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DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF FRACTAL ANTENNA

INTRODUCTION
Modern telecommunication systems require antennas with wider bandwidth and smaller dimensions than conventionally possible. This has initiated antenna research in various directions, one of which is by using fractal shaped antenna elements. Fractal geometry is a very good solution for this problem. These structures are recognized by their self similarity properties and fractional dimension. These are frequency independent antennas and their geometry is symmetric about the origin.

FRACTAL ANTENNAFractal, which means broken or irregular fragments. Fractal antennas can obtain radiation pattern and input impedance similar to a longer antenna, but take less area due to the many contours of the shape Fractus is a global developer and supplier of low profile multi-band mobile phone antennas for current and next generation mobile handsets. it uses a self similar design to maximize the length, or increase the perimeter of material that can transmit or receive EM radiation with a given total surface area or volume. A fractal often has the following features: It has a fine structure at arbitrarily small scales. It is too irregular to be easily described in traditional Euclidean geometric language. It is self-similar (at least approximately or stochastically). It has a Hausdorff dimension which is greater than its topological dimension It has a simple and recursive definition.

ADVANTAGES
Minituratization Better input impedence matching Frequancy independent Multiband/wideband

Antenna Design Specifications

(a) Planar antenna Antenna is built on a flat surface double layer PCB (copper layered). (b) Operating at the lower frequency of the UHF band (470-890MHz) The frequency band 470-890 MHz is chosen because it is the band that is used for terrestrial UHF TV channels and for new applications like a Digital TV Broadcasting. (c) Dipole antenna Dipole is chosen because it has the omnidirectional radiation pattern so it cans receive TV signals no matter which side the antenna is facing. (e) Uses FR4 substrate. The PCB that is used is the FR4 (Fire Retardant 4) type board. The reasons for choosing this type of board are because of the low cost and ease of fabrication. The

Hilbert curve
A Hilbert curve (also known as a Hilbert space-filling curve) is a continuous fractal space-filling curve first described by the German mathematicianDavid Hilbert in 1891,[1] as a variant of the spacefilling curves discovered by Giuseppe Peano in 1890.[2] Because it is space-filling, its Hausdorff dimension is 2 (precisely, its image is the unit square, whose dimension is 2 in any definition of dimension; its graph is a compact set homeomorphic to the closed unit interval, with Hausdorff dimension 2). Hn is the nth approximation to the limiting curve. The Euclidean length of Hn is , i.e., it grows exponentially with n, while at the same time always being bounded by a square with a finite area.

The following provides a brief introduction to the Hilbert curve. The basic Hilbert curve on a 2x2 grid, denoted by H1 is shown in Figure . To derive a curve of order i, each vertex of the basic curve is replaced by the curve of order i 1, which may be appropriately rotated and/or reflected. Figure also shows the Hilbert curves of order two and three. When the order of the curve tends to infinity, like other space filling curves, the resulting curve is a fractal

Figure : Hilbert curves of order 1, 2, and 3

Koch snowflake
The Koch curve The Koch snowflake (also known as the Koch star and Koch island[1]) is a mathematical curve and one of the earliest fractal curves to have been described. It is based on the Koch curve Construction The Koch snowflake can be constructed by starting with an equilateral triangle, then recursively altering each line segment as follows: 1. divide the line segment into three segments of equal length.

2. draw an equilateral triangle that has the middle segment from step 1 as its base and points outward. 3. remove the line segment that is the base of the triangle from step 2. After one iteration of this process, the result is a shape similar to the Star of David. The Koch snowflake is the limit approached as the above steps are followed over and over again. The Koch curve originally described by Koch is constructed with only one of the three sides of the original triangle. In other words, three Koch curves make a Koch snowflake.

Sierpinski triangle
Originally constructed as a curve, this is one of the basic examples of self-similar sets, i.e. it is a mathematically generated pattern that can be reproducible at any magnification or reduction

An algorithm for obtaining arbitrarily close approximations to the Sierpinski triangle is as follows: Note: each removed triangle (a trema) is topologically an open set.[2]

1. Start with any triangle in a plane (any closed, bounded region in the plane will actually work). The canonical Sierpinski triangle uses an equilateral triangle with a base parallel to the horizontal axis (first image). 2. Shrink the triangle to height and width, make three copies, and position the three shrunken triangles so that each triangle touches the two other triangles at a corner (image 2). Note the emergence of the central hole - because the three shrunken triangles can between them cover only 3/4 of the area of the original. (Holes are an important feature of Sierpinski's triangle.) 3. Repeat step 2 with each of the smaller triangles (image 3 and so on). Note that this infinite process is not dependent upon the starting shape being a triangleit is just clearer that way. The first few steps starting, for example, from a square also tend towards a Sierpinski triangle.

Euclidean geometry >2,000 years old Applicable for artificial objects Change shapes with scaling Locally smooth ,differentiable Objects defined by analytical equations Elements: vertices, edges, surfaces

Fractal Geometry 10-20 years old Applicable for natural objects Invariant under scaling ,self similar Locally rough, not differentiable Objects defined by recursive algorithms Elements: iteration of functions