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Development Phase

September October 2005


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INTRODUCTION TO HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION
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Introduction to Hydrocarbon Exploitation
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Stimulation Techniques
Pratap Thimaiah
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Characterizing Damage and Stimulation
1. List causes of damage skin
2. List causes of geometric skin
3. Calculate skin from pressure drop
4. Calculate flow efficiency from skin
5. Calculate skin factor and wellbore radius
6. Convert skin to fracture half-length
Development Phase
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INTRODUCTION TO HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION
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Damage Caused by Drilling Fluid
Mud filtrate
invasion
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Damage Caused by Production
p < p
b
p > p
b
In an oil reservoir, pressure near well may be below bubble
point, allowing free gas which reduces effective permeability
to oil near wellbore.
In a retrograde gas condensate reservoir, pressure near well
may be below dew point, allowing an immobile condensate
ring to build up, which reduces effective permeability to gas
near wellbore.
Development Phase
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INTRODUCTION TO HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION
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Damage Caused by Injection
dirty
water
incompatible
water
Injected water may not be clean - fines may plug formation.
Injected water may not be compatible with formation water -
may cause precipitates to form and plug formation.
Injected water may not be compatible with clay minerals in
formation; fresh water can destabilize some clays, causing
movement of fines and plugging of formation.
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Reservoir Model of Skin Effect
Bulk
formation
h
r
w
k
a
r
a
k
Altered
zone
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Reservoir Pressure Profile
500
1000
1500
2000
1 10 100 1000 10000
Distance from center of wellbore, ft
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
,
p
s
i
Ap
s
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Skin and Pressure Drop
s
p
qB
h k 00708 . 0
s A

=
k = md
h = ft
q = STB/D
B = bbl/STB
Aps = psi
= cp
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INTRODUCTION TO HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION
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Skin and Pressure Drop
s
kh
qB 2 . 141
p
s

= A
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Skin Factor and Properties of the Altered Zone
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
w
a
a
r
r
ln 1
k
k
s
Development Phase
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INTRODUCTION TO HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION
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Skin Factor and Properties of the Altered Zone
( )
w a
a
r r ln
s
1
k
k
+
=
The skin factor may be calculated from the properties of the altered zone.
If ka < k (damage), skin is positive.
If ka > k (stimulation), skin is negative.
If ka = k, skin is 0.
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Effective Wellbore Radius
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
w
wa
r
r
ln s
s
w wa
e r r

=
If the permeability in the altered zone ka is much larger than the formation
permeability k, then the wellbore will act like a well having an apparent
wellbore radius r
wa
.
The apparent wellbore radius may be calculated from the actual wellbore
radius and the skin factor.
Development Phase
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INTRODUCTION TO HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION
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Minimum Skin Factor
|
.
|

\
|
=
w
e
min
r
r
ln s
The minimum skin factor possible (most negative skin factor) would occur when
the apparent wellbore radius rwa is equal to the drainage radius re of the well.
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Geometric Skin - Converging Flow to Perforations
When a cased wellbore is perforated, the fluid must converge to
one of the perforations to enter the wellbore. If the shot spacing is
too large, this converging flow results in a positive apparent skin
factor. This effect increases as the vertical permeability
decreases, and decreases as the shot density increases.
Development Phase
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INTRODUCTION TO HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION
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Geometric Skin - Partial Penetration
h
h
p
A well is completed through only a portion of the net pay
interval, the fluid must converge to flow through a smaller
completed interval. This converging flow also results in a
positive apparent skin factor
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Partial Penetration
h
p
h
t
h
1
p d
p
t
s s
h
h
s + =
Where : Ht =pay thickness ft
hp=perforated thickness
h1=height to top of perforations
Kv=Vertical permeability (md)
Kh=Horizontal permeability(md)
Rd=dimensionless radius
Development Phase
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INTRODUCTION TO HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION
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Partial Penetration Apparent Skin Factor
(
(

|
.
|

\
|

+
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
1
1
1
2
ln
1
2
ln 1
1
B
A
h
h
h r h
s
pD
pD
pD D pD
p
t
2
1
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
h
v
t
w
D
k
k
h
r
r
t p pD
h h h =
t D
h h h
1 1
=
4
1
1 pD D
h h
A
+
=
4 3
1
1 pD D
h h
B
+
=
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Geometric Skin - Deviated Wellbore
u sec h u
h
u
s s s
d
+ =
When a well penetrates the formation at an angle other than
90 degrees, there is more surface area in contact with the
formation. This results in a negative apparent skin factor.
This effect decreases as the vertical permeability decreases,
and increases as the angle from the vertical increases.
Development Phase
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Geometric Skin - Well With Hydraulic Fracture
L
f
Often to improve productivity in low-permeability formations, or to penetrate
near-wellbore damage or for sand control in higher permeability formations, a
well may be hydraulically fractured.
This creates a high-conductivity path between the wellbore and the reservoir.
If the fracture conductivity is high enough relative to the formation permeability
and the length of the fracture, there will be virtually no pressure drop down the
fracture. This distributes the pressure drop due to influx into the wellbore over
a much larger area, resulting in a negative skin factor.
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Skin Factor and Fractured Wells
2
L
r
f
wa
=
wa f
r 2 L =
Development Phase
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INTRODUCTION TO HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION
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Completion Skin
dp d p
s s s s + + =
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
d
R
dp
R
p
dp
p
dp
k
k
k
k
r
r
n L
h
s ln
r
dp
L
p
k
R
k
dp
k
d
r
p
r
d
r
w
After McLeod, JPT (Jan. 1983) p. 32.
sp- geometric skin due to converging flow to
perforations
sd - damage skin due to drilling fluid invasion
sdp - perforation damage skin
kd - permeability of damaged zone around
wellbore, md
kdp - permeability of damaged zone around
perforation tunnels, md
kR - reservoir permeability, md
Lp - length of perforation tunnel, ft
n - number of perforations
h - formation thickness, ft
rd - radius of damaged zone around wellbore, ft
rdp - radius of damaged zone around perforation
tunnel, ft
rp - radius of perforation tunnel, ft
rw - wellbore radius, ft
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Gravel Pack Skin
L
g
Cement
Sgp - skin factor due to Darcy flow through
gravel pack
h - net pay thickness,ft
Kgp - permeability of gravel pack gravel,
md
k - reservoir permeability, md
Lg - length of flow path through gravel pack,
in
n - number of perforations open
dp diameter of perforation tunnel, in
Sgp = 96 (K/Kgp) h Lg
dp
2
n
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INTRODUCTION TO HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION
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Productivity Index
wf
p p
q
J

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Flow Efficiency
wf
s wf
ideal
actual
f
p p
p p p
J
J
E

A
=
We can express the degree of damage on stimulation with
the flow efficiency.
For a well with neither damage nor stimulation, Ef = 1.
For a damaged well, Ef < 1
For a stimulated well, Ef > 1
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INTRODUCTION TO HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION
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Flow Efficiency and Rate
fold
fnew
old new
E
E
q q =
qnew = Flow rate after change in skin factor
qold = Flow rate before change in skin factor
Efnew = Flow efficiency after change in skin factor
Efold = Flow efficiency before change in skin factor
We can use the flow efficiency to calculate the effects
of changes in skin factor on the production rate
corresponding to a given pressure drawdown
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Remove damage near the wellbore
Superimpose a highly conductive structure onto the
formation
Increase the effective area of the reservoir in communication
with the wellbore
Well Stimulation Objectives
Increase the
Increase the
productivity
productivity
of a well by:
of a well by:
Production Enhancement Production Enhancement
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INTRODUCTION TO HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION
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Primary Methods of Stimulation
Matrix acidizing
Hydraulic fracturing
(acid or proppant)
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Hydraulic Fracturing
Hydraulic fracturing is a stimulation technique which
consists in fluid injection into the formation at high flow
rates, causing an increase in pressure and a subsequent
formation breaking.
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Hydraulic Fracturing
The breakdown and early growth,
expose new formation area to the
injected fluid.
The injected fluid leaking off into the
formation starts to increase.
If the pumping rate is maintained at
a higher rate than the fluid loss rate,
then the fracture must continue to
propagate & grow.
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Hydraulic Fracturing
Once pumping stops, the fracture closes.
In order to prevent this, it is added propping agent to the injected
fluid to be transported into the fracture.
When pumping stops and the fluids flows back from the well, the
propping agent remains in place to keep the fracture opened.
A conductive flow path for the increased formation flow area is
created.
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Hydraulic Fracturing Objectives
Clearing Skip damaged area around the
wellbore.
Productivity increase is attached to decrease
the high velocities at the near-wellbore area due
to drawdown
Asphaltene deposition prevention.
Natural fractures connection
Scale deposition and H2S prevention: Time
released chemicals.
Water conning retardation
Production Enhancement through:
Production Enhancement through:
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Impact on Performance
Hydraulics fractures can be classified according
to one of three models:
infinite conductivity model
assuming no pressure loss in the fracture
uniform flux model
assumes a slight pressure gradient in the fracture
finite conductivity model
assumes constant and limited permeability in the
fracture from proppant crushing or poor proppant
distribution.
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The fracture case can be
approximated by an equivalent
wellbore having the same area
as the fracture, and the radius
of this wellbore is r
w

Effective wellbore radius


rr
w
w

r
r
w w
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Production from Darcy
Production from Darcy

s Law (radial flow)


s Law (radial flow)
Q
:
Stabilized production rate for oil BPD
k: Effective formation permeability, mD
h: Formation thickness, ft
p
avg
: Average reservoir pressure, psi
p
wf
: Bottomhole flowing pressure, psi
: Fluid viscosity, cp
|o: Oil formation volume factor,
r
e
: Drainage radius, ft
r
w
: Wellbore radius, ft
s: Skin effect
( ) | | s r r
p p kh x
Q
w e o
wf avg
+

=

75 . 0 / 472 . 0 ln
) ( 10 08 . 7
3
|
Hydraulic Fracturing Objectives
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Production increase Production increase
Hydraulic Fracturing Objectives
( )
( )
w e
w e
i
f
r r
r r
Q
Q
PI
'
= =
/ ln
/ ln
Q
f
= Stabilized production after frac
Q
i
= Stabilized production before frac
r
e
= Drainage radius
r
w
= Wellbore radius
r
w
= Effective wellbore radius
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Hydraulic Fracturing Objectives
Production increase calculations assumptions
Production increase calculations assumptions
Steady state production
Same drawdown for each production rate
Single phase flow
No skin damage for production before fracture
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Damage bypass.
Fracture length becomes
less important.
Geometry: Short and wide
fractures.
High permeability formations (k>20 mD)
High permeability formations (k>20 mD)
Hydraulic Fracturing Types
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Put more reservoir area in
contact with the well.
Fracture length controls
production increase
Geometry: Long and
narrow fractures
Low permeability formations (k Low permeability formations (k<1 <1 mD) mD)
Hydraulic Fracturing Types
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Production History
O
i
l
F
l
o
w
r
a
t
e
Time (months)
00
10 10 20 20 30 30
(
b
p
d
)
10 10
11
10 10
22
10
10
33
10 10
4
4
Without fracture
With fracture
Effect over production
Effect over production
Hydraulic Fracturing Objectives
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Effect over production Effect over production
Production
Production
performance performance
4000
6000
8000
10000
12000
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000
B
o
t
t
o
m
h
o
l
e
f
l
o
w
i
n
g
p
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
(
p
s
i
a
)
Oil flow rate (bpd)
1/4 1/4
3/8 3/8
7/16 7/16
Productivity Index
0.58 bpd/psi
Productivity Index
8.0 bpd/psi
Hydraulic Fracturing Objectives
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Hydraulic Fracturing Design
Proper treatment design is tied to several
Proper treatment design is tied to several
disciplines:
disciplines:
Production engineering
Rock Mechanics
Fluid Mechanics
Selection of optimum materials
Operations
It is a multidisciplinary approach with a multitude of variables
involved, with some uncertainty in the absolute values of these
variables: Engineering judgment is very important.
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Fracture Design Base Sequence
1. Identification of
elastic constants,
effective stress
stress field orientation.
2. Fluid selection system.
3. Proppant selection
4. Fracture propagation model on the basis
of in-situ stress and laboratory tests
calibration treatments
log analysis (e.g. stress profile, gamma ray, sonic logs).
5. Tubing stress analysis
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Fracture Design Base Sequence
6. Determine
fracture penetration
fracture conductivity
7. Determine
injection rates
fluids and proppant volumes required and fracture conductivity
obtained.
8. Determine the production rate and cumulative recovery over a
selected period of time for a specific propped penetration
9. Calculate the NPV
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Fracture Design - Input data
Geomechanical
Poisson's Ratio (Logs, Core Tests)
Youngs Modulus (Logs, Core Tests)
Fracture Toughness (Tests, History
Match)
Minimum Horizontal Stress
(Minifrac, Calculations)
Stress Contrasts (Logs, Core Tests)
Reservoir
Porosity (logs, cores)
Compressibility (Test, Calculations)
Net Pay (Logs, Cores)
Permeability (Cores, Tests)
Fluid Viscosity (Lab Tests, PVT)
Fluid Compressibility (Lab Test, PVT)
Fracture Fluids
Rheology (Lab Tests)
Density (Lab Tests)
Filter Cake (Lab Tests)
Filtrate Viscosity (Lab Tests)
Completion
Completion Schematic.
Tubular and Connections Ratings
Completion components specifications
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Rock Mechanics in Hydraulic Fracturing
In situ stresses In situ stresses
The minimum in-situ stress is the
dominant parameter controlling
fracture geometry.
The minimum in situ stress is
generally horizontal.
Hydraulic fractures are always
perpendicular to the minimum stress,
except in some complex cases.
Direction of the
minimum
horizontal
stress
o
Hmin
Direction of the
maximum
horizontal
stress
o
Hmax.
Direction of the
vertical stress
o
V
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Rock Mechanics in Hydraulic Fracturing
Stresses field and wellbore orientation
Stresses field and wellbore orientation
Schematic of the orientation of hydraulic
fractures for two horizontal wells
Orientation of hydraulic fractures
between the minimum and maximum
principal stresses
Development Phase
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Geometry models Geometry models
2D Model
The fracture height estimated remains constant for the simulation.
The fracture length grows from a line source of perforations, and all
layers have the same penetration.
The simulation can be approximated by the average modulus of all
the layers.
KGD (De Klerk-Geertsma) the fracture height is relatively large
compared with its length.
PKN (Perkins-Kern) the fracture length is the much large
compared with its height.
Rock Mechanics-Models
Rock Mechanics - Models
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Geometry models
Geometry models
Pseudo 3D model
Pseudo three-dimensional model is the same as the PKN model that is,
vertical planes deform independently.
The height of the fracture depends on the position along the fracture and
the time.
A vertical fracture will grow in a layered medium as a function of the
layer properties
Rock Mechanics-Models Rock Mechanics - Models
Development Phase
September October 2005
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Rock Mechanics - Models
2D models as a function of
2D models as a function of
A
A
P
P
L: Fracture half length ; W: Fracture width; C: Leak off coefficient H:heigh
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Fracturing fluids
Sufficient Viscosity to Create Fracture
Low Friction Pressure to Minimize Equipment Horsepower
on Location
Sufficient Leakoff Control to Efficiently Create and
Propagate Fracture
Sufficient Viscosity to Transport Proppant
Must lose Viscosity (or break) after placement to
facilitate production
Development Phase
September October 2005
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INTRODUCTION TO HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION
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Fracturing fluids
Year
0
20
40
60
80
100
49 53 57 61 65 69 73 77 81 85 89 93 97
%
T
r
e
a
t
m
e
n
t
s
Water
Oil
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Fracturing fluids
Oil fluids
Non-damaging to clays
Compatible with formation fluids
More expensive & operationally difficult to handle. Only
used in extremely water sensitive formations.
Water fluids
Safe
Available
Economical
Controlled break times
Broad temperature range
Development Phase
September October 2005
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Fracturing Fluids
Viscosity Viscosity
Newtonian Fluid
Newtonian Fluid
Viscosity = Stress / Shear Rate
Non Non--Newtonian Fluid Newtonian Fluid
Viscosity = k/
(1-n)
Power law Model of Viscosity used in Fracture
Simulations
= Shear rate
k = Consistency Index.
n = Fluid Behaviour index
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Fracturing fluids
Fracturing Fluids Chemicals
Polymers
Cross linkers
pH Control
Gel Breakers
Clay Control
Surfactants
Fluid loss Additives
Biocides
Development Phase
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Fracturing fluids - Polymers
Hydrated Polymer
+ H
2
O
Dry polymer is added to water to swell (hydrate),
forming a viscous gel fluid.
Base Gel
Dry polymer
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Fracturing fluids - High Viscosity Guar
Can be used in
brines.
6-8 % residue.
Easy to crosslink.
40 Lb/Mgal 36 cp
Viscosity of Linear Guar Viscosity of Linear Guar
Fluids vs. Temperature
Fluids vs. Temperature
Development Phase
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Fracturing Fluids Hydroxypropyl Guar (HPG)
Can be used in brines.
1-2 % residue.
Good crosslink control
Good thermal stability-High
temperature wells
20 lb/Mgal
30 lb/Mgal 40 lb/Mgal
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Fracturing Fluids CarboxymethylhydroxypropylGuar
(CMHPG)
Can be used in brines.
1-2 % residue.
Good crosslink control.
Excellent thermal stability.
40 lb/Mgal 28 cp
Development Phase
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Fracturing Fluids - Hydroxyethyl Cellulose (HEC)
Can be used in brines.
Residue Free.
Not Crosslinkable.
Limited Thermal Stability.
40 lb/Mgal 46 cP
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Bio-polymer and behaves like a power fluid
Can be used in brines.
3% Residue.
Difficult to break control
Easy to Crosslink.
Good Thermal stability.
40 lb/Mgal 20 cp
More expensive than gaur but provide better
suspension
Fracturing Fluids Xanthan (XC)
Development Phase
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Liquid Gel Concentrates ( LGC ) Liquid Gel Concentrates ( LGC )
A dispersion of non-swelling polymer stabilized in
a hydrocarbon base
~50 % polymer + ~50 % diesel
Fracturing Fluids LGC
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Fracturing Fluids Crosslinking agent
Metal Ions used to cross link
polymers
Borate
Zirconium
Titanium
Antimony
Aluminium
Crosslink Reaction Crosslink Reaction
Linking the OH at high Ph
Development Phase
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Fracturing Fluids Crosslinked Frac fluids
350 B G,HPG
400 Zr CMHPG
275 Zr CMHPG
200 B G
300 B G,HPG
300 Ti HPG
300 B+Zr G
275 Zr G
Max. Temp F Crosslinker Polymer
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Relatively high viscosity fluids are used to transport proppant
into the fracture.
Leaving a high-viscosity fluid in the fracture would reduce the
permeability of the proppant pack to oil and gas, limiting the
effectiveness of the fracture treatment.
Gel breakers are used to reduce the viscosity of the fluid
intermingled with the proppant.
Breakers reduce viscosity by cleaving the polymer into small-
molecular weight fragments.
The most widely used fracturing fluid breakers are oxidizers
and enzymes.
Fracturing Fluids Gel breakers
Development Phase
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Enzymes
Enzymes
-
-
Hemicellulase
Hemicellulase
Soluble / 60 -140 F / pH 4 -8
Encapsulated / 75 - 175 F / pH 4 9
They begin to degrade the polymer on mixing at
ambient temperatures.
Oxidizers (Soluble and encapsulated) Oxidizers (Soluble and encapsulated)
Ammonium peroxydisulfate
Calcium peroxide
Sodium bromate
Fracturing Fluids Gel breakers
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Se Selection of Breaker lection of Breaker
Fracturing Fluids Gel breakers
Development Phase
September October 2005
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pH Control pH Control
High pH (12) for Borate crosslinked fluids.
0
7 14
Basic
Neutral
Acid
+
= ) (H Log pH
Importance of pH control
Importance of pH control
Polymer Hydration rate.
Crosslinking rate.
Gel Stability
Gel Break rate.
Fracturing Fluids pH control
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pH Control Chemicals
pH Control Chemicals
Acid Acid
Sulphamic Acid
Acetic Acid (CH3COOH)
Fumaric Acid, Organic acid.
HCL
Base
Base
Sodium bicarbonate.
Sodium carbonate
Liquid carbonate
Solution 25% NaOH
Fracturing Fluids pH control
Development Phase
September October 2005
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Properties of Surfactants
Reduce interfacial tension and capillary pressure
Alter wetting properties of surfaces-Formation
conditioning agents
Stabilize or break emulsions
Stabilize Foams and prevent sludge
Fracturing Fluids Surfactants
Surfactants molecules have two distinct parts.
Water Soluble Head
Water Soluble Head
Oil Soluble Tail Oil Soluble Tail
A surface active agent that at low concentration adsorbs
at interface between two immiscible substances.
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Surfactants migrate to interface between solids, liquid
Surfactants migrate to interface between solids, liquid
and gases and gases
Water Oil
Fracturing Fluids Surfactants
Development Phase
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Inorganic Salts
KCL, NACL, CaCL2, NH4CL
Cationic Polymers-Quaternary amines
Fracturing Fluids Clay swelling control
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Fracturing Fluids Fluid loss
Fluid Loss Fluid Loss
Fluid loss to the formation during a fracturing treatment is a filtration
process that is controlled by a number of parameters, including fluid
composition, flow rate and pressure, and reservoir properties such as
permeability, pressure, fluid saturation, pore size and the presence of
micro fractures.
Fluid Loss Control Fluid Loss Control
Filtrate viscosity and relative permeability.
Wall-building fluids: Filter Cake.
(polymer and/or fluid-loss additives, silica, starch, soaps, waxes)
Multi Phase Flow viscosity
Development Phase
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Fluid Loss
Fluid Loss
Fracturing fluid
Gel Filter Cake
Zone Invaded by water
Uncontaminated Formation
Fracturing Fluids Fluid loss
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Fracturing Fluids Polymer damage
Development Phase
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PrimeFRAC
Low Polymer High
Temperature
Fracturing Fluid
Fracturing Fluids Low polymer/High T
Broad field water chemistry compatibility
No pre-treatment required
Thermally delayed crosslink easily controlled
Low buffered crosslink pH
Controllable viscosity reduction with breakers
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PrimeFRAC
Stable Low Polymer Rheology Over a Broad Temperature Range
(30 ppt polymer, Fann50 B5Bob, API Testing)
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
0 50 100 150 200
Time (minutes)
V
i
s
c
o
s
i
t
y
@
1
0
0
s
e
c
-
1
(
c
p
)
350F
300F
YF850HT-
300F
250F
Fracturing Fluids Low Polymer/High T
Development Phase
September October 2005
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Viscoelastic Surfactant Based Systems (VES)
First polymer free, water-based
fracturing fluid
Commercialized in 1997
Three VES systems currently
available
Fracturing Fluids Viscoelastic
+ +
+
+
+
+ +
+
+
+ +
+
+ +
+
+
+
+ +
+
+
+
+
+
+ +
+ +
+
+
+
+ +
+
+
+
+
+
+ +
+
+
+
+ +
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+ +
+
+
+
+
+ +
+
+
+
+
+
+
+ +
+
+
+ +
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+ +
+
+
+
+ +
+ +
+
+
+
+ +
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+ +
+
+
+
+ +
+
+ +
+
+
+
+ +
+
+
+ +
+
+
+
+ +
+
+
+
+ +
+
+
+
+
+
+ +
+
+
+
+ +
+
+
+
+
+
Viscoelastic Surfactant
Electrolyte
Rod Shaped Micelles
e.g.,
NH
4
Cl
KCl
MgCl
2
+
=
ClearFRAC Principle
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Micellar Structure
Rod Shaped Wormlike
Fracturing Fluids Viscoelastic
Development Phase
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Fracturing Fluids Selection
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Proppant selection-Fracture conductivity
Fracture conductivity
Fracture conductivity
Placing the appropriate amount and type of proppant in the
fracture is critical to the success of a hydraulic fracturing
treatment.
It is defined as the relative ease with which the injected
fracture fluids and proppants flow to the wellbore fracture.
Development Phase
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Proppant selection Fracture Conductivity
Fracture Conductivity
Fracture Conductivity
Fracture permeability x Fracture width
C
f
= k
f
x w
f
Fracture with
proppant
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Fracture length
Fracture width
Proppant concentration-Physical properties
Proppant size and type
Proppant transport
Closure stress on proppant bed
Bottomhole temperature
Treatment fluid effects
Movement of formation fines
Factors affecting conductivity Factors affecting conductivity
Proppant selection Fracture Conductivity
Development Phase
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Closure stress
Closure stress
The stress applied to the proppant bed when the
fracture has closed.
Proppant selection Fracture Conductivity
Closure pressure
Closure pressure
The pressure above reservoir pressure which a fracture
will open or close.
This pressure is equal to the least principal stress.
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Proppants
They are used to hold the walls of fracture apart and
create a conductive path to the wellbore after pumping
has stopped and fracturing fluid leaked-off.
Sand
Premium sands come from Illinois, Minnesota and
Wisconsin. These sands greatly exceed API standards.
They are commonly known as:
Northern sand;
White sand;
Ottawa sand;
Jordan sand;
St. Peters sand;
Wonewoc sand.
The specific gravity of sand is approximately 2.65.
Development Phase
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Resin Coated Sand
Resin coatings may be applied to improve proppant
strength.
The resin coating on the proppant is usually cured during
the manufacturing process to form a non melting, inert
film.
When the grains crush the resin coating helps
encapsulate the crushed portions of the grains and
prevents them from migrating and plugging the flow
channel.
Resin coated sands usually have a specific gravity of
about 2.55.
Proppants
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Types of Proppants
Intermediate Strength Proppants
Intermediate strength proppants (ISP) are fused ceramic
proppants that have a specific gravity between 2.7 and
3.3.
ISPs are mainly used for closure stress ranges between
5,000 psi and 10,000 psi.
High Strength Proppants
Sintered bauxite and zirconium oxide are high strength
propping agents with a specific gravity of about 3.4 or
higher.
Generally limited to wells with very high closure stresses.
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Effect of Proppant Type
Effect of Proppant Type
20/40, 200 F, 2.0 lb/ft
00:00 3000
6000 9000
12000 15000
Stress (psi)
0
2000
4000
6000
8000
10000
12000
C
o
n
d
u
c
t
i
v
i
t
y
(
m
d
*
f
t
)
Proppant Type
H Brady
H Ottawa
H CARBOPROP/INTERPROP
S SINTERED BAUXITE
At 7000 psi,
Cond = 5336 md*ft
Proppant selection Fracture Conductivity
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Sand
Resin Coated Sand
Inter-Strength Ceramic
Inter-Strength Bauxite
High-Strength Bauxite
0 5 10 15 20
6
8
10
15
20
Closure Stress psi x 1000
Proppant type vs. Closure stress
Proppant type vs. Closure stress
Proppant selection Fracture Conductivity
Development Phase
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Dimensionless Conductivity Ratio Dimensionless Conductivity Ratio - - Cinco Cinco--Ley Ley
F
CD
: Dimensionless conductivity ratio
k
f
: Fracture permeability (mD)
k: Formation permeability (mD)
w: Fracture width (ft)
X
f
: Fracture half length (ft)
Fracture Fracture
Conductivity Conductivity
Formation Formation
conductivity conductivity
f
f
CD
x k
w k
F =
Conductivity considerations
Excellent >50
Good 10-50
Poor <10 F
cD
Excellent 10000 md-ft
Good 1000 md-ft
Poor 100 md-ft k
f
.W
Excellent 1000 D
Good 100 D
Poor 10 D k
f
Characteristic Value Quantity
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Moderate permeability formations
Moderate permeability formations
(1 mD < k< 15 mD)
(1 mD < k< 15 mD)
ECONOMIC ANALYSIS
Damage bypass.
Fracture length becomes
less important.
Geometry: Short and wide
fractures.
High permeability High permeability
formations (k>20 mD) formations (k>20 mD)
Put more reservoir area in
contact with the well.
Fracture length controls
production increase
Geometry: Long and
narrow fractures
Low permeability formations Low permeability formations
(k (k<1 <1 mD) mD)
Conductivity considerations
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2) 2) Proppant cost Proppant cost
Including,
Proppant,
Proppant transportation to
location and storage,
Proppant pumping charges.
4) Other fixed costs 4) Other fixed costs
Including,
Mobilization,
Personnel,
Well preparation (workover
rig, etc.)
Cleanup costs (coiled tubing,
disposal, etc.)
1) 1) Fluid cost Fluid cost
Including,
Fracture fluid,
Fracture additives,
Mixing and blending
charges,
Transportation, storage
and disposal charges.
3)
3)
Hydraulic horsepower
Hydraulic horsepower
(hhp)
(hhp)
cost = ($/hhp)x((injection
rate x surface treating
pressure/40.8) +standby hhp)
Economic considerations
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Quality of the cement job for
zonal isolation.
Size and conditions of wellbore
tubulars.
Perforations
Wellbore deviation
Other factors to take into account for design Other factors to take into account for design
Proppant selection Fracture Conductivity
Development Phase
September October 2005
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Tubing stress analysis
Completion integrity during the
Hydraulic Fracture Treatment
Define potential completion risks and
Identify the required operational
considerations to meet the specified safety
factors for burst, tension and collapse
under the load conditions.
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Evolution of Proppant Distribution
During Pumping
Evolution of Proppant Distribution Evolution of Proppant Distribution
During Pumping During Pumping
The first proppant stage is injected
Pad
Pad
1 lb/gal 1 lb/gal
c
Design
Development Phase
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At intermediate time
1 lb/gal
Concentrated
to 3 lb/gal
1 lb/gal 1 lb/gal
Concentrated Concentrated
to 3 lb/gal to 3 lb/gal
3 lb/gal 3 lb/gal
2 lb/gal
to
3 lb/gal
2 lb/gal
to
3 lb/gal
Pad Pad
c
Evolution of Proppant Distribution
During Pumping
Evolution of Proppant Distribution
Evolution of Proppant Distribution
During Pumping
During Pumping
Design
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Evolution of Proppant Distribution
During Pumping
Evolution of Proppant Distribution Evolution of Proppant Distribution
During Pumping During Pumping
At End of Pumping
1 lb/gal
1 lb/gal
concentrated concentrated
to 5 lb/gal to 5 lb/gal
55
lb/gal lb/gal
3 to 5 lb/gal 3 to 5 lb/gal
Proppant
Proppant
Settling Settling
4 to 5 lb/gal 4 to 5 lb/gal
2 to 2 to
5 lb/gal
5 lb/gal
c
Design
Development Phase
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The pad volume determines how much fracture penetration can be
achieved before proppant reaches the tip and stops penetration in
the pay zone.
Too much pad can cause that fracture tip continues to propagate
after pumping stops, leaving a large umpropped region near the
fracture tip. An afterflow can occur in the fracture, carrying proppant
toward the tip and living a poor final proppant distribution.
The ideal schedule is one where the pad depletes and proppant
reaches the fracture tip just at the desired fracture penetration is
achieved and also just as pumping stops.
Design
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The tip screen-out fracturing technique applies hydraulic fracturing
technology to create a wide, short, fracture that yields high
production rates with reduced pressure drops. It can be a highly
effective technique in stimulating maximum production from weak
formations.
A TSO is designed to cause proppant to pack at an specific location
because of width restriction, pad depletion or slurry dehydration.
Once packing occurs, further fracture propagation ceases at this
point, usually at the tip. Continued injection increases the hydraulic
fracture width and final conductivity
Tip Screen-out (TSO)
Tip Screen Tip Screen- - out (TSO) out (TSO)
Design
Development Phase
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Strategic Locations
on a Pressure Response Curve
Strategic Locations Strategic Locations
on a Pressure Response Curve on a Pressure Response Curve
Job execution
I
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R
a
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B
o
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o
m
h
o
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P
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e
s
s
u
r
e
B
o
t
t
o
m
h
o
l
e
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
Shut-in
Shut-in
Flowback
Flowback
Injection Rate Injection Rate
Pressure Pressure
S
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d
I
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j
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c
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S
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d
I
n
j
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c
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C
y
c
l
e
C
y
c
l
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F
i
r
s
t
I
n
j
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c
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i
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n
F
i
r
s
t
I
n
j
e
c
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i
o
n
C
y
c
l
e
C
y
c
l
e
2
2
3
3
44 4
5 5
66
77
8
8
1
1
1- Formation Breakdown
2- Propagation
3- Instantaneous Shut-In
4- Closure Pressure FromFall-Off
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Strategic Locations on a Pressure Response Curve
Strategic Locations on a Pressure Response Curve
Development Phase
September October 2005
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Treatment schedule-Example
Job execution
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Fcd = 0.9
Simulation results - Example
Job execution
Development Phase
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Job execution
Operation Layout
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Additives/proppant deposits
Manifold
(inlet/outlet)
Blender
Job execution
Development Phase
September October 2005
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Pump Truck
Job execution
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Equipment
Reference treatment Reference treatment
Qmax: 60 bbl/min
hhp used: 17600
hhp Available: 20000
Volume: 3.2 million lb proppant
Job execution
Development Phase
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Job execution
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MLD (Minilateral Lateral Drilling). The drilling of laterals
tunnels around the wellbore, through the casing and cement into
the formation, creating a draining architecture (fish bone
structure) that will have a direct impact over the flow
performance in the well, depending on the number of tunnels
created.
Formation Penetration (MLD tool): Up to 2 mt (6.6 ft), tunnels.
Description (MLD Tool): Downhole tool system designed to
produce communication tunnels, radially from an existing
wellbore into reservoir rock, for up to 2 meters in length. The tool
drills one tunnel at a time, each requiring 10 to 20 minutes to
complete, and is capable of making multiple tunnels during a
single run.
Alternative technology wellbore communication
Development Phase
September October 2005
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Tool sizes: The MLD tool is available for casing sizes of 4 1/2", 5",
5 1/2", 6 5/8", 7" , 8 5/8", 9 5/8".
Drilling Tunnels: The creation of the tunnels will be governed by
factors such as well depth and rock Lithology. The completion fluid
will also affect the number of tunnels that can be completed on a
single trip normally the tool will be capable of 4 to 8 tunnels per
run.
Work over fluids: A selection of the work over fluid should be made
based on its compatibility with the formation fluids and mineralogy
to reduce the risk of formation damage during the operation. Fluids
such as light oil would often be a good choice.
Alternative technology wellbore communication
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2005 Abalt Solutions Limited. All rights reserved
Pratap Thimaiah
Acidizing Applications
Development Phase
September October 2005
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Overview
Matrix stimulation is injecting an acid/solvent
at below the fracturing pressure of the
formation
to dissolve/disperse materials that impair well
production in sandstone reservoirs
to create new, unimpaired flow channels in
carbonate reservoirs
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Sandstone vs. Carbonate Acidizing
Sandstone:
A small fraction of the matrix is soluble
Relatively slow reacting acid dissolves the
permeability damaging minerals
Carbonate:
A large fraction of the matrix is soluble (>50%)
Rapid reacting acid creates new flow paths by
dissolving formation rock
Damaged
zone
Wellbore
Development Phase
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Key Issues
Successful matrix treatments require
Correct choice of fluid to attack damage
Uniform placement of treating fluid
Improper placement
increases heterogeneity
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Candidate Selection
Good Wells Make the Best Candidates for
Well Stimulation - Al Jennings
Candidate Selection (Recognition) is the
process of identifying and selecting wells for
treatment which have the capacity for higher
production and better economic return.
Development Phase
September October 2005
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Candidate Selection Process
Review numerous wells.
Review of well logs/records, reservoir characteristics
and information on the completion/previous
workovers.
Map the productivity of each well.
Establish reasonable upper production potential for
fracturing and matrix stimulation techniques.
Evaluate potential mechanical problems.
Focus on wells with the highest reward and lowest
risk.
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1
10
100
1000
0 20000 40000 60000 80000 100000 120000
Cumulative Oil, Bbls
O
i
l
R
a
t
e
,
B
O
P
D
offset well
Data Sources
Production History
Oil/Gas/Water
production
Decline curve
Drive mechanism
Logs
SP, Gamma, Porosity,
Production logs
Reservoir
characteristics
Hydrocarbon
Homogeneous/Laminat
ed
Thickness
WOC/GOC
Water oil contact
Gas-oil contact
Development Phase
September October 2005
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INTRODUCTION TO HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION
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Data Sources
Workovers
Well tests
Kh
Skin
Pres
Drilling records
Type of mud
Losses
Completion
Openhole/Cased/Fractur
ed
Directional survey
Tubing/Casing
USIT
Callipers
Build up test
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Establish Production Potential
Gap
P
r
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s
s
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Flow Rate
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r
Tubing
Existing
productio
n
Potential
production
Development Phase
September October 2005
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Matrix Acidizing
Formation Damage Characterization
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Near-wellbore damage limits production
Swelling clays
Migrating clays/silts
Inorganic
scales
Paraffin/Asphaltene
deposits
Drilling damage
Emulsio
n
damage
Wettabilit
y change
Damage
reduces oil
flow
Development Phase
September October 2005
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Formation Damage Characterization
Fines Migration
Swelling Clays
Scale Deposits
Organic Deposits
Paraffins
Asphaltenes
Mixed Deposits
Bacteria
Induced Particles
Solids
LCM/Kill Fluids
Precipitates
Oil Based Mud
Emulsion Block
Wettability Changes
Water Block
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Silt and Clays = Fines
Origins
Indigenous - clays, silica fines
Drilling fluid invasion
Potential problems
Fines migration causes plugging
Clay swelling
High production rates can entrain particles and
cause bridging.
Indicators of particle migration
Produced water may be turbid
Production decline increases with increasing flow
rate.
Clays and silica fines are insoluble in HCl.
Development Phase
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Inorganic mineral deposits.
Formed due to supersaturation at wellbore
conditions or commingling of incompatible fluids.
Form in the plumbing system of the well, in the
perforations or in the near-wellbore region.
E.g.
Calcium carbonate/sulfate
Barium sulfate
Iron carbonate/oxide/sulphide
Scale
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Linear or branched-chain saturated aliphatic
hydrocarbons
C
20
H
42
to C
60
H
122
Moderate molecular weights
Sharp melting points
Needle like crystals - granular particles
Soft to hard, brittle solids
Limited solubility in crude oils
Soluble in:
Distillates
Aromatics
Carbon Tetrachloride and Carbon Disulfide
Burns with a clean flame
Paraffins
Development Phase
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Asphaltene Deposits on Calcite
Asphaltene Deposits
Aggregate of condensed polycyclic aromatic ring
Types of asphaltene deposits
Hard coal-like deposits
Sludges and rigid film emulsions
Colloidally dispersed in crude oils
Burns with black sooty flame
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RDF (STARDRILL) Filter Cake
Filter cake Formation
Drilling Damage
Filter cake should prevent
extensive damage to
formation during drilling
Low permeability (~ 0.001md)
filter cake may be damaging
during production
formation permeability may
be impaired
potential plugging of
screen/ gravel pack
Openhole completions do not
have perforations or fractures
to bypass any damage
Filter cake removal maybe a
necessity!
Development Phase
September October 2005
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Emulsion
A stable dispersion of two immiscible fluids.
Formed by invasion of filtrates into all zones
or co-mixing of oil-based filtrates with
formation brines.
Stabilized by fines and surfactants
Treatment: Mutual Solvents, Clean Sweep
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Water Block
Reduction in relative
permeability to oil due to
increased water saturation in
the near wellbore region.
Favored by pore-lining clay
minerals (Illite)
Treatment
Reduction of interfacial
tension using
surfactants/alcohol's in acid
carrier
1 1
K
ro
K
rw
0
0 1 S
wc
1-S
or
S
w
Water Wet
Oil Wet
K
ro
K
rw
Development Phase
September October 2005
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Sandstone Acidizing
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Sandstone Acidizing
Fluid selection acid type concentration and
volume
Wellbore and Completion characteristics
Injection schedule planned rate schedule and
sequence of injected fluids.
Acid coverage and diversion (placement
technique) special steps taken to improve acid
contact with the formation.
Primary design considerations Primary design considerations
Development Phase
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Methodology
Methodology
Identify the damage mechanism
Determine the mineralogy
Know the well parameters
Know the well fluids
Select the specific system
Apply the treatment
Follow the results
Sandstone Acidizing
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Quartz
*Feldspars
*Chert
*Mica
Secondary
Cement
(Carbonate Quartz)
Clays
(Pore lining
i.e., illite)
Clays
(Pore filling
i.e., Kaolinite)
Remaining Pore Space
*Mud Acid Soluble/Sensitive
*Porosity-Filling
Minerals
Sandstone's
Sandstone's
-
-
Mineralogy
Mineralogy
Sandstone Acidizing
Development Phase
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Well parameters Well parameters Well fluids Well fluids
Type of well (gas, multiphase)..
Bottomhole static temperature
Formation permeability
K > 5 mD is
required
Sandstone Acidizing
It is important to know
the compatibility between
the produced fluids and the
acid (emulsion/sludge test).
Also the fluids used to drill
or complete the well.
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The most common acids are Hydrochloric acid,
HCl, and Hydrofluoric Acid, HF.
HCl is used to dissolve carbonate minerals.
Mud Acid (Hydrofluoric/ Hydrochloric) is used
to attack silicate minerals such as clays and
feldspars.
The regular mud acid is 12%HCl 3%HF
Some weak organic acid are used in special
applications such high temperature wells.
Sandstones acids Sandstones acids
Sandstone Acidizing
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Sandstone Acidizing HF reactions
Due to mineralogical differences, HF chemical
reactions in sandstones acidizing are very
complex.
Carbonate acidizing involves only one reaction:
the reaction of acid with carbonate minerals to
form calcium salts, water and carbon dioxide .
HF reactions
HF reactions
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Primary reactions dissolves skin damage
as assumed.
1
st
Reac..
Sandstone Acidizing HF reactions
Development Phase
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Primary Reaction:
HF + M-Al-Si AlF
x
+ HSiF
5
+ M
+
Silicon Fluorides Aluminium Fluorides
This is the reaction that removes damage and improves
permeability
Sandstone Acidizing HF reactions
Aluminium Silicates
Metals ions associated with
the clay
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2
nd
Reac..
Secondary precipitation decreases formation
permeability. Silicon fluorides form when acids are
incompatible with mineralogy.
Sandstone Acidizing HF reactions
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Secondary and Tertiary Reactions
Secondary Reaction:
HSiF
5
+ M-Al-Si + H
+
Silica gel + H
2
O + AlF
x
+M
This is the reaction of the silicon fluorides with clays and feldspar.
The silicon is precipitated in a silica gel.
During this reaction a secondary precipitation can occur, decreasing the
treatment efficiency or the treatment to fail.
Sodium and potassium present in the formation can form gelatinous
solids which can cause severe plugging problems.
Silicon Fluorides
Aluminium Silicates
(M: Metals ions associated with
the clay)
Aluminium Fluorides
Metals ions
associated with the
clay
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Sandstone Acidizing HF reactions
Acid continues to react causing aluminium to precipitate.
Aluminium-silicate scale clogs wellbore.
Scales in a pipe.
Development Phase
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Tertiary Reaction:
AlF
x
+ mineral + AlF
y
+ silica gel
Sandstone Acidizing HF reactions
In this reaction the aluminium fluorides react until all remaining
acid is consumed
The resulting high aluminium concentration and low acid
concentration can lead to aluminium precipitation within the
formation or scaling within the wellbore. This aluminium-silicate
scaling can occur days or months following an HF treatment.
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Can cause fines migration
problems; is ion
exchanging. Contains
potassium which can cause
fluosilicate precipitation
from spent HF.
Sandstone's
Sandstone's
-
-
Mineralogy
Mineralogy
Sandstone Acidizing - design
Illite
Development Phase
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Is ion exchanging, swells in
fresh water, and frequently
contains potassium which
can cause fluosilicate
precipitation from spent HF.
Sandstone's
Sandstone's
-
-
Mineralogy
Mineralogy
Sandstone Acidizing - design
Mixed-layer clay
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Sandstone's
Sandstone's
-
-
Mineralogy
Mineralogy
Sandstone Acidizing - design
Potassium feldspar
Fluosilicate precipitation can
create major problems
Chlorite
Is ion exchanging and is
unstable in HCl
Development Phase
September October 2005
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INTRODUCTION TO HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION
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Sandstone Acidizing design
Treatment stages
Treatment stages

Pre
Pre
-
-
flush
flush
conditions by:
conditions by:
Dissolving carbonates
Pushing fluids out of the way
Preparing formation through ion exchange
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Sandstone Acidizing design
Treatment stages Treatment stages Main Treatment Main Treatment
Dissolves skin damage to improve formation
permeability
Development Phase
September October 2005
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INTRODUCTION TO HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION
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Sandstone Acidizing design
Treatment stages
Treatment stages

Over flush
Over flush
Secondary precipitation near wellbore by
driving out fluids
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Sandstone Acidizing design
Treatment stages Treatment stages Displacement Displacement
Maximizing by forcing fluids from pipe
Development Phase
September October 2005
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INTRODUCTION TO HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION
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Sandstone Acidizing Fluid Stages
Brine preflush displaces brines containing incompatible
cations away from the wellbore.
HCl (or organic acid) preflush removes CaCO
3
from matrix
to prevent the precipitation of CaF
2
.
Mud acid removes alumina-silicate formation damage
Overflush displaces spent acid away from the critical matrix.
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Acidizing Additives
Inhibitors
Surfactants
Foaming Agents
Mutual Solvents
Anti-sludge Agents
Non-Emulsifiers
Iron Control
Friction Reducers
Clay Control
Specialty Additives
Development Phase
September October 2005
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INTRODUCTION TO HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION
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Guidelines for Acid Placement
Several placement techniques are available
Mechanical methods
Bridging agents and diverters
selective fluids
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Fluid Placement - Diversion
Successful acid matrix treatments, require
the acid to be placed so that all potentially
productive intervals accept a sufficient
quantity of the total acid volume.
To achieve uniform damage removal, the
original flow distribution across the
treated interval needs to be altered to
provide generally equal acid distribution.
The methods used to alter this flow
distribution are called diversion methods.
Development Phase
September October 2005
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INTRODUCTION TO HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION
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Fluid Placement - Diversion
Criteria for selection of a diversion technique Criteria for selection of a diversion technique
Must provide uniform distribution of treating fluid
Must not cause permanent damage to formation
A rapid and complete cleanup must be possible
Diversion agent must be compatible with the
treating fluid
Must be effective at the applicable treatment
temperature
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Fluid Placement -
Packers
Ball Sealers
conventional
density
ball sealer
buoyant
ball sealer
Mechanical Methods Mechanical Methods
Development Phase
September October 2005
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INTRODUCTION TO HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION
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Mechanical Placement Techniques
Advantages:
Less sensitive to chemical composition of fluid
and temperature.
Disadvantages:
Requires special equipment.
Requires good zonal isolation.
Requires adapted completion (no gravel pack or
open hole).
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Diversion
Bridging agents (solids) External diverters
Water Soluble
Oil soluble
Viscous plugs Internal diverters
Reactive
Visco-elastic surfactants
Foam
Chemical Methods Chemical Methods
Development Phase
September October 2005
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INTRODUCTION TO HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION
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External Diverting Agents
Advantages
Dont require rigs or special downhole tools.
Disadvantages
Compatibility between diverter and fluids
Solubility
Dispersability
Careful design required to match rock pore size
distribution.
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Water Soluble Diverting Agents
Sodium benzoate:
C
6
H
5
COONa + HCl C
6
H
5
COOH +
Na
+
+ Cl
-
(Benzoic Acid)
It is dissolved by injection water after acting as
a diverter and results in easy cleanup.
The benzoic acid is partly soluble in the treating
fluid and can be at used up to 5 Darcy's
permeability. It is designed for treating
injection wells with up to 150F bottom hole
injection temperature
Development Phase
September October 2005
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INTRODUCTION TO HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION
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Internal Chemical Diverters
Problem
Flow paths that exist or are created behind the
sandface, or behind screens cannot be plugged
with external diverters.
Solution
Reactive diverting agents (U102)
OilSEEKER
Foam MAT Diversion Service
Benefits
Improves zonal coverage during matrix
stimulation of horizontal and vertical wells
Improves treatment success and production
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OilSEEKER
OilSEEKER is based on VES
technology.
Contains no solids,
polymer or nitrogen
Very easy to mix and
pump in the field
Selectively plugs the high-water-
saturation zones, causing acid to
enter the high-oil-saturation
zone.
Compatibility testing must be
performed
VES diverters have the
significant advantage of
leaving no formation
damage creating residue
in the formation.
OilSEEKE
R
Mw = 450
Development Phase
September October 2005
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INTRODUCTION TO HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION
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OilSEEKER: Features and Benefits
Improve acid placement in high water-cut
wells
Vertical
Deviated
Horizontal
Applicable in oil/gas condensate wells
Carbonates
Sandstones
Easy to mix and apply in the field
Does not require nitrogen
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Foam Diversion Process: Step 1
Damaged Zone
Thief Zone
Clean the near wellbore area using
brine
Displace oil or condensate
Development Phase
September October 2005
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INTRODUCTION TO HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION
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Foam Diversion Process: Step 2
Damaged Zone
Thief Zone
2
1
Saturate the near wellbore region with foamer
Remove damage form the thief zone
Saturate the rock with foamer to stabilize the foam
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Foam Diversion Process: Step 3
Damaged Zone
2
1
Thief Zone
Foam injection- Inject HCl or brine
containing a foaming agent (F101, F78,
F52.1, or F75N)
Foam bank is formed in both layers
Development Phase
September October 2005
abalt solutions limited - 2005
INTRODUCTION TO HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION
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Foam Diversion Process: Step 4
Damaged Zone
2
1
Thief Zone
Shut-in period
Foam dissipates rapidly in damaged
zone
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Foam Diversion Process: Step 5
Damaged Zone
2
1
Thief Zone
Inject treating fluid containing foamer
Acid preferentially flows into low perm
layer
Development Phase
September October 2005
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INTRODUCTION TO HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION
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Foaming Agent Selection Guide
For HCI, Mud Acid and Clay Acid treatments
Permeability
(md)
100F to 125F
38C to 52C
126F to 215F
53C to 102C
216F to 250F
103C to 121C
251F to 300F
122C to 149C
< 10 F75N or F101 F101 F78 F78
10 to 100 F75N or F101 F101 F78 F78
101 to 200
F75N or F101 F101 F78 F78
> 200 F101 F101 F78 F78
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Benefits of Staged Foam Diversion
Effective zone coverage and damage removal
Design is based on specific reservoir
parameters
Customized treatment design is computer
generated and modified on the fly.
Non-damaging diverter system is used
Very cost effective
Easy to apply in the field using standard
products and conventional equipment
Development Phase
September October 2005
abalt solutions limited - 2005
INTRODUCTION TO HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION
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Why Acidizing through Coiled Tubing
Performing the treatment through CT avoids exposing the wellhead
or completion tubulars to direct contact with corrosive treatment
fluids.
CT movement provides the ability to accurately place small volumes
of acid. Spotting the treatment fluid with CT will help to ensure
complete coverage of the interval.
The CT pressure control equipment configuration allows the
treatment to be performed on a live well. The potential formation
damage associated with well killing operation and the corresponding
loss of production time are thereby avoided.
Jetting effect is something that can be effective in smaller casings
and provided that a proper purpose built nozzle is used. This cannot
be achieved with conventional techniques.
It is imperative, in many matrix treatments, to perform the well
flow back as soon as possible after the acid job.
Spotting the treatment fluid also avoids the need to bullhead
wellbore fluids into the formation ahead of the treatment.
Long intervals can be more effectively treated using techniques and
tools that have been developed for use with CT, This is particularly
important in horizontal wellbores.
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Dual Inflatable Packer
Coiled Tubing
Connector and release
joint assembly
Deployment bar
Control section
Upper inflatable packer
Spacer section
Lower inflatable packer
Development Phase
September October 2005
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INTRODUCTION TO HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION
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Downhole Sensor Package (DSP)
Real-time downhole data acquisition system
monitor temperature
pressure
casing collar
Accurate BHP and BHT data for any well profile
Evaluate - Treat - Evaluate
Optimized diversion
Plasticcoated cable
insideCT string
Cableclamp and
check valveassembly
Mechanical
releasesub
assembly
Pressureand
temperature sensors
Treatment
ports/nozzle
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Safety Considerations
Flow back
Unspent acid
Masks
Pin hole development
Swivel leaks
Communication devices
Gas detectors - H2S
Leather gloves/eye wash bottles/eye goggles
Development Phase
September October 2005
abalt solutions limited - 2005
INTRODUCTION TO HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION
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Foam diversion CT Rig Up
Nitrogen /Foam
generation
package
BOP Kill Port
Pumping tee
below
pressure
control
equipment
Production
Tubing
CT Nozzle/
tools
Disposal
Sample
Point
Process and Recirculate
Choke
Manifold
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Pressure Control Equip. Configuration
BOP kill port - Acid corrosive fluids must
never be pumped through this port
Pump-in Tee - Avoid pumping
acid through the swab valve
Wing Valve - Preferred connection
for pumping and flowing
Casing Valve
Production Tubing
Coiled Tubing
Development Phase
September October 2005
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INTRODUCTION TO HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION
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2005 Abalt Solutions Limited. All rights reserved
Carbonate Acidizing
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Wormholes
Matrix Acidizing
Fracture Acidizing
Conductive
etch paths
Stimulation of Carbonates
The injection of acids into carbonate reservoirs
leads to the formation of highly conductive flow
channels.
Development Phase
September October 2005
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INTRODUCTION TO HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION
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HCl / Carbonate Rocks Rxns
Limestone:
CaCO
3
+ 2HCl ---> CaCl
2
+ CO
2
+ H
2
0
Dolomite:
CaMg(CO
3
)
2
+ 4HCl ---> CaCl
2
+ MgCl
2
+2H
2
O
+ 2CO
2
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Alternative Dissolution Patterns
Patterns change depending on:
Temperature
Injection velocity
Surface reaction rate
Increasing Injection Rate
Direction of
flow
Development Phase
September October 2005
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INTRODUCTION TO HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION
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Acid
spent
acid
Wormhole Pattern from Radial Flow
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Acid Systems
HCl - Primary acid for
carbonates
Organic acids -
Formic/Acetic
Less dissolution
capacity
Higher temperatures
Blended acids:
HCl / organic blends
Less expensive than
organic acids
Emulsified acids (SXE)
Retarded kinetics
Non-acid solvents
Low corrosion
Retarded kinetics
Development Phase
September October 2005
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INTRODUCTION TO HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION
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2005 Abalt Solutions Limited. All rights reserved
Fracture Acidizing
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Fracture Acidizing
The injected acid non uniformly etches the fracture
faces, resulting in the formation of highly conductive
etched channels that remain open after the fracture
closes.
The success of the
treatment depends on
two characteristics of the
etched fracture:
effective fracture length
effective fracture conductivity
Wormholes
Conductive
etched
channels
Development Phase
September October 2005
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INTRODUCTION TO HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION
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Factors Influencing the Success of Fracture Acidizing
Treatments:
Effective fracture length
Rate of acid consumption
Acid fluid loss (wormhole formation)
Acid convection along the fracture
Effective fracture conductivity
Etched pattern
Volume of rock dissolved
Roughness of etched surface
Rock strength
Closure stress
Fracture Acidizing
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Fluid-Loss Problems
Carbonates are usually Fissured
Acid Destroys most Fluid Loss Additives
Fracture Faces are Constantly Eroded
Wormhole Formation
Natural Fractures Enlarged
Increased Leakoff Surface
Fracture-Pressure Maintenance
Development Phase
September October 2005
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INTRODUCTION TO HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION
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2005 Abalt Solutions Limited. All rights reserved
Carbonate Acidizing
Chemistry and Physics
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Carbonate vs. Sandstone
CARBONATE
A large fraction of the
matrix is soluble
(>50%)
Dissolution of rock
(wormholes)
damage bypassing
Diversion
SANDSTONE
A small fraction of the
matrix is soluble
Dissolution of the
damaging mineral
Precipitations
penetration +
coverage
dissolution +
precipitations
Development Phase
September October 2005
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INTRODUCTION TO HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION
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Stoichiometry
2HCl + CaCO
3
---> CaCl
2
+ H
2
O + CO
2
MgCa(CO
3
)
2
+ 4HCl ---> CaCl
2
+ MgCl
2
+ 2H
2
O + 2CO
2
Stoichiometry refers to the proportions of the various
reactants participating in a chemical reaction. Knowing these
proportions allows one to calculate the amount of acid
required to dissolve a given quantity of carbonate rock.
Allows determination of acid required
Allows determination of | increase
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Key Factors in Carbonate Acidizing
1. Penetration
2. Acid reactivity
3. Injection rates
4. Diversion
Development Phase
September October 2005
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INTRODUCTION TO HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION
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Penetration
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Pore Level Model
One can explain the range of dissolution channels by studying the
competition between acid reaction and acid transport.
Acid Convection
Acid Surface Reaction
Mass Transfer
to Surface
Simple representation of a pore or wormhole.
Mass Transfer
to Bulk of acid
Development Phase
September October 2005
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INTRODUCTION TO HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION
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Damkhler Number, Da *
The three parameters can be combined into
one dimensionless group:
Net Rate of Mineral Dissolution by Acid
Rate of Acid Convection
Da =
Da =
tkDL
Q
*Fredd and Fogler, AIChE J., 1998.
k is the overall dissolution rate constant
D is the wormhole diameter
L is the wormhole length
Q is the flow rate in the wormhole
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Wormhole Collision: pore-level stimulation
H+
H+
carbonate
Acid invades porous matrix where it reacts with
the pore walls.
Development Phase
September October 2005
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INTRODUCTION TO HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION
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Acid attack reduces pore wall thickness
Wormhole Collision
H+
carbonate
Ever widening pore channels can
collide
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Effect of Da on Stimulation Efficiency*
1
10
100
1000
0.1 1.0 10 100 1000
Pore Volumes
to Breakthrough
(Inverse of Acid
Efficiency)
1 / Damkhler Number
The graph shown here depicts the relationship between the acid efficiency (indicated by pore
volumes of acid required to breakthrough) and the Damkhler number. The x-axis is the
reciprocal of the Damkhler number, which is proportional to the flow rate. In fact, all other
things being constant, 1/Da is Q. The y-axis shows pore volumes to breakthrough, I.e., volume
of acid required to propagate a wormhole that extends from the i nlet to the exit of the core.
The shape of the curve is universal for all fluid/mineral systems. The implication is that one
wants to operate an acidizing treatment to the right of the mini mum (optimum).
Development Phase
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INTRODUCTION TO HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION
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Basic Reaction:
Fe + 2HCl Fe
++
+ H
2
+ 2Cl
-
At Anode: Fe Fe
++
+ 2e
-
Oxidation
At Cathode: 2H
+
+ 2e
-
H
2
Reduction
Cl
-
H
2
+
H
+
H
+
H
+
H
+
H
+
H
Fe
++
Cl
-
Cl
-
Cl
-
Cl
-
Cl
-
e
-
e
-
e
-
e
-
CATHODE ANODE
Attack of Hydrochloric Acid on Iron
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+
H
Fe
++
e
-
+
H
Barrier at cathodic surface (-).
A corrosion inhibitor (Organic N2,Arsenic)
forms a barrier at a
cathodic surface or anodic surface which
interferes with electrochemical reactions.
Barrier at anodic surface (-)
At Anodic sites, electrons from
anionic inhibitor molecules
attach themselves and form a
film at the anodic sites.
At Cathodic sites, electrons from
cationic inhibitor molecules
attach themselves and form a
film at the cathodic sites.
H
+
H
+
Fe
++
e
-
e
-
Mechanisms of Inhibition
Development Phase
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Inhibitor Effectiveness
Concentration of Inhibitor
Temperature
Metal Type
Concentration & Type of Acid
Concentration & Type of Additives
Pressure
Flow Velocity
Volume/Area Ratio
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Definition
Surfactants, or surface active agents, are used in
acidizing to break undesirable emulsions, reduce surface
and /or interfacial tension, alter wettability, speed
cleanup, disperse additives, and prevent sludge
formation.
Chemical containing both oil and water soluble groups
M
+
X
-
(pH)
-
+
+
-
Hydrophilic Hydrophobic (Lipophillic)
Anionic
Cationic
Non-Ionic
Amphoteric
Development Phase
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INTRODUCTION TO HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION
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Some Surfactants
F100 Amphoteric
F103 Non ionic
F104 Anionic
W060 Blend
W62 Blend
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Reasons for Using Surfactants
Control wettability
Prevent/break water blocks
Disperse/suspend fines
Reduce capillary force
Sludge prevention
Asphaltene treatment
Prevent/break emulsions
Reduce surface or interfacial tension
Enhance emulsions
Development Phase
September October 2005
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INTRODUCTION TO HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION
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water wet
oil wet
Water and Oil Wet Rock
ionic for sandstone; cationic for carbonate
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Foaming Agents
Diversion, cleanup
Do not mix with hydrocarbons, mutual solvents,
alcohols
F100
Used with Nitrogen
F52
Used with Carbon Dioxide or Nitrogen
Non-ionic not for T > 250
o
F
Development Phase
September October 2005
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INTRODUCTION TO HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION
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Dispersed and stable
Flocculated, precipitated
Fe
Fe
Ca
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
pH
Multivalent
cations
Poor
solvents
Sludge and Asphaltenes
Asphaltenes are the heaviest, most polar component of crude oil. They
are naturally dispersed by resins (maltenes).
Poor solvents, Hydrogen ions, and multivalent metal ions (particularly
Fe[III]) will cause flocculation and precipitation. HCl with Ferric iron
(Fe[III]) will generally precipitate asphaltenes if present in the crude oil.
The resulting asphaltene sludge is very difficult to remove even with
strong aromatic solvents.
The asphaltene sludge contains many other materials (such as paraffin ,
or Iron Sulfide, fines, etc.)
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Factors Affecting Sludge
Crude type
Acid type
Ferric iron
BHST
Antisludge agents:
W60 (MISCA)
W59
B53
B60
Development Phase
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INTRODUCTION TO HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION
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Flow Back
Acid-Oil Mixing
Need for preflushes
Mixing of acid and the formation fluids will occur unless a large pad is injected
before the acid.
The mixing of live acid and oil during injection, and the mixing of spent acid
and oil during flow back (depicted above) can lead to the following problems:
1) Formation of stable emulsions
2) Change the formation wettability to oil wet (due to sludge precipitation)
3) Creation of Asphaltene sludge
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Anti-Sludge Strategy
Minimize Fe concentration
Remove scales and rust
from equipment and
tubular surfaces
Reduce dissolution rate of
Fe ions from surfaces in
contact with acid
Reduce ferric ions to
ferrous ions
Enhance oil/acid break-
out
vendors quality
control
tubing pickle
lined equipment
corrosion inhibitor
iron reducer
oil sample
surfactant
Development Phase
September October 2005
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INTRODUCTION TO HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION
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Surfactants to Control Acid Sludge
Use highly dispersible chemicals.
L58, L63, A179, U42 Control iron
B53, W53, W54, W59
Demulsifiers
B53, B60, W60, W58
Dispersants to stabilize
Asphaltene fraction
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Emulsions
Treating fluid + crude oil + emulsifying agent
= emulsion
Emulsion = reduced production
Emulsion-stabilizer agents include:
Asphaltenes
Formation fines
Development Phase
September October 2005
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INTRODUCTION TO HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION
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Types of Emulsion
Inverse or oil-outside
emulsions
oil is the continuous phase
with the water droplets
dispersed
Direct or water-outside
emulsions
-water-external emulsion
has an aqueous external
phase with oil droplets
distributed throughout
external phase
internal phase
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Emulsion Blocking
Crudes contain naturally occurring surfactants that
reduce the surface tension between oil and formation
water, and thus promote the development of emulsions
A critical pressure drop must be imposed across pore
throats to mobilize interfacial films that stabilize foams
and emulsions.
Development Phase
September October 2005
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INTRODUCTION TO HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION
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Prevent/Break Emulsions
Clean Sweep I
Clean Sweep II
Paran Eco
U066
U98
U100
K46, F3
Clean Sweep III
Oil-outside Phase Water-outside
Phase
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Mutual Solvent
Mutual Solvents are multifunctional, non ionic
agents soluble in oil, water, acid and brines.
They contain strong ether and alcohol groups,
which provide a wide range of solvent properties.

The functions of Mutual Solvents are:


1. Wetting Agents
2. Non Emulsifiers
3. Surface/Interfacial Tension Reducer
Commonly used mutual solvents
Ethylene glycol monobutyl ether (EGMBE)
Ether/surfactant/alcohol blends
Development Phase
September October 2005
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INTRODUCTION TO HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION
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Sour Wells-Fe Control
Fe (OH)
3
pH > 2 (pH > 6 in presence
of F
-
)
Fe (OH)
2
pH > 7
Fe
3+
+ H
2
S Sulfur + Fe
2+
Fe
2+
+ H
2
S FeS pH > 2
Need to control Fe
2+
too
When appreciable quantities of iron in the form of Fe3+ (ferric ions), rather
than the usual Fe2+ (ferrous ions), are dissolved by the acid, i ron
precipitation and permeability reductions can occur after acidizing
The presence of H2S changes the iron precipitation problem. Sulfur
precipitates in this reaction. At the same time, if the iron is reduced from +3
to +2, at a pH of about 2, Ferrous Sulfide, which is an insolubl e precipitate
will form
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Iron Control Practices
Remove iron in tubing prior to stimulation
treatment (Pickle or use protected work-string)
The acid must not contain high levels of Fe
3+
-
Avoid contamination (Clean/lined equipment)
Combinations of reducing agents and chelating
agents provide cost-effective solutions (L63,
U42)
Utilize effective corrosion inhibitors (A260)
Development Phase
September October 2005
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INTRODUCTION TO HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION
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Clay Control
Clays: below 4m
illite, smectite, chlorite, zeolite, kaolinite
Silts: 4 64 m
feldspar, mica, chert
Sands: over 64 m
clays cause 2 major problems:
1. Swelling
2. Migration
KCl is temporary clay control agent
L55 is a permanent clay stabilizer that work by
adsorbing on the clay surface
fines
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Friction Reducers
Used during matrix acidizing through CT
Suppress turbulence of the fluid
Action of friction reducers
(at a given flow rate)
Natural polymers like guar gum, gum karaya and cellulose derivatives, as
well as synthetic polyacrylamides, have long been used as friction reducers.
Each of these polymers can have different properties, depending on
molecular weight, chemical composition, cross linking, branching, etc.
Some polyacrylamides (i.e., Friction-Reducing Agent J120) are excellent
friction reducers for acid and can greatly reduce the friction pressure drop in
tubulars
Development Phase
September October 2005
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INTRODUCTION TO HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION
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Thank You