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SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE AND MODELS
Software Development Life Cycle: Software life cycle process that comprises the activities of requirements analysis, design, coding, integration, testing, installation and support for acceptance of software products. Phases in SDLC Requirement Analysis: 1. 2. 3. 4. Business requirements are gathered in this phase. This produces a big list of functionality & Non-functionality points. Software Requirement Specification (SRS) document is prepared. Feasibility study done here.
Planing: Planning is the process of 1. Identifing different steps that needs to be done, for fulfilling the client requirements, 2. Sequencing all the activities, 3. Allocating hardware resoures and software resources, 4. Scheduling each activity when it should be start and when it should be completed. 5. At the end of the planning phase two doc will be delivered. 1.PM PLAN DOC, 2.TEST PLAN DOC . Design: 1. The software system architectural design document is produced from the results of requirements phase. 2. Breakup of modules to code modules. 3. Interface & Interactions of modules are described, as well functional contents. 4. High Level Design (HLD) & Low Level Design (LLD) documents are made. Coding: 1. Code is produced from the deliverables of the design phase during implementation. 2. High Level Design (HLD) & Low Level Design (LLD) documents are referred here. 3. We are giving main focus to this phase in life cycle, because actual coding is done. 4. System developed in smaller portions called as units. 5. This is the longest phase of the software development life cycle. Testing:
Maintenance: 1. The implementation is tested against the requirements. There are two goals of Maintenance in SDLC: Increase the ability of the software and avoidance of failures. Testing done by real customers at the client site & acceptance test cases is validated to accept the product. 4. Integration. 2. Prototype Model. Spiral Model. 3. 2. while system tests act the System as a whole. Waterfall model. V-Model. Preparing installation environment to install S/W product. Involves Functional tests at the interfaces of modules. 2. Implementing changes to the system when necessary. Unit tests act on a specific component of the system. SDLC Models Types of SDLC Models Software life cycle models describe phases of the software cycle and the order in which those phases are executed. Installation Instruction document. 5. 2. 4.1. System & Acceptance tests are done during this phase. User manual & Release notes been prepared. 1. 3. Unit. Acceptance testing to examine whether S/W product is ready for use in customer environment. 4. Waterfall or Linear – Sequential Mode Requirements . Different testing methodologies & levels are used to unravel the bugs Deployment 1. 3.
2. High amounts of risk and uncertainty 3.Planning Design Coding Testing Deploy & Maintanence Advantages 1. Simple and easy to use. Works well for smaller projects where requirements are very well understood. Easy to manage due to rigidity of the model 3. Instead of moving down in a linear way. Phases are processed and completed one at a time. 5. 4. the process steps . Poor model for complex and object-oriented projects. Req & Design cannot be changed once fixed 2. Poor model for long and ongoing projects. No working software is produced until late during the life cycle. 4. V-Model: The V-model represents a software development process (also applicable to hardware development) which may be considered an extension of the waterfall model. Disadvantages 1.
physical. performance. The users carefully review this document as this document would serve as the guideline for the system designers in the system design phase.are bent upwards after the coding phase. The user requirements document will typically describe the system’s functional. interface. The horizontal and vertical axes represents time or project completeness (left-to-right) and level of abstraction (coarsest-grain abstraction uppermost). Usually. This phase is concerned about establishing what the ideal system has to perform. to form the typical V shape. The VModel demonstrates the relationships between each phase of the development life cycle and its associated phase of testing. it does not determine how the software will be designed or built. . security requirements etc as expected by the user. It is one which the business analysts use to communicate their understanding of the system back to the users. the users are interviewed and a document called the user requirements document is generated. However. The user acceptance tests are designed in this phase. respectively. data. Requirements analysis: In this phase. the requirements of the proposed system are collected by analyzing the needs of the user(s).
data structures etc. Simple and easy to use. Module Design: This phase can also be called as low-level design. with all elements. reports for the better understanding.database tables. dependencies. menu structures.System Design: System engineers analyze and understand the business of the proposed system by studying the user requirements document. technology details etc. If any of the requirements are not feasible. including their type and size all interface details with complete API references. This document contains the general system organization. data dictionary will also be produced in this phase. 2. their interface relationships. brief functionality of each module. Each phase has specific deliverables. The designed system is broken up in to smaller units or modules and each of them is explained so that the programmer can start coding directly. Higher chance of success over the waterfall model due to the development of test plans early on during the life cycle.error message listingscomplete input and outputs for a module. 4. Other technical documentation like entity diagrams. the user is informed of the issue. The integration testing design is carried out in this phase. Advantages 1. Works well for small projects where requirements are easily understood. The unit test design is developed in this stage. Architecture Design: This phase can also be called as high-level design. sample windows. in pseudocode . . The baseline in selecting the architecture is that it should realize all which typically consists of the list of modules. 3. Disadvantages 1. The low level design document or program specifications will contain a detailed functional logic of the module.all dependency issues. database tables. The documents for system testing is prepared in this phase. It may also hold example business scenarios. architecture diagrams. They figure out possibilities and techniques by which the user requirements can be implemented. The software specification document which serves as a blueprint for the development phase is generated. A resolution is found and the user requirement document is edited accordingly. Little flexibility and adjusting scope is difficult and expensive.
. High amount of risk analysis 2. Software is produced early in the software life cycle Disadvantages 1. Software is developed during the implementation phase. 3. 3. Good for large and mission-critical projects.2. Model doesn’t provide a clear path for problems found during testing phases. so no early prototypes of the software are produced. Can be a costly model to use. Spiral Model Advantages 1.
2. Risk analysis requires highly specific expertise. . Prototype Model. R P D C T D&M P D C T D&M SRS Advantages Early prototype design (Non-working model) is made Periodic interaction between developer & client to get the conclusion about the final project.
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