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HANDBOOK FOR ACOUSTIC ECOLOGY

INVERSE-SQUARE LAW
The decibel (abbreviated dB) is the unit used to measure the intensity of a sound. The decibel scale is a little odd because the human ear is incredibly sensitive. Your ears can hear everything from your fingertip brushing lightly over your skin to a loud jet engine. In terms of power, the sound of the jet engine is about 1,000,000,000,000 times more powerful than the smallest audible sound. That's a big difference! On the decibel scale, the smallest audible sound (near total silence) is 0 dB. A sound 10 times more powerful is 10 dB. A sound 100 times more powerful than near total silence is 20 dB. A sound 1,000 times more powerful than near total silence is 30 dB. Here are some common sounds and their decibel ratings:

Near total silence - 0 dB A whisper - 15 dB Normal conversation - 60 dB A lawnmower - 90 dB A car horn - 110 dB A rock concert or a jet engine - 120 dB A gunshot or firecracker - 140 dB

You know from your own experience that distance affects the intensity of sound -- if you are far away, the power is greatly diminished. All of the ratings above are taken while standing near the sound. Any sound above 85 dB can cause hearing loss, and the loss is related both to the power of the sound as well as the length of exposure. You know that you are listening to an 85-dB sound if you have to raise your voice to be heard by somebody else. Eight hours of 90-dB sound can cause damage to your ears; any exposure to 140-dB sound causes immediate damage (and causes actual pain). See this page for an exposure "ruler."

Threshold of hearing Rustling leaves Quiet whisper (3 feet) Quiet home Quiet street Normal conversation Inside car Loud singing (3 feet) Automobile (25 feet)

0 dB 20 dB 30 dB 40 dB 50 dB 60 dB 70 dB 75 dB 80 dB

Motorcycle (30 feet) Foodblender (3 feet) Subway (inside) Diesel truck (30 feet) Power mower (3 feet) Pneumatic riveter (3 feet) Chainsaw (3 feet) Amplified Rock and Roll (6 feet) Jet plane (100 feet)

88 dB 90 dB 94 dB 100 dB 107 dB 115 dB 117 dB 120 dB 130 dB

HANDBOOK FOR ACOUSTIC ECOLOGY

INVERSE-SQUARE LAW
Corrected Distance (ft)
Given Distance (ft) 3 5 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 3 5 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

0 4.4 10.5 14.0 16.5 18.0 20.0 22.5 24.4 26.0 27.4 28.5 29.5 30.5

- 4.4 0 6.0 9.5 12.0 14.0 15.6 18.1 20.0 21.6 22.9 24.1 25.1 26.0

-10.5 - 6.0 0 3.5 6.0 8.0 9.5 12.0 14.0 15.6 16.9 18.1 19.1 20.0

-14.0 -16.5 -18.0 -20.0 -22.5 -24.4 -26.0 -27.4 -28.5 -29.5 - 9.5 -12.0 -14.0 -15.6 -18.1 -20.0 -21.6 -22.9 -24.1 -25.1 - 3.5 - 6.0 - 8.0 - 9.5 -12.0 -14.0 -15.6 -16.9 -18.1 -19.1 0 - 2.5 - 4.4 - 6.0 - 8.5 -10.5 -12.0 -13.4 -14.5 -15.6 2.5 0 - 1.9 - 3.5 - 6.0 - 8.0 - 9.5 -10.9 -12.0 -13.1 4.4 1.9 0 - 1.6 - 4.1 - 6.0 - 7.6 - 8.9 -10.1 -11.1 6.0 3.5 1.6 0 - 2.5 - 4.4 - 6.0 - 7.4 - 8.5 - 9.5 8.5 6.0 4.1 2.5 0 - 1.9 - 3.5 - 4.9 - 6.0 - 7.0 10.5 8.0 6.0 4.4 1.9 0 - 1.6 - 2.9 - 4.1 - 5.1 12.0 9.5 7.6 6.0 3.5 1.6 0 - 1.3 - 2.5 - 3.5 13.4 10.9 8.9 7.4 4.9 2.9 1.3 0 - 1.2 - 2.2 14.5 12.0 10.1 8.5 6.0 4.1 2.5 1.2 0 - 1.0 15.6 13.1 11.1 9.5 7.0 5.1 3.5 2.2 1.0 0 16.5 14.0 12.0 10.5 8.0 6.0 4.4 3.1 1.9 0.9

-30.5 -26.0 -20.0 -16.5 -14.0 -12.0 -10.5 - 8.0 - 6.0 - 4.4 - 3.1 - 1.9 - 0.9 0

Decibel corrections for variations in distance from source. An example: a sound source of 60 dB is measured at 50 feet; if the measurement were at 15 feet, the level would be 60 + 10.5 = 70.5 dB under ideal conditions.