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ECG & AMT
TEACHERS’SOURCEBOOK (Class XII)
Government of Kerala Department of Education
State Council of Educational Research & Training (SCERT)
Vidyabhavan, Poojappura, Thriuvananthapuram-12, Kerala
Government of Kerala Prepared by : State Council of Educational Research and Training (SCERT)
Vidyabhavan, Poojappura, Thiruvananthapuram - 12, Kerala
Dear Teachers, One of the aim of education is to help the learners to internalise to the maximum the immense possibilities of the ever-expanding body of knowledge. The revision of curriculum and transactional strategies is aimed at changing the educational scenario. It is with this view that the ECG & AMT Sourcebook for Standard XII has been prepared. This Sourcebook for teachers includes many new concepts and principles along with suggestions for transactional strategies. The teacher is expected to select and use these strategies judiciously and transact them to learners. If the acquired knowledge is to contribute to the over all development of the learner, it has to be internalised through activities. For the effective transaction of concepts, clarity is as important as involving in meaningful activities. The sourcebook has been prepared as an instrument to equip the teacher with indication to make the activities more purposeful by specifying what help is to be given at which stage and how. It is hoped that the activities suggested in this book are suitable to the existing situation in our schools. It is also expected that the teacher has to seek help from other sources like general reference books available in various libraries, websites, etc. Only then we can attain the objectives of learning science practically and meaningfully. It is report that this Sourcebook will be utilised to its maximum for the effective transaction of the curriculum. With regards,
Thiruvananthapuram Dr E. Valsala Kumar Director SCERT, Kerala
...................................................... Unit2 Other Cardio Vascular Measurements and equipments ................. 118 ........... Rehabilitation Adults and Childrens withHearingImpairments ...........................................Contents Approach ................................................................................................................................................ Unit wise analysis ECG Unit1 ElectroCardiography .................................................. Planning ........................................ Hearing Aids ............. 05 23 25 35 38 42 46 56 72 84 Unit1 Unit2 Unit3 Unit4 Unit5 88 94 106 112 116 References ............ Syllabus ..................................................... Teaching Learning Strategies ..... Evaluation ......................... AMT Pure Tone and Speech Audiometry .................................. Ear moulds ...................... Unit3 Cardiopulmonary resuscitation & Medical Ethics ....................................... CurriculumObjectives ...................... Subject Approach ......................... Assessment of Hearing Loss ...........................................
Hence vocationalised education cannot be isolated from the main stream of education. emergent techniques have to be sorted out and appropriate researches have to be seriously carried out. This education system. The relevance of vocational education is very great in this age of unemployment. Vocational Education is the system of education which intends to prepare students for identified occupations . The need for meaningful linkages between the world of work and world of education is well recognized. scarcity of job opportunities is a severe issue of the present society. abilities. which ensures a job along with higher education stands aloof from other systems of education.GENERAL APPROACH Significance of vocational education The ultimate aim of education is human refinement. every educational process should be vocationalised. The Vocational Higher Secondary course envisaged as a part of the National Policy on Education with the noble idea of securing a job along with education. The essence of the recommendations made by various commissions and committees is that the vocationalisation should be the main feature of the future system of education at the higher secondary stage. the objective of education is to form a society and individuals having a positive work culture. Education should enable the learner to formulate a positive outlook towards life and to accept a stand which suits the well being of the society and the individual as well. This education imparts the life skills required by the youth to enter the world of work and assuming the responsibilities of adulthood. As per the expert meeting report (2001) of UNESCO. progress and cultural development of the human race. attitudes and values in tune with these work culture. it can be extended to school level also. However due to our inability to utilize the resources wisely. The attitude and potential to work has determined the destiny. the life skills are grouped under 4 categories. The educational process expected in and outside our formal schools should concentrate upon inculcating concepts. As we all are aware. It is in this sense that the content and methodology of Vocational Higher Secondary Education have to be approached. In another sense. For overcoming this deep crisis. opening several areas of activities. They are 5 .
To develop entrepreneurial competencies and skills of learners for self reliance and to undertake gainful self employment. creative thinking in the related areas and facilitate training. 6 . This education system motivates the attitude towards self –employment through Production/ Service cum Training Centres. considering the following objectives. 5. 3. 1. To facilitate the expansion of higher education and explore future opportunities through innovative guidance and programmes. 7. To impart education relevant to increased production and productivity. 8. 2. To develop vocational aptitude. During the course of study. physical and social health. It also helps to reduce the migration of rural youth to urban areas and thus helps in rural development. 4. values and attitudes of the learners so as to enrich the productivity of the nation. 9.1. 10. skills for personal fulfillment skills for living in society skills for dealing with changing economies skills for dealing with changing work patterns. To develop environmental awareness to ensure sustainable development. (PTC) Objectives of vocational education The National policy on education has accorded very high priority to the program of vocationalisation of education. To create awareness on mental. The learners of Vocational Education get an opportunity to avail one year apprenticeship training in industries to improve their practical skill. To make available skilled work force at all levels to alleviate the rural unemployment and for the development of nation. 4. work culture. 2. To acquire awareness about different job areas and to provide background for acquiring higher level training in subjects concerned. To develop vocational competencies. To fulfill national goals of development and the removal of unemployment and poverty. on the Job Training (OJT) for 10 days in a year is arranged to improve the skill and efficiency of the learner. 3. Vocational Education ensures fulfillment of manpower requirement for national development and for social security for the citizens through self-employment. 6. economic development and individual prosperity.
It is an advancement through adding and correcting in the light of comparing the new issue with the previously learned concepts. arriving at conclusions. It is high time that education was recognized on the basis of the philosophy of human education. rational as well as critical thinking. the teaching process has to be changed timely. learning process and outlook. The basis of new approaches on curriculum and teaching. The human approach to education has to reflect in its content. There should be conscious programme of action to develop nationality. Learning is a conglomeration of a variety of activities like problem solving. The remnants of perspectives formed in us during the colonial period still influence our educational philosophy.LEARNING Learning is construction of knowledge through a continuous mental process. prediction. globalisation etc. It is the result of the rapid growth and development 7 . finding applications. The perspective of ‘learning to be’ and ‘learning to live’ together as expressed by the UNESCO and the concepts of existential. The learner should become cognizant of the implications of privatisation. They should be able to view education and life with the perspective of social well being. Theoretical foundations of learning Education is the best device that can be adopted for creation of a new society. A basic awareness of all the subjects needed for life is essential for all students. They should develop a discrimination to use the acquired learning as a liberative weapon. The concept of equality at all areas should get recognition in theory and practice.learning process are derived from the developments tookplace in the east and west of the world. It is an intellectual process rather than the mere memorization of facts. The solution to the present day perplexities of the society which approaches education on the basis of competitions and marketisation is only a comprehensive view of life. humanness and love against the encroachment of sectarianism of caste and religion. liberalisation. When we begin to see the learner at the centre of the learning process. finding out co-rrelations. grouping for other possibilities and extracting the crux when opportunities are provided for intellectual processes learning will become effective and intellectual ability will get strengthened. It should be democratic in content and process and should acknowledge the rights of the learner. It should also provide opportunity for better citizenship training. intrapersonal and interpersonal intelligence.
If we want to undergo the changing process. When we consider the learning system. the skills. The learning is a process. Interest for recognition in the society. Ability to reach conclusions after logical thinking. The skills which are parts of the process to analyze the collected ideas and proofs and come to a conclusion is called process skills.of Science and Technology and Pedagogy. Ability for manifest arid establish freely the conclusions arrived at. we have to imbibe the modern hypothesis regarding learner that they have 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Great curiosity Good imagination Numerous other qualities and interests Independent individuality Interest in free thinking and working In a fearless atmosphere. The continuous procedures we undergo to reach a particular goal is process. Interest in enquiring and questioning. the domains to be stressed in education according to the modern development becomes relevant. Determination to face the interference of society and make components which is a part of social life. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 To observe To collect data and record To classify To measure and prepare charts To experiment To predict To recognize and control the variables 8 . The knowledge domain consists of 1 2 2 3 Facts Ideas Laws The temporary conclusions and principles used presently by scientists. Some important process skills are.
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 1 2 3 4 5 6 To raise questions To generalize To form a hypothesis and check. 9 . To conclude To communicate To predict and infer To use tools. integrate the subjects with other subjects. To find out new and uncommon uses of objects To fantasize To dream To develop creative isolated thoughts In addition to this. they are skills: Again. take the help of scientific process to solve the problems of daily life. the following factors consisting in the Attitudinal domain are also important as. To visualize To connect facts and ideas in new ways. consider the skills related to creative domain also. choose a scientific life style connect the ideas acquired with other subjects. 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 Self confidence Love for scientific knowledge Attitude to know and value history Respect human emotions Decide with reasonable present problems Take logical decisions regarding personal values observe in daily life examples of ideas acquired. As regards the application domain the important factors are the ability to: Some basic stands have to be taken on the new scientific knowledge about intelligence learning and teaching. When such basic concepts are accepted changes are required in the following factors.
extracting the crux and other processes are of critical importance in learning. application. spread and imbibed and it becomes relevant in a social environment. Constructivism gives greater predominance to co-operative learning. Learning takes place as a part of the attempt for problem solving. That is assimilated into the cognitive structure of one’s knowledge. elucidation. provide opportunity for effective learning. The main propounders of constructivism are Piaget. Discovery learning and interactive learning have prime importance. New knowledge is constructed when ideas are examined and practiced in new situations relating them with the previously acquired knowledge and experience. The process of problem analysis. The activities of a learner who confronts cognitive disequilibrium in a learning situation when he tries to overcome it leads to the renewal of cognitive structure. Vygotsky and Bruner. Sharing of knowledge and experience among learners. The learner advances towards new areas of acquisition of knowledge where he tries to compare his new findings with the existing concepts. hypothesis formation. prediction. Social and cultural factors influence learning. Learner atmosphere. Learning is a live mental process. It is through this process construction of new knowledge. structure and content of the textbooks. Knowledge is formed. collective enquiry. Social Constructivism Social constructivism is a branch of constructivism. structure and content of the curriculum. co-operative participatory learning. Role of the teacher and the learner. 10 .1 2 3 4 The vision. Some scientific perspectives accepted by modem world in Educational Psychology are given below. Interactive learning. assessment and improvement. Constructivism This approach puts forward the concept that the learner constructs knowledge. probing for other possibilities. This method which gives priority to critical thinking and problem solving provides opportunity for self motivated learning. group activity and collaborative learning by sharing responsibilities with the objective of public activity. Observation and enquiry are unavoidable factors. approach. finding out correlation. approach. the assimilation of them takes place. all these are concepts put forward by social constructivism. learning materials and learning techniques. The vision. Rather than the ability for memorization of facts cognitive process has to be given emphasis. rational thinking. critical thinking. group learning.
Learning situation should be capable of forming a sense of ownership in the learner regarding the learning process. 5. 4.In learning internal motivation is more important than external motivation. instead of listening always. It is a sharing on the plane of ideas. It is an inborn tendency to act to solve a problem that causes cognitive disequilibrium in a particular area. The common responsibility of the group will be successful only if each member discharges his duties. Creating occasion to progress towards discovery is preferred. Instead of telling everything before and compelling to initiate the models. NEW CONCEPTS OF LEARNING 1. Learning by discussion Discussion leads to learning is Burner’s theory. New ideas are arrived at by seeking explanations. Here discussion is not opposing each other. The problems are to be presented in consideration of the ability and level of attainment of the learner. This is possible through the discussion with the learners. As there are no high ups and low ones according to status among the learners they can ask the fellow students 11 . It is also needed to have confidence that one is capable of doing it. By this exchange of resources the learners develop a plane of social system in learning also. 2. Discovery Learning The teacher has to create a motivating atmosphere for the learner to discover concepts and facts. situations are to be created to help the children act models as themselves. will help others. experience and competency. It progresses in a spiralled way advancing deeper and wider. Those who have more knowledge. by mutual giving and taking of ideas and by problem solving. equally through the activity with mutual understanding. Learning is not a linear process. All the members will reach a stage of sharing the result of learning. Collaborative learning This is the learning in which the responsibilities are distributed among the members of the group keeping common learning objectives. The learner should have interest and initiative in learning. Problem solving and learning Only when the learner feels that some thing is a problem to be solved that he takes the responsibility of learning it. The teachers who arrange collaborative learning will have to make clear the responsibilities to be discharged. 3. Collaborative learning will help to avoid the situations of one person working for the whole group. Co-operative learning This is the learning in which the learners help one another.
So even while encouraging this exchange of ideas. Scaffolding It is natural that the learner may not be able to complete his work if he does not get support at the proper time. The learner may require the help of the teacher in several learning activities. peers and elders. If appropriate help is provided every learner can better himself. Even though some of them can fulfill the learning activity by themselves there is the possibility of a higher excellence. Zone of Proximal Development Vygotsky observes that there is a stage of achievement where a learner can reach by himself and another higher zone where he can reach with the help of his teachers.doubts and for helps without any hesitation or in hesitation. Imagines/fantasies/designs/predicts based on received information 12 . Learning can be made effective by providing learning experiences involving mental processes like 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Retrieves/recollects/retells information Readily makes connections to new information based on past experiences and formulates initial ideas /concepts. Care should be taken not to lead this seeking of help to mechanical copying. It should be on the basis of actual needs. among the members of the group cautious acceptance is to be observed as a convention. Here helping means to make the learner complete the activity taking responsibility by himself.An active mental process Learning being a cognitive process. There should be an understanding that satisfactory responses should come from each member and that the achievement of the group will be assessed on the basis of the achievement of all the members 6. 8. the teacher needs to know cognitive processes to facilitate the creation of learning opportunities. The teacher has to keep in mind the objective of enabling the learner to take the responsibility and to make it successful. Detects similarities and differences Classifies/categories/organizes information approximately. Translates/transfer knowledge or understanding and applies them in a new situation. 7. Establishes cause-effect relationships Makes connections/relates prior knowledge to new information/applies reasoning and draw inferences Communicates knowledge/understanding through different media. Learning .
10. Bodily Kinaesthetic Intelligence The activities using body language come under this.10 Judges /appraises/evaluates the merits or demerits of an idea/develops own solutions to a problem. designers and sculptors this area of intelligence is developed. 2. explaining things. all these come under this. The activities like modeling using clay and pulp. listening silently to the rhythms and activities like this are capable of developing this area of intelligence. A person internally motivated alone can immerse in learning and own its responsibility. Logical/mathematical Intelligence Thinking rationally with causes and effect relation and finding out patterns and relations come under this area. 4. sequential and arithmetical calculations etc. MAIN FACTORS OF THE INTELLECT 1. Finding out relations. 3. This area of intelligence is more developed in dancers and actors who are able to express ideas through body movements and in experts in sports. and giving illustrations to stories can help the development of this ability. Verbal/linguistic Intelligence Ability to read and write. 13 . are capable of developing this area of intelligence. making linguistic creations. This can be developed by engaging in language games and by teaching others. Visual/spatial Intelligence In those who are able to visualize models and bringing what is in the imagination into visual form and in philosophers. Musical Intelligence This is an area of intelligence which is highly developed in those who are able to recognize the different elements of music in musicians and in those who can here and enjoy songs. Playing musical instruments. The teacher has to arouse the internal motivation of the learner. 9. Multiple intelligence The Theory of Multiple Intelligence put forward by Howard Gardener has created a turning point in the field of education. The National curriculum documents has recommended that the curriculum is to be designed taking into consideration of this theory. gymnastics etc. Intrinsic Motivation Intrinsic motivation is given more importance than extrinsic motivation. 5. imitating the songs of musicians. sculpture. ability to lecture competence to effective communication. making of art equipments.
6. Interpersonal Intelligence Those in whom this area of intelligence is developed show qualities of leadership and behave with others in a noble manner. They are capable of understanding the thought of others and carrying on activities like discussion successfully. 7. Intrapersonal Intelligence This is the ability to understand oneself. These people can recognize their own abilities and disabilities. Writing diaries truthfully and in an analyzing way and assessing the ideas and activities of others will help developing this areas of intelligence 8. Naturalistic Intelligence A great interest in the flora and fauna of the nature, love towards fellow beings interest in spiritual and natural factors will be capable of developing this area. 9. Existential Intelligence The ability to see and distinguish our own existence as a part of the universe, ability to distinguish the meaning and meaninglessness of life, the ability to realize the ultimate nature of mental and physical existences, all these are the peculiarities of this faculty of intelligence.
The concept of emotional intelligence put forward by Daniel Golman is used in framing the new curriculum. The fact that one’s Emotional Quotient (E.Q) is the greatest factor affecting success in life is now widely accepted. The teacher who aims to focus on improving the emotional intelligence of students need to concentrate on the following. i) Ability to take decisions Rather than imposing decision on students while planning and executing activities, the students may be allowed to take part in the decision making process. Taking decisions through open discussion in the class, inviting students suggestions on common problems etc. are habits to be cultivated. ii) Ability to reach consensus • • When different opinions, ideas and positions arise, the students may be given the responsibility to reach a consensus. Imagining what would be the course of action in some situtations, allowing to intervene in a healthy way in problems between individuals. Developing the idea that there is reason and solution to any problem. Training in finding reasons for problems.
iii) Problem solving • •
• • •
Suggesting solutions through individual or group efforts. Discussing social problems. Analyzing the shortcomings in methods to solve problems.
Whether plastic can be banned within school premises can be given as a problem. Group discussion will provide reasons and solutions. Problems, which can influence classroom learning and for which the learner can actively contribute solution needs to be posed 1 2 3 Self criticism, evaluation Ability to face problem-situation in life Thinking what one would do if placed in the situation of others, how one would respond to certain experiences of others - All these foster the growth of emotional intelligence.
iv) Life skills Life skills need to be given a prominent place in education. W.H.O. has listed : skills required for-success in life. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Self awareness Empathy Inter personal relations Communication Critical thinking Creative thinking Decision making Problem solving Coping with emotion Coping with stress
THE NEW CURRICULUM ADDRESSES THESE AREAS.
Knowing the characteristics of the learner, role of the teacher and how to use the teachers handbook help the teacher to plan and effectively implement learning activities. Role of a Teacher In the earlier approach the teacher was mainly depending on the lecture method for teaching. But in the new method of education the student centered approach is given more importance than the teacher centered approach. Under this changed scenario the teacher has to perform the following roles in the classroom.
The teacher should be 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28
A facilitator of learning A guide to the overall development of the student A good observer and motivator Able to consider the activities, needs, special features and age group of students at higher secondary level. Able to understand the limitations of learner and their learning problems. An instructional material developer A good communicator An innovator Able to raise leadership qualities and self confidence of the learner An authoritarian in the concerned subject Able to arrest and sustain the attention of the learner Able to bring out and encourage the inborn talents. A resource manger to ensure the optimum utilization of resources. A systematic record keeper A controller to issue guidance to the students A person with high level of practical competency Able to correlate area of study with familiar environmental situations A self evaluator and good listener Able to create awareness in social problems A person with democratic and humanitarian approach A professionalist as well as philosopher A good evaluator A good organizer and a friend. A co-learner as well as co-researcher Able to give assistance and advice in placement needs and self employment by giving moral and technical support Able to keep moral values A person equipped with skill for using new techniques of learning Optimistic and impartial
The learner at this age is in awakening stage and he is enthusiastic about environment. learning speed. introducing variations in a learning experience to suit different levels and if needed. The learning experiences provided must help to bring the low activities to an expected level and extended the breadth and depth of the skills of the high activities. Help is extended whenever needed. By repeating experiences. students share their ideas and experiences Students are given acceptance and encouragement Healthy atmosphere Needs of each student is given consideration. varying exposure to language experiences. formulating additional experiences the problem of varying ability levels can be tackled. physical ad psychological problems and varying socio-cultural background. Sufficient instructional materials are available There is freedom of expression. Happy and energetic atmosphere Teachers work considering the rights of students Prtoblems handled in a patient way Teachers work at all events from the students view point There will be students of various ability levels in any class because of learning style. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Class and seating are arranged in an attractive way Democratic nature is upheld Always active Students interact with teachers without fear Opportunity for a variety of activities Students allowed to involve interesting group activities Learning speed. Role of Learner The learner in second year VHSE has undergone a learner centered and process oriented learning experience up to first year. learning style and different levels of attitudes are considered.Child friendly Class Room Atmosphere Learning can be effective and enjoyable only when the class atmosphere is according to the new conception of learning and the characteristics of vocational higher secondary teacher. He needs recognition and encouragement from 17 .
The aspirations about future life is framed in this particular age for seeing national and international job opportunities. anxieties and eagerness about sex Imaging for social recognition To make acquaintance with a job or self employment through vocational education To acquire more knowledge in the concerned area through higher education To recognize and encourage the peculiar personality of the later adolescent period To enable him to defend against the unfavorable circumstances without any help Active participant in the learning process Act as a researcher Sharer of information Sharer of responsibilities Collect information Takes leadership Involves in group work Act as a co-participant Needs of Learner Role of learner 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 18 . intellectual and emotional plans have intensive changes during the age and their reflections can be observed Ability to enquire discover and establish cause effect relationship between phenomena Readiness to undertake challenges Capacity to shoulder leadership roles Attempt to interpret oneself Susceptibility to different pressures Doubts. He is adequately competent to select vocational subjects according to his aptitude and interact and to acquire higher education and profession as he wishes.environment and also recognize as a grown up man. Some of the peculiarities of learner at this stage are 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 Physical.
members of social clubs. interest in the particular field. Parent Teacher Association (PTA) Can provide adequate funds for field trips. members of local bodies. 19 . School Resource Group (SRG) Comprising all teachers (vocational and non vocational) instructors. library. communication skill. seminar hall. and lab assistants with academic head as the group leader. 3. The technical skills. School Support Group (SSG) Comprising PTA president. Subject club All vocational teachers handling same vocational subjects should form a subject club at regional level or district level. Evaluation must be a systematic and continuous process. Vocational Exhibition. Supporting System In learner centered vocational education. analysis organizing and presentation skills etc have to be evaluated. a new approach to education and evaluation should be made. a learning methodology has to be organized and a proper learning atmosphere is to be provided. subject experts etc who can contribute guidance /technology /infrastructure /financial assistance etc. production and marketing of materials. Therefore. 5. continuous and comprehensive.9 10 11 12 Observes his environment Experiments and realises Make interpretations and draw inferences Mould himself in to an active contributor for the welfare of the society Evaluation In vocational higher secondary education. 2. This will helps to share the knowledge and practical facilities. service etc. 4. As the curriculum is based on vocational stream. Production/ Service cum Training Centers (PTC). Local bodies Grama Panchayat. Many organizations can support the learning activity. On the Job training (OJT) etc. They are:1. District Panchayat and Block Panchayat can provide infrastructure ie. audiovisual equipments etc. The personal and social qualities also have to be evaluated. capacity building is a most important part and it should be evaluated accordingly. laboratory. class rooms. evaluation should be transparent.
It must motive the facilitator to adopt new strategies. three levels of the mechanism should be setup. It must be time bound and rational. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) It must be transparent. The modernization of education through activity oriented system enhances free thinking and working in a fearless atmosphere. PTC and field visit. 1. 2.6. social interaction etc. It must enrich the ideas of the facilitator through innovative process. FEATURES OF LEARNING PROCESS IN THE NEW SYSTEM OF EDUCATION In the new system of education the learning process should be modified in such a way as to enable the learner to construct the knowledge of his own through observation. State level monitoring group Moreover a social auditing system is advisable to achieve the objective effectively. co-operation. It is a qualitative process not a quantitative one. 3. School level monitoring group. Monitoring system Education is a sort of journey from darkness to light satisfying the needs and the wants of the individual and the society. social setup. inborn talents and subject selected by the learner. Nodal Schools Based on the excellency. Institution Industry Interaction Project (III P) This should be implemented in every institution to update knowledge. This necessitates a proper monitoring system. 7. Regional level monitoring group. problem solving. The system of monitoring should have the following features. The learning process should consider the nature ability. It must be recordable and ensure effective feedback for the effective monitoring of the system. museums. This also helps for OJT . Therefore the learning process should be: 1 2 3 20 A continuous mental process Simple learner must feel that he is able to undertake the task Enable the learner to attain the curriculum objective . video conferencing etc. district wise nodal schools may be selected to provide facilities like central library.
VCD. Therefore the society can also give some valuable contributions in this changing situation. The advances in science and technology may be effectively utilized for this purpose. The 21 . certain learning aids and necessary use of such aids for transacting a complex idea make the class room live and students get more and more involved.4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Interesting Suitable to the age and attitude of the learner Future possibilities Enable group activity Challenging Time bound Constructive and curiosity developing Possibilities for evaluation Capacity to generate independent thinking Ability to enquire discover and establish cause effect relationship between phenomena. Some of the learning aids listed below. DVD and tape recorders Working models Charts Slides Video Conferencing facility Library Text book Source book Society The new educational policy uplifts the social commitment of the learner. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Multimedia Over Head Projector Computer Internet Liquid Crystal display Projector TV. Learning Aids To make the teaching and learning process simple and effective .
1 2 3 4 5 6 To enrich social values. The resources available from our society can be positively utilized to convene seminars. 22 . CDO Club. aptitude and ability in learner To develop entrepreneurial aptitude and ability which helps social welfare and self employment New system of education adopts OJT. interview etc.new system also ensures that the learner can perform certain useful services for the betterment of society. PTC etc or part of vocational curriculum which helps to make close contact with the society. The social obligations can be illustrated as follows. Social organizations can help learners to make their education socially committed. The social clubs like NSS. Energy Club etc functioning in schools can make direct link with the society. Tourism Club.
seminar. Despite the appearence over the last decades of the large number of novel instrumental techniques for the diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases. The purpose of this course is to create skilled technicians to meet the heath needs of society. It has been demonstrated by many authorities that the adequate clinical diagnosis is now a days virtually impossible without ECG. • • • • • • To assist the audiologist. The curriculum emphasises two important diagnostic measures. field visit. collective and creative way. A firm knowledge of audiology is essential for all those working in audiology laboratories and with hearing impaired pupils. The learner shoud be exposed to activities like projects. continuous learning and communicating the ideas about the subject. To acquire self employment. Internal therapy. The aim of the course curriculum is to create an awareness about clinical audiological procedures and there by assists the audiologist. discussion. To develop an idea about the opperation of advanced cardiovascular measurement techniques and equipments. heamatology. To undergo higher education. As a result electrocardiography found wide spread application not only in cardiology but also in pulmonology. • To develop an idea about routine and special audiological investigations. in this field.ECG & Audiometry. camps. sports medicine. Aims • To obtain job as ECG technician. Audiology is a scientific subect which is continually developing and changing.SUBJECT APPROACH Electrocardiography and Audiometry is one of the paramedical courses included in the science group of VHSE. symposium. survey. To develop skills in various learning activities in a co-operative. Millions of ECGs are recorded annually and then often help the physicians to make the correct diagnosis. To develop skills for self learning. regular checkup and for screening purpose. electrocardiography remains the most important and commonly used single diagnostic procedure. In these circumstancesECG & Other Cardiovascular measurement techniques included in the curriculum are essential for proper diagnosis. endocrinology. The risk of heart diseases increases now a days due to the change in life style and social set up. debates. Rehabilation of hearing impaired is also included. evaluate myocardial functions and monitor the efficiency of treatment. clinical practice and experiments. To develop their 23 . assignments.
24 . The course content in second year AMT includes pure tone and speech audiometry. other cardiovascular measurements and equipments. The above learning activities help the students to enhance their opportunity in higher studies. ear moulds and rehabilitation of children and adults with hearing impairment. The content based approach should be replaced by the process approach which gives adequate emphasis to develop their vocational skill.vocational skill. Learning of ECG needs to be • Activity oriented • • • Process oriented Learner centered Environmental based • Life oriented The new approach gives emphasis to • Multiple intelligence • • Co-operative learning Constructivism • Emotional quotient Content The course content in second year ECG includes ECG. assessment of hearing loss. The learning of ECG should also be through activities. cardio pulmonary resuscitation and medical ethics. hearing aids. OJT and hospital visit are necessary.
The students get an opportunity to clear their doubts and make clarification. observation. collection of materials from institutions etc. Assignment Assignment is some specific work assigned to the students as a part of their academic enrichment. there will be a discussion/ interaction in which all the students can participate.LEARNING STRATEGIES I n the modern era of globalization the introduction of new technologies ensure only the survival of the fittest. the social and psychological aspects of the learner is to be taken into consideration. Assignment includes preparation of notes. It ensures the effective utilization of leisure time of the students. enquire reporting etc. After the presentation. In the new instructional strategy while selecting the methods of teaching. The given activities for learning are only suggested ones. we can adopt the following strategies. II. Assignment may be given on individuals or group basis. Here the teacher – student interaction should be given much importance. Hence the traditional approach to learning is no more relevant in the present context. 25 . Now the learners are not passive listeners. The teacher should use instructional techniques that motivate the students to construct his own knowledge. They help to lead learner to higher level of learning from the present status. So it becomes a necessity to equip the learners to face the growing challenges in the competitive world. It can be altered according to the discretion of the teacher. the new system of education is introduced in the Vocational Higher Secondary Education for attaining the objectives of the courses in this system. The teachers may at as a guide. models. To obtain the objectives. preparation of charts. The paper is presented by either one student or a group of students. Seminar helps to develop communication skill and overcome stage fright. preparation of a paper and presentation . Challenging assignment can motivate the students to involve in group dynamics and achieve fruitful results. There are learning activities undertaken as a continuation of class room activities to realize the curriculum objectives to a broader extent . Seminar Seminar is a learning strategy involving an in-depth analysis of specific topic. They should be completed in time bound manner. I. but they are the active participants in the construction of knowledge. Assignments develop skills of reference.
The monitor or moderator introduces the subject of discussion and invites a panel member to start the discussion. Preparation of final report: A final seminar report is prepared covering all the additional points discussed and consolidated. Relevant materials and handout may be given in advance to the learners. time and venue of the seminar is fixed. internet. institutions. magazines. Program scheduling: The date. After briefing by the panel members the questions are raised from the audience and the panel members give suitable answer to them. A report should be submitted by each learner to the moderator. place and persons. 8. 6. The refined draft is submitted for approval. 26 . 9. Each panel member is invited for discussion afterwards. Preparation of draft paper: Based on the information collected the student may prepare a draft paper and submit it to the teachers for comments. Panel Discussion It is a learning strategy in which a panel of experts are allowed to discuss a specific subject under the control and direction of a moderator. 5. All the group members should actively participate in discussion. III. Subjects can be divided according to the number of panel members. Number of panel members are fixed according to subdivision of points in the subject. Summing up deliberation: The moderator sums up the deliberation Evaluation / Feed back: Both teachers and students evaluate the programme.Stages 1. 2. Discussion / Interaction: A number of respondents from the students make comments on the topic. Selection of Topic: The topic of seminar should be relevant to the subject of study Assignment of topic to individuals students or team: The topic may be assigned to one student or to a group of students. The teacher may function as the moderator during the initial stages. Collection of relevant information: Information required for seminar can be collected from various sources namely books. 7. Revise the draft paper based on the comments of the teachers. 4. This will be followed by a general discussion. A seminar leader may be selected from the students Seminar paper presentation: The student/ students shall present the paper in the seminar. 3. 10.
It helps in the development of scientific thinking and thereby builds up the students aptitude for the subject.IV. the learner arrives at a conclusion that can help to solve the problem. and the methods of learning should be related to each other. Analysis of data and formulation of conclusion By analyzing the data. report preparation and presentation is to be undertaken by each of the members. Selection of a topic The project selected should be related to the curriculum and it should not be a project for projects sake.Specific aspects of the problem such as data collection. Even though the work is divided among the members. 4. 27 . After analyzing data collected from different sources. Project Project is a self-learning strategy which can exert great influence on the overall development of the learner. the reliability of the hypothesis can be examined. 2. Planning of the Project (a) (b) Hypothesizing: Hypothesizing means making assumptions based on the available primary information. Methods and Technique : The methods and Technique should be based on the aim and Hypothesizing of the Project. The collected data is to be classified and tabulated so as to make it easily understandable. secondary or tertiary. analysis. 3. Each group works independently . relations and differences gathered from the analyzed information would tell whether the hypothesis should be accepted or rejected. Suitable questionnaires are to be prepared for the collection of primary data. classification. Thereby learner learns the topic though his own activity. Collection and Tabulation of Data The data may be primary. Project as learning strategy is to be selected where a problem arises in any part of the curriculum. suitability of the tools. Either census or sampling method can be used based on the objective of the project. Preparation of graphs and diagrams and maps will positively help the analysis. The nature of the project. The topic or problem should arise from the curriculum. Stages of the project 1. The other advantage of this learning activities is that it helps the learner to scientifically handle any problematic situation. The similarities. The students may be divided into groups and assigned different aspects of the problem. it must be ensured that the execution of each and every activity is done with the active participation of all.
Debate can be on relevant topic that is different and interesting to the students and relevant to society. 3. Preparation of Report The cover page should have the title of the project. 28 Topic Selection Selection of panels keeping in balance with intelligence. Debate Debate is a hot and interesting learning activities. Presentation of the Project When the project is presented . Those who have similar opinion should join together to form a side . check list Etc. 1. Title Preface Hypothesis and aim Methodology Sources of data Analysis and conclusion Suggestions (if any) References Appendices (Questionnaire. A debate can be organized only on a topic on which there is difference of opinion. 6. It is through this presentation that ideas are shared with others in the class and society.5. 7. The report should be structured in the following order. the period of study. Students should be given opportunity to absorb the ideas obtained from discussion and debate. and to express them through writing or other means Stage of Debate 1.) 6. 3. V. 2. The project methods promotes scientific self learning and makes him capable of solving the problem arising in real life situations. Therefore a topic suitable for debate has to be chosen. the learner is being evaluated and accepted. and the address of the school. Selection of moderator . 4. name (s) of investigator/ group. 2. It would be ideal to write down the topic of the debate and displayed in advance. Students with different opinions have to be identified for discussion. 5. 9. Those who hold the opposite view with form the other side. 8. Observation schedule. gender etc. There should also a person to control debate. develop the idea through reading and study.
5. 2. 5. debate etc. Case may be presented by the teachers or may be provided in print form. 6. A simple case study may have the following steps 1. brain storming. students develop new insights into the solution of specific on – the – job problem and also acquire knowledge of the latest concepts and principles used in problem solving. Learners analyses the case to interpret. Collection of information guided by the teacher Conducting the debate under the control of moderator by avoiding any sort of personal conflicts Conclusion by the moderator expressing his final version or verdict. institution or a community case study is an in-depth analysis of an actual event or situation. Brain Storming This is the best method for solving creative problems. Welcome as many responses as possible No criticism is allowed Allow to work on others idea Steps in Brain storming 1.4. Presentation of the problem 29 . Collection of data Conversion of data into information Analysis of the case in groups Presentation of the finding by each group leader. By studying realistic cases in the classroom. No response is wrong. Case Study A case may be a person. predict and resolve issues associated with it. It presents real pictures of situation with facts. 4. 1. data and theory taught from the class. 4. Rules for conducting Brain storming. VII. Evaluation In addition to the above mentioned learning strategy there are many other learning strategies which can be used in appropriate situations to enrich leaning process such as problem solving. Role play. 3. 2. objective information or data. VI. Learners can work individually or in groups. 3. So welcome every response. The case study provides the learner an opportunity to analyse and apply concepts. It facilitates generation of ideas quickly.
2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
Provide relevant information Record the ideas put forth by the participants Combine similar ideas
Evaluate each idea and solution Selection of the best solution If brainstorming is used as an instruction strategy, the last step is not essential
Discussion is essential for the student to share new finding, idea and conclusion at each stage of learning with fellow students and teachers. In general discussion the teachers should guide the discussion through questioning and summarizing. The major steps involved are 1. 2. 3. 4. Introduction initiated by the teacher Development of discussion by giving lead points and follow up interactions Transaction stage in which the key points are reviewed by the teacher and Summarizing stage in which teacher provides additional support materials to ensure the achievement of the objectives
IX. Group Discussion
Group discussion is an ideal method to develop cooperation, democratic attitude, friendliness and compromising attitude which are the ultimate aims of education. During group discussion the teacher may observe each group and it needed help them to channel the discussion towards the common objectives. All students may be given opportunity to take part and express their ideas within a time limit. The conclusion reached may be entered by each student. A group representative must present this during consolidation in which the teacher may correct or add informations to ensure that all the relevant ideas have been covered
Collection is a continuous learning activity, which ensures complete participation of students. The collected item may be materials, pictures, charts, ideas, data etc. Collection provides direct experience to learn. An exhibition of collected materials will help to strengthen the concept.
XI. Practical works
Experimentation contains the process skill in an integrated way. In the new approach of curriculum the student forms idea and comes to conclusion through process. The term ‘Practical ‘when associated with a science subject usually means an experiment. The objective of doing an experiment is to explore new ideas through investigation only. Its main purpose is to verify
some principles associated with theory. The subjects end here. But this is not the case with ‘Vocational Practical’ The ultimate goal of Vocational Education is to generate skill through continuous practice along with investigation and invention. Continuous practice transforms the unskilled to the skilled. This is the significance and importance of practical in the Vocational stream. Hence it is very crucial that Vocational teachers as well as instructor should understand the importance of vocational practical and act accordingly.
Quiz programmes can be used as an interesting class room tool for transaction of curriculum objectives as well as to evaluate the effectiveness of transaction and achievement of students. For conducting a quiz programme a topic should be selected based on the above objective The students are asked to prepare questions based on the topic individually. The next day / next hour the students are grouped into 3-4 groups randomly. A question is raised by a particular team and the other teams to answer them if they can answer the question they get points for that if all other teams fail to answer the question raised by the 1St team the 1st team answer the question and explain the background if necessary. All the teams get equal number of chances to ask the question . Time limit is also prescribed for the conduction of the programme. The team who scores maximum points wins All the participants can make notes on the questions asked, answers and their explanations which help them in learning
Models are used in learning process. It enhance the leaning experience. This is based on the ‘seeing is believing”. It helps the learner a chance to see feel the model presented . Still models and working models help the students to understand the structure, working principles, actual operation etc. Several steps are involved 1. 2. 3. 4. Locating the problem The teacher should plan the type of model according to CO’s Grouping the students Briefing the tasks
l l l l
Aim Need Material required Source & Materials
l l l l
Cost of materials Division of Labour Guidance Fixing of a time limit
Presentation by each group about
How the models were prepared Details of - Expenses
Working and principles Finally documentation of the process
By the other groups Later a consolidation by teachers are to be done.
Class rooms can be made attractive by introducing different types of games. Games should be interesting as well as informative. Some of suitable games are 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Odd man out Cross word puzzles Match the following Aswamedham Link game – Answer using clues.
This strategy involves collection of data from the group under study (book, person, materials etc.) It develops the social interaction and communication ability of the learner. It also provides a scope for discovery learning.
Step involved in survey 1
2 3 Objective of survey Selection of area for survey/sampling frame Selection of survey method
2. 6. Exhibition item can be conducted either individually or as a group task. participation and innovative skills of the learner can be evaluated. 5. It provides the intrinsic motivation and exposure. 4. 7.Direct method With help of questionnaire/schedule 1 2 Tabulation and analysis Consolidation and Presentation XVI. Exhibition It is a learning strategy by which the learner can get a chance to show the skill developed. Interview Interview is one of the important learning strategies taking the help of a resource person. documentation. It enables the learning to retain the learned information longer and 33 . It is based on the principle that seeing is better than having. Field Visit Field visit is an inevitable vocational tool to be implemented in Vocational Higher Secondary Education. It can be conducted at school / Regional/State/National level. place etc. 3. selected names sequence of question XVIII. Necessary publicity and other arrangements can be provided. XVII. How to discuss? How many students to participate? Implementation of the interview Conclusion (Facilitator) Items required 1 2 Interview Schedule List of questions prepared by learners Selection of students. It provides learning though viewing. Interview is an inner view. It provides opinion and information about a topic. How to introduce a problem? Invite a resource person Decide the questions by learners Decide the time. 8. This helps the students to familarise with the modern technologies and new situation in a different atmosphere. An interview is conducted by the following steps 1. Presentation.
Demonstration Though demonstration we can present an item/product and emphasis its features very effectively. 3. learner should acquire the ability to apply the ideas/concepts in his future carrier. 4. 1. A learner gets clear idea about the concept The leaner can retain the ideas in his mind for longer periods A complicated idea can be simplified though a chart Cheap method of teaching aid. Material/Item/Process Demonstration Venue Additional requirements depending upon the nature of the item Introduction about the item/Material Principles – Working Operation Components Merits of the item Demonstration Process XX. Each learner should submit a detailed report about the field visit. 5. 2. Eg:.to make the subject more interesting. 34 . Give instructions to the learners for collection data/information/materials/specimens. The facilitator should identify suitable center/ institution/site. 4. 2. Chart display is a written or pictorial representation of idea or concept. Teacher may assign different duties to learners by working them different groups. It is prepared by study Benefits 1. It motivates and give more confidence in his/her particular vocation. He/She should observe and interact at the center/ institution where the field visit is conducted After the visit.To understand the functioning of a computer 1. 3. brief and clear. XIX. 3. 2. It is abbreviate. Get prior permission from the authorities before conducting the field visit. Each learner should take utmost care and interest during the visit. Chart display It is also one of the important teaching aids. It can be used in every activities of a learning process.
data collection and observation. 1. 1. IT support and group discussion.6 To get an idea about the need of critically damped and the concepts of over damping and under damping through observation. 35 . demonstration and practical experiments. observation and group discussion.11 To get an idea about abnormal ECG waveforms associated with certain diseases through interview. chart preparation.5 To develop an idea about standardization of ECG machine through brainstorming. field visit and OJT. Prepare notes and draw diagrams in chart. discussion. Prepare notes. 1. 1. Prepare a note 1.3 To understand the various lead system used for ECG recording through chart preparation. practicals. demonstration of dismantled specimens and operation manuals.9 To understand the normal ECG waveform pattern through brainstorming. practicals. Prepare notes.13 To get an idea about various ECG recorders through field visit. 1. 1. Prepare charts and notes 1. 1.10 To understand the ECG measurement parameters through discussion.4 To identify the parts of ECG machine and its working through brainstorming. chart preparation. discussion and practicals.2 To understand the basic principles of ECG recording through brainstorming. Prepare a report. OJT and assignment. group discussion. 1. discussion and practicals.8 To acquire practical skill in recording ECG through group discussion. observation. Prepare an assignment. 1. Prepare a chart demonstrating the damped condition.12 To understand the common artifacts occurring in ECG recording and able to minimize those artifacts through observation. discussion. seminar. reference materials.1 To understand the history of ECG through brain storming and group discussion. demonstration and practical.CURRICULUM OBJECTIVES UNIT 1 Electrocardiography 1. Prepare an assignment.7 To understand the precautions and patient preparation before recording ECG through discussion. 1. observation. discussion. Prepare notes. Present the seminar report.
discussion. OJT. discussion and chart preparation. AUDIOMETRY UNIT . OJT and group discussion. discussion and OJT. expert opinion. discussion. 3. field visit.1 To understand different parts and working of pure tone audiometer used for audiological evaluation though demonstration.5 To acquire a skill in recording BP measurement by auscultatory method through practicals.2 Assessment of Hearing loss 2. Role play. brainstorming. OJT/ field visit. hospital visit/OJT and discussion. 2. Prepare a seminar. practical. OJT and discussion. demonstration. observation. UNIT . data collection. Prepare notes. Prepare notes.1 To develop an idea about the technique of TMT through illustration. 2. field visit and group discussion. its principles and types through brain storming. observation. field visit.UNIT . Prepare notes. Prepare a report. Prepare notes. discussion. 1. Prepare an assignment 1.1 Pure tone and Speech Audiometry 1. discussion. OJT and practical.8 To develop an idea about pace makers. 36 .7 To understand the working of defibrillator and its application through discussion.6 To create an awareness about echocardiography and its techniques through brainstorming. 2. Prepare reports 2.3 To get a brief idea about play audiometer though discussion.3 To develop an idea about cardiac monitors used in the ICU for electrocardiography and pulse frequency measurement through data collection.2 Other Cardiovascular measurements and Equipments 2.3 Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Medical ethics 3. field visit/ OJT. Prepare a report 2.2 To understand the screening procedure for evaluating hearing loss through data collection. OJT. 2. discussion. field visit. Prepare a report.2 To get a brief idea about the medical ethics though discussion. expert opinion. practicals.2 To understand procedure and operation of pure tone audiometry and to plot audiogram through. 2. Prepare notes. observation and discussion. UNIT . data collection.1 To create an awareness about the first aid measures though the discussion. Prepare a report. Prepare notes. 1.4 To understand the procedure of Speech Audiometer though discussion. Prepare notes.2 To familiarize with the use of Holter monitor system through demonstration. Submit the assignment. field visit. field visit /OJT/ animated Cd's.1 To get a brief idea about case history evaluation through data collection.4 To create an awareness on the need and technique of catheterization through data collection. 2.
4 To get an idea about the assistive devices for hearing impaired. Prepare notes.1 To understand the various rehabilitation methods adopted for deaf adult and children though discussion. Prepare an assignment. Prepare a working model. Prepare notes. Prepare an assignment 37 .5 Rehabilitation of Hearing impaireds 5.3 To understand different types of hearing aids through data collection. demonstration. Prepare an assignment.2 To familiarize with the circuit details of hearing aids through demonstration and discussion. field visit.7 To get an awareness about the special audiometric tests used for differentiating sensory loss from retro cochlear disorders through discussion. 2. 3. field visit / OJT. UNIT .6 To familiarize with various objective measurements for audiological evaluation through data collection.6 To get an idea about cochlear implants through data collection and discussion.4 Ear Moulds 4. data collection and chart preparation. types. group discussion. discussion. through data collection. UNIT . discussion field visit/ OJT. practicals. 3. UNIT .1 To get an awareness about ear mould. practicals and observations. Prepare reports.1 To understand the need and working of hearing aid through discussion. Prepare an assignment. observation. field visit / OJT. interview and OJT. field visit and OJT. Prepare notes. field visit and interview.3 To understand the various tuning fork test used for audiological evaluation through discussion. Prepare a seminar. Prepare notes. expert opinion.2.3 Hearing Aids 3. 2.5 To under stand the need and concept of masking through observation. 2.5 To create an awareness about the care and maintenance of hearing aid through group discussion. 3. 3. Prepare notes and charts. 2. procedure of making ear mould and its modification through illustration.4 To understand different types of audiometers through group discussion. 5.2 To understand the various educational options for hearing impaired though discussion. 3. Prepare an assignment. chart preparation and discussion. Prepare notes.
Name of the Unit Theory Practical 1 2 3 4 5 Puretone & Speech Audiometry Assessment of hearing loss Hearing aids Ear moulds Rehabilation of children and adults with hearing impairment. Total 10 Hrs 20 Hrs 10 Hrs 20 Hrs 18 Hrs 78 Hrs 100 Hrs 35 Hrs 10 Hrs 30 Hrs 175 Hrs PRACTICALS Hospital visit (ECG & AMT) 120 Hrs 38 . Name of the Unit Theory Practical 1 2 3 Electro Cardiography Other Cardio vascular measurements & Equipments Medical ethics & Cardio pulmonary resuscitation Total 30 Hrs 28 Hrs 4 Hrs 62 Hrs 75 Hrs 50 Hrs 125 Hrs AUDIOMETRY Unit No.SYLLABUS ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHY & AUDIOMETRIC TECHNICIAN SECOND YEAR Total duration Theory Practical 560 hrs 140 hrs 420 hrs ELECTRO CARDIOGRAPHY Unit No.
G recorders [28 Hrs] Tread Mill Test Holter monitors ICU Monitors ( Monitors for Electrocardiography and pulse frequency measurement) Cardiac Catheterisation Blood pressure measurement • Auscultatory method in detail Echocardiography Defibrillators Pacemakers [4 Hrs] [60 Hrs] [75 Hrs] [30 Hrs] Other cardiovascular measurements & Equipments Medical Ethics and Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Hospital Visit PRACTICALS 1.C.G Parts of E.C.6 1.1 2. Electrocardiography • • • • • • • • Leads of E.6 2.8 3 History and introduction Basic principles of E.C.2 1.C.G recorders Recording of 20 normal cases 39 .C.3 1.2 2.C.G machine Standardization Damping Precautions and patient preparation Recognition of minor faults and trouble shooting Familiarization of various types of E.7 1.G machine with block diagram Procedure for E.C.C.5 2.G recording Types of E.5 1.C. Electrocardiography 1.3 2.1 1.4 2.G recording Artifacts in E.8 1.ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHY 1.G wave form Abnormal patterns-brief description E.C.G Lead system Normal E.7 2.4 1.9 2 2.G instrumentation • Details of E.
Brief account of the main Electro Acoustic characteristics Aided Audiometry Ling sound test Care and maintanance of hearing aids Introduction to cochlear implant [20 Hrs] • • • • 4. Plotting the Audiogram Speech Audiometry [10 Hrs] 2. group amplfication system and other assistive listening devices. Puretone and speech Audiometry • • • Audiometer Procedure of Puretone Audiometry (Including play Audiometry).need for masking [20 Hrs] Orientation to free field Audiometry and objective measurement such as tympanometry. Procedure of making regular ear mould Brief note on Ear mould modification 5.2 Measurement of B. OAE [10 Hrs] 3. reflexometry. Assessment of Hearing loss • • • • • • Case history evaluation Screening procedures for hearing evaluation Tuning fork test Over view of Audiometry Orientation to masking . Hearing Aids • Types including digital and programmable aids.P by auscultatory method • in Unit II [50 Hrs] Familiarisation on operation and measurement of various equipments mentioned [60 Hrs] 3 Hospital visit • • One month visit to hospitals. Rehabiliation of children and adults with hearing impairment Hospital visit [18 Hrs] [60 Hrs] 40 . Ear moulds Parts and types of Ear mould. parts of the aids. BSERA. Getting familiarized with the use of cardiology equipments AUDIOLOGY 1.
CBS publishers and distributors.Crofts Katz.Weibell. 3. 1. Newby.Dr.Jaypee brothers. Williams & wilkins Bassand Hummes (1990) Audiology .J.fundamental. John.PRACTICALS 1.Century .B.Jaypee Brothers Biomedical Instrumentation .F.Third edition. 2. Upper saddle river. 3. 4. 6. IVEd. 5. 4. 5. 8.B. 6. Ltd. New Delhi Introduction to Biomedical Equipment Technology .Lipman . Martin. NewJersey: Frentice Hall.M.Third edition.Joseph. 7. Obtaining and plotting the Audiograms of normal subjects (10 Nos) Obtaining and plotting the Audiograms independently (10 adult cases and 10 children) Observation of Speech audiometry (10 cases) Administration of speech audiometry (10 cases) Observation of case history (10 cases) Observation of other objective test used for hearing assessment Observation of regular ear mould making (2 pairs) Making regular ear mould independently (1 pair) REFERENCE ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHY [175 Hrs] 1. Baltmore. Krishna Das .Volume one.Pfeiffer .Volume three. Ohio. Fred.M. Williams & wilkins Human Anatomy . 2. New Delhi AUDIOLOGY 41 .Carr. Human Anatomy .Brown prentice Hall.Arumugham Biomedical Instrumentation and measurements .V.D. 2.J et al (Ed) 2002. New Delhi. Newyork: appletion .Prentice Hall of India Pvt.C. 9.Leslie cromwell.D. 4. New jersey.Chaurasia . Observation of Puretone Audiometry and play Audiometry (10 cases) Participating in plotting audiograms. CBS publishers and distributors. H.A (1985) audiology.N (1991) Introduction to audiology. Ericha.Bradford. ECG Assessment and interpretation .Chaurasia .J. 3. Handbook of Clinical Audiology. 5. A textbook of medicine by K.
The teacher has to plan the activities necessary to make learning effective. Teachers must prepare at least three planning documents • • • Year plan Unit plan Daily plan Y plan ear The year plan include the total number of units to be transacted though the three term. ECG Unit Name of Unit Theory Period Practical Month Activity / Strategy 1 Electrocardiography 30 Hours 75 Hours June July Brain storming. We have to Provide learning experiences that would help to develop practical skill and components of multiple intelligence. preparation. data collection and Seminar Data collection. field visit / OJT practicals. in prescribed time. Whether the activities are conducted in the class or outside. assignment. role play 42 .PLANNING To learn ECG & AMT the learning process must be activity oriented. observation. chart preparation. discussion. Observation 2 Other Cardiovascular 28 Hours measurements and equipments 50 hours July August 3 Medical ethics & 4 hours cardiopulmonary resuscitation September Discussion. field visit/OJT. they are to be completed in a time bound manner. group discussion. practicals. Chart. evaluation method and all other aspects. Seminar. units to be covered during each month and the number of periods allotted for each unit.
discussion. Field Visit. 43 . 120 Hours January One the job training February UNIT PLAN Teacher may prepare unit Plan before the actual transaction of the unit in the class room.AMT Unit Name of Unit Theory Period Practical Month Activity / Strategy 1 Pure tone and Speech 10 Hours audiometry 100 Hours SeptOctober Demonstration. Data November collection. brain storming. This plan mast make clear the curriculum objectives. OJT 18 Hours Rehabilitation of children and adults with hearing impairment. OJT Data collection. Hospital Visit (ECG & AMT combined) 6. Seminar. 2 Assessment of Hearing loss 20 Hours 35 hours October 3 Hearing Aids 10 hours 10 Hours October Discussion. discussion. OJT 4 5 Ear mould 20 Hours 30 Hours November Illustration. OJT/ hospital visit. Chart. Demonstration. field visit. Expert opinion. field visit. assignment. data collection. field visit. essential strategies to be used and materials required. Interview. December OJT January Discussion. How the outcome are to be evaluated may also be spelt out. Demonstration. observation practical. preparation. chart preparation. practicals.
OJT. visit. assignment expert Opinion Brain storming. OJT. Assignment expert opinion Discussion. identification Data collections Discussion/Field visit/OJT • To create an awareness on Cardiac need and technique of catheterization catheterization Applications. hospital visit/OJT and discussion Observation. Field Reference books.P. Observation echocardiography and its ultrasound.P.44 UNIT PLAN Unit 2 : Other Cardio Vascular Measurements and equipments Concept/ Idea Observation. Field visit. Reference Text. Different Recollects. field Photographs visit . cardiac monitors used in the monitoring leads ICU for electrocardiography and pulse frequency measurement through data collection. comparison Discussion/Field visit/ Reference Text communication OJT observation. animated CDs.PE 4 hours • To acquire a skill in recording BP. discussion communication Observation. Reference books. different communication. its working and types of Pacemakers. 4 Hours BP measurement auscultatory method CT 3 Hours CT CT 3 Hours 4 Hours systolic B. comparison Illustration. Recollects. Field Reference Books CT visits. Seminar. Classifies its types power supply Observation Reference books. discussion BP apparatus. discussion. Practical. interpretation • To get an awareness about Echocardiography. Reference books. OJT. Pacemakers. animated cd's. stethoscope Discussion. makes connection Data collection Discussion/ Field visit/OJT Reference Text Reports Notes Process / Skill Activity Materials Evaluation Period 4 Hours Objectives • To develop an idea about the Tread mill test procedure and technique of TMT Holter Monitor • To familiarize with the use of Holter monitor system 3 Hours 3 Hours • To develop an idea about ICU monitor and Comparison. Observation. by diastolic B. comparison techniques types Observation • To understand defibrillators Defibrillators and its application though discussion • To develop an idea about Pacemaker. expert opinion Report CT. operation manuals. comparison. Normal Judges value. communication. OJT.
learning activities.III (Group Discussion) Discussion Points: 3 Groups activitively participated in • Why the ECG wave shows different deflections? discussion. 4th group is not active due • What does each deflections represents? to the bad grouping. observation and discussion. Others prartially get an idea about the topic Activities .Lipman. QRS intervalTime required for the depolarization of ventricles.II (Chart Preparation) Instruct the learners to Ashok Prepare the chart very well prepare a chart of normal ECG wave form using the reference text.C.T wave Repolarization of ventricles. Lead them to group discussion. learning aid and feed back. Charts. Concept/Ideas : Normal ECG wave form. Prepare charts and notes. Activity .QRS-Ventricular depolarization.DAILYPLAN The daily plan includes curriculum objectives to be transacted in class period. QT interval-Time required for both depolarization and repolarization of ventricles Other Activities Collection of normal ECG waveforms 45 .ECG assessment and interpretation-Brad ford. PR interval -Total amount of time required for the depolarization of atria. Animated CD's Response/ Evaluation Activity /strategies Activity . • Can you differentiate the characteristics of each waveform? Presentation: Ask the group leaders to prepare a note Presentation of notes by Sarath was Consolidation: From the above activities the teacher can very good consolidate the topic with an idea that P waves .Atrial depolarization. Class Unit Topic : Second Year : Electro Cardiography : Normal ECG wave Form Subject Date Time : ECG & AMT : : 1 Hour Curriculum Objectives : To understand the normal ECG wave form pattern through brain storming. Raju and Kavitha identify the development of ECG wave forms with perfection. chart preparation. ECG paper. Activity .I (Brain storming) Ask the learners to recollect All the learners participated in brain their previous knowledge about conductive system of heart storming sessions and they & basic principles of ECG recording consolidate the points in diary. Character of a wave Previous Knowledge : Basic principles of ECG waves and conductive system of heart Materials Required : ECG machine.III (Observation) Ask the learner to observe the animated CD's showing the development of ECG wave forms in relation to the working of heart. animated CD's Reference text .
So the evaluation should be continuous and comprehensive. To eliminate / these limitations the evaluation should be done on multi dimensional ways by measuring multiple intellectual capacities of the learner. Technical skills. Questions are framed in such a way that the learners are able to apply different mental process while answering. concepts and ideas gained by the learner. 46 . The total number of questions may vary from time to time. All the questions should be based on the curricular objectives. Term End Evaluation (TE) It is the written form of evaluation aimed at evaluating the facts. Open ended questions may also be included. analysis and synthesis level. As the curriculum is based on a particular vocation. The term end evaluation question give more emphasis on application. It provides diverse experience to the learners. The questions and score should be formulated taking into consideration the time required to read. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation (CCE) Our traditional evaluation methods measure only the memory and recollection capacity of the learner. think. The maximum scores for TE is 80 and the minimum is 24 (30%). multiple choice questions of application level may be used. keeping in view the skills to be attained continuously by them. CCE helps the learner to understand and evaluate his own progress and to develop adequate strategies for further improvement. So it is better to evaluate the learner in a continuous and comprehensive manner. analysing. communication skills. understand and write answers. organisational and presentation skills are to be evaluated. the selected stream is the most important part and it should be evaluated accordingly. The test should not be aimed to evaluate the memory alone. Internal choice may be given to questions but the choice question also should be based on the same curricular objectives.EVALUATION INTRODUCTION Evaluation is a systematic process of collecting. To avoid wild guessing. interest and devotion in the field. Evaluation of the personal and social qualities also should be done. both in cognitive and non cognitive areas of learning. Evaluation has to play significant role in making the learning process more effective. synthesising and interpretering evidences of student’s progress and achievements.
investigation and a mind for research in the learner belongs to this group. For example l l l l l Study project Case study Field study 2. Process as well as product are assessed. Effective feed back is possible. abilities of sharing ideas. Performance Task (Tests) Class test (Oral/ Written / Performance test) Quiz Open Book Examination Interview Group testing Activities related to the achievements of the learner. Investigative Activities Activities which create a spirit of enquiry. etc For example l Seminar l Panel discussion l Debate l Group discussion l l 3. Remedial and diagnostic teaching is possible. A series of learning activities are grouped into five major thrust areas as follows 1. Assigned Task Activities assigned to the learner to enrich/strengthen the concepts and ideas For example l Assignments l Collections l l 4. Interactive activities Activities which improve the communication skill. For example l l l l l l l 47 .Merits l l l l Assess the all round development of the learner on a continuous basis through variety of activities.
Data Collection l l l l 3. Ability to give suggestions based on inference. the teacher has the freedom to choose any three areas for evaluation purpose. Stratigies and methods adopted Total 20 4. Systematic arrangements. Authenticity of report. 1. Arrange data for analysis.Voice l l l l l 48 . Practical based activities like For example l l l l l Preparation of working model Album improvisation From the above five group of activities. Ability to explain. Viva . Time bound completion Knowledge of content and 4/3/2/1 process.5. Stages Planning l l Criteria Score Total Scores l 2. Reliability and authenticity of the data collected Ability to analyse the data. CE Items 1. Analysis and Inference l l l Relevatace of the study 4/3/2/1 Identification of problem: Ability to select appropriate tools Ability to select suitable learning method Ability to collect sufficient and 4/3/2/1 relevant data. Report presentation l l l 5. Ability to analyse data Ability to justify inference. Ability to present in logical and 4/3/2/1 sequential order. Ability 4/3/2/1 to draw inferences based on analysis. Ability to classify. Study Project Sl No.
4. 1. Criteria Awarness of the content Comprehensiveness of the content Systematic and sequential arrangement Observation / suggestion/ views / judgements/ evaluation Timely submission Total Score 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 20 5. 3. 5. Seminar Sl No. Criteria Attitude and readiness towards the task Capacity for observation Data collection Application of ideas Documentation / Recording Total Score 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 20 4. 2. 4.2. 1. 1. 5. Criteria Planning and Organisation Collection of data / content Observation / appraisal and clarity Content knowledge Presentation Total Score 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 20 49 . 2. 5. 4. 2. 1. Field Study Sl No. 3. 3. 3. 2. Case study Sl No. 5. 4. Assignment Sl No. Identify the problem Approach to the problem Time bound Action Analysis of the problem Problem solving / Reporting Total Criteria Score 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 20 3.
Planning 2. 1. PE is done to evaluate the practical skills achieved by the learner in the concerned vocational subject Total score for PE is 150 and minimum is 60 Score (40%) Practical Examination is conducted for a batch of 8 learners having 6 hours duration. Criteria 1. This is the importance and significance of vocational practicals. 2. Group Discussion Sl No. Continuous and comprehensive practice transforms the unskilled learner to a skilled one. 4. Interview Sl No. Communication skill 4. Criteria Readiness to participate Depth of subject knowledge Communication skill Ability to justify in a democratic way Leadership quality Total Score 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 20 8. Debate Sl No. 5. 5. 1. Readiness to participate Depth of subject knowledge Communication skill Ability to justify the stand Presentation Total Criteria Score 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 20 7. 2. Preparation of Questions 3. Report preparation Total Score 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 20 Practical Evaluation (PE) The goal of Vocational Education is to generate skills through continuous practices along with investigation and inventions.6. Participation 5. 3. 3. 4. 50 .
devotion perseverance and efficiency. skills and devotion in specific vocational fields. Value addition can be evaluated through conducting field visits/ vocational survey. 51 . Capacity building can be evaluated through conducting the following activities. 3. 2.Production / Service cum Training centre (PTC) These components help the learner to practise the acquired skills in the real situation and thereby increasing self . Intership Evaluation should be done based on the follwing components like regularity and punctuality. This is a system to evaluate judiciously the required value addition and consequent capacity building in the concerned vocational curriculum.camp /exhibition / clinic Performance . value addition and capacity building 1. 2. acquired by the students an Internship Evaluation (IE) components have been introduced to meet this requirement. the regular presence of the learner is a must for attaning maximum efficiency. 3. The experiences gained through field visit/ Vocational survey increase the level of intrinsic motivation and develop positive attitude towards the vocational field and thereby increase his value as a semi-professional. As other evaluation components like CE. 1. OJT / Simulated experiment Performance .comfidence and promoting self reliance. Regularity and Punctuality Regularity and punctuality has vital role in vocational education Learning is a continuous process. Capacity Building It gives a quantitative measure of the student’s skill in graded area exposure. PE and TE cannot assess the vocational competencies and professional skills.Vocational Competency Evaluation (VCE) Vocational competency evaluation is to evaluate the vocational skills and aptitude developed by the students during the learning process. The vocational education is aimed at developing interest. Value Addition Value addition is the qualitative measure of the learner’s interest.
It is evaluated by using 5 point grading system.camp / exhibition / clinic Performance . Rating Scale Sl. 2.PTC Practical skills (any one) Total Score 10 20 20 50 1. Regularity and Punctulity can be assessed by using attendance of the learner and time bound completion of tasks. No. Items Regularity and punctuality Field visit / Survey / Vocational project (anyone) OJT / simulated experiment Perfomance . 1 Item Regularity 1 Never regular Never punctual 2 often regular often punctual 3 usually regular usually punctual 4 most of the time regular 5 Always regular 2. Data collection 4. Application of ideas 5 Documentation / recording OR 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 20 52 .Vocational Competency Evaluation Indicators No 1. Capacity for observation 3. 3. Attitude and readiness towards the task 2. Punctuality most of Always the time punctual punctual Scoring Score 10 VCE Items Regulatarity and punctuality Value addition Field Visit Evaluation Indicators 1.
Reporting Capacity Building OJT / Simulated experiment 1. Ability for communication 4. Innovation 5. Time bound action 4. Drawing inference 5. Promiting self condidence 4. Capacity for observations. Documentation. Ability for planning and organising 2. analysis and innovation 5. Skills in doing work / communication skills 3. Involvement / participation 2. Involvement / Social commitment OR Performance in Production/ Service cum training centre (PTC) 1. Data Collection 3. Innovative approach 5. Promoting self reliance 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 20 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 53 . Mastery of subject 3. Recording and display OR Performance in camp / exhibition / clinic 1. Mastery of vocational skills 2. Managerial capacity 3. Planning Evaluation Indicators Scorin Score 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 4/3/2/1 2.VCE Items Survey 1. Consolidation of data and analysis 4.
Name of No Pupil CE 20 TE Total Grade 80 100 Y ear: Vocational Practical PE 150 Grade VCE IE 50 Grade Class: 54 .Consolidated Statement of VCE Course : ECG & AMT Roll No Name of Pupil Regularity of Value addition Punctuality (10) (20) Y ear: Capacity Building (20) Class: Total Score (50) Grade Consolidated Grade Record of Vocational Subjects Course : ECG & AMT Vocational Theory Roll.
A practical examination is conducted for 150 score and should cover all required indicators to evaluate the technical skill and practical knowledge of ECG and AMT Indicators for PE-ECG & AMT Indicators Identification of tools and items Procedure-2 experiments Technique Observation. The practical skills must be evaluated from time to time.PRACTICAL EVALUATION Practical evaluation is the important part of vocational practicals. tabulation. inference Result Record Viva voice Total Score 20 5 x2 20x2 20x2 5x2 1x10 Total 20 10 40 40 10 10 20 150 55 .
LEARNER EVALUATION PROFILE Course : ECG & AMT Y ear : Ist Year Name of Subjects I Part I 1. Theory Voc. GFC Part II Voc. English CE TE Total Grade CE TE Total Grade CE TE Total Grade Total Grade IE Grade CE TE PE Total Grade CE TE PE Total Grade CE TE PE Total Grade Term II III I II Year Term II III Mini. Practical VCE Paper III Paper I Physics Paper II Chemistry Paper III Biology 56 . Max Score Score 2.
.... 3.............................. 2............................. 2.. 3................................................................ No Name 57 ............... 3......................................... 2................................... 1... 1............. 3.........Consolidated Statement of CE Course Class CE items 1 1..................................... 1.......... 1......................................................................... 2................................. 3. Evaluation Indicators 2 3 4 5 : Total (20) Total (60) Average CE (20) : Sl................................. 2.....
1 ELECTRO CARDIOGRAPHY 56 .
Reference books. ECG machine. Discussion practicals Parts of ECG machine Brain storming Discussion Chart preparation Demonstration Prepared chart. ECG Machine recorded ECG Chart TE PE 4 To identify the parts of ECG machine and its working through Brain storming. discussion and practicals Lead system Chart preparation. recorded ECG Note s CT Brain Storming. Chart preparation and demonstration Reference Books: Medical Instrumentation by S. OT 2 To understand the basic Basic principles of principles of ECG ECG recording through brain storming practicals. observation & discussion prepare notes 3 To understand the lead system used for ECG recording through prepared charts.UNIT AT A GLANCE Unit 1 : Electro Cardiography Content/area Activities/learning strategies Materials Products/ Outcome Evaluation Curriculum objectives 1 To understand the history History of ECG of ECG through Brain storming and group discussion Brain storming Practical observation.Ananthi prepared chart Dismantled ECG machine Chart CT PE 57 . group discussion Reference Text. Discussion. Group discussion Materials from internet Notes TE.
E CT procedure of ECG recording G. demonstration. discussion. Field visit/OJT Operation manuals.D. ECG. practical filed visit/OJT . ECG machine. demonstration. observation. Observation and Practicals 6 To get an idea about the need of crtically damped concepts of over damping and through observation discussion and practicals 7 To understand the precautions and patient preparation before recording ECG through discussion. Practical. Text book: A text book of Medical Instruments by S. Need of standardisation Normal Calibration Brain Storming. Practicals BPL operation manual. Discussion.D.Ananthi Assignment P. demonstration and practicals 8 To acquire practial skill in recording ECG through G.58 Content/area Standardisation of ECG. paper. Practicals ECG machine.paper. ECG gell Notes OT PE Curriculum 5 To develop an idea about standardization of ECG machine through brain storming. bankles Discussion. prepared chart References Note TE Activities/learning Materials Products/ Evaluation Damping Under damping over damping Observation Discussion Practicals ECG machine Reference text Notes OT Supine position Remove watch. Observation.
• Measurement Parameters. OJT/Field visit and seminar Abnormal ECG • MI • Common Arrhythmias • Hypertrophy • Septal defect Interview. • Heart rate calculation Discussion. observation 10 To understand the measurement of ECG through discussion. discussion.C. Animated CD’s Reference Book: (ECG made easy by John. Experts. discussion • Ac interference • • Observation. Animated CDs TE Collected data CT Content/area Activities/learning strategies Materials Products/ Outcome Evaluation 9 To understand the • Normal wave normal ECG wave form form through brain sotrming. • Pwave form chart preparation. collected ECG Tracings. • QRS complex observation and group discussion.Curriculum objectives Brain storming Chart preparation observation Group Discussion Reference Books: Notes ECG Assessment and interpretation by Bradford. OJT/ Field visit Seminar Reference books: ECG assessment and interpretation by Bradford C. Assignment Refernce Book: Medical Instrumentation by Arumukham. Expert opinion Assignment TE PE 59 . ECG paper.R Hampton) • • Wandering of backine 12 To identify common artifacts occurring while recording ECG and the methods of minimising it through observation. data collection and observation • TE Seminar report 11 To familiarize with abnormal ECG wave forms through interview. data collection.Lipman. Lipman. Biomedical Instrumentation by Cromewell.
Assignment Seminar report Assignment CE Operating manuals of various types of ECG recorders. Charts and diagrams Materials Products/ Evaluation Curriculum • Protable single channel recorders 13 To familiarize with various ECG recorders through field visit/OJT Assignment • • .60 Content/area Activities/learning Field visit/ OJT.
61 . practicals. group discussion and prepare notes. By using electrodes and a galvanometer this current can be recorded. basic principle. Prepare a chart demonstrating the damped condition. its applications.2 To understand the basic principles of ECG recording through brainstorming. chart preparation and demonstration of dismantled specimens and operation manuals. Prepare notes. working. 1. parts of ECG machine. The Electrocardiograph is the first electrical device to find widespread use in medical diagnosis and it still holds its importance as a diagnostic tool of cardiac disorders. This is called electrocardiogram. identifying the parts of ECG machine and various types of recorders.5 To develop an idea about standardization of ECG machine through brainstorming. discussion and practicals. 1. This unit enables the student to acquire skill in recording ECG. When the heart contract electric current is produced and propagated through out the body to the skin. 1. 1.6 To develop an idea about the need of critically damped and the concepts of over damping and under damping through observation. Curriculum Objectives 1. Prepare notes.4 To identify the parts of ECG machine and its working through brainstorming.1 ELECTRO CARDIOGRAPHY Introduction Electrocardiography is one of the most widely used non invasive technique for the diagnosis of heart disease. Prepare notes and draw diagrams in chart. 1. Prepare an assignment. discussion. observation.1 To understand the history of ECG through brain storming. discussion. demonstration and practical. This unit includes the history of ECG. 1. group discussion. method of recording ECG and common artifacts occurring while recording ECG. The production and propagation of bioelectric potential across the cardiac cells are already discussed in the first year. discussion and practicals.3 To understand the various lead system uses for ECG recording through chart preparation. demonstration and practical experiments.7 To understand the precautions and patient preparation before recording ECG through discussion.
IT support and a group discussion....9 Types of E.. chart preparation.... Production and propagation of action potentials Syllabus 1...G recorders l l Then the teacher divides the students into 5 62 . ....9 To understand the normal ECG waveform pattern through brainstorming.10 To understand the ECG measurement parameters through discussion.C... Learning materials Reference Text Biomedical instrumentation and measurements By Cromwell ECG Assessment &Interpretation By Brad Ford C.. observation and group discussion..C. Practicals • • • • • • • • Leads of E... a) b) c) d) What is biopotential? How it is propagated? .11 To get an idea about abnormal ECG waveforms associated with certain diseases through interview. Lipman Process The teacher initiate a brainstorming session to recollect their previous knowledge by asking questions.C. Prepare charts and notes 1.C.5 Abnormal patterns-brief description 1...G recorders Recording of 20 normal cases 1...2 Basic principles of E..G 1.C.G recording 1.. observation..... Prepare a note 1.G recording 1..G machine with block diagram Collect responses from the students l 1. practicals.7 Procedure for E..G machine Standardization Damping Precautions and patient preparation Recognition of minor faults and trouble shooting Familiarization of various types of E....C..13 To get an idea about various ECG recorders through field visit OJT and assignment.8 To acquire practical skill in recording ECG through group discussion.... field visit and OJT.....1 History and introduction 1.. 1...1. seminar..G instrumentation • Details of E..... data collection and observation.C...C..12 To understand the common artifacts occurring in ECG recording and able to minimize the artifacts through observation...C. Present the seminar report.C..3 Lead system 1....1 History of ECG Learning activity brainstorming and group discussion..G wave form 1.6 E..G Parts of E.... Print outs taken from the Internet. 1. discussion and assignment...8 Artifacts in E. 1... reference materials. Prepare a report....4 Normal E.
Direct them to a group discussion using reference materials....... Consolidation Recollection of previous knowledge about biopotential through brainstorming session The teacher divides the student into 5 groups...... practical.................... Ask them to discuss the following points........ 1903 Let them observe the recorded tracings.... Lipman Electrocardiography: Aspi F........ discussion......... observation......... Golwalla ECG Machine Process l - Invention of biopotential Need of measurement Introduction of capillary electrometer Contribution of William Einthovan String Galvanometer Modification of writing system The teacher must facilitate during discussion Reporting Presentation by group leaders Ask the learners to prepare a note based on the discussion...... Ask them to redraw the tracings in their notebook..groups and asked to discuss the following points using reference material and printouts taken from Internet.... Discussion Points l l l l l l l 1..2 Basic Principles of ECG Learning activity brainstorming... The ECG of one student from each group is recorded [Lead 1 or 2] l Outcome Invention of biopotential by Luigi Galvani Waller – Capillary Electrometer Demerits of Capillary Electrometer William Einthovan..... Learning materials :Reference Text: A text book of medical instruments:By S Ananthi ECG assessment and interpretation: By Brad Ford C.......... Points 1) 2) 3) 4) l l l l Where does the waves come from? What are the features of the tracings? .... Evaluation TE Link coloumn A with the appropriate item from B&C A Luigi Galvani William Einthovan Waller B String Galvanometer Capillary Electrometer Animal Electricity C 1786 1887 1903 Consolidation l l Prepare a note based on discussion 63 . Bioelectric potentials ECG – Definition Electrocardiograph Electrocardiography Nomenclature of ECG waves The learner understand the historical background of ECG..... ..........
By this example teacher can conclude the need of multiple leads in ECG. Lead system Learning activity Chart preparation. Golwalla Process Step 1 Evaluation: TE Teacher divide the students into groups. Charts are displayed in the classroom. Teacher asks them to group the chart based on similarity. discussion. Ask the students to prepare notes 1) 2) 3) 4) Electrodes Leads Comparison and classification of leads importance of multiple leads than a single lead Consolidation: 1.html l - 5) 6) Practicals: . Ask them to compare with ECG tracings Outcome The student get an idea about the basic principles of ECG Evaluation CT The teacher suggests an example of taking photograph of a person from different angles. Recorded ECG http://nobel prize. Give them the task of preparing chart showing12 leads ECG using references. The photograph gives different details of the same person.Other activities Step 2 - Collections of recorded tracings of EEG and EMG. Let the students to compare the 12 charts and note the differences. practicals Learning materials Website Prepared charts.org/medicine/ education/ecg/index.Students can practice the placement of leads in laboratory. ECG machine. 64 . Similarly recording ECG from different points of the body gives more details.3. 3 groups are obtained. The students can do the title for each group by referring text materials. l ECG signal differ from other bioelectric potentials in their characteristics. The learner understands the different lead system and acquire skill in the placement of leads Outcome Text Book: Biomedical instrumentation and measurement By Cromwell Electrocardiography Aspi F. Analyze this statement.
Learning materials: Process Evaluation Lead selector Bridge O/P circuit Reference Text: A text book of medical instrumentsBy S.select the lead signal pre amplifier power amplifier Identification of wrong lead connection and their correction. Lipman Lead selector Preamplifier Pen motor Learning materials: - Ask the learners to relate the different parts of machine in a proper way. the length of the wooden stick is compared with the length of the meter scale. Discussion points l l l l 1. Prepared charts Dismantled ECG machine operation manuals • PE Complete the given block diagram of ECG machine Identify the controls in the front panel of ECG machine With the help of prepared charts the teacher can demonstrate the parts of ECG machine using reference materials.4 Part of ECG machine and its working Suggested activity: illustration.. Lead selector . Consolidation 1. - Prepare a chart showing the parts of ECG machine. Ask the learner to discuss the following points. The learner can prepare a block diagram showing the parts of ECG machine using references l Process Teacher can initiate a brainstorming session on the need of calibration by measuring a physical quantity. A wooden stick of length in 1 m and marked accordingly can be used for this purpose i. Discussion The teacher must facilitate the students to discuss the function of each block with the help of dismantled machine.Observe the above two figures Identify and compare these two leads PE Other activities. prepared charts. discussion. ECG machine. demonstration and practical. The teacher can divide the students into 5 65 . Eg: A meter scale is used in textile shop to measure fabrics.Ananthi ECG Machine . Reference text: ECG assessment & interpretation By Bradford C. ECG paper. Demonstration using dismantled specimen. The learner can prepare notes and the group leaders can present the topic in classroom.5 Standardization of ECG machine Learning activity Brainstorming.e. group discussion. chart preparation.
g. Ask them to compare ECG tracings with proper calibration and without calibration Let them note the differences Practicals ECG machine Practice the standardization in ECG machine by each learner The group leaders of each group can do a presentation on this topic with the help of charts and submit the report in the form of a note. over and under standardization Evaluation:TE Other Activities Prepare a chart demonstrates the damped condition. discussion and Chart preparation Reference text An introduction to Electrocardiography by Leoschamroth Process How can we calibrate an ECG machine? l l Need of standardization in ECG machine. length. The students get an idea about damping Evaluation Commend on these signals 66 . voltage. current.groups (Grouping strategy: . time. weight Points to be discussed Compare the given standardization signal. 1.Ask them to name 5 physical quantities) e. Learning materials - Let the students to observe the standardization procedure conducted by teacher.6 Damping Learning activities Observation. Consolidation Students observe the standardization marks obtained in different damping condition and discuss the following points Points - Damping Under damping Over damping Note the points in a diary In practical session teacher demonstrate the damping Consolidation points Outcome Standardization 1 mv = 10 mm Under standardization Over standardization Outcome Rounding of signals Overshoot The students get the concept of standardization by practicals and preparing a chart showing normal.
Evaluation CT PE l l l Group discussion - Patient preparation Standardization Discussion points l l l l l 1. The students get an idea about the precautions to be taken before recording ECG and skill for patient preparation.1. field visit/OJT Learning materials Operating manuals. Operation Manual A text book of Medical Instruments By S Ananthi Divide the students into 5 groups. ECG paper. practical. ECG machine. demonstration. Lead them a discussion. patient preparation and placement of leads Outcome Learning strategy Learning materials: Reference text BPL. The teacher can supply the print outs of this topic.7 Precautions and preparations taken before ECG Group discussion. practical. Electrode paste Process Divide the students into groups and ask to recollect their previous knowledge on the following points l Need for taking precautions What kind of precaution can be taken? Need for applying electrode paste Proper electrode placement Lead placement Let the students to observe the practical experiment conducted by the teacher l Reference text A text book of Medical Instruments By S Ananthi Ask them to prepare a note and the group leaders of each group can present the topic in the form of assignment Supine position Removal of metal objects Application of electro depaste Consolidation l l l l Precautions to be taken before ECG recording Patient preparation Electrode placement Lead placement l l l l Other activities Prepare an assignment pointing out the precautions and patient preparation Exhibit a chart showing the major points regarding the precautions to be taken before taking ECG Consolidate the discussion points The students can observe the procedure for ECG recording by following ways 67 . Practicals The learner can practice the placement leads.8 Procedure for ECG recording Learning activity Group discussion. observation.
Group discussion l Group leaders can present the topic in the form of notes Consolidation - P wave: atrial activity QRS complex: 68 . observation.rneens. PE l With the help of animated CDs students can observe ECG waveforms in relation to the working of heart Lead them to a group discussion based on the above activities (5 groups) and using reference materials. l Outcome The learner acquires a skill in ECG recording through OJT Evaluation OT. animated CDs ECG assessment & interpretation By Bradford C.com l Reference text: Website Process Step 1 l Ask them to prepare note on the recording of ECG using operation manuals. Ask to note the points in a diary Step 2 Let the students prepare chart of normal ECG waveform using reference materials. charts. Why the ECG shows different deflections? What does each deflection represent? Can you differentiate the characteristics of each deflection? Evaluating the practical skill in l l l l l l Precautions Patient preparation Electrode placement Standardization Recording Points l l l 1.l Demonstration by teacher in school labs OR Observation during field visit OR The learner itself can visit and observe the procedure in a nearest lab Learning materials Reference books. Lipman Biomedical instrumentation and measurement By Cromwell http://www.9 Normal ECG wave form Learning activity Brainstorming. Practicals The learner can practice the recording of ECG from school laboratories and during OJT. chart preparation. Consolidation l l l l l l Precaution Patient preparation Electrode paste Standardization Recording Recollection of previous knowledge about the basic principle of ECG and conductive system of heart through a brainstorming session.
QRS duration P-R interval. 69 . Evaluation TE l prepare notes Other activities Collection of ECG tracings and find out the values of above parameters. QT interval Other activities Collection of recorded ECGs Outcome l l Learner understand normal ECG waveform and identify the electrical events responsible for their formation. QT internal The learner understand the different types of ECG papers. Lipman.duration Vertical axis – amplitude Other activities Let the students to collect the recorded ECG tracing and ask to calculate the heart rate by 1500 and 6 second methods Outcome Parameters l l l l P-wave amplitude. parameters of ECG and calculation of heart rate from ECG. Data collection and Observation Learning materials Reference text: ECG assessment & interpretation By Bradford C. ECG paper. PR interval. Activity 2 - 1.10 ECG Measurements Learning activity Discussion. P-wave duration QRS amplitude. recorded-ECG - Points to be discussed: l l l 1500 method for calculating heart rate 6 sec method for calculating heart rate Process Note the points in a diary Consolidation Teacher supplies reference materials along with an ECG paper to discuss the points. The learner can collect the print out of the topic (calculation of heart rate from ECG) from the teacher and discuss the matter in groups (Teacher act as facilitator) P wave represent atrial activity. QRS width. Justify this statement.- ST segment T wave U wave Consolidate the discussion points with the help of teacher l l l l Types of ECG paper 25/50 mm/sec Horizontal axis represents duration Normal values of P wave. l l l l l l - Heart rate = 1500/No of small squares ECG paper Paper speed Normal calibration Horizontal axis. QRS interval.
Reference books Learning activity: l Observe the above two ECG signals and commend on it.com/ ECG_Sim_demo. Students make interaction with a Cardiologist and collect information about abnormal ECG waveform. Evaluation Calculate the heart rate from ECG by 300 methods if the R-R interval is 25 small squares 1.html The teacher can give the topic to the students and ask to collect information during OJT/ Field visit. e. Consolidation - Hypertrophy IHD MI Common Arrythmias - Artifacts . Consolidation Discussion.Definition Wandering of baseline 70 . Learning materials Reference text ECG made easy.12 ECG Artifacts Learning activity Process The teacher can initiate a discussion on artifacts by giving ECG tracings which contain some artifacts. Observation Reference books.g.Evaluation TE Outcome The students get an awareness on common abnormalities in ECG. Expert opinion Biomedical instrumentation Arumukham Learning materials Reference text http://www.skill stat.John R. OJT/ Field visit and seminar Animated CDs. wandering of baseline Ask them to find out the reason for that artifact with the help of reference material. Present the collected information in the form of a seminar. Hampton Websites Process 1.11 Abnormal ECG waveform (Brief descriptions only) Interview. List out the other artifacts and let them to find out the reason and their remedial measures using reference texts Present the report in the form of an assignment.
Let them present the report in the form of an assignment. Evaluation TE Outcome Observe the above signal and commend on it How these kind of signals can be avoided during recording PE Portable single channel ECG machine. Consolidation Biomedical instrumentation Cromwell The students are capable of identifying the commonly occurring artifacts and their remedial measures. charts and diagrams CT Enumerate the different types of ECG recorders with their advantages and disadvantages 71 .13 Various types of ECG recorders Learning activity Field Visit/OJT Learning materials Operation manuals of various ECG recorders. Multichannel recorders ECG for computer processing Identification and elimination of artifacts during ECG recording The students can get an awareness regarding the various types of ECG recorders with their advantages and disadvantages. Evaluation 1. The learner can interact with Biomedical Engineers and collect the operation manuals. advantages and disadvantages during OJT/ Field visit/Exhibition.Outcome AC noise Reference text Process The students can collect the various information regarding various types of ECG recorders.
2 OTHER CARDIO VASCULAR MEASUREMENTS AND EQUIPMENTS 72 .
Field visit/OJT discussion Notes OT 2 To familiarise with the • Holter Monitors use of Holter Monitor • Leads system through • Recording demonstration. Filed visit/ OJT and discussion Prepare notes OT 73 . Prepare a report 3 To develop an idea • ICU monitors about cardiac monitors • Monitoring leads used in ICU for electro cardiography and pulse frequency measurement through data collection. Operating manuals. OJT. Photograph Reference: Principles of Bio medical engineering for nursing staff by Hans. DiscusECG assessment sion and interpretation by bradford Chipman TE Activities/learning strategies Materials Products/ Outcome Evaluation Curriculum objectives 1 To develop an idea • Treadmill unit about the procedure • Procedure and technique of TMT • Significance through illustration. discussion.C Lipman. data Collection. Field visit/ OJT Reference text: Report ECG assessment and interpretation by Bradford. van Des Model Data collection. field visit/OJT and discussion. Field Reference text: Visit.UNIT AT A GLANCE Unit 2 : Other Cardio Vascular Measurements and Equipments Content/area Report Collected dataIllustration. Expert opinion chart.A. field visit and discussion. Prepare a report Discussion.
field visit/ OJT. Discussion • Echo 6 To create awareness cardiography about echocardiography • Principle and its techniques • types through discussion. Practicals and discussion Discussion. field visit/ OJT and seminar • Defibrillators • Types • Working of DC defibrillators Discussion. discussion. observation field visit/OJT Animated CDs.P measurement through observation. expert opinion Reference text . Notes visit. Field Visit/ OJT observation CE 7 To understand defibrillators and its application through discussion.P Apparatus Stethoscope Reference Joseph J.by cromwell Assignment CE OT . Practical. field visit/OJT 5 To understand method of B.V Krishna Das CT B. Seminar Expert opinion Seminar Reference booksAthu Lithra • Blood presssure • Technique • Interpretation Observation.74 Content/area Data collection. discussion. observation. Field Animated CDs. Prepare an assignment Operating manuals.Biomedical instrumentation . Observation . Report Expert opinion Reference book : A textbook of medicine K. Carr Report PE/ OT Activities/learning strategies Materials Products/ Outcome Evaluation Curriculum objectives 4 To create awareness on • Catheter the need and technique • Catheterisation • Technique of catheterisation through data collection. OJT.
discussion. OJT.BMI by Cromwell Materials Products/ Outcome Evaluation • Pacemakers • definition • Types of pacemakers • Powersupply 8 To develop an idea about pacemakers. Field visit Note Reference text:. its types through brain storming. discussion. Prepare notes 75 . its working. OJT.Curriculum objectives Content/area TE Activities/learning strategies Brainstorming. field visit.
Prepare a report. Prepare a report. 2. 2. There are also cardiac pacemaker system. Prepare a report 2. OJT and discussion.8 To develop an idea about pace maker. observation and discussion.6 To create an awareness about echocardiography and its techniques through brainstorming.3 To develop an idea about cardiac monitors used in the ICU for electrocardiography and pulse frequency measurement through data collection. field visit.7 To understand the working of defibrillator and its application through a discussion. and volume are measured by using engineering techniques. collection field visit. Prepare reports 2. discussion. A well knowledge in this unit can only be attained through hospital visit and OJT only.1 To develop an idea about the technique of TMT through illustration. 76 . defibrillators. 2. Curriculum Objectives 2. In this unit cardiac measurement systems other than ECG are discussed. 2.4 To create an awareness on the need and technique of catheterization through data collection.2 To familiarize with the use of Holter monitor system through demonstration. 2. which although not measuring instruments. Prepare notes. discussion. Intensive coronary care units now illustrated in many hospitals relay on bio-instrumentation for their function. flow. OJT and group discussion.5 To acquire a skill in recording BP measurement by auscultatory method through practicals. hospital visit/OJT and discussion. field visit and group discussion.2 OTHER CARDIO VASCULAR MEASUREMENTS & EQUIPMENTS Introduction The heart attack in its various forms is the cause of many deaths in the world today. The electro cardiogram and echo cardiogram are measured and recorded with electronic instruments. field visit. they are electronic devices often used in conjunction with cardiac measurements. OJT/field visit. Prepare a report. observation. Prepare a note. observation. discussion data. field visit/OJT. The use of engineering methods and the development of instrumentation have contributed substantially in progress made in recent years in reducing death from heart disease. its principles and types through brain storming. Prepare a assignment. Blood pressure.
2 Holter monitors 2. Most commonly a motorized treadmill is used for exercise while a stationary bicycle is used in some exercise Lab.7 Defibrillators 2. symptoms and signs of heart disease may become unmarked by exposing the heart to the stress of exercise. Learning activity Illustration. This unequal dilation causes more blood to be delivered to heart muscle supplied by the normal artery.nlm. Lipman Website http://www. and the ECG may produce characteristic abnormalities. Based on the prepared report a discussion is conducted The need of performing TMT The precautions to be taken before performing TMT The procedure of Test The accessories and instruments used for TMT The significant changes in ECG As the group leaders to present the discussion points The Notes are prepared based on this presentation l The discussion points are – l l l l l Learning materials Reference books. healthy coronary arteries dilated than an artery which has blockage. The starvation may produce symptoms like chest discomfort or inappropriate shortness of breath. In contrast.htm/article/003869.5 B. Prepare a report Teacher divide the students in 5 groups.1 Treadmill test 2.htm Process: l Teacher gives an introductory idea about TMT in the class room through illustration Treadmill Test Introduction Patient with coronary artery blockages may have minimal symptoms and an unremarkable or unchanged ECG while at rest.P measurement (Ascultatory method in detail) 2.Syllabus 2.gov/ medlineplus/ency/article/ 003878.nih.3 ICU monitors( for electro cardiography and pulse frequency measurement) 2. Collected data 77 . However.6 Echo cardiography 2. This reduced flow causes the induced muscle to starve during exercise. During exercise. narrowed arteries end up supplying reduced flow to its area of distribution.8 Pacemaker systems Reference text ECG assessment and interpretation by Bradford C.4 Cardiac catheterization 2. Field Visit/ OJT and discussion l The learner observes the procedure and techniques of Tread mill test during OJT or Field visit in a hospital.
This can be caused by heart attack or stroke. The test can be conducted on an out patient basis and is used to detect arrythmias or coronary artery disease. Photograph and CDs http://www. Learning activity Demonstration.nlm. the patient problem can be detected as they occur and remedies taken before these problems get out of hand. chart etc.htm Students understand the need and technique of ambulatory monitoring Evaluation: OT ICU Monitors for ECG recording and Pulse frequency measurement Introduction Learning materials Website - In patient monitors electronic equipment provides continuous watch over the vital characteristics and parameters of the critically ill. Learning activity: Data collection.. Justify l Holter Monitor Introduction Consolidation Outcome Holter monitoring is a method of recording continuously the cardiac rhythms over a specific period of time. OJT/ Field visit/ Discussion Reference text: Principle of biomedical engineering for nursing Learning Materials - 78 . By continuous monitoring.Consolidation Process Teacher introduce the instrument in the class room with the help of CD’s and Photographs and discuss the following points l Outcome: Treadmill .nih. Field Visit & expert opinion Reference books. Expert opinion. Discussion.parts procedure ST segment change The difference between routine ECG recording and Ambulatory moniotoring Special leads and electrode position Need of Ambulatory monitoring Instruments and accessories used Lead and electrode placement Advantages adn disadvantages The learner can strengthen his concept with the help of experts during field visit The learner understand the technique of TMT Evaluation TE l l l l Exercise ECG is more useful that routine ECG recording. Patients are monitored because they have an unbalance in their body system.gov/ medlineplus/ency/imagepages/ 8810.
and to detect the location of abnormal blood.nih.Silver cholride electrodes Principles of ECG monitors Learning Materials Website - Consolidation Other activities Prepare an assignment on central monitors Outcome Process – Group Discussion – 5 groups The learner gets an idea about cardiac monitors Evaluation The learner can collect the data relating this topic from library and discuss the following points with the help of teachers Discussion points l l l l l CE OT Participation of learner in group discussion and answering to questions What is catheter? What is the need of catheterisation? Technique of catheterization Applications 79 . this technique is also used to obtain blood samples from the heart for oxygen content analysis.nlm. l Prepare a report on this topic Silver. flow path ways.gov/ medlineplus/ency/article/ 003419. Apart from obtaining blood pressure in the heart chambers and great vessel.htm One student from each group can present this topic. After presentation a question session is conducted. field visit/OJT Reference text Animated CDs Expert opinion http://www.Von Des Model. Catheter is also used investigations with injection of radio opaque dyes for x-ray studies.staff – Hans.A. observation. Other group members give answers for questions. Black well publications Cardiac Catheterisation Introduction Process l Teacher can give the print outs of this topic Ask to collect more informations about this topic during field visit/OJT Group discussion (5 group) Use of Monitors Instrument set up Special lead used Electrodes used Measuring parameters l l Points to be discussed l l l l l Catheterization was first developed in the late 1940’s and has become a major diagnostic technique for analyzing the heart and other components of cardiovascular system. discussion. Coloured dyes for indicator dilution studies and of vasoactive drugs directly into the heart and certain vessels Learning activity Data collection.
Outcome Learning materials - The learner acquire the skill in measuring BP by Auscultatory method 80 .Precatheterization . Practicals The learner practises the BP measurement during OJT/Schools labs Consolidation Clinical applications of catheterization Blood Pressure Measurement ( Auscultatory method) Introduction As one of the physiological variable that can be quite readily measured. Learning activity Observation.Consolidate the discussed points and note them in a diary l Using animated CDs or websites the learner can observe the technique of catheterization During field visit/OJT learner can further improve his idea about catheterization with the help of cardiologist Reference Books A text book of biomedical instrumentation by S.Catheterisation .Ananthi Website http://www. BP is considered as a good indicator of the status of cardio vascular system.Post catheterization l Outcome The learner gets a brief idea about the catheterization Evaluation Using prints out or reference materials the learner can prepare the note and discuss the matter in groups.htm l Process The students can observe the procedure of BP measurement by following ways l Make a report on this topic based on the above activities and present it in the form of Seminar Consolidation l l l l By visiting a nearest lab/hospital or Demonstration in school using BP apparatus by teacher or Observation during field visit Catheter Angiogram Applications Procedure – Definition l . BP measurement has saved many persons from untimely death by providing warnings of dangerously high BP in time to provide treatment.nih.gov/ medlineplus/ency/article/ 003398. Practical and Discussion Sphygmomanometer.nlm. Stethoscope Blood pressure – definition Systolic & Diastolic BP apparatus Normal values Interpretation Other activities AssignmentPrepare an assignment on BP measurement other than auscultatory method. The group leaders present the topic in class and make a final report with the help of teacher.
Other activities Evaluation OT Outcome Seminar. During fibrillation.Application of Ultra sound in Medical field. On examination shows the BP of 180/90mm of Hg Name the instrument used for the purpose How will you perform this test Mention the normal systolic and diastolic values? PE an animated CD and reference text teacher can illustrate the technique and working of Echo cardiography Points l l l l Definition of Ultra sound Basic Principles Technique Consolidation Evaluating the practical skill in recording BP Handling of apparatus Technique Echocardiography Echo Cardiography is widely used and valuable instrument for cardiac examination and assessment of many congenital and acquired cardiac disease. expert opinion Reference books Website Echo made easy By Athul Luthra http://www. illustratation Field visit/ OJT.nlm. 81 . Discussions Echocardiography .gov/ medlineplus/ency/article/ 003869.nih. Using this instrument it is possible to see intracardiac structures. Reference books.Evaluation CT The doctor send a patient to you suffering from heart disease and asked to check the BP of the patient. Make a report on echo cardiology based on the above activity. the normal rhythmic contraction of either atria or ventricle are replaced by rapid irregular twitching of muscular wall. valve stenosis etc Learning Activity: Brains storming. detect blood flow velocity. Using Defibrillator is a device used for correcting the fibrillation of cardiac muscles.definition Principles of Doppler Conventional Echo Clinical applications During Field visit and OJT the student can strengthen their concept with the help of experts.htm - The students understand the basic principle and technique of Echocardiography Evaluation – CT Defibrillators Introduction Process The teacher can initiate a brain storming session on ultra sound and its basic principles. In order to correct this fibrillation an electric shock is applied to the chest wall. Learning Materials: Animated CD.
Learning activity Discussion. Learning activity Brain storming. the students can discuss about the following points l l l l l l Fibrillation (artial & ventricular) Instrument used for correcting fibrillation Types of defibrillators Working of DC defibrillators Electrodes used for defibrillators Process The teacher can initiate a brain storming session on conducting system of the heart l l The students can prepare a note based on the above discussion.nih. The knowledge about the topic can further strengthen during the filed visit and OJT. Prepare an assignment after the field visit Consolidation Natural pacemaker What happens if natural pacemaker not functioning properly Need for artificial pacing l l Outcome - Defibrillator (Definition) Internal and External Defibrillators Application of paddle electrodes Working of defibrillators Using reference text and photographs and necessary guidance from the teacher the learner can further discuss the following points. the normal synchronism of heart action get disturbed. These impulses are given by an electronic instrument called pace maker. Prepare a note on pacemakers. discussion. expert opinion (BME) (Cardiologist) Reference text: BMI by Cromwell) Learning materials - node fails to function.gov/ medlineplus/ency/article/ 007070. Observation. OJT/ Field visit Learning materials Website Reference text : Biomedical instrumentation . By providing external electric impulse stimulation to the cardiac muscles. Assignment Operation manuals.Cromwel http://www.A node which is the natural pacemaker of heart. l l What is a pacemaker? Different types of pacemakers Power supply The learner gets a brief knowledge about the defibrillators l l Evaluation: CT Pacemakers Introduction The rhythmic beating of heart is due to origin and spread of impulses from the S.htm#visualContent - Process With the help of teacher. Field visit/OJT. it is possible to regulate the rhythm of Heart.nlm. If SA During the hospital visit the students can observe the different types of pacemakers and further improve their knowledge about the pacemaker with the help of cardiologist. 82 .
83 .Consolidation Evaluation Pacemaker – definition External pacemakers Internal pacemakers found that SA-Node is not functioning properly and sujjest for artifical pacing • • • Name the device used for artificial pacing What is the principle of this device? Mention its different types TE A patient admitted to the hospital due to heart disease. On clinical evaluation cardiologist The learner gets a basic awareness about pacemakers and their functions.
3 CARDIO PULMONARY RESUSCITATION & MEDICAL ETHICS 84 .
Role play Reference books. observation and role play Discussion Reference books. observation. chart preparation. through discussion 85 . Chart Animated CD. through discussion.UNIT AT A GLANCE Unit 3 : CPR and Medical Ethics Content/area Activities/learning strategies Discussion. chart preparation. Expert opinion Report CT 2 To get a brief idea about • Medical Ethics medical ethics. Prepared chart PE Materials Products/ Outcome Evaluation Curriculum objectives 1 To understand the first aid • CPR measures in the case of • CPR in adults cardiac arrest.
Reference text. Discussion points. expert opinion .htm Learning Materials Website - Consolidation - 86 . l l What is cardiac arrest? What should you do the patient collapses How do I perform basic life support (BLS) l Curriculum Objectives 3. Other Activities Role Play Ask 2 or 3 students to perform a role play in cardiopulmonary resuscitation CPR – definition First aid measures in adult Syllabus Learning activities Discussion and using animated cd’s.nih. charts preparation observation and role play. Note the points in a diary.nlm.1 To get an idea about the first aid measures though the discussion. The main objective of this unit is to create an awareness in students about the first aid measure to be done in cardiac arrest. field visit /OJT/animated Cd’s. http://www. Process The teacher can initiate a discussion by using references test and divide the students into four groups. animated Cd’s. prepared charts.Role play l By using an animated CD’s and prepared charts the students can observe the various first aid procedures. Many cardiac arrest are purely managed because of the disorganization of the cardiac arrest team and a lack of knowledge about the recommended procedures by its members.3 CARDIO PULMONARY RESUSCITATION & MEDICAL ETHICS Introduction CPR is an emergency first aid measure done when there is massive cardiac arrest.gov/ medlineplus/ency/article/ 000010.
Discussion Points: l l Dedicated to the service of humanity All reports on patients as confidential information to be communicated only to the physicians l l Consolidate the topic with the help of a Teacher.2 To get a brief idea about the medical ethics though discussion. their patients and the state. 87 . In this unit the learner should gets an idea about the rules and regulations to be followed by a technician in paramedical field. What first aid measures will you give before transporting him to ICU? Syllabus Medical ethics Learning Strategy Discussion Learning material Medical laboratory T echnology CMC Vellore Medical Ethics Introduction Medical professions governed by a cord of ethics Medical ethics deals with the moral Principles which should guide the member of medical profession in their dealings with each other.Out come: Curriculum objectives 3. The students get an awareness about the CPR procedure Evaluation: A healthy normal person suddenly unconscious before you.
AMT 1 PURE TONE AND SPEECHAUDIOMETRY 88 .
discussion and practical/OJT Report Reference Text. chart preparation Audiometer. observation. discussion and practical/OJT Play audiometry Discussion. discussion and chart preparation Pure tone audiometry Principle Procedure Audiogram Brain storming. Speech audiometer Report PE OT 89 . Audiometer. filed visit/OJT Prepare notes Speech audiometry SRT SDS Discussion. Chart. field visit/ OJT Reference books. Audiogram PE CT 2 To understand operation of pure tone audiometer and procedure of ploting audiogram through brain storming data collection. OJT/ Field visit and practicals Reference books. Expert opinion Note PE TE 3 To get an idea about the play audiometry through discussion. Discussion. Block diagram. Operation manuals. Field Visit/ OJT OT 4 To understand the procedure of speech audiometry through discussion. instruction manuals Activities/learning strategies Materials Products/ Outcome Evaluation Curriculum objectives 1 To understand different parts and working of pure tone audiometers using for audiological evaluation through demonstration. data collection.UNIT AT A GLANCE Unit 1 : Pure Tone and Speech Audiometry Content/area Audiometers Parts Demonstration. Notes Reference books. observation.
to predict the outcome of otologic surgery and to assess the value of therapeutic measures. such as auditory training or selection of hearing aid. Prepare an assignment To get a brief idea about play audiometry through discussion. Speech audiometry is aimed at evaluating the listener’s response to speech. discussion and chart preparation. prepared charts. OJT and practicals. Speech audiometry Parts of audiometer Learning activity Demonstration. It not only gives an idea about the hearing handicap and the degree of deafness.. practical. In this unit working and operation of pure tone and speech audiometers are discussed This unit enables the students to identify the parts of audiometers and to understand the procedure of audiometric test. Prepare note. data collection. Practicals.1 PURE TONE AND SPEECHAUDIOMETRY Introduction Audiometry is an important investigation for auditory dysfunction. OJT. - To understand different parts and working of pure tone Audiometer used for audiological evaluation through demonstration. demonstration. Plotting the audiogram. discussion. Prepare note To understand the procedure of Speech audiometry though discussion. Prepare notes. but it is also a valuable method for diagnosing ear disease. instruction manuals Reference text Martin F. discussion. field visit.Introduction to audiology. 90 . It is helpful in evaluating the functional state of auditory system. Pure tone Audiometry is an instrument of comparison which indicates the difference between the sound pressure level required to produce hearing in the individual under test and that required to produce hearing in an average normal young person. l l Syllabus l l Audiometer Procedure of pure tone audiometry (Including play audiometry). l l To understand operation and procedure of pure tone audiometry and to plot audiogram though brain storming. OJT. chart preparation Learning materials Audiometer.N.
Teacher demonstrates the parts of the pure tone audiometer in the lab using a prepared chart and the learner can discuss the following points using operation manuals Points: Learning Materials - Function switch – mode switch – frequency dial – Intensity dial – Masking dial – patient – signal switch – head phones – bone conduction vibrator Activity -2 Reference text - Teacher displays the block diagram of audiometer in the class.T Prepare a block diagram showing the parts of audiometer. 4. Let them discuss the functions of each block using reference books Prepare a note based on the above activities Other activities Prepare a chart that showing the parts of the audiometer Oscillator Amplifier Microphones Earphone Bone conduction vibrator Process Recollection of previous knowledge though a brain storming session. practical. etal Handbook of clinical audiology. discussion. 91 . Points 1.T. Ask the learner to collect the print outs relating to the procedure of pure tone audiometry from library. Audiometer. Observe the procedure of P.Audiometry Principles Test frequency Procedure of Threshold determination Symbols.2 Pure tone Audiometry (Operation and procedure) Learning activity Brain storming. Plotting Audiogram Interpretations Evaluation C. observation.E l l Identifying the parts of Audiometer Ask the group leaders to prepare a report and present them in the class room. Divide the students in to groups of five. OJT Operation Manual.T. 2.A with the help of teacher Teacher divide the students into groups of 5 and discuss the following points Points l l l l Pure tone Audiometers Parts and working of PTA Consolidation Outcome Students identify the parts of the audiometer Need of P.Process: Activity -1 1. P. Data collection. Audiogram Katz J. 3.
field visit.Ask the leaners to submit an assignment based on the above activities Practicals: Students independently perform the P. OJT Reference Text.A though OJT Out come The students acquire the skill in performing pure tone audiometry and ploting audiogram. How will you perform this test? PE 6-9 years of age To bring out the concentration of Childs - OT Speech Audiometry Learning activity Discussion.T. Discuss the following points in groups Discussion points l l l l l - Degree of hearing loss and type Principles Procedure Interpretation of audiogram Need of play audiometry Selection of age Procedure of play audiometry The learner practise procedure of P. audiometer Reference text: Handbook of clinical audiology Katz Evaluating the practical skill in l l l l l Operating an audiometer Head phone placement Procedure Threshold determination Play audiometry Learning Strategy: Discussion. Note the points in a diary. expert opinion Learning Materials : Process The teacher divide the students into group. During field visit or OJT the learner can collect more information with the help of experts Consolidation Evaluation CT Evaluation A person comes to you with deafness.After preliminary investigations the doctor asked for pure tone audiometry. 92 . The learner collect print outs of this topic from the library and discuss the following points. OJT and practicals Leaning Materials Reference texts.TA Test in the lab Consolidation Reference Maryanne Tate malt by and Pameela Knight. Process The learner can collect the print outs relating this topic from library.
phonetically balance words SRT SDS The students acquire skill in performing speech audiometry Evaluation PE Evaluating the Practical skill in performing speech audiometry. 93 . Consolidate the discussion points with help of teacher Consolidation Out Come - Ability to understand speech principle Spondee words.l l l l l Need for performing speech audiometry Principle of speech audiometry Procedure Interpretation During field visit and OJT the students improve their knowledge with the help of an audiologist Prepare notes Practicals The learner can independently perform speech audiometric test in the laboratory.
2 ASSESSMENTOF HEARING LOSS 94 .
Chart. Prepare an assignment Reference Text. field visit. OJT Reference books. Assignment OT 4 To understand different types of audiometers through group discussion. discussion. discussion. field visit. practicals Overview of different types of audiometers Group discussion.N Introduction to audiology Assignment OT 95 . Martin F. Data collection Reference books. demonstration. through data collection. Format discussion and OJT. Collected data PE OT Case histories prepared by students Activities/learning strategies Materials Products/ Outcome Evaluation Curriculum objectives 1 To get a brief idea about Case history case history evaluation evaluation. Prepare notes Screening of adults Discussion. Prepare charts Rinne’s test Weber test Schwaback test ABC test Discussion Demonstration Practicals Reference books: Tuning fork 512Hz Charts Seminar 3 To understand the various tuning forktest used for audiological evaluation through discussion. tuning fork Chart OT 2 To understand the screening procedure for evaluating hearing loss through.UNIT AT A GLANCE Unit 2 : Assessment of Hearing loss Content/area Data collection. data collection.
Rules for masking discussion. group discussion. Group discussion. Field visit/ OJT Special audiometric test • ABLB • SISI test Discussion. field visit. reference books Handbook of clinical audiology by Katz Notes Reference Text. Practicals and observation. etal Assignment TE TE Activities/learning strategies Materials Products/ Outcome Evaluation Data collection.96 Content/area Observation. Field visit/ OJT. note preparation. discussion.N Note OT Curriculum objectives 5 To understand the need Maskingand concept of masking Definition through observation. Practical observation Reference text Introduction to audiology Martin F. OJT Audiogram. through discussion. Prepare an assignment 7 To get an awareness about the special audiometric tests used for differentiating sensory loss from retrocochlear disorders. field visit. Handbook Clinical audiology Katz J. Prepare notes . OJT. Prepare notes and charts 6 To familiarize with Objective tests • Impedance various objective audiometry measurements for • BSERA audiological evaluation • OAE through data collection.
Prepare notes. Practicals and observations. such as the din of machinery in a factory. Prepare notes. the blax of an unwanted radio or the scream of a jet engine we have the Problem of noise. If we know something of the nature of sound and its relationship to hearing. It is often a source of pleasure.5 To understand the need and concept of masking through observation. distracting or even Painful. 2.7 To get an awareness about the special audiometric tests used for differentiating sensory loss from retro cochlear disorders through discussion. we can understand how our hearing may be measured and how such measurements can be used by an otologist to determine the nature of his Patients loss and then what assistance can be provided. practicals. l l l l l l Case history evaluation. In the form of speech. our world seems empty and dead. 2. Prepare an assignment. demonstration. field visit / OJT. as when we listen to music. BSERA. Syllabus Assessment of hearing loss.2 ASSESSMENT OF HEARING LOSS 2.4 To understand different types of audiometers through group discussion. field visit and assignment Orientation to free field audiometry and objective measurements such as tympanometry Reflexometry.3 To understand the various tuning fork test used for audiological evaluation through discussion. discussion and OJT. Screening procedure for hearing evaluation Tuning fork test Overview of audiometry Orientation to masking Need for masking Curriculum Objectives 2.1 To get a brief idea about case history evaluation through data collection.Data collection. discussion and OJT Learning materials: Reference book: Principle of Hearing aid Audiology By Maryantate. OAE 2. it is the most convenient form of communication. discussion field visit/OJT. 2. Prepare seminar.6 To familiarize with various objective measurement for audiological evaluation through data collection. Collected data. When sound becomes excessive.2 To understand the screening procedure for evaluating hearing loss through data collection. discussion. Introduction Sound is one of the most important factors in our environment. Without sound. 2. 2.1Case History Evaluation Learning activity: . 97 .
Martin F.2 Screening procedure for hearing evaluation Data collection Discussion Reference text .N. Let them discussing it the following points. Discussion points Out Come Learner gets an idea about case history. Introduction to audiology. Divide the students in to groups. Discuss the matter in groups with the help of teacher 98 . • • • • • • • The duration of hearing loss The rate of deterioration/ any fluctuation in hearing level. Evaluation: OT 2. The cause of loss if known Any family history Previous or current audiological assessment/ treatment Any condition necesitating medical referal Experience with hearing aid. Consolidation The learner can collect the general format related to this topic from library or an audiology lab.Process: The students collect the general format of case history from nearest audiology lab. Learning activity Learning materials Process During field visit or OJT. Prepare a note on the general format of case history. the students can observe the preparation of case histories.
During hospital visit the learner can observe the various case histories with the permission of an audiologist. Consolidation 99 .
Audiometers. Students are instructed to perform the above tests till they get sufficient practice Ask the group leaders to conduct a seminar on this topic.Rinne’s.Group IV Consolidate the discussion points with the help teacher.N Introduction to audiology. Group discussion.F.4 Overview of Audiometry. field visit Reference text -Martin.3 Tuning Fork test Demonstration. Learning activity Discussion.Group III Schwaback test . ABC. procedure. 2.Demonstration of tuning fork tests by the teacher Teacher divides the students in to groups (4) Using reference materials groups can discuss the following points. Tuning fork (512Hz) Evaluating the practical skill in performing tuning fork test Reference text Martin F. Ask them to collect the reference materials from the library and discuss the following points. l l l l Process Divide the students into 5 groups. Out come - The learner can strengthen the knowledge about this topic during field visit with the help of a doctor.Other activities Prepare a chart showing the general format of this topic.N Introduction to audiology. Ask them to present the report (one among each group) Consolidation Pure tone audiometry Speech audiometry Impedance audiometry Evoked Response Audiometry Free field audiometry - Tuning fork test .Group II ABC test . Weber test. l l l l l l Rinne’s test . Learning activity Learning materials Process: Demonstration: . practicals Learning materials - The learner acquire a skill in performing screening tests.Group I Weber test . interpretation) During field visit/OJT the learner can improve his knowledge with the help of experts consolidate the discussion with the help of the teacher prepare an assignment 100 . Practicals: - The learner get a brief idea about the screening procedure Evaluation Out come OT 2. Schwabach (Principle. Evaluation PE Charts.
Hand book of clinical audiology by Katz Learning activities Process: Let the students to observe an audiogram with masking and without masking.T 2. Out come The students get a brief idea about the different audiometers. Teacher divide the students in to 5 groups supply reference materials and discuss the following Points l l l l l Learning materials - Process Ask the learner to collect data from library regarding this topic.6 - Objective Audiometric Test Data collection. field visit/OJT Audiograms TE The students get an idea about the masking and need for masking Evaluation Learning materials Reference text Hand book of clinical audiology by Katz Masking is essential for bone conduction test commend on this statement 2. Ask them to compare the thresholds obtained for each time. Impedene audiometry The instrument used to assess the middle ear status Procedures - Masking-Definition Cross over effect Masking for AC and BC Prepare a note based on the above activities Other activities: Prepare a chart showing the rules of maskingn and display in laboratory.Consolidation: the concept by going through clinical tests Prepare notes Consolidation - - Out come Free field -open or an area with boundaries that are negligible for the test. Evaluation: O. Arrange a group discussion. Group discussion.5 Orientation to masking-need for masking Learning activities Observation. Points What is masking Need of masking Methods of masking Rules for masking Objective measurements such as l l l l l Tympanometry Reflexometry Evoked response audiometry OAE Note the points in a diary Field visit /OJT helps the learner to strength 101 . Reference text. group discussion Field visit/OJT.
SISI) Discussion.F. Evaluation TE The learner can note the points with the guidance of teacher Students strengthen their idea by conducting practicals in lab with help of teacher and observing the clinical test during OJT. Retro cochlear &cochlear deafness.During field visit / OJT the students can collect more information about the objective tests.N Process: Teacher distributes the print out materials of this topic to the groups. Ask the students to present the report in the form of an assignment. Doctor advised tympanometry. Jamal suffering from hearing loss consulted an ENT specialist. Tympanogram obtained is given above. Ask the students to prepare a note based on the above activities Consolidation : Recruitment ABLB SISI Out come 2. Mr. Points l l l l l l Out come: Principle of objective test Applications Purpose of special audiometric tests. Consolidation:- Learning materials Reference books Introduction to audiology By Martin. practical. Recruitment ABLB test SISI test The learner gets an idea about the above objective test Tests. Procedure Learning activity Students understand the special audiological tests and their applications Evaluation OT 102 .7 Special Audiometric tests (ABLB. (a) (b) (c) Comment on the tympanogram What is the principle of this test Clinical applications of tympanometry. observation Definition to detect recruitment in unilateral deafness to differentiate cochlear from retrocochlear Lesions.
3 HEARING AIDS 103 .
Principle. chart preparation and discussion 4 To get an idea about the • Assistive devices assistive devices for for hearing impaired hearing impaired. chart preparation and discussion Instruction manuals Report OT Reference Text Assignment CT Unit 3 : Hearing Aids Curriculum objectives 1 To understand the need and working of hearing aid through discussion. Prepare models 3 To understand different types of hearing aid through data collection. instruction manual. group discussion. field visit & OJT Data collection. Prepare notes . prepared charts Reference text. group discussion. Application Discussion. Circuit details Demonstration. data collection and chart preparation. chart preparation Chart Notes TE Models. data collection. expert • opinion. block diagram Report PE Activities/learning strategies Materials Products/ Outcome Evaluation Hearing aid. photographs.UNIT AT A GLANCE 104 Content/area Hearing aids. • through data collection. field visits & OJT. Maryanne tate Circuit diagram. working model. Prepare notes 2 To familiarize with the circuit details of hearing aids through demonstration and discussion. expert opinion. Discussion Type of hearing aid AC types Digital and programmable hearing aids Data collection.
observation during field visit/ OJT. field visit/ OJT.Curriculum objectives Care and maintenance of hearing aids Group discussion. Animated CDs cochlear implants through data collection and discussion Data collection. reference text. Prepare an assignment 6 To get an idea about Cochlear implants Journals. Assignment Reference Text hearing aids – Instruction manual Assignment CT Content/area Activities/learning strategies Materials Products/ Outcome Evaluation 5 To get an awareness about the care and maintenance of hearing aid through group discussion. observation. discussion Report CT 105 .
field visit and OJT 3. Photographs.Ling sound test. 106 Hearing aids-Types including digital and programmable aids-Parts of hearing aidGroup amplification system and other assistive listening devices-Brief account of main electro acoustic characteristicsAided audiometry.3 To understand different types of hearing aids through data collection. its parts. expert opinion. Syllabus l Curriculum Objectives 3.3 HEARING AIDS Introduction Hearing aid is a device that brings sound to the ear more effectively. Models. There are very few deaf people who have no hearing whatsoever. 3. Any individual who has a hearing problem that cannot be helped by medical or surgical means is a candidate for hearing aid. A hearing aid system enable a hearing impaired person to make maximum use of this residual hearing area.4 To get an idea about the assistive devices for hearing impaireds. It is much more usual to have some residual hearing. Chart preparation. 3. Data collection. through data collection. In this unit the working of hearing aid. group discussion.Care and maintenance of hearing aidsIntroduction to cochlear implants. Hearing Aid Learning activity Discussion. 3. It is a miniature audio amplifier specially designed for improving human communication.2 To familiarize with the circuit details of hearing aids through demonstration and discussion. chart preparation and discussion. components and types of hearing aids are discussed. Prepare notes 3.6 To get an idea about cochlear implants through data collection and discussion.1 To understand the need and working of hearing aid through discussion. and provide maximum speech clarity and useful information from environmental sound. Prepared Chart Learning materials - . Prepare notes. data collection and chart preparation.5 To create an awareness about the care and maintenance of hearing aid through group discussion and observation. By going through this unit the learner get an awareness about hearing aid system and its applications. Product Manual.
Learning Materials l Teacher exhibits the prepared chart showing block diagram of a hearing aid. Other Activities Out Come The learner gets an awareness about the need and working of hearing aid. Microphone Amplifier Controls Battery (Power supply) Receiver (Ear piece) Consolidation: - Out Come Let the students to draw the circuit diagram and block diagram in their notebook and prepare notes. 2. Do you see any person wearing hearing aid. Let them identify the function of each block and present in the class. supply reference materials. Students identify the parts according to block diagram. Points: Microphone Amplifier Receiver Battery Prepare notes based in this discussion Other activities Ask the students to prepare a chart showing the block diagram of Hearing aid.2 Hearing Aid Circuit Details Learning Activity Demonstration and Discussion. Circuit Diagram. l 3. Block Diagram. 3. 4. Students identify the circuit components of hearing aid 107 . The block diagram charts and circuit diagram are displayed. Microphone: Picks up the sound signals and converted in to electric signals 1. Divide the students into 4 groups. Discussion points: l l l l Process Teacher demonstrates the working of a hearing aid in laboratory with the help of a working model. Working in Model.Reference text Principles of hearing aid audiology by Maryanne Tate Maltby Evaluation TE Complete the block diagram and explain. Process Teacher initiate a discussion on hearing aid by asking questions. 5. l Microphone Receiver What can be done if a person is having hearing impairment. Prepare a working model of low cost hearing aid in laboratory.
Evaluation: O.Amplitude modulation . on the basis of comfort.Definition BTE ICT Out Come Induction loops .T 3.C Hearing Aid Digital and programmable hearing aid Advantages and disadvantages of each model Assistive listening devices and systems Alerting devices Tele communication devices.Charts reference books.C Hearing Aid l l Note the points in a diary. Consolidation: AC Hearing Aid B. Ask to prepare a note relating this topic. Chart Students understand the working of Hearing aid and its use. cost. its merits and demerits. During filed visit/ OJT the learner then collect more information about assistive devices with the help of experts Group Discussion Types of l l Divide the students into 5 groups and ask to discuss the following points. Process Students collect the details of different varieties of hearing aid. Product Manuals. 1.3 Various Types of Hearing Aid Learning Activity Data Collections.4 Assistive Devices Learning Activity Group discussion. problem in using. preparation. applications and exhibit it in the laboratory. The learner gets an idea about the assistive devices Evaluation OT 108 .TDDS Other activities Prepare chart showing Hearing aids and their features. Prepare notes based on the above activities Consolidation: - - Body Worn & AC type . Let each group prepare charts showing one model. Discussion. effectiveness. Points: Process The learner collects the reference materials to create an awareness about this topic. Basic varieties in A.Frequency modulation .Evaluation PE Out Come 3. Divide the students into groups of 5. Teacher lead them into a discussion on the merits and demerits of each model.Alarm clock with flashing lights . 2. Expert Opinion. 4. 3. size. Field visit/OJT Learning Material Principles of hearing and audiology by Maryanne tate - Learning Materials Photographs from reference books.
3. Field visit/OJT Hearing aids.5 Care and Maintenance of Hearing Aids Group discussion. Listening Check The battery Listening through a stethoclip Out Come Out Come The learner gets an idea about the care and maintenance of hearing aids. Group leaders can present the topic in class. 2. 3. Observation.6 Introduction to Cochlear Implants Learning Activity Data collection and discussion Learning Material Journals. Evaluation Evaluation: OT OT 109 . Prepare notes based on the above activities. Reference Text. 4. Instruction manuals 3. 2. Dicussion Points l l l Principles of cochlear implants Components of cochlear implants Advantages Visual check Listening check The learner can observe the procedures during field visit Ask the learners to prepare an assignment on this topic. Animated CD’S Learning Activities Learning Materials Reference text Introduction to audiology for teachers and professionals by Maryanne tate Process The learner collects the informations relating to the topic from Journals and reference text. Consolidation Process The learner can read out the print out relating to the topic and discuss the following points in groups. tone hook Wax in the microphone inlet Parts 1. Devices which converts sound signals into electrical impulse which directly stimulates the cochlea Microphone Speech processor Electrodes The learner gets an idea about the cochlear Implants and its uses. Note the points in a diary with the guidance of teacher During field visit or OJT the learner can collect more informations with the help of an expert and using animated websites. Consolidation: l - Visual check Cracks in casing. Divide the students into groups and discuss the following points: 1. 3.
4 EAR MOULDS 110 .
field visit/ OJT. Illustration.sion. Types. discussion. Prepare notes 111 .UNIT AT A GLANCE Unit 4 : Ear Moulds Content/area Ear moulds. Modifi. types of ear mould. reference textcation AudiologyMarryanne Tate OT Activities/learning strategies Materials Products/ Outcome Evaluation Curriculum objectives 1 To create an awareness about ear mould. Field visit/ OJT Photographs. procedure of making ear moulds and its modifications through illustration.Prepared charts. Discus. Note Preparation.
field visit / OJT Learning materials Prepared charts photographs. Let them discuss the content and List out the points Syllabus l l l Parts and types of ear moulds Procedure of making regular ear moulds Brief note on ear mould modification Discussion points l l l l l l 4.1 - Ear mould Impression materials-group1 Ear impression equipment-group1 Ear Examination-group2 Ear impression technique-group3 Ear mould materials-group4 Ear mould types-group5 (also prepare charts showing different types) Learning activity illustration. Reference Texts: Principle of Hearing aid audiology by Maryanne tate. discussion. discussion. The mould may also have significant effect on the frequency response of the aid. Process Teacher exhibit a chart showing the features of an ear moulds in relation to the pinna and illustrate Points l l l l Purpose of ear mould Concept Features Curriculum objectives 4. types. field visit / OJT Students redraw the diagram and prepare notes Activity Divide the students in to 5 groups and supply reference materials to them (5 different portions to each group).1 To create an awareness about ear mould. Procedure of making ear mould and its modification through illustration. By completing this unit the learner understands the various steps involved in ear mould making and modification. l 112 .4 EAR MOULDS Introduction The purpose of an ear mould is to secure the aid to the ear and convey sound in to the ear canal.
Leaders of each group present the points in the above given order. Teacher may add the left out points. Note the points in a diary. During OJT / Field visit the learner strengthen the concept by collecting datas. The learner can observe the ear mould preparation during this period. Prepare a final report based on the above activities.
Ear mould preparation.
The learner understand the Earmould, its use, procedure of making ear mould and its types
REHABILITATION OFCHILDRENSAND ADULTSWITHHEARINGIMPAIRMENT
UNIT AT A GLANCE
Unit 5: Rehabilitation of Adults and Childrens with hearing impairment
Content/area Rehabilitation techniques Discussion, Field visit, interview Note Reference books; Katz.J. etal, Handbook of clinical audiology, Expert opinion CT Activities/learning strategies Materials Products/ Outcome Evaluation
1 To understand the various rehabilitation methods adopted for deaf adult and children through discussion, field visit and interview. Prepare notes OT Notes Aural method Signed method cued method Discussion, Field visit/ OJT, interview Reference texts; Katz J. etal, Handbook of clinical audiology, Expert opinion
2 To understand the various education options for hearing impaired through discussion, interview and OJT
What can be done for them? .1 To understand the various rehabilitation methods adopted for deaf adult and children though discussion field visit and interview. teacher divide the students in to5 groups. 5. The hearing aid audiologist can make a significant contribution to the hearing impireds client’s quality of life.2 To understand the various educational options for hearing impared through discussion.Principles of hearing aid audiology (Maryanne Tate). Suitable rehabilitation must be provided to deaf adult. Expert opinion. (audiologist) Process Teacher initiate the discussion on rehabilitation of deaf adult and children through a general discussion. Let the groups to visit the near by deaf school to collect information by observation and interview Teachers give direction on important points to be noted. Field visit. interview and OJT Rehabilitation of Hearing impaired After the discussion. Society Deaf adult and children. In this unit various rehabilitation process of deaf adult and habilitation of children are discussed. The rehabilitation process may be handled entirely by the audiologist. Specialist teachers of the deaf undertake the rehabilitation of deaf children. By going though this unit the learner get a idea about the rehabilitation process – hearing aid fitting – auditory training – speech therapy.5 REHABILITATION OF CHILDRENS & ADULTS WITH HEARING IMPAIRMENT Introduction Hearing loss is an under estimated impairment that may need to many secondary problems in addition to primary communication difficulties.l l Hearing aid and aural rehabilitation Attitude of hearing impaired Learning activities Discussion. Points. Learning Material Reference text :. Points: l l l l Handicapped persons in society What we can do for them? Role of Government. l l Curriculum Objectives 5. interview 116 .
Conduct a discussion and group leaders present the report l l Notes the points in a diary.A to children Cochlear implant Educational provision Divide the portion among the groups. During the field visit/ OJT the learner can strengthen his knowledge by arranging an interview with the experts.l Practical aspects Instruction Insertion and removal of aid Operating the hearing Aid and care training Assistive devices Improving communications Speech reading Lip reading Auditory training Speech therapy discussion. Rehabilitation of deaf children Rehabilitation process Fitting of H. reference materials expert opinion. discussion l l Process The teacher can give the print outs to create an awareness of this topic Points l l Need of educating the hearing impaireds The different methods of educational options. Consolidate the points of this topic after a group discussion in the classroom. OJT . Consolidation Teacher consolidate by adding additional points Ask the students to prepare notes based on the above activities Students prepare notes Outcome: Outcome Aural method Signed method Cued method Students get an idea about the rehabilitation of deaf adult and children Evaluation The learner gets an idea about the various educational method OT Evaluation OT Educational options for hearing impaireds Curriculum objectives To understand the various educational options for hearing impaired through 117 . field visit Learning materials Reference text. The group leaders can present the report in the form of a seminar.
New Delhi 110001 118 . Webster 3rd edition John Wely & Sons INC New York 3 Handbook of biomedical instrumentation R.S Kandpur Tata MC Graw Hell Publishing Company limited 4 ECG made easy John R Hampton 5 Principles of biomedical/ engineering for nursing staff Hans A Von Des Mosel Black well Scientifc Publications 6. Introduction to biomedical equipment technology 4th edition Joseph J Cars John M Brown 7 Biomedical instrumentation Dr.REFERENCES ECG 1 An introduction to electrocardiography Colin Schamroth 7th edition Black well science 2 Medical Instrumentation John G. M Arumugham Anuradha Agencies publishers Vidhyal Karuppur Kumbakonam RMS 8 Biomedical instrumentation & Publications Leslie Cromwell Fred J Weibell Erich A Pfeiffer Prentice Hall of India Private Ltd.
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