty-one minutes thirty-five secojids, and on

the IQth thjrty-f^ne

minutes forty one
at

><tcotids.

The Moon's apparent diameter

midnight on

114
the 1st
4th,
is

AUGUST,
when
it is

1817.
it

half a degree, and
in

decreases to the

the afternoan twenty-nine miIt

nutes thirty-six seconds.
gree at midnight on the 7
crease
till

becomes half a deand continues
to in-

th,

the 17th,

when
It

it is

thirty-two minutes
to

twenty-six seconds.

then decreases
it is

the

end of the month, when

at

midnight twenty-

nine minutes thirty-six seconds.

The Sun

enters
after-

the sixth sign at fifty minutes past one

noon on the 23d.
For the
positions of the fixed stars at

any hour

of the night consult the volume for 1806, by the
following table
:

TABLE OF POSITIONS.
]I

Pos.
h.

8

16

m.

h.

m.
15

h.

m. 45

h.

25 m.
12 17

VIL
VIII.

8

42
47

8

7 9
11

10

10

20
23

50
53

7 9
11

IX.

50
2 45 46 2 4

20
15 16

X.

XL
XII.

4

18 19

1

3

5

48 49 55

1

3

5

22

11.5

SEPTEMBER,

1817.

WE have examined
Moon
spots in the

the strange notions, that

have been conceived, of the influence of the
on the brains of the insane, and of the

Sun on the

vvC^ther.

To
is

attribute

these effects to such distant bodies

a proof of

the

little

attention, that'is paid to the nature of

matter

in general,

and the mode of

its

operations.
in

We

have a striking instance of

this

another

very prevalent errour, and one which
difficult to root out.

it is

very

Whenever
time,

there has been

bad weather

for a little

numbers of per-

sons look to the xllmanack for the change of the

Moon, when they expect an
place: and,
if their

alteration to take

hopes are then baflled, they
it

look forward to another change, and should

happen
that

that the weather takes a favourable turn

at the time they expected,
it

they conclude at once
or other, for which they

must

in

some way

do not pretend

to account,

be attributed to the

116

SEPTEMBER,
Moon.
and the
repeatedly looked

1817.
last

influence of the

Thus,
to,

year, the

Moon was
spite

but change suc-

ceeded change,

rain

poured down in

of repeated

prognostications to the con-

trary.

What
ther
?

effect
it

then has the
it

Moon
Moon

on the wea-

If

has any,

must be by some means,
;

which may be traced
rate

to the

or at

any

some plausible reason should be given
to

to in-

duce us
this

suppose that the

Moon
Moon

can produce
our senses
is

effect.

What

is

evident to
the

is

merely

this, that

when
Sun
is

above our

horizon, and the

absent, the rays of the

Sun, reflected by the
us light.
It is

Moon

on our Earth, give

not supposed, that the lunar ray

produces any other effect; but as a power of drawing to it-elf any objf^ct, affirmed to be manifest in

the tides,
that

is

altrihued to the Moon,
will

it

may
our

be,
at-

some changes
in

be produced
of
this

in

mosphere
power.

consequence

attractive

Now,

if

tins

argument were

true,

we might
would

expect, that the~e variations in the weaHier

be subjrctto some uniform law; and they might
be piognosiicated with the same
facility as takes

SEPTEMBER,
place with

181?.

117

respect to the tides.

But no such

thing hitherto has been attempted, nor do
find that an astronomer
is

we

a jot wiser upon this

subject than

any of

his neijghbours.

Another circumstance
in the

to

be noticed

is,

that

same parallel of
it is,

latitude the effect of the

Moon, whatever

would be the same.
it

Con-

sequently, since in some places

is

a dry sea-

son and at others a wet season at the time of the

change of the Moon,

if in

one

situation a

change

took place from dry to wet, in the other would

be a change of wet

to

dry.

This would b©

so manifest a thing from the circumstance continually occurring, that
it

could not

fail to

have

struck the observers of the weather
parts of the

in

different

same

parallel.

Now
:

such changes

have never been observed, nor can they ever be
observed, and for this plain reason

If there

was any truth
the diaries,

in

the weather being
this

affected

by the changes of the Moon,
in

would
it.

be seen

which are kept of
in

These are numerous, not only
but upon the continent.
I

our

own

island,
it

have not thoupht
I

worth while

to

examine any of them, but

knew

a veiy respectable clergyman,

who kept

a diary

118

SEPTEMBER,

1817.

of this kind for thirty-five years, and he upon

examination could not find the

least

connection

whatever between the

Moon and

the weather.

Indeed how could there be any, or how can any
one continue
to affirm decisively

upon
is

this point,

when

all

are so ignorant of

what

much more

important, namely the continued circulation of
the air round the globe, and
the ever varying
air-

changes produced by layers of hot
over those of cold
air,

passing

and vice versa

?

It is difficult

however

to beat a prejudice out

of some persons' minds.
said,

They have heard

it

that

the

weather takes a turn with the

change of the Moon.
have noticed
themselves..
this

They may

accidentally

circumstance once or twice
are thus confirmed in the vul-

They

gar errour, not considering the number of times
in

which
into

their

supposed rule

fails.

It

never en-

ters

the

mind of

these

persons, that the

change

in the

Moon

takes place at a precise
if

hour and minute; and sometimes,

they allow

the change of weather to be influenced

by the

Moon
in the

about the change, they

may

allow nearly

three days for the operation of this cause.

Now

changes of weather, that naturally take

place,

some must

fall

within these three days,

SEPTEMBER,
and the

1817.

119

Moon may
is

be freed from praise or blame

whatever

the result.

As

the diaries convince us, that all these sur-

mises, respecting the

Moon's influence on the
I

weather, are fallacious, so
lieve the

am

inclined to beto

same

will

be discovered

be the case
tides.

on

its

pretended influence on the

Tide

tables
side
:

may be made
but
let

for every place

on the sea

the height of the tides only be takea
in
fifty

for

one year,

different

places,

which

I

could easily point out, and the
incidences with the height

number of
table

co-

by

and the

height by experience be compared with the

num-

ber of

failures,

and then

I

apprehend, that the

whole doctrine of the influence of the Moon, on
the tides will share the same fate with that of
its

pretended influence on the weather.

This work

may

fall

into

the hands of

some persons, who
trial
:

have the opportunitj^ of making the
one year's observation only,
at the

and

Cape of Good
set-

Hope,

St.

Helena, Sierra Leone, Madeira, and

Bermuda, would go a great way towards the
tling of this question.

We
the

will

now

attend to
is

the Moon's progress in

heavens, which

brought to a better calculation.

120

SEPTEMBER^
in

1817.
in

The Moon

passes the ecliptick

her ascend-

Rode on the 2d, about four

ihe morning, in

the fifteenth degree of the second sign, and her

northern latitude increases to the 9sh,
at noon
five

when
It

it is

degrees three minutes and a half, in
fifth sign.

the twenty-third degree of the
decreases to the 15th,

then

when

she passes the eclip-

tick in her descending node, about half an hour

before

noon,

in

the twentieth degree of
latitude

the

eighth sign.
to the 21st,

Her southern

now

increases

when

it is

at tnidnight

nearly five de-

grees seven minutes, in the nineteenth degree of
the eleventh sign
;

and

it

decreases to the 29th,

when

she passes tke ecliptick in her ascending
little

node a

before half past seven in the morn-

ing, in the twenty-fourth degree of the second
sign,

and her

latitude at

midnight on the 30th

is

nearly one degree forty-seven minutes,
ninth degree of the third sign.

in the

On

the

1st,

the

Moon

rises

in the

evening

about nine, nearly with the Pleiades, the three
first stars

of the

Ram

being above her, at some

distance to the west.
shall perceive, that she

About an hour
is

after

we

directing her course to

Mars.

On

the 2d, she rises almost directly un-

SEPTEMBER,
der the Pleiades, and
to the east of her,
is

1817.

12!l

soon followed by Mars

who

with Aldebaran and the

Hyades

will

be her companion for the night.
is
is

On
her

the 3d, she
risinof,

followed

by Mars soon

after

who

now

near to her but to the

west.

On
is

the 4th, she rises under the second of

the Bull, or tip of his northern horn5th, she
fifth

On

the

followed soon after her rising by the

of the Twins, above which star she will be

seen to pass on the morning of the 6th, directing

her course between Venus and the two

first

stars

of this constellation.

On
cond,

the 7th, she rises in the
first

morning under
and
will
is

the two

of the Twins, and near to the seSun-rise,

which she passes before

these two stars above and

Venus below her

form

a

pleasing

sight.

On

the

8th,

she
the

followed at her rising

by Venus and

two

small stars and nebula of the Crab, and above

which
11th
is

slie

passes before Sun-rise;
at

and on the
minutes past

new Moon

forty-three

six in the

morning, but from her great latitude

without an eclipse.

On

the 14th, the crescent of the

Moon

is

no-

ticed at Sun-set to the west of south-west, being

G

122

SEPTEMBER,

1817.

between the tenth and eleventh of the Virgin
and
star,
first

of the Balance, but near to the
it

latter

as she passes

soon after midnight.

She

is

directing her course under Jupiter, at some dis-

tance to the east of her.

On

the 15th, she

is

per-

ceived to have travelled rapidly from the
the Balance, being
this star

first

of

now about

midvt'ay

between

and the second of the Scorpion and Julatter

piter,

evidently to pass the

before her
is

next appearance.

On

the

16th, she

seen at

some distance

to the east

of the second of the

Scorpion and Jupiter, and below her will be noticed Antares.

On

the 17th, the

Moon

is

on the meridian at
noon,

forty-three

minutes past

five afier

being

near to the eighth of the Serpent-bearer, having
Jupiter and Antares at some distance to the west
of her.

On

the 18ih,

she

is

on the meridian at

forty-three minutes past six, being near to

and

almost dirc( tly under the eleventh of the Archer,
the small stars in his head being to the east of
her.

On

the 19th,

she

is

on the meridian at

forty-three minutes past <«even, having above her
to the east the two
hrst stars of the Goat,

and

nearer to her to the west the small stars in the

head of the Archer.

On

the 20th, she

is

on the

SEPTEMBER,
two
first stars in

1817.

125

meridian at thirty-nine minutes past eight, the
the head of the Goat being above
at a

her to the west, and Saturn
tance from
her to the east.

considerable disis

She

directing her
1st,

course under this planet.

On

the 2

she

is

on

the meridian at thirty-two minutes past nine, the small stars in the
tail

of the Goat being above
the
east,

and near

to

her

to

Saturn

above

her also to the east at some distance.

On

the

^2d, she

is

on the meridian

at

twenty-one midirectly

nutes past ten, Saturn beingj

now almost
it,

above her, but rather to the west of

and contri-

siderably above her are the four small stars in

angle in the urn of the Water-bearer.
she
is

On

the 23d,

on the meridian at six minutes past eleven,

Saturn being

now

at

some distance from her

to

the west, and the four stars in square above her
at a considerable distance, the

two western being

near to the meridian on the west.
she
is

On

the 24th,

on the meridian

at forty-nine

minutes past

eleven, the four stars in square being above her,

the two eastern near to the meridian on the east.

On

the 25th

is

full

Moon
is

at

forty-seven mi-

nutes past nine in the morning, but without an
eclipse, as her latitude

nearly three degrees.
east,

She

rises in the

evening

in the

under the

G2

124

SEPTEMBER,
On

181?.

four stars in square, and pursues her course slowly
in a barren region.

the 27th, she rises un-

der the three

first

stars

of the

Ram, and

is

seen

to direct her course to

Mars

at a

considerable dis-

tance from her.

On

the 28th, she rises

under

them now

to the

west of her, and nearly at the

same time with the Pleiades.
rises

On

the 29lh, she
;

under and near
is

to the Pleiades

and on the

30th she

seen to the east of the line between

these stars and

Aldebaran, her access to Mars

in this line being very slow.
last

Her motion

for the
its

six

days has been considerably below

average, which,

combining with her

position,,

renders the interval betvi^een her risings
shorter than at other seasons of the year.

much

Mercury
27th.

is

an evening

star,

at his greatest

elongation on the 14th,

and stationary on the
1st
is

His latitude en the
in
it

forty-seven

minutes, south,

the third degree of the seincreases to the 28th,

venth sign; and
it is

when
in the

three degrees

forty-two

minutes,

twenty-sixth degree of the seventh sign.

His

unfavourable position and southern latitude pre-

vent him from being discovered by
servers, as he
is

many

ob-

not five degrees above the ho-

rizon at Sun-set on the day of greatest elongation.

SEPTEMBER,
He
star

ISl?.

125
tl

passes the

first

of the Virgjin on the 18th,

e

being sixty-one minutes north of him.
passes

The

Moon

him on

the 13th.

Venus
ist
is

is

a

morning

star.

Her

latitude on the
in
it

one degree twenty -one minutes south,

the twenty-sixth degree of the fourth sign; and

decreases to the 21st,

when

she passes the eclip-

tick in her ascending node, in the nineteenth de-

gree of the

fifth

sign; and her northern latitude

now
of

increases to half a degree, in the last degree
sign
:

this

thus her motion

is

direct

through
about

about thirty- four degrees. She

rises at first

half past one in the morning, ar.d every <v.orning
later,

being

first

seen under the two

first stars

of

the Twins, soon to pass the line drawn throMgh

them and produced.

She then travels

m

a bar-

ren space, passing under the two small stars and

nebula of the Crab on the 9th, directing her
course to the
first

of the Lion, above and near to

which she passes on the 29th.
her on the 7 th.

The Moon

passes

Mars
26th.

is

on the meridian at three quarters past

five in the

morning of the
is

1st,

and at

five

on the

His latitude
the

one degree eleven minutes

sou'h, in

eighth degree of the third sign;

and

it

decreases to nearly half a degree, in the

126

SEPTEMBER,
being
direct

181?.
his

twenty-first degree of
tion

the third sigo,

mo-

throiph

about thirteen deseen above and

grees and a quairer.

He

is first

near to Aldebaran, directing his course between
the

horns of the Eull^ and finishing

it

between

ihe two stars at their tips, but not arriving at
the line between them, the second

of the Bull
tip

being above

hin),

and the sixth or
to

of

the

southern horn

below and nearer
3d.

him.

The

Moon

passes

him on the

Jupiter
the
1st

is

an evening

star,

on the meridian

on.

attvvenly-one minutes past five after noon,
earlier.

and every succeeding evening
titude

His la-

on the

1st

is

thirty- three

minutes north,
;

in the third

degree of the

Jiinth sign

and

it

de-

creases to nearly twenty-eight minutes, in the

seventh degree of

this sign,

his

motion being di-

rect through nearly four degrees.
first

He

is

seen at

near the second of the Scorpion, from which
to

he slowly recedes

the twenty-fourth of this

constellation, very near to which, but to the west

of

it,

he finishes his course. This |)lanet with An-

tares

under him

will

form a pleasing sight
passes

in

our

evening walks.
16th.

The Moon

him on the

Saturn

is

on the meridian

at

thirty-seven mi-

SEPTEMBER,
on the 26th.

1817.
1st,

12?
and
at ten

nutes past eleven at night on the

His latitude on the

1st is

one dedegree

gree forty-nine minutes south,

in the third

of the twelfth sign

;

and

it

remains nearly the

same the whole month,

his

motion being

retrofirst

grade through nearly two degrees.

When

on the meridian, the four

stars in triangle

of the

urn of the Water-bearer are directly above him,

and

at the last the

eisfhth

of this constellation

nearly.

The Moon
is

passes

him on the 22d.

Herschel

on the meridian at fifty-nine mi1st,

nutes past five in the afternoon of the
three quarters past four on
titude at
first is

and His

at
la-

the 22d.

two minutes south,
it

in the twelfth

degree of the ninth sign, and
the

remains nearly
di-

same the whole month,

his

motion being

rect through nearly forty minutes.

The twenty-

fourth of the Scorpion

is

nearly midwaj' between

him and

the second,

and a line drawn through
to

this latter star

and Jupiter passes near

him

at

the end of the month. the 17 th.

The Moon

passes

him on

The

Sun's apparent diameter on the

4th

is

thirty-one minutes forty-seven seconds, and on
the 25th thirty-one minutes fifty-nine seconds.

128

SEPTEMBER,

1817.
the 1st
is it

The Moon's apparent diameter on
increases to
tlie

twenty-nine minutes thirty-four seconds, and
13th,
',

when
and

it is
it

thirty-two mi-

nutes fifiy-two seconds
29th,

decreases to the
half.

when

it

is

twenty-nine minutes and a

The Sun

enters the seventh sign at twenty-eight
in the

minutes past ten

morning of the 23d.

For the appearances of the

fixed stars, at

any

hour of the night, consult the volume for 1806,
according to the following table
:

TABLE OF POSITIONS.
Pos.
h.
1

8

16

m. 46
51

h.

m.
21

h.

m.

h.

24 m.

VII. VIII.

6
8

6
8

5
7

52
57
7
9

IX.

10

54
49

10

26 29

23
31

10
11

X.
XT.
XII.
I.

24
2 4
6

55

11

26
27 33 23

2

4
6

50 50 46

25
31 21

1

56
2

1

4
5

52

3 5

ri9

OCTOBER,

1817.

THE Moon
with
it

is

the nearest to us of the hea-

venly bodies, and from our slight acquaintance

we may judge

of the difficulty of forming

an accurate idea of those that are more remote.

Attempts have been made
equalities

to

delineate the

in-

on

its

surface, and

names have been

given to places, which struck the eye of the observer

by some remarkable appearances.

To
it

reason from analogy
is

we should suppose,
that there

that

diversified

by

hills

and dales, and plains;

-and

some have thought,
with
us.

may be

seas,

as

But

it

does not follow, that because

we have water
same kind on
matter are

there should be a substance of he

the

Moon.
all

It is evident, that

it

is

an opaque body, but

the various forms of

unknown to us. Future experience may delect new substances within cur globe,
and yet
in

the

Moon

every thiug
oilier

may wear

a

different appearance,

and the

heavenly boIt is

dies

may

equally differ

from each other.

130

ocTor3E0, 1817.
may
in

not granted to us, and probably never

our present state of existence, to be acquainted

with the structure of either our

own

or the other

globes, that revolve around the Sun.

Enough

is

manifest to us to give us the persuasion, that

wherever creative power has beeu exerted every
thing
is

to be found suitable to the wise and be-

nevolent purposes of the Greater.

I

have given,

at the

end of each month, the

apparent diameter of the

Moon

for certain days,

from which
vening days

its

apparent diameter on the interpretty nearly ascertained.

may be

This cannot be done accurately, as the apparent"
diameter does not increase or decrease uniformly
:

but

it

increases

with an

increasing
till it is

increment

from

its

lowest magnitude
its

about a mean

between
then
it
it

greatest and least

magnitude, and
till

increases with a decreasing increment
to
its

comes

greatest magnitude.

It
till

then deit

creases with an increasing decrement

comes

to about a

mean between the
comes
to

greatest and least

magnitude, and then decreases with a decreasing

decrement

till

it

its

least

magnitude,

and so on continually.

The

nature of these increments and decrement*

OCTOBER,
will

I8I7.
what iiappens
in

131
in the

be seen by attending

to

course of this year.

Thus,

January,

its

ap-

parent magnitude was greatest near midnight on
the 9lh, but
it

did not vary a second from the
to the

midnight of the 8th
Its

midnight of the 10th.
after

least

magnitude was
it

midnight of the

23d, but

did not vary a second
till

from midday
In Febru5th, but
it

of the 23d

midnight of the 24th.

ary

its

gieatest magnitude

was on the

did not vary a second from midnight of the 4lh
to

midday of the

3th.

Its least

magnitude was
it

about, midnight of the 20th, but

did not vary

a second from midday of the 20th to midnight of
the 21st.

In

March

its

greatest magnitude did
till

not vary a second from midnight of the 4th

midday of the

5th, and

its

least

magnitude did
magnitude was
but
it

not vary a second from midnight of the 19th to

midday of
greatest

the 21st.

In April

its

about

noon of the 2d,

varied

nearly a second in the twelve hours precedinaj

and following that time.

Its

least

magnitude

was on the
In June

16th, but

it

did not vary a second
to

from midnight of the 15th
its

midday of the

17th.

magnitude did not vary a second during the whole of the 10th, and it was nearly

the same at midnight of the 25th and midday of the 26th.

132
This
which;,
is

OCTOBER,
the case with
all

1817.
varvincf magnitudes,

when they
or

arrive at that

what
is

is

called their

maximum
least

minimum,
vary

their greatest
little

and

magnitudes,

but

about

these

points.

In arriving at either of them they pass

through certain magnitudes, and having arrived
at the point of

maximum

or

minimum they

must,

on decreasmg from the one or increasing from
the other, have exactly the

same magnitudes

as

they had previously to their arriving at these
points.

This

may

be made familiar

to

any one, wdio

has a celestial globe; and he will see thence the

meaning of the term solstices. winter the Sun arrives at two

In

summer and
for

points called the

summer and winter
the height of the

solstices,
at

and
is

some days

Sun

noon

nearly the same.
this

Indeed,

it

does not vary a minute

year,

during the 20th, 21st, 22d, and 23d of June, nor

on the 20th,

21st, 22d, and

23d of December.

You may

try this

by taking the declination of the

Sun on these days from the wooden horizon of
the globe, and then finding
in
its

altitude at noon,

which you

will not

be able probably to detect

a sensible
greatest

variation.

The Sun

arrives

at

his

declinaiion

on the 21st of June, and

OCTOBER,
22d of December
these days will for
;

1817.

133
side of

its

variation on eaeh

some time be small.

I

have suggested the propriety of attending

to

this circumstance in varying magnitudes, in

my
life.

Principles of Taxation, where

it is

shew^n to be

of consequence

in

the

common

concerns of

A government

lays on a tax

upon certain
for

articles,

which produces a certain sum

some years.
the tax,

Encouraged by
and
finds, as
it

this gain

it

increases

supposes, a corresponding increase
It

in its

receipts.

goes on increasing the tax,
its

without attending to the nature of

increments,

but
for

it
if,

may

be

to

the decrease of
tax,
it

its

revenue

;

in increasing the
it

has passed the

maximum, which
consequence
I believe
is
is

can produce, the necessary
its

a diminution in

receipts.

This

no

uncommon

case,
is

though to the
held out

intelligent a sufficient

warning

by the

nature of the increment of revenue, on each in-

crement of taxation

:

but

this

is

not to be ex-

pected, unless the finances are kept in a
better

much
In
use
so
is

manner than they are
and

in

most nations.

despotical countries the rulers seldom

make
is

of iheir reason

;

in

many
It

others,

what

important
least of all

a

part of the business of the nation

attended

to.

is

not considered.

134

OCTOBER,
to

1817.

however, that to burden the subject without a
corresponding benefit
the

government

is

one

of the greatest absurdities: but how few are the

governments that
this kind,

will

listen

to

a suggestion of
to in-

and diminish the taxes in order

crease the revenue.

But we

v^rill

leave the affairs

of this Earth, and attend to the motions of the

heavenly bodies during

this

month.

The Moon's
is

latitude north

on the

1st at

noon

two degrees sixteen minutes and a
degree of the third sign; being at noon

half,

in the
it

fifteenth

and
five

in-

creases to the 6th,

degrees

twelve minutes, in the eighteenth degree of the
fifth sign.
It

now

decreases to

the 12th,

when

she passes the ecli4)tick in her descending node,
a
little

past six in the evening-, rn the nineteenth
sign.

degree of the eighth
then increases

Her southern

latitude

to ihe 18th,

being at midnight five

degrees fourteen minutes and three quarters, in
the sixteenth degree of the eleventh sign
it
;

and

thence decreases to the 26ih, when she passes

the ecliplick in her ascending node, about forty

minutes after noon, in the eighteenth degree of
the second sign.

Her southern
of the

latitude increases

afterwards to the end

month,

closing

with a magnitude of four degrees forty-nine mi-

OCTOBER,
sign.

1817.

135
fourth

mites, in the twenty-fourth degree of the

The Moon

rises in

the

evening of the

1st

about half past eight, under the second of the
Bull, or tip of the northern horn,

and

is

soon

followed
planet
passes
is

by Mars, and

her passage above the
:

the chief feature of her course
after

she
the

him very soon

midnight.
to the

On

2d, she rises under

Mars now

west of her,

and

is

soon followed by the seventh and twelfth

of the Twins,

above which she passes before
fifth

midnight, directing her course above the
the Twins.
fifth

of

On

the 3d, she rises between the
first

of the

Twins and the two
under the two

of this con-

stellation,

but nearest to the former
first

star.

On

the

4th, she rises

stars of the

Twins

now

to the
is

west of her, and during the morning of

the 5th

seen to be directing her course above th«
stars

two small

and included nebula of the Crab,

On
with

the 6th, the

Moon

rises

in the

morning

the small stars in the

head of the Lion, but

does not reach them before Sun-rise.
7th, she rises near to the

On

the

seventh of the Lion,

and passes between the
stellation

first

and

third of this conat

about Sun-rise; Tenus

u

farther dig-

136

OCTOBER,

J817.

tance under her will be noticed.
she rises nearly with
her.

On
to

the 8tb,

Venus now

the west of
stars

On

the 9Lh, she rises with the small
of the Virgin,

in
line

the head

having passed the
se-

between the second of the Lion and the

cond of the Virgin, Venus being now above her
at

some distance

to the

west; and on the 10th
past four
in

is

new Moon,

at a quarter

the after-

noon, but from her latitude without an eclipse.

On
in the

the 12th, the crescent of the

Moon

is

seen

evening near the horizon, in south-westat

by-west, at Sun-set, and
the
first

some distance from
it

of the Balance

;

she passed

only about

ten this morning, but her motion

is

now very

rapid

:

she

is

directing her course under Jupiter.
is

On

the 13th, she

seen between the second of

the Scorpion and

Antares, Jupiter being above
till

her, but she does not pass the planet

after

Moon-set.

On

the 14th,

Jupiter and Antares

are seen to the w-est of her.
is

On

the 15th, she

under and near

to the twelfth

and eleventh of

the Archer, but she does not pass under the latter star
till

after Moon-set.

On
three

the 16th, the

Moon

is

on the meridian

at

quarters past five after

noon, below the

OCTOBER,
small stars in the

1817.

137

head of the Archer to the
the 17th, she
is

west of

it.

On

on the me-

ridian at forty-three minutes past six, being di-

rectly under the two
is

first stars

of the Goat.

She

directing her course under Saturn, at a consi-

derable distance from her.

On

the 18th, she

is

on the meridian

at thirty-seven

minutes
tail

past* se-

ven, having the small stars in the
alcove her to

of the Goat
vvill

the east, and

it is

evident she

not have passed Saturn before her next appearance.

On

the 19th, she

is

on the meridian
Saturn

at

twenty-six

minutes past eight,
to the

being
east,

above her and near

meridian to the
till

but she does not pass him

after

Moon-set.
at

On

the 20th, she

is

on the meridian

twelve

minutes past nine, being almost directly under
the two western of the four stars in square
turn
is
;

Sa-

now

at

some distance from her
is

to the west.
at fifiy-five

On

the 21st, she

on the meridian
being

minutes past nine,

now
in

in

the

barren

space under the four stars

square, the two

eastern being the nearest to the meridian to the
east.

On

the 22d, she

is

on the meridian
the
four
stars

at in

thirty. six

minutes

past

ten,

square being above
to
it

her, tlie

two eastern near
is

to the west.

On

the 23d, she

on the me-

ridian at

seventeen minutes past eleven, being

138

OCTOBER,
is

1817.
Fishes,

almost directly under the sixth of the

On

the 24th, she

on the meridian

at fifty^seven

minutes past eleven,
three
first

being directly under the

stars of the

Ram.
Moon,
at fifty-five

On

the 25th

is full

minutes

past two in the morning, but without an eclipse,
as her latitude
is

then about a degree and a half.
rises

In the eveninir, she
stars of the

under the three
;

first

Ram

to the

west of her

and on the

26th she

rises

nearly

with the Pleiades, and
is

under them on the 27th, but she
passed

seen
her

to

have

them,
at

and

to

be directing

course

above Mars and

some distance from

her.

On

the

28ih, she rises nearly with the second of the Bull,
is

seen afterwards to be directing her course
that star and Mars.

between
is

On

the

29th, she

followed soon after her rising by Mars,
is

whom

she

observed to have passed, and during the

night her recess ftQai him and passage by the

seventh and
chief feature
rises

twelf;h

of* the Tv\ins will

be the

of her course
fifth

On

the 30th, she

with and between the
first

of the Twins and

the two

of this constel!a!ion, but near to the
rises

former star; and on the 31st she

under the

two

first

of the Twins, and near to the second of

them.

OCTOBER,
Mercury
elonfjjation
is

1817.

159

in his inferior

conjunction on the

10th, stationary on the ISth,

and

at his greatest

on the 25th, consequently for the

greater pait of the

month he
1st
is

is

a

morning

star.

His latitude en the

three degrees

thirty-

four minutes south, in the twenty-fifth degree of

the seventh sign

;

and

it

decreases to the lOth,

when he

passes the eciiptick in his

ascending

node, in the eleventh degree of the seventh sign.

His northern
the

latitude

now

increases to the end of
last

month, being on the

day two degrees

seven minuies, in the twenty-first degree of the

seventh sign.

He

is

in

a very favourable posi-

tion at the time of greatest ek)ngation,

and

in-

deed for a week before

it

many

will detect him.
is

On
rise,

the

day of greatest elongation, he

very

nearl}^

two hours above the horizon before Sunis

and an hour before Sun-rise he

above six

deorees above the horizon.

We

shall then find

him under the
and nearest

five stars in triangle of the Virgin,

to the third.

From

this star

he was

about three degrees distant on the 18rh, and
has slowly recede! from
the
first
it,

he

but he has not passed

of the Virgin at the end of the month,

when

he will be above an hour and a half above

the horizon before Sun-rise.

The Moon

passes

him on the

10th.

140
Venus
is

OCTOBER,
a

1817.
Her
latitude on the
first

morning

star.

1st is thirty-six

minutes north, in the

degree

of the sixth sign;

and

it

increases to

somewhat

more than a degree and

a half, in the seventh

degree of the seventh sign, her motion being direct through nearly thirty-six degrees

and

a half.

She

is

seen at
first

first

under and a!;out three degrees

from the

of the Lion, and she directs her

course to the seventh of the Virgin, passing un-

der the twenty-second of the Lion on the

1

llh,

above the second of the Virgin on the 22d, and

above the seventh of

this

constellation

on the

28th, finishing her course within about a degree

of the third to the east of her.

The Moon

passes

her on the 7th.

Mars

is

on the meridian

at three quarters past
at

four in the
the IQih.
south,
in

morning on the 3d, and
His latitude on the

four

on

1st is half a

degree

the twenty-first degree of the third
it

sign;

and

decreases to the 16th,

when he
His

passes the ecliptick in his ascending node, in the

twenty-fifih

degree

of

the

third

sign.

northern latitude then increases to

the end of the
in

month
he

to

nearly

forty

minutes north,

the
first

twenty-sixth degree of the third sign.
is

At

seen between the two stars the second and

OCTOBER,

1817.

141

the sixth of the Bull, or the tips or his horns,

being nearest to the sixth, or tip of his southern
horn, which he passes on the 4th, directing his

course with a slow motion towards the seventh

and twelfth of the Twins, but he stops about
half
his

way between them and

the sixth of the Bul!»
five

motion being direct through about

de-

grees and a quarter.
the 2d.

The Moon

passes

him on

Jupiter
the 1st
is

is

an evening

star.

His latitude on

twenty-eight minutes north, in the se;

venth degree of the ninth sign
to nearly twenty-four minutes,

and
in

it

decreases

the thirteenth

degree of the ninth sign,
through about
five

his

motion being direct

degrees and three quarters.
is

When

first

seen Ar.tares
his

almost directly unis

der him,

and

course

stopt just at

the

western border of the western branch

of the

Milky-way,

at the

distance of about a degree

and a half from Herschel.

The

?»'Ioon

passes

him on

the 14th.

Saturn

is

on the

oieridian^iit forty1st,'

one minutes
eight on the

past nine at night on the

and

a?

27 ih. Hiy latitude on' the
nine minutes south,

1st is

one degree fortydegree of the

in the

first

142
twelfth sign
;

OCTOBER,
and
it is

1817.

decreased to about one dethirtieth

gree

and three quarters, in the

degree

of the eleventh sign, his motion being retrograde

through about

fifty

minutes.

He

is

thus seen,

when on

the meridian,

ahnost directly under the

eighth and seventeenth of the Water-bearer, the
eighteenth being below and near to him to the
east.

The Moon
is

passes

him on the 20th.
place on the

Herschel
1st

an evening

star,

his

benig

in the thirteenth

degree of the ninth
south,

sign, with a latitude of

two minutes

which

remains apparently the same the whole month,
his

motion being direct through about a degree

and a quarter.

He

is

thus

advancing in the

western branch of the Milky-way, and the observer,

that notes Jupiter's
it,

path

by drawing
passes

a line through
schel in the

cannot

fail

of discovering Her-

Milky-way.

The Moon

him

on the 14th.

The Sun's apparent diameter on
thirty-two minutes twelve seconds.

the 4th

is

thirty-two minutes three seconds, and on the 18th

The Moon's
is

apparent diameter on the 2d at midnight
a degree
is
;

half
it

and

it

increases to the

1

1th,

when

thirty-three minutes

eighteen

seconds.

It

OCTOBER,
then decreases to the 27th,
nine minutes
afterwards
till

1817.
when
at
it

143
is

twenty-

twenty-eight seconds, increasing
it

becomes,

the end

of the

month
conds.

at

midnight, thirty minutes sixteen seenters the

The Sun

eighth sign on the

23d, at thirty-four minutes past six in the after-

noon.

For the appearances of the fixed

stars consult

the volume for 1806, according to the following
table
:

TABLE OF POSITIONS.
Fos.
h.
1

S

Id

25
h.

m.
3

h.

m.
38 41 36
37

h.

m.
8 11

m. 34
37

VilL
JX.

7
9
11

6
8

6
8

5

6
1

7
9

X.

10

10

6
7

32
33 39 29 32
i

XL
XII.
I.

1

2
8

n
1

8

4

58

2 4

4'i

2

13
3

33

4
6

3
5
'

II.

6

144

NOVEMBER,
THERE
in

1817.

is

an

appearance

in

the

Moon,

which vulgarly goes under the name of the
the

Man

Moon, from
It is difficult

a fancied

resemblance of

something
face.

in its surface to the

form of a

human
any
at-

however
;

to trace cut at

time this resemblance

and they,

who have

tended to the circumstance, will have observed,
that th«

Moon's surface presents

to us a continu-

ally varying form.
to those,

This will not be surprising
considered what has been ad-

who have
in
for the

vanced

the observalions

on the preceding
successive nights,

men h;
is

Moon, on two

generally seen un.ier different circumstances,
to delineate its
difficul-

and they, who have attempted

surface, find thence very considerable
ties.

It

has been noticed, that the apparent diameof the

ter

Moon

is

continually varying, but at

NOVEMBER,
certain times this variation
for the space
tible
is

1817.

145

very small, being

of a w^hole night scarcely percep-

by
it

the nicest instruments.

time

should happen to

Now, if at this be full Moon, the de-

lineater will

have a good opportunity, supposing

the night to be clear, to take the figure of the

Moon
leaves

under that apparent diameter

:

but, if

he

any thing undone, and wishes

to correct

or improve his plan

by

a subsequent observation,

the opportunity
time.

may

not occur for a considerable

It

would naturally be the wish of the

artist to

take his object at the greatest advantage, namely

when

the full

Moon

has the greatest diameter;
full
its

but during

this

whole year the

Moon

does

not take place any night

when

apparent dithere
If,

ameter
will

is

a

maximum, and consequently
to the first full

be a variation during the operation.

for

example, we look

Moon, which
about noon
is
:

takes place on the 3d of January
at that

UmQ

its

apparent diameter
at

thirty-one
it is

minutes sixteen seconds,

midnight

thirty-

one minutes twenty-eight seconds, and
the next

at noon of day thirty-one minutes thirty-four se-

conds:
is

consequently,
its

during the night, there

a variation in

diameter of about twelve mi-

H

145
nutes.

NOVEMBER,
;

181?.

This might be thought of no great conbut,
if

sequence

any thing

is left

undone, as

it

probably would, and the next night was em-

ployed

to the

same purpose, there would be a
in its ap-

difFerence of

upwards of half a minute

pearance on the two nights, and the whole year

would not

afford another opportunity of

making

a plate of the

Moon

under similar circumstances.

In

this case, the
to its

Moon's^ apparent diameter was

approaching
that a

maximum, and we may
first full

expect,

person designing to delineate the

Moon

would not take the

Moon, but
for

consider

what be the most advantageous
the year.

him during

In this year the months of April and

May
full

are best suited to his purpose, for at the
in

Moon

April the apparent diameter
its

is

apis

proaching

to

maximum,
first

so

that

there

scarcely a variation of more than two seconds in
its

appearance on the
at

and second nights,
is

and

each midnight the apparent diameter

so

nearly the same, that a difFerence cannot be detected

by
in

the finest instrument

At

the

first full

Moon
its

May

the apparent diameter has passed
at

maximum, but

night she will appear under
at niid-

very nearly the same diameter as she did
yight on the 1st and 2d of April; that
is

thirty-

NOVEMBER,
lineation
it
is

1817.

14?
If the de-

three minutes twenty-eight seconds.

made under
be easy
for,
if

this

apparent magnitude,
it

will not

to correct

by subsequent
at the

obserrations;

the

full

Moon

end of

May might
Moon

be thought suited to the purpose, cernot be the case
it.

tainly that would

by any

full

that followed

Hence,
it is

in all

globes and
it

maps of

necessary, that

should be
the
to

the Moon, known under

what apparent diameter

delineation

was

made
ance

;

and he,
the

who expects
at

see an appear-

in

Moon

similar to that in his plate,
his disappointment, if

must not be surprised
he views the
different

Moon
for

under circumstances very

from those under which the delineation
If,

was made.

example, the plate was taken

when

the apparent diameter of the
thirty-three minutes,

Moon was
it

upward of

how can

be

expected to be an exact representation of the

Moon when
the
at

her diameter

is

under thirty minutes?
in the surface of

W hatever are the inequalities
Moon, which give
it

a peculiar appearance
its

one time, these, when

orb

is

considerably

varied,

must from the nature of projection and

the reflection of the rays of the
alteration in
its

Sun produce an

appearance.

H

3

148

NOVEMBER,

1817.

The apparent

surface of the

Moon

would,

if

we were

acquainted with the real nature of the
it,

dark and light spots upon
idea of the

give us the same

Moon^s

real surface, as a

map

of one

hemisphere of the Earth does of the

real situation
in the

on the Earth of the places marked
In the
so
it is

map.
and

map every

thing almost

is

distorted,

in the apparent surface of the

Moon.

To
on

have an idea of the
the

real figure of a black spot

Moon, we must
which we may

take

its

outline correctly,
in
it

and the distances of several points
line,

from a

call

the Moon's equator.
called the
it

Thus we may obtain what may be
please.

longitude and latitude of every point in

Having done
flat surface to

all this

by

observation,

we we

can tranr/er our longitudes and latitudes of points

on the

corresponding longitudes

and

latitudes on a globe of

any dimensions we
the

please, and thus

we have a globe of

Moon.

But there is one tiff^r^nce between the globe thus made to represent the lunar surface and those

common use to represent the Earth. We know by our globe, what parts are earth, what
in

parts sea,

what are mountainous, and what are
all

plane
to us

;

but

that the lunar globe can represent

is

merely, that in such a longitude and
is

latitude the spot

dark, or in another

it is

light;

;

NOVEMBER,
whether
it is

1817.

149
we know

land or sea, high or low,

nothing, and the globe can be of use only to

give imperfect delineations of the dark and lu-

minous surfaces

in the orb of the

Moon.

But the observers of the
great advantages

present day have

over

the famed

philosopher

Endymion, who passed his cheerless nights on the summit of some lofty mountain to gain a
fancied advantage in a nearer approach to the
object

of his curiosity and

admiration.

With
dis-

what delight would he have anticipated the
coveries of our telescope,

which however,

in

bringing us so much nearer to the glorious orb of
night, has hitherto only tantalized

us with reexcit«s

spect to the grand points,

which most

human
tained

curiosity.

What may

be hereafter

at-

by

the noble aims of lord Stanhope to ex-

tend the power of the telescope time will discover

but

I

hope that

it

will

be

in

my
of

power

to con-

gratulate additions

my
to

readers next year on
the

some useful
heavens,

knowledge

the

through the labours of an English nobleman to

whom
tions!

science

is

already under so

many

obliga-

We

will

now examine

the appearance?

of the heavens in this month.

The Moon's

latitude north at

midnight on the

;

150

NOVEMBER,
five
fifth

1817.

^d

is

degrees seventeen minutCvS, in the ninesign
;

teenth degree of the
to the 9th,

and

it

decreases

when

she passes the ecliptick in her
five in

descending node, between four and

the

morning, in the seventeenth degree of the eighth
sign.

Her southern

latitude

now

increases to the

15th,

when it

is

at

noon

five degrees seventeen

mi-

nutes, in the nineteenth degree of the eleventh sign

thence decreasing to the 22d,

when

she passes

the ecliptick in her ascending node, about seven
at night, in the

eighieenth degree of the second
latitude

sign.

Her northern

now

increases to

the 29th, being at midnight five degrees fifteen

minutes,
sign.

in

the

sixteenth

degree of the

fifth

The Moon
a

rises at

night on the

1st

about

quarter
the

past

ten,

and

is

soon

followed
in

by

two
above

small

stars

and

nebula

the

Crab,
night.

which

she

passes

about

mid-

On

the 2d, she rises under and near to
;

the small stars in the head of the Lion

and

during the^morning of the 3d

is

seen to direct

her course to the seventh of this constellation,

which she does not reach
Sun-rise.

till

some time

after

On

the 4th, the

Moon

rises

in

the morning

NOVEMBER,
under the
first

1817.
and
is

151
seen

and

third of the Lion^

afterwards to direct her course to the saiall stars
in the

head of the Virgin, beyond which Venus

will be noticed.

On

the 5ih, she

rises

nearly

with the second of the Lion, but does not reach
the small stars in the head of the Virgin
Sun-rise.
stars in the
til!

after

On

the 6th, she rises under the small
is

head of the Virgin, and
:

soon

fol-

lowed by the seventh

she will be seen to direct

her course between the third and loarth, and
nearest to

the former

star,

to pass

Venus about

the time of her next appearance.
she rises under the five stars
in

On

the 7th,

triangle of the

Virgin and soon

after
is

Venus,

and

her

recess

from the planet
gress.

the chief feature of her prois

On

the 9th

past two

in the n)orning,

new Moon, when

at eight

minutes

there will be an
j

eclipse of the Sun, of course to us invisible
will take place

but

it

centrally on the

meridian,

at

four

minutes

past

two, in longitude one hun-

dred and forty-eight degrees forty-nine minutes
east,

and latitude eight degrees eight minutes

south.

On

the 10th, the crescent of the
a short

Moon

will

be seen for

time after Sun-set near the
in

horizon and under Jupiter,

the south-west.

152

NOVEMBER,
is

1817.

On

the nth, she

seen under the twelfth and
directing

eleventh of the Archer,

her

course
is

under the

latter star.

On

the 12th, she

seen

under the small

stars in the

head of the Archer,

being near

to

hut under the eighteenth, the star

in his shoulder.

On
at

the

1

3th,

the

Moon
past

is

on the meridial^
four in the afterfirst

thirty. four

minutes

noon, and will be soon seen under the two
stars of the

Goat

to the east of

her,

directing

her coarse under Saturn at a considerable distance to the east of her.

On

the 14th, she

is

on the meridian
the two

at thirty-one

minutes past

five,

first stars

of the Goat being

now above
its

her to the west, and the small stars in
to the east.

tail

On

the 15th,

she

is

on the mesix,

ridian

at

twenty-three
tail

minutes

past

the

small stars in the

of the Goat being near

to her to the west, and Saturn,

whom
is

she will

have passed before her next appearance, above
her to the
east.

On

the 16th, she

on the me-

ridian at ten minutes past seven, having belovr

and near

to her to the east the fourth of the

ter-bearer,

and above her
she
is

to the west Saturn.

WaOn

the 17

ih,

on

the meridian at fifty- four

minutes past seven, being directly under the four

NOVEMBER,
stars in square, the

181?.

153

two western

to the west the
:

two eastern
is

to the east of the

meridian

Saturn

now

at

some distance from her
is

to the west. at thirty-

On
five

the 18th, she

on the meridian

minutes past eight, being almost directly
stars in square,

under the two eastern of the four
having below and near

to her the tenth of the

Whale, the
is

star in

its tail.

On

the 19th, she

on the meridian at a quarter past nine, being
the barren

in

space

under that part of the
fifth

band of the Fishes occupied by the
sixth of this constellation.

and
is

On

the 20th, she

on the meridian at fifty-five minutes past nine,
having above
her the
it

three
east,
is

first

stars of the

Earn near

to

to

the

and

below and

near to her to the west
Fishes.

the fifteenth of the
is

On

the

21st,

she

on the meriten,

dian

at

thirty-five

minutes past
stars

having

below her the small

in

the
three

head of the
first

Whale, and above her the
the
is

stars

of

Ram

to the

west of
at

it.

On

the 22d,

she
past

on the meridian

eighteen

minutes

eleven^
east,

having above her the Pleiades to the
to
it

and below her Menkar nearer

to the

west.

Mars

is

at

a considerable distance from
is

her to the

east,

and she

directing her course

above him

H5

154

NOVEMBER,
the

1817.
at

On

23d

is

full

Moon,

fifty-six

mi-

nutes past nine at night, but from her too great
latitude

without an eclipse.
the
Pleiades,

In

the

evening
the

she rises under

and

passes

line between them and Aldebaran before mid-

night,
gress

making

a considerable tliough slow pro-

towards Mars before Sun-rise.

On
whom

the

24th, she rises nearly with the second
Bull, and
is

of the
she

^oon followed by Mars,

will about reach

by her next appearance.

On

the 25th, she rises under the second of the Bull,

or tip of the northern horn, with Mars,

whom

she has very lately passed, and her recess from

him

is

the chief feature in her course this night.
is

On
by

the 26th, she
the
fifth

followed soon after her rising

of the Twins, above which star she

passes before midnight.

On

the 27th, she rises

with the two
near
to the

first

stars

of the Twins,

passing

second about midnight, and the line
before Sunfirst

drawn through them and produced
rise.

On

the 28th, she rises under the two
is

of the Twins, and
small stars

soon followed

by

the two

and nebula of the Crab, above which

she passes before Sun-rise.
rises with the small
stars
in

On
the

the 29ih, she

head

of th^

Lion, passing the eleventh of this constellation,

the star in

its

mouth,

at

midnight.

On

th«

NOVEMBER,
SOth,

1817.

i55

she

rises

under and near to the seventh
soon

of the Lion, 'passing

between ihe third
star.

and the

first,

but nearest to the former

Mercury

is

a

morning
is

star

till

the last

day of

the month, when he
tion.

in his superior conjunc1st is

His latitude on the

two degrees

five

minutes north, in the twenty-third degree of the
seventh sign
;

and

it

decreases

to

the 22d, on

which day he passes the ecliptick

in his

descending

node, in the twenty-sixth degree of the eighth
sign.

His southern latitude increases to

fifty

minutes, in the eighth degree of the ninth sign,
his motion being direct

through about forty-six

degrees.

He

is

in

a very favourable position for
first

observation during the

week, as on the 7th

he

is

an hour and a quarter above the horizon be-

fore Sun- rise.

He

is

on the

1st

seen about three

quarters of an hour before Sun-rise in east-southeast, the first of the

Virgin being below him to

the south and near the horizon.

He

is

directing

his course to the ttnth and eleventh of this constellation,

being under the tenth, and nearly at
the tenth and eievenih, on
passes

equal distances from
the 7th.

The Moon
a

him on the

8th.

Venus

is

morning

star.

Her

latitude on the

156
1st
is

NOVEMBER,

ISly.
in
it

one degree forty minutes north,

the
in-

eighth degree of the seventh sign; and
creases to the 10th;

when

it is

one degree forty-

three minutes, in the nineteenth degree of this
jBign.

It

then decreases

till it

becomes, at the end
half,

of the month, nearly a degree and a

in the

fourteenth degree of the eighth sign, her motion

being direct through about thirty-seven degrees.

She

is first

seen near to but to the east of the

Ihird of the Virgin,
lier course

from which

star she directs

between the tenth and eleventh of this

constellation, passing the first

on the

12th,

and

being under the tenth on the 21st, and passing

above and near to the eleventh on the 23d
she passes near to the
first

;

and

of the Balance at the
to

end of the month, finishing her course near
it

to the east.

The Moon
about seven

passes her on the 7 th,

Mars
1st,
is

rises

in the

evening on the
earlier.

and every succeeding evening

He

on the meridian

at a quarter past three in the

morning of the 2d, and
morning of the 26th.
gree of the third sign

a quarter past one on the

His latitude on the

1st is

forty minutes north, in the twenty-seventh de;

and

it

increases to somein

what more than two degrees,

the nineteenth

degree of the third sign, his motion being re-

NOVEMBER,
trograde through
first

1817.

157
He
is

about seven degrees.

seen between the seventh and twelfth of the
the Bull, about

Twins and the horns of
above the

midway,
on

and he slowly moves towards the horns, passing
sixth, or tip of the southern horn,

the 24th, and finishing his course under the se-

cond of the Bull, or

tip

of the northern horn.

The Moon
Jupiter

passes

him on the 25 th.
star, setting

is

an evening
1st,

about half
earlier.

past six on the

and every evening
clear horizon

They, who have a

towards the
it

fiouth-west, will find the

advantage of

on the

9th, as he passes Herschel on that day, the latter

planet being somewhat more than twenty-four

minutes

to the south of

him.

For the

first

ten or

twelve days, he will therefore be a good guide
to Herschel, as far as the other circumstances

permit.

His latitude on the

1st

is

twenty-four

minutes north, in the thirteenth degree of the
ninth sign; and
it

decreases to nearly twenty

minutes north,
sign, his

in the

nineteenth degree of this

motion being direct through about six

degrees.

Thus he

traverses nearly the whole

breadth of the western branch of the Milky-

way, passing under the seventeenth of the Water-

158

NOVEMBER,

1817.
passes

bearer on the 25th.
the 10th.

The Moon

him on

Saturn

is

on the meridian

at forty-two
1st,

minutes
at half
1st is

past seven in the evening of the
past six on the 19th.

and

His latitude on the
in the

one degree forty-six minutes south,
tieth

thirit

degree of the eleventh sign;

and

didi-

minishes about six minutes, his motion being
rect through about forty minutes.

He will

there-

fore

be seen when on the meridian near the same
under the
eighth
of
the

spot

Water-bearer.

The Moon
Herschel
the 1st
is

passes him on the 16th.

is

an evening

star.

His latitude on
in
it

two minutes

south,

the

fourteenth

degree of the ninth sign, and

remains nearly

the same the whole month, his motion being direct through nearly a degree and three quarters,

Jupiter

is

our guide to him.

The Moon

passe*

him on the 10th.

The apparent diameter of
is

the Sun on the 1st

thirty-three minutes nineteen seconds, and

on

the 19th thirty-three minutes twenty-seven seconds.

The apparent diameter

of the

Moon on

NOVEMBER,
the 1st
it is

1817.

159
and

thirty minutes twenty-six seconds,
at
It

increases to the 8ih, being then
a
half.

midnight
decreases

thirty-three minutes and

then

to the

22d, being

at

midnight twenty-nine
it

minutes twenty-six seconds; and
increases to the
last

afterwards

end of the month, being on the
^

midnight thirty-one minutes.

The Sun en-

ters the ninth sign at fifty- four

minutes past two

in the afternoon

on the 22d.

For the appearances of the

fixed stars, at

any

hour of the night, consult the volume for 1806,
according to the following table
:

TABLE OF POSITIONS.
][

Pos.
h.

8

16

24
h.
ra.

m.
6
9

h.

m. 39 42
37

h.

m.
7

VIII.

IX.

X. XI.
XII.
I.

5 7 9
11

4
6
8

4
6
8

10
5

5

3d
31

4
5
11

7
9
11

10

38

10

6

32
38

1

44
2 4
6

12

3 5

1

34
37
2(5

2

2
5

1

28
31

II.

III.

6

4 53

4
5

54

3 5

20

60

DECEMBER,
irHSvi

1817.

IN
when
and

the
at

delineation
full,
it

of

the

Moon's

surface
that
its

has been observed,
at that
is
it

apparent diameter
this caution

time should be noted;
requisite

much more
are taken.

when

only segments of
of the

The

crescent

Moon

about two days old appears,

when

magnified only a few times, very

much
the

jagged,

and the shape of

its

inner line depends very
of

materially on the magnitude

apparent

diameter, and of the angle of elongation of the

Moon

from the Sun.

Suppose
it

this to

be ac-

curately drawn on one night,

will be a

very
For

considerable

length of time

before

an equal

crescent

in

every respect will be seen.
:

two things must concur

first,

the equality of

apparent diameters; and secondly, an equality in

As to the second circumstance, the phase of the Moon, though it might appear to
the phases.
the naked

eye

to

be the same,

yet the line

DECEMBER,
will

1817.

1^1

bounding the crescents, being accurately drawn,
vary very considerably
if

there

is

only a

few hours' difference in the age of the Moons,

This ought not to discourage
taking accurate delineations of the
its

persons

from

Moon, under

different phases, but

on the contrary should

excite
for,

them

to

continued attention to this object;
figures

by the comparison of the

drawn

at

various times, they
is

may

at last discover,

what

the

shape of those

objects,
;

which appear
after a
at las^

under such different forms
great

and thus,

number of

observations, they
at,

may

arrive at

what they aim

the giving of a good

representation of the

Moon on
The
in

a globe of

any

diameter they please.
art

perfection of their

would then be seen,

drawing from the

globe thus made a representation of the

Moon

under any of

its

phases.

There

is,

however, in

the execution of this plan,

much
the

care required,

owing

to
is
!

the

librations

of

Moon.

But

what

not

man

capable of doing by perse-

verance

I hinted, in

the observations on the last month,

at the fable of the antients respecting

Endymion,
from

which

I

am

inclined to believe took

its rise

162

DECEMBER,
on our Earth.

181?.

a circumstance familiar to the most antient nation

This nation was well ac-

quainted with the motions of the Sun and

Moon
it

long before the Greeks had emerged from their
barbarous
stale,

and

it

was customary with

to
to

have men stationed on the tops of mountains
give notice of the
first

appearance of the nevr

Moon.

This was proclaimed by sound of trum-

pets through the land,

and certain solemnities

were used on the occasion.

An

incident

is

upon record respecting these

appearances, which

may

serve to the

amuse and

at

the same time exercise
readers.

judgement of

my

serve the

One day the persons appointed to obnew Moon, brought word to an eminent

rabbi, that they had noticed a very extraordinary

appearance, namely, that of the waning crescent in
the morning before Sun-rise, and in the evening

of the same day they saw the crescent of the new

Moon

after Sun-set.

positions, and

the

The rabbi took their denew Moon was announced;
it

but a question arose, whether
as
it

was legally done,
the ob-

was

asserted, that the testimony of
false, for
it

servers

was evidently

was impossible,
in the

that the

two crescents could be seen

same

day.

DECEMBER,
The
ground
rabbi justified
;

181?.
this

163
proper

himself on

namely, that from his knowledge of the
the

situation of

Moon

he could answer for

its

having been seen

in the

evening, but with releft

spect to the appearance in the morning, he
that undecided, as
it

might be owing

to

some

appearance

in

the heavens

by which the ob-

servers had been deceived.

From
possible,

this arises

a question, whether

it

was
the
the

under

any circumstances,

that

waning crescent could have been seen by
tion, that the observers are

observers; and here you will take into considera-

supposed

to

be on

the top of a mountain in Palestine, and conse-

quently the

Moon
it

might be upon the horizon
to

to

them when

was under the horizon

the in-

habitants at the bottom.

Also, from the nature

of refraction, the
its

Moon would

be raised above

real place, so that, to give the observers the

greatest advantage,
this w^ere

we may suppose them,
have seen the

if

possible, to

Moon

just

on the borders of their horizon, the
depressed

Sun being

below her a certain number of deis.

grees; and the question

What

is
iii

the greatest

number

of degrees to be allowed

the

morning

for this distance, so that at the

evening the

Moon

164
shall

DECEMBER,
will

181?.
late

be visible near the horizon as

as

cir-

cumstances

admit after Sun-set?

We

are at liberty to suppose, that, on the day
the
it

of observation,

Moon's

latitude
;

is

at

its

maximum, and
it

must be north

and

if

we

take

about five degrees ten minutes,
it

pose, that
rise to

will continue the

we may supsame from Moonits
it

Moon-set.

Also, the motion in

orbit
will

may
of
its

be the greatest, and consequently

have moved about eight degrees between the times
rising

and

setting.

We

have therefore to
to

find

the

place of the

Moon,
at

give

it

the

greatest possible advantage in rising and setting,

and then enquire, whether,
from the Sun,
should be seen.
it

these distances

was possible that the

Moon

There

is

one thing to be observed,
is

that, if the

splendour ofthe Sun's rays
great at the

supposed to be too

Moon's

rising to permit in general
this

such an appearance, yet

splendour

much

diminished

by

circumstances.

may be There may
heavens

be a mass of clouds
vvhere the

in the quarter of the

Sun

is,

and uuder the horizon, which
its

may

take off in a very great degree

rays from

the point of the horizon where the

Moon

is.

DECEMBER,

1817.

165
to

and the reflected rays of the Sun

may come
But

the eyes of the observers, without being at all

impaired by the supposed vapours.

this I

leave to your consideration, wishing you only to

take your globe,

and examine for yourselves,

what must have been the season of the year, in

which the phoenomenon,
faithful,

if

the observers

were
them,

really took place.
see so

For

my own

part, I

think

I

much ground

for believing

that I should not deny the possibility of their
story
:

at the

same time, that

it

must be consi-

dered as a very extraordinary appearance.
will connect this with
last

You

what was observed on the

month of

last year, at

which time

I

was not

aware, or had forgotten the occurrence, that was
said to

have taken place near two thousand years

ago

in Palestine.

But

we

will

now

attend to the

appearances of the Moon, on which there can

be no contradiction.

The Moon's

latitude

on the
in

1st at

noon

is

five

degrees two minutes north,
the sixth sign, and
it

the

fifth

degree of

decreases to the 6tb, on

which day
ing node,

it

passes the ecliptick in her descend-

about four in the afternoon, in the

seventeenth degree of the eighth sign.
southern latitude then increases to the 12th,

Her

when

166
it
is

DECEMBER,
at

181?.

noon

five

degrees twelve minutes, in the
;

fifteenth degree of the eleventh sign

and

it

then

decreases to the 20th, passing the ecliptick in

her ascending node very soon after midnight of
the 19th, in the eighteenth degree of the second
sign.

Her northern

latitude
at

now

increases,

and

becomes on the 27th
and

noon

five degrees

seven
fifth

minutes, in the nineteenth degree of the
sign
;

it

then decreases to the end of the
last

month, being, on the

midnight, two degrees

twenty-three minutes, in the nineteenth degree
of the seventh sign.

The Moon

rises

on the

1st

under and near to
is

the eighth of the Lion, and

seen, during the
its

morning of the 2d,

to

direct

course to the

small stars in the head of the Virgin.

On

the 3d, the

Moon

rises

in the

morning
head of

under and near
the Virgin, and

to the small stars in the
is

seen afterward to direct her

course above the third of this constellation.
the
4-1

On

h,

she rises under and near to the third of

the Virgin, and directs her course at some dis-

tance above the

first

to the tenth

and eleventh,

under which she
followed by the

rises

on the 6th, being soon

first

of the Balance;

and on the

DECEMBER,
8th
is

1817.

16?

new Moon,

at thirty -three

minutes after

noon, but from her too great latitude without an
eclipse.

On

the 10th, the crescent of the

Moon

is

seen

soon after Sun-set in the south-south-west, near
the horizon, the two
at
is

first stars

of the Goat being

some distance above
seen under the two

her.
first

On
stars

the 11th, she

of the Goat,

having passed the Hue drawn through them and
produced.

Her great southern

latitude

places

her in the lower part of the lower region.
the 12th, she
is

On
is

on the meridian at four minutes
as
:

past four in the afternoon, and
setting will

the

Sun

be seen

at that

time

above and

near to her will soon be seen the small stars in
the
tail

of

the Goat to the east of her,
her..

and
the

Saturn at some distance also above
13th, she
is

On
On

on the meridian on the meridian

at fifty-five

minutes
the

past four, almost directly under Saturn.
14th, she
five,
is

at forty tninutes past

being

at a considerable distance
I

under the

four stars in square,
to the

he two western being near
it;

meridian, but to the west of
at

Saturn

being now below

some distance

to the west.

.

On

the 15th, the

Moon

is

on the meridian

at

:

DECEMBER,
twenty-three minutes past
six,

1817.
being
still

under

the four stars in square, the two eastern being

near to

it

to the east.

On

the 16th, she

is

on

the meridian at three minutes past seven, the
four stars in square being
to the west.

now removed from
is

it

On

the 17th, she

on the meri-

dian at forty-three minutes past seven, having
the three
east.
first stars

of the

Ram
is

above her to the

On

the 18th, she

on the meridian at

twenty-three minutes past eight, being under the
three
first stars

of the

Ram,

the

first

being almost
is

directly above her, and below her to the east

Menkar, with the small
Whale.
five

stars in the
is

head of the

On

the 19th, she

on the meridian at
directly

minutes past nine,

Menkar being

under her, and above her the Pleiades

to the east,

and the three

first stars

of the

Ram

to the

west

Mars

is

at a considerable distance

from her to

the east.

On

the 20th, she

is

on the meridian

at forty-eight minutes past nine, being between

the Pleiades and Hyades, the former above her
to the west, the latter

below her to the east of

it

she

is

directing her course to Mars.
is

On

the

21st, she

on the meridian

at thirty-five

minutes

past ten.

Mars being abovo and near

to her to
it

the east, and Aldebaran below and near to

to

the west.

Her progress by Mars, whom she

DECEMBER,
passes in about three hours,
in her course.

181?.
is

l69

the chief feature
is

On

the 22d, she

on the meri-

dian at twenty-four minutes past eleven, being

without the horns of the Bull, the sixth or tip
of the southern horn being directly below her,

and the second or
her to the west of

tip of the northern
it.

horn above

On
past

the 23d
four
in

is full

Moon,

at fifty-nine

minutes

the afternoon, but

from her too

great latitude without an eclipse.
at Sun-set
is

She

is

seen

near the horizon in the north-east, and

followed by the seversth and twelfth of the
Ions: nigrht
is

Twins, and during the
her course above the

seen to direct

fifth,

which she passes about

four hours after midnight.
rises

On

the 24th, she

with the two
first

first

of the Twins, passing un-

der the

about midnight, and the second be-

fore Sun-rise.

On

the 25th, she rises under the

two

first

of the Twins, having passed the line

drawn through them and produced.
26th, she
is

On
it

the

seen traversing the barren space be-

tween the Crab and the Lion, ending
the eleventh of the latter constellation.

near to

On

the

27th, she rises under the small stars in the head
of the Lion, passing the sevenih at midnight,

and

is

seen on the next night traversing the body
I

170

DECEMBER,
On

1817.

of the Lion towards the small stars in the head of
the Virgin.
the 29th, she rises nearly with

the small stars in the head of the Virgin, as she
passes the thirteenth soon after midnight.

On
is

the SOth,

she

rises

under the seventh, and

soon followed by the third of the Virgin, which

she will be seen to pass during the morning of
the 31st.

Mercury
the 1st
is

is

an evening

star.

His latitude on
in the tenth

fifty-six

minutes south,
it

de-

gree of the ninth sign; and

increases to the

22d,
ter,

when
in the

it is

nearly two degrees and a qoar-

thirteenth degree of the tenth sign.

It

then decreases to the- end of the month, being
last

on the

day one degree fifty-one minutes, in
of the tenth
sign.
lost

the twenty-seventh degree

For the greater part of the month he will be
in the splendour of the Sun's rays,
last

and on the

day he

is

only between eight and nine de-

grees above the horizon, in scuth-west-by-south,
at Sun- set.

The Moon
a

passes

him on

the 8th.

Venus
1st is

is

morning

star.

Her

latitude on the
in
it

one degree twenty- nine minutes north,
;

the fifteenth degree of the eighth sign

and

decreases to the end of the month, being about

DECEMBER,

181?.

171

half a degree, on the last day, in the twentythird degree of the ninth sign, her motion being

direct through about thirty-eight degrees.
is first

She
first

seen near to but to the east of the

of

the Balance, passing under the small stars, the
sixth of this constellation on the 7th, above the

eleventh on the 10th,

near the second of the

Scorpion on the 20ih, and Herschel on the 27th.

The Moon

passes her

on the

7th.

Mars is on the meridian at midnight on the 8th. He is seen rising in the evening to the east
of the north-east on the
light,
1st,

at the

wane of twi-

and soon

after a: Sun-set.

His stay above
to

the horizon being for
Sun-rise.

some time from Sun-set
this
is

Consequently

a very favoura-

ble month for observation on this orb, and particularly so as he
is

in his opposition.

This takes
in

place on the 8th, at a quarter past nine
evening, and as on that day
will
is

the

new Moon

there

be nothing during the night from that quardiminish his splendour, and we shall there-

ter to

fore see

him

for
all

the greater part of the
his
lustre.

month
the
in-

shining with
1st
is

His latitude on the
in
it

two degrees seven minutes north,
;

twentieth degree of the third sign

and

12

172

DECEMBER,
his

1817.

creases to nearly three degrees, in the tenth de-

gree of the third sign,

motion being

retro-

grade through about ten degrees.

He

rises first

Bnder and near

to the

second of the Bull, or tip
it

of his northern horn, slowly receding from

to

the eighteenth, and the superiority of his splen-

dour over that of Aldebaran will
ticularly remarked.

now be
passes

par-

The Moon

him on

the 22d.

Jupiter
14th.

is

in

his

inferior conjunction
1st is

on the

His latitude on the
t.he

twenty minutes

north, in

entrance of the twentieth degree of
it

the ninth

sign; and

is

decreased about two

minutes, his motion being direct through nearly

seven degrees.

He

will

be

lost

during this month
passes

in the rays of the Sun.

The Moon

him

on the

8th.

Saturn

is

on the meridian

at forty-one
1st,

minutes

past five in the evening of the

and

at four in

the afternoon of the 25th.
1st
is

His latitude on the
in

one degree forty-two minutes south,
;

the

first

degree of the twelfth sign
his

and

it

diminishes

about two minutes,

motion

being direct
is

through about two degrees.

He

seen there-

DECEMBER,
fore

1817.

173

under the eighth of the Water-bearer, slowly

approaching to the eighteenth. The

Moon

passes

him on the
Herschel

13th.

is

in

conjunction on the 8th, Merat the distance of

cury passing him on the 5th^

seventy-six minutes to the south of him; but
this passage will,

from their nearness

to the Sun,

be

lost

to

us,

and when Herschel becomes a he
will be too

morning

star,

near the horizon at
to

Sun-rise at the end of the

month

be detected

but by very keen observers.
1st is

His latitude on the
degree

two minutes south,
;

in the sixteenth
it

of the ninth sign

and

continues nearly the

same the whole monih,

his

motion being direct

through about a degree and three quarters.

The

Moon

passes

him on the

Sih.

The apparent diameter

of the Sun on the 1st

is

thirty-two minutes thirty-one secondtJ,

and on

the 21st thirty-two minutes thirty-five seconds.

The Moon's apparent diameter on
thirty-one minutes fourteen seconds,
creases to the Ytb,

the

1st
it

is

and

in-

when

it

is

thirty-three

mi-

nutes twenty-six seconds.

It

then decreases to

the -20th, not varying a miiiure durms; this and
the preceding day, being, during the whole of
I 3

174

DECEMBER,
which
it

1817.

that time, twenty-nine minutes and a half nearly;
after

increases to the end of the month,
last

being on the
eight seconds.

midnight thirty-two minutes
enters the tenth sign
in the

The Sun

on the 22d,

at nineteen

minutes past three

morning.

For the appearances of the fixed
hour of the night during
this

stars,

at

any

month, consult

the volume for 1806, according to the following
table
:


TABLE OF POSITIONS.
I
<

Pos.
h.

3

]

7

o5
h.^ m.
3

m.
6
1

h.

m.
36
31

h.

m.

IX. X.

5

4
6
8

3 5 7 9
11

56
51

20
15

7
9
11

5

XL
XIL
I.

2
8

10

32 38
28

52 58
48
51

7 9
11

16

22
12
15

58
3
1

11.

IIL IV. V.

4
7

50
11
-

2 4
6
8

31

1

1

20
41

3

40
1

3

32

6 7

5 7

4 25
16

52

175

THUS

we

have

brought

our observations
in

clown to the

end of another year, and

the

course of them the events of the past have given
rise

to

some animadversions, which
little volume. The summer and autumn, added

may be
extra-

frequently brought to our minds during the perusal

of this

late

ordinary

to political

occurrences,

have

given

rise

to

meetings of

our countrymen, in which one pleasing feature

may have been

observed, namely, the solicitude
classes for the relief of

on the part of the higher

the distresses of the lower.

This

is

as

it

should

be

;

for,

if

Providence has allotted to some
it

greater wealth than to others,

is

evident that,
greater be-

when

a

call is

made upon them

for

nevolence, they should not be wanting in that,

which

is

a duty incumbent on us

ail as

men, and

particularly so as Christians.

But

I

am

not inclined to retract an opinion,

which

I took the libertj'^ of

advancing

in a

public

meeting, consisting of some of the most distinguished characters in the upper and middle

ranks of society.

I

still

think, that the

gloom
far

and despondency spread over the nation was
greater than circumstances required.

The

ap-

176
peal was properly

made

to

our feelings,

that

every benevolent exertion
alleviate distress;

might

be

used to

bit the resources af the coun-

try and the energies of the people ought to have

had a greater share
state

in the deliberations

on the

of our country.

Perhaps
enjoy

at

no period of the world did a nation
great

such

advantages:

possessions

in

three zones call
yet,

aloud for our fostering care,

though we have seen millions upon millions

raised for the destruction of our fellow creatures,

such are the mistaken notions of man, that I
should be laughed at for proposing a loan, which

bad

in

view

to enable us to raise

y)opulous cities

at the

Cape of Good Hope, Trinidad, and Newcharter

foundland, and thus to act the better part under
the

great

given

by God

to

mankind.

These would be trophies worthy of the English name,
in

comparison of which

all

the pretended

honours of war deserve not a moraent^s consideration.

Should our country however be insensible
this

to

advantage,

let us not

permit ourselves to be
;

carried

away by
to

false terrors

and, if

it

please

Providence

chasten us,

still

we

will

use the

177
language with the feelings of the inspired prophet:

Should the fig-trees not blossom.

Nor

vines give produce;
to

Should the olive-press cease

work.

And

the fields to yield food

;

Should sheep no more be folded.

Nor ox be found in stalls; Yet in the Lord wiil I exult,
I wi!! rejoice in

God my

saviour.

THE END.

C

VvOOl), Phnlerj

Poppin's Court, Fleet Street.

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