# Demonstration for solving the homework problem assigned on Jan 20.

Use SPSS to compute the mean, median, standard deviation, and standard error of the mean for the following set of data. Report your results in an APA-style table of descriptive statistics. Score Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 44564 24434 64456

One of the first things you needed to do was figure out how to enter the data. Remember, on the SPSS data spreadsheet, rows contain cases, and columns contain variables. So, how many variables to we have. Certainly Score is a variable. Are there any other variables? Some careful thinking (also spending some time working through the various tutorials available) should have lead you to a realization that we need a group identifying variable, Group, say. So, the first thing I do, after starting SPSS, is to go to the Variable View tab (at the bottom of the SPSS Data Editor) and enter my two variable names (see Figure 1 below).

Figure 1

click Data > Split. I enter the scores corresponding to each individual entered under Group. which. save the data (to the desktop or somewhere else) before it gets lost. The first thing you will notice is that while you can obtain descriptive statistics for the overall group. This opens the Split File window (Figure 6). Clicking on Analyze opens a dropdown window showing several analytical procedures. standard deviations. I switch to the Data View tab and enter the data for each variable (Figure 2). Under score. The . and so on.Next. we clock on Descriptive Statistics. There are two procedures in this window that offer promise: Frequencies and Descriptives. Since we want descriptive statistics. Click on Frequencies first. Is this the procedure we want? Try it. We’ll examine both of these. those in group 2. In the top menu. what to do? The solution is to split the file. So. get a 2 under group. Again. Everyone in group 1 gets a 1 under Group. You can try the Descriptives procedure next Figure 5. Figure 2 Now. there doesn’t seem to be any way to compute the statistics we want for each subgroup independently. These are all descriptive statistics. Click on the Organize output by groups radio button and move Group into the Groups based on… window and then click OK. opens another dropdown window (see Figure 3). See the next screen shot. We want means. The Frequencies dialog window (Figure 4) opens. and the standard error of the mean for this set of data. medians. in turn. there doesn’t seem to be any way of getting the statistics for each subgroup.

. Mean. and Standard Deviation. which takes you back to the Frequencies window. Any subsequent analysis will be performed separately for each group. you are given the number of valid scores (N Valid). Go back to Analyze > Destructives and click on Frequencies again. The Frequencies procedure runs and SPSS produces the output shown following the next page. Standard Deviation. Click OK.Figure 3 Figure 4 data file is now split by groups. Std Error of the Mean.E. Move Score into the Variables window and click on Statistics and select Mean. and then click Continue (see Figure 6). Median. Median. the number of missing scores (N Missing) the Mean. and S. For each group.

095 Group 3 5 5.60 Group 2 5 3.0 4. is StdErrM  .095 1. Menas.000 Notice the following about the tables: They contain no vertical lines and few horizontal lines.490 .894  2. Dev. Group 1 5 4. for the sample. Dev.000 Ste Err Mean .0 Std. and Standard Deviations N Mean Std.0 4.095 1.894 5 . This is because the standard error of the mean.400 If we include the standard error of the mean in our table.00 Median 4. .236  . for Group 1.A minimal APA-style table of descriptive statistics would look something like the following: Ns.894 Group 2 5 3. APA wants nice.400 . Only the stub headings are separated from the body of the table by a horizontal line. is easily computed by: StdErrM  s X sX N StdDev  N  Which.894 1. the standard error of the mean is not given in the tables.000 If you wanted to include the median. clean tables.80 Group 3 5 5.0 5.00 Median 4. In most case. .80 Group 3 5 5.894 1.00 1. Dev. then it might look something like this: Descriptive Statistics N Mean Group 1 5 4.0 5. use white space to separate rows and columns.0 Std. Also.447 .60 .60 Group 2 5 3.80 1. it would look like this: Descriptive Statistics N Mean Group 1 5 4.

Figure 5 Figure 6 .

Deviation a.Frequencies Group = 3.00000 4. Group = 2.00000 .80000 .00000 a Group = 2. Error of Mean Median Std. Group = 1. Deviation a.00000 3. Deviation a.89443 a .00 Statistics Score N Valid Missing Mean Std.00 5. Error of Mean Median Std.00000 .48990 4.00 Statistics Score N Valid Missing Mean Std.09545 Group = 1.00 5.00000 .40000 4.00000 1.00 N Valid Missing Mean Std.00 5. Group = 3.00000 5.00000 . Error of Mean Median Std.60000 .00000 1.00000 .44721 5.