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Section 5 Robusta Matching Pairs Skills Test

Table of Contents
Focus of the Unit Key Concepts Required Materials Key Terms Instructional Sections: Preparation Testing Grading Proctor Notes . 7 5-6 6 6 7-8 2 2-3 3-4 4-5

Classroom Specifications . Discussion Questions .. 8

Self-Test Annexes: Scoring Form Organic Acid Evaluation Worksheets . Materials and Acid Preparation Instructions ..

10 11-12 13-15

Version 2.2 - Robusta

March 2011

Section 5

Robusta Matching Pairs Focus of the Unit

To teach the student to identify coffee-related taste attributes created by the six (6) organic acids commonly found in coffee: Acetic, Citric, Lactic, Malic, Phosphoric, and Quinic acids. To train students on how to assess their individual sensitivity to the various coffee taste attributes created by the six (6) organic acids commonly found in coffee. To objectively measure the students ability to identify and match specific taste attributes at acidity levels created by the six (6) organic acids commonly found in coffee.

Key Concepts
1. Organic acids are extremely important to cuppers because they dramatically affect the taste in the cup.
2. Organic acids are the result of two separate processes: 1) cellular

respiration resulting in the formation of Chlorogenic, Citric, Malic and Phosphoric acids; and 2) coffee roasting resulting in the formation of Acetic, Lactic, Quinic, Caffeic and Formic acids.
3. During cellular respiration, the rate of acid formation is greatly influenced

by cooler temperatures resulting from either higher elevations or shade, which result in a slower maturation/respiration rate.
4. During coffee roasting, there is an increase in the organic acids up to an

approximate 15% weight loss, followed by a decrease in organic acid concentrations as the roasting process continues, particularly of acetic and other volatile acids.
5. Other factors that affect acidity are: 1) method of processing Wet

(washed) vs. Dry (naturals) vs. Semi-Washed (pulped naturals); 2) Shade


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vs. Non-shade shade increases the content of chlorogenic acid (10%), total acidity (16%), caffeine (4%) and sucrose (3%); humidity, as higher moisture availability causes an increase in plant sugar; and species, as Arabica plants produce seeds with twice the sugar as Robusta plants.
6. Chlorogenic acid has the greatest concentration in coffee, comprising

approximately 10% by weight of green coffee beans and up to 30% by weight in brewed coffee.
7. Chlorogenic acid concentration is two times greater in Robusta coffees than

Arabica coffees; is often associated with bitterness in the cup; and breaks down into Quinic and Caffeic Acid during the roasting process.
8. Phosphoric acid, which has the lowest concentration in brewed coffee, is

believed to have the greatest effect on the perceived acidity of the beverage due to the high disassociation constant, meaning the greater number of hydrogen ions it releases in the brew contributing brightness and sweetness to the taste.

Required Materials
Basic Equipment Set Up Cupping tables one (1) each per four (4) students Cupping glasses four (4) each per set of eight (8) arrays per cupping table = 32 cupping glasses per table Cupping spoons one (1) each per student Four (4) each 0.1 Molar solutions of either: Acetic, Citric, Lactic, Malic, Phosphoric, or Quinic acids. Twelve (12) each 1 Liter air pots (thermal carafes) Two (2) lbs. freshly roasted coffee (medium roast neutral cup). Coffee grinder one (1) each Coffee brewer Basic Supplies Required Pencils and clipboards Scoring forms Paper cups for spoon rinse Paper cups for individual spittoon Placemats for letter/number cup placement on cupping table
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Sample Preparation Coffee Brew Preparation o To prepare a weak infusion of coffee, use 50.0 grams of coffee per 1.0 liter of water as the coffee brew ratio. o Prepare 12 Liters of coffee and store in individual thermal carafes. Four (4) students per tables and three (3) liters per table are recommended to prevent overcrowding of students during the training presentation. Sample Preparation o By individual cup for training presentation o As per instructions for testing preparation

Key Terms
Acetic Acid Acetic acid is an organic chemical compound giving vinegar its sour taste and pungent smell. Its name derives from acetum, the Latin word for vinegar. Vinegar was known early in civilization as the natural result of air exposure of beer and wine, as acetic acid-producing bacteria are present throughout the world. These bacteria are found universally in foodstuffs, water, and soil, and acetic acid is produced naturally in fruits and other foods spoils. Caffeic acid is a naturally occurring phenolic compound, which is found in many fruits, vegetables, and herbs, including coffee, although in varying amounts depending on the plant. Caffeic acid is produced in many plants including: pears, basil, thyme, tarragon, oregano, dandelion, rosemary and coffee. The amount of caffeic acid is strongly dependent on the plant species.

Caffeic Acid

Chlorogenic Acid

Chlorogenic acid is a family of esters formed between certain trans-cinnamic acids and quinic acid. It is a major phenolic compound in coffee, found widespread in all the plant species, and it can be isolated in the leaves and fruit. Chlorogenic acid is toxic to insects and is a major defense mechanism for the coffee plant. High levels of di-chlorogenic acid are found in both unripe and dead (black) coffee beans and is the primary source of bitter tastes in defects. Citric acid is a weak organic acid. It is a natural preservative and is also used to add an acidic, or sour, taste to foods and soft drinks. In biochemistry, it is important as an intermediary in the citric acid cycle and therefore occurs in the metabolism of almost all living things. This series of chemical reactions, know as the Krebs or citric acid cycle, is central to nearly all metabolic reactions, and it is the source of two-thirds of the food-derived energy in higher organisms. Citric acid exists in a variety of fruits and vegetables, including coffee, but is most obvious in citrus fruits. In chemistry and biochemistry, a dissociation constant (pKa) is a specific type of equilibrium constant that measures the propensity of a molecule to separate (dissociate) reversibly into smaller components. The classic example is the dissociation of the water molecule in H and OH particles creating acidity or pH. Stronger acids, like phosphoric, have larger dissociation constants while weaker acids, like acetic, have small dissociation constants resulting in the stronger acid adding more hydrogen ions in solution and creating higher acidy.

Citric Acid

Dissociation Constant

Formic Acid

Formic acid is the simplest carboxylic acid. It is an important intermediate in chemical synthesis and occurs naturally. A significant amount of formic acid is produced as a byproduct in the synthesis of acetic acid. Formic acid is unique in its ability to react with alkenes to form formate esters. Formate esters are used as flavoring and also found in perfumes. Lactic acid, also known as the milk acid, is a chemical compound that plays a significant role in many biochemical processes, from the souring of milk to the production of energy in human cells. This lactic acid fermentation is a biological process by which sugars are converted into cellular energy, with the byproduct being lactic acid. In white wine production, secondary fermentation of malic acid converts hard, green apple-like malic acid to into a softer, butterlike lactic acid. Lactic acid is found through out nature from fruits to molasses. Malic acid is an organic compound commonly found in fruits. Malic acid contributes to the sourness of green apples. Malic acid is also present in grapes and confers a tart taste to wine, although the amount decreases with increasing fruit ripeness. The process of malolactic fermentation converts malic acid to much milder lactic acid. Malic acid, when added to food products, is the source of extreme tartness. In chemistry, molar concentration, also called molarity, is a measure of the concentration of a solute in a solution. Molar concentration is defined as moles per solute per unit volume of solution, where mole means the molar mass (atomic weight) in grams. For example, 58 grams (atomic weight) of NaCl (table salt) dissolved in 1 liter of water is a 1.0 molar solution. Phosphoric acid, also know as orthophosphoric acid, is a mineral (inorganic) acid. The term phosphoric acid can also refer to a chemical or reagent consisting of phosphoric acids. Food-grade phosphoric acid is used to acidify foods and beverages such as various colas due to its high dissociation constant (ability to release hydrogen ions). Naturally occurring in coffee, it is the result of uptake of phosphate in the soil and tends to add a brightness and sweetness to the taste of the brew, most notably in coffees from East Africa.

Lactic Acid

Malic Acid

Molar Concentration

Phosphoric Acid

Instructional Sections
Organic Acid Preparation and Presentation
Using a paper filter in drip brewer and coffee roasted to a cupping roast and a relatively coarse grind, prepare a dilute strength coffee brew not stronger than 900ppm, using a coffee to water ration of 50 grams of coffee per liter of water. Store the coffee brew previously prepared in airpots. Into one airpot, add 10ml of a 0.1 Molar concentration of a selected organic acid (see Annex 3) to 1.0 liter volume of brewed coffee (weak concentration). Into a second airpot, add 20ml of the same organic acid to 1.0 liter volume of brewed coffee (strong concentration). 5

Pour a single cup of brewed coffee for each student, and using the Control Sample form (Annex 2), have the students cup the coffee circling the appropriate rating for each flavor attribute on the form. Pour a single cup of the weak concentration (10ml per liter), and using the Organic Acid Evaluation form (Annex 2), have the students cup the coffee circling the appropriate rating for each flavor attribute on the form. After having the students transfer the rating for each attribute of the control sample to the Organic Acid Evaluation form, discuss with the students the flavor shift caused by the organic acid. Repeat the above exercise using the strong concentration (20ml per liter) of the selected organic acid. Pour a new control sample and repeat the above exercises at least 3 more times using a different organic acid each time.

Testing Procedure
1. This test is designed to evaluate the students ability to differentiate coffee based on its organic acid flavor profile. 2. It consists of eight (8) sets of match pairs of brewed coffee, with each pair containing the same concentration of four (4) of six (6) different organic acids common to coffee: acetic; citric; lactic; malic; phosphoric; and quinic acids. 3. Four (4) of the pairs consist of a heavy (x2) concentration of the selected acids; while four (4) of the pairs consist of a light (x1) concentration of the same selected acids.

4. A base-line coffee brew is prepared using a neutral coffee (low elevation, washed mild
Arabica) at a coffee to water ratio of 50g/liter with a coarse grind to achieve an 18% extraction resulting in a weak brew with strength of 900ppm for the brew.

5. The test solutions are prepared by adding 10ml per 1 liter volume of weak brew coffee for
light pairs and by adding 20ml per 1 liter volume of weak brew coffee for heavy pairs.

6. Each group contains 2 cups of the base-line coffee brew (no addition of an organic acid) and 2
cups of one of the organic acid test solutions, either light or heavy. Each of the four organic acid test solutions is presented in both a light and heavy concentration.

7. Using the score sheet (Annex 1), the student is required to correctly match the pairs of organic
acids in each of the eight (8) sets. Extra credit is given for identifying the specific acid.

Grading
8 of 8 correct = 7 of 8 correct = 6 of 8 correct = 5 of 8 correct = 96 pts 84 pts 72 pts 60 pts 4 of 8 correct = 3 of 8 correct = 2 of 8 correct = 1 of 8 correct = 48 pts 36 pts 24 pts 12 pts 6

Extra credits Passing score

= 3 pts per correct answer (max 3 x 8 = 24 points) = 75 total points

Proctor Notes
1. Check to ensure that the sample bottles containing the .1 molar solutions of each

organic acid are in tack and have sufficient volumes for the class. Prepare more of each solution if required. 2. Check to ensure the coffee brew has been prepared to the correct ratio of 45 grams per liter of water using a washed, mild coffee that has neutral flavor characteristics such as a Prime Washed grade from El Salvador or Panama. 3. Check to ensure each student has the proper forms for either the training exercise and/or the test.
4. Check to ensure that the rule of silent work is strictly adhered to during the

actual Match Pairs skills test. 5. Check to ensure the exercise is completed at the end of the designated time period and that all of the matching pairs scoring forms are handed in to the lead instructor. 6. Check to insure the matching pairs scoring forms are tabulated correctly and that the students scores are calculated strictly according to the testing protocol. 7. Once the first part of the exam is completed, ensure that the instructor reviews all the results with the class. 8. Check to ensure the grades are recorded properly and sent back to CQI Headquarters to be entered into the data bank.

Classroom Specifications
Well lighted like Day Light (Parabolic lenses with Ecological Tubes ~T8). Distance from grading tables to light source should be between 4 and 5 feet for ideal light conditions. Clean, no interfering odors Quiet, no interfering sounds or noises Comfortable temperature (22C 77F)
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Limited distractions no phones, copy machines, faxes, etc. Spacious adequate separation between grading tables, with no more than two (2) students at each five (5) foot table Adequate clean-up sinks and facilities for disposing of grounds and washing the cups

Discussion Questions
1. What role does acidity play in the overall acceptability of an individual coffees

flavor?
2. How is acidity quantified? 3. What are the sources of acidity in coffee? 4. How do we perceive acid-like tastes? 5. How do we perceive acid-like smells? 6. Why are coffees grown in higher elevations under shaded conditions generally

higher in acidity?
7. What is the difference in acidity between Arabica and Robusta coffees and what

causes this difference?


8. What is the citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle) and why is it so important in plant

biochemistry?
9. What is the role of chlorogenic acid in the coffee plant and what are the

differences in chlorogenic acid concentration between Arabica and Robusta coffee plants?
10. What influence does roasting have on the presence of organic acids in coffee?

11.Why does the wet (washed) method of processing tend to produce more acid in coffee than the dry (natural) method of processing? 12.What are the most common organic acids found in coffee?
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Self-Test
True/False
1. 2. 3. 4.

Acids are generally sour in their taste. The creation of acids in coffee is not well understood. All individuals perceive acidity in exactly the same way.

Acid recognition in coffee is learned based on cupping experience. Robusta coffees contain more acidity than Arabica coffees.
5.

Roasting plays a major role in determining the level of acidity in coffee.


6.

Elevation, shade and moisture are the primary factors in determining a coffees acidity.
7. 8. 9. 10.

Acetic acid is commonly known as vinegar. Lactic acid is commonly found in milk. Phosphoric acid is commonly used in soft drinks.

Annex 1
Robusta Matching Pairs Skills Test

Matching Pairs Exam


Identify the cups in each group that contain the greater acidity. Mark an X on the circle that represents these cups 1, 2, 3, 4. Bonus: identify specific acid.

Group A
1 _____________ 2 3 4 Acid:

Group B
1 _____________ 2 3 4 Acid:

Group C
1 _____________ 2 3 4 Acid:

Group D
1 _____________ 2 3 4 Acid:

Group E
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1 _____________

Acid:

Group F
1 _____________ 2 3 4 Acid:

Group G
1 _____________ 2 3 4 Acid:

Group H
1 _____________ 2 3 4 Acid:

Name: _______________________________________
_______________________________

Date:

Annex 2
ORGANIC ACIDS PRACTICE Acidity 6-10 Control
Scale from 6-10

Flavor 6-10

Body 6-10

Aftertaste 6-10

Balance 6-10

Citric

Acidity /

Flavor /

Body /

Aftertaste /

Balance / 11

Level 1 Level 2

Acidity /

Flavor /

Body /

Aftertaste /

Balance /

Notes:

Acetic
Level 1 Level 2

Acidity / Acidity /

Flavor / Flavor /

Body / Body /

Aftertaste / Aftertaste /

Balance / Balance /

Notes:

Malic

Acidity / Acidity /

Flavor / Flavor /

Body / Body /

Aftertaste / Aftertaste /

Balance / Balance /

Notes:

Quinic
Level 1 Level 2

Acidity / Acidity /

Flavor / Flavor /

Body / Body /

Aftertaste / Aftertaste /

Balance / Balance /

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Notes:

Phosphoric
Level 1 Level 2

Acidity / Acidity /

Flavor / Flavor /

Body / Body /

Aftertaste / Aftertaste /

Balance / Balance /

Notes:

________________
Level 1 Level 2

Acidity / Acidity /

Flavor / Sweet /

Body / Astringent /

Aftertaste / Bitter /

Balance / Pleasant /

Notes:

Name: _______________________________________
_______________________________

Date:

Annex 3
Materials and Acid Preparation Instructions
Organic Acid Materials: (Note: All materials need to be food grade) Acetic acid - 1Molar stock solution ~ Labchem 13

Citric acid - 1Molar stock solution ~ Labchem Lactic Acid - 1 Molar stock solution ~ Labchem Malic Acid (granulated) ~ Bartek Ingredients Phosphoric Acid (crystals, 98%) ~ Aldrich Quinic Acid (powder, 98%) ~ Acros Organics Acid Preparation Calculations: Acetic Acid For a 200ml quantity: (1 Molar stock solution) (Xml) = (200ml) (0.10 Molar concentration) X = 20ml of 1Molar acetic acid solution For 500ml quantity: (1Molar stock solution) (Xml) = (500ml) (0.10 Molar concentration) X = 50 ml of 1 Molar acetic acid solution. Citric Acid For a 200ml quantity: (1 Molar stock solution) (Xml) = (200ml) (0.10 Molar concentration) X = 20ml of 1Molar citric acid solution For 500ml quantity: (1Molar stock solution) (Xml) = (500ml) (0.10 Molar concentration) X = 50 ml of 1 Molar citric acid solution. Lactic Acid For a 200ml quantity: (1 Molar stock solution) (Xml) = (200ml) (0.10 Molar concentration) X = 20ml of 1Molar acetic acid solution For 500ml quantity: (1Molar stock solution) (Xml) = (500ml) (0.10 Molar concentration) X = 50 ml of 1 Molar acetic acid solution. Malic Acid Molecular Weight = 134.09g/mol For 200ml quantity: X grams = (0.10 mol/L) x (134.09g/mol) x (0.200 Liters) X = 2.68 grams of malic acid for 200ml solution of 0.10 Molar concentration For 500ml quantity: 14

X grams = (0.10 mol/L) x (134.09g/mol) x (0.500 Liters) X = 6.70 grams of malic acid for 500ml solution of 0.10 Molar concentration Quinic Acid Molecular Weight = 192.17g/mol For 200ml quantity: X grams = (0.10mol/L) x (192.17g/mol) x (0.200 Liters) X = 3.84 grams of quinic acid for 200ml solution of 0.10 Molar concentration For 500ml quantity: X grams = (0.10mol/L) x (192.175g/mol) x (0.500 Liters) X = 9.61 grams of quinic acid for 500ml solution of 0.10 Molar concentration Phosphoric Acid Molecular Weight = 98.00g/mol For 200ml quantity: X grams = (0.10mol/L) x (98g/mol) x (0.200 Liters) X = 1.96 grams of phosphoric acid for 200ml solution of 0.10 Molar concentration For 500ml quantity: X grams = (0.10mol/L) x (98g/mol) x (0.500 Liters) X = 4.9 grams of phosphoric acid for 500ml solution of 0.10 Molar concentration

SET-UP 1. Distribute worksheets and pencils to each table for participants. 2. Brew coarse ground coffee in filter-drip brewer and store in airpots. 3. Add the following concentration of organic acid to each 1000ml of brewed coffee: Acid Name Acetic Citric .pKa .76 3.06/ 7.74/ 5.40 Amount to add to 1000ml of coffee 10ml ~ Weak / 20ml ~ Strong 10ml ~ Weak / 20ml ~ Strong 15

Lactic Malic Quinic Phosphoric

3.85 3.40/ 3.05 3.4-3.6 2.12/ 7.21/ 12.30

10ml ~ Weak / 20ml ~ Strong 10ml ~ Weak / 20ml ~ Strong 10ml ~ Weak / 20ml ~ Strong 10ml ~ Weak / 20ml ~ Strong

4. Pour ~ 50ml coffee brew into cups and distribute to participants. 5. Pour ~ 50ml of coffee with Weak acid concentration into cups and distribute to participants. Repeat with Strong acid concentration. 6. Repeat procedure for each of the available acids.

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