Brake systems used by IR

Comparison of air brakes and vacuum brakes
Parameter Air Brakes The compressed air is used for obtaining brake application. The brake pipe and feed pipe run throughout the length of the coach. Brake pipe and feed pipe on consecutive coaches in the train are coupled to one another by means of respective hose couplings to form a continuous air passage from the locomotive to the rear end of the train. The compressed air is supplied to the brake pipe and feed pipe from the locomotive. The magnitude of braking force increases in steps with the corresponding reduction in brake pipe pressure and vice-versa. Effective cylinder pressure = 3.8kg/cm2 Feed pipe - 6kg/cm2 Brake pipe - 5kg/cm2 Feed pipe - & 25 Bore Brake pipe - & 25 Bore Vacuum Brakes The vacuum brake system derives its brake force from the atmospheric pressure acting on the lower side of the piston in the vacuum brake cylinder while a vacuum is maintained above the piston. The train pipe runs throughout the length of the coach and connected with consecutive coaches by hose coupling. The vacuum is created in the train pipe and the vacuum cylinder by the ejector or exhauster mounted on the locomotive. Effective pressure on piston - 0.kg/cm2 Nominal vacuum on train pipe - 510mm. Train pipe - & 50 Bore

Principle of working

Pressure Pipe diameter

Components of air brake and vacuum brake systems
Air Brakes Brake pipe and feed pipe (twin pipe system for coaching stock, single pipe system for goods stock). Air brake cylinder - 355mm dia Distributor Valve Passenger Emergency Alarm Signal Device Passenger Emergency Valve Guard's Emergency Valve Slack Adjuster Alarm chain apparatus Clappet Valve Guard's Van Valve Slack Adjuster Direct Admission Valve Hose coupling for brake pipe and feed pipe Auxiliary reservoir 100 l capacity Cut off Angle cock Check valve with choke Dirt collector Hose coupling for train pipe Vacuum reservoir 320 l capacity Train pipe -- single pipe Vacuum brake cylinder- 24" type 'F' Vacuum Brakes

Advantages of air brakes over vacuum brakes
Parameters Emergency braking distance (4500 t level track, 65 kmph) Brake power fading Weight of equipment per wagon (approx.) 632m No fading 275kg Air Brakes 1097m At least by 20% 700kg Vacuum Brakes

Needs additional precautions Satisfactory Schematic diagrams Single-pipe System Twin-pipe System .Pressure Gradient Preparation time in departure yards (45 BOX or 58 BOXN) Safety on down gradients Overall reliability No appreciable difference in air pressure between locomotive and brake van up to 2000m. Very safe Very good Steep reduction in vacuum in trains longer than 600m. Up to 4 hours. Less than 40 minutes.

The brake cylinder is connected to the atmosphere through a hole in the D. against the reference pressure locked in the control reservoir.5kg/cm2 Feed pipe. Leakages in brake cylinder will therefore reduce braking force since auxiliary reservoir may not be able to equalise the leakages. When the brake pipe pressure reaches 4. Colour Pressure Brake pipe . Auxiliary reservoir is continuously charged through feed pipe and hence leakages in brake cylinder can be equalised even during emergency application ensuring full brake force.Green Feed pipe . Air from the auxiliary reservoir enter the brake cylinder and the brakes are applied. the driver moves automatic brake valve handle either in steps for a graduated application or in one stroke to the extreme position for emergency application.6kg/cm2 Comparison of conventional and bogie -mounted air brakes .R pressure Auxiliary reservoir is continuously charged through feed pipe Leakage in brake cylinder during application During emergency application. instead of feed pipe.White Brake pipe . and A.5kg/cm2 Brake pipe .V. Charging auxiliary reservoir B. feed for auxiliary reservoir from brake pipe is discontinued.At the time of release the air in the brake cylinder is vented progressively depending upon the increase in the brake pipe pressure.C. The auxiliary reservoir is charged by the feed pipe at 6kg/cm2 through a check valve and choke.8kg/cm2 the brake cylinder is completely exhausted and brakes are fully released. since there is no feed pipe in single pipe system.V. By this movement the brake pipe pressure is reduced and the pressure differenced is sensed by the D. To apply brakes.V. when brakes are under fully released condition. Uninterrupted Principle of operation The operation is same as that of the twin pipe system except that the auxiliary reservoir is charged through the D. pressure equalisation Release of brakes (reduction in brake cylinder pressure) Discontinued during brake application Occurs during prolonged brake application Does not occur Proportionate to build up of A.Comparison of single-pipe and twin-pipe systems Parameters Single Pipe Twin Pipe The Brake pipe is charged to 5kg/cm2 by the driver's brake valve.R.

of air brake cylinders / coach Size of cylinder Slack adjuster Brake block Conventional Air Brakes Underframe 2 14" External Conventional Bogie frame 4 8" Bogie-mounted Air Brakes Integral with the air brake cylinder High friction 'K' type composite block .Parameters Bogie cylinder mounting location No.

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