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Institute of Communication Engineering, National Chung Cheng University

A design of Multicast protocol use Anycast in IPv6
Final project of Next Generation Internet
691430018 Chi-Jen Wu Institute of Communication Engineering, National Chung Cheng University Abstract- In this study, we review the most problem of existing multicast protocols and try to propose a novel multicast protocol using Anycast that improve extremely performance than existing multicast protocols. Generally, how to construct an efficient and scalable multicast tree is the main problem of Multicast protocol, and the other big problem is ISPs supportless about enabling multicast protocol in their routers. Tree building in Multicast protocol can use flooding approach and centralization approach such as DVMRP, PIM-SM, these protocol are both unscalable and inefficient. Distance vector multicast routing protocol (DVMRP) floods packet to find on tree router, this approach can be useful in a local domain, but be not scalable in wide Internet. Protocol Independent Multicast-Sparse Mode (PIM-SM) aims wide Internet but it needs a centrality router to maintain all on tree router information, scalability is critical problem at the centrality router and the tree building by PIM-SM is also not optimal routing tree. These approaches both need ISPs support, if no ISPs turns on these protocols in their routers, they will do not work smoothly. Unfortunately, ISPs consider for business not for Internet expanding. The proposed protocol adopts Anycast concept to build an efficient and ISPs supportlees multicast protocol tree. Anycast is a new addressing scheme in IPv6 definition and it is defined that to route an Anycast address packet to a nearest router that registered the same Anycast address with the packet. In the design, per multicast group is assigned a unique Anycast address and per participator can configure an IPv6 router. Each router in the multicast tree is registered the Anycast address of the multicast group at all network interfaces and a new joining router send a Anycast request to find the nearest router in the multicast group to join the multicast tree. With the Anycast character, the tree should be efficient. Mathematical analyses of proposed scheme could compare with minimized spanning tree (MST) to show that this approach is as well as MST.

I.

Introduction and related work

Multicasting is very suitable for Multimedia application and hot contents, such as hotpots web pages, Video file and group mails, transmission in the Internet. A multicast group builds multiple distribution trees, each rooted at one of the group’s sources, and the packets are transited toward the multicast tree. Multicasting reduces the significant bandwidth consuming during transmission and provides a feasible approach of group communication.

Student Chi-Jen Wu 1/7 pages

Institute of Communication Engineering, National Chung Cheng University

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Figure1: Reverse Path Forwarding (RPF) algorithm of DVMRP Existing Multicasting protocols try to build a shortest path tree in the Internet. There are two approaches that include flooding and centralization approaches are used. Unfortunately, they both have router scalable and routing efficient problems. In the flooding approach, a demand node (router) floods packets to find other on tree routes, and chooses the nearest router to associate with it. For example, Distance vector multicast routing protocol (DVMRP) use the Reverse Path Forwarding (RPF) algorithm to build the multicast tree, shows as Figure 1. There are two problems of DVMRP’s solution. First, DVMRP is well only for densely represented groups in a local network, such as a campus or enterprise. It is not well in wide Internet, because it periodic broadcasts the routing information. Second, each multicast router needs to maintain all state information of other routers. So, DVMRP is not scale to support large and sparsely distributed multicast groups. The idea of centralization approach is to build a core based tree (CBT) of a multicasting group. When a demand node want to join a multicast group, it ask a rendezvous point (RP node) to know what node to join. An example of centralization approach is Protocol Independent Multicast-Sparse Mode (PIM-SM) that aims wide Internet but it needs a centrality router to maintain all on tree router information. As the Figure 2 shows, the RP node needs to maintain other node information and how to know the place of the RP node for a multicast group is also a difficult problem. The RP node needs prior arrangement, an example for Figure 2, if the RP of this multicast group is replace at USA, the multicast tree of this group will become inefficient for routing and maintenance. The above approaches both need ISPs support. If the multicast protocols aim to service wide Internet users, the tree of multicast group is possible crossing a lot of ISPs, if one of that ISPs do not turn on these protocols in their routers, they will do not work smoothly. And it is also the main problem of IPv4 multicasting can not enable in current Internet.
Student Chi-Jen Wu 2/7 pages

Institute of Communication Engineering, National Chung Cheng University

Efficient ?

Scale?

Figure 2: The centralization approach of PIM/SM The problems of multicast protocols in IPv4, such as router scaling and deployments will still exist in IPv6. And we expect the problem will be serious more than IPv4, because the address size of IPv6 is a hundred times than IPv4. In IPv4, the CIDR problem had caused BGP routing table scaling problem that shows as Figure 3. We can expect that it will be exponential growth of BGP table in IPv6 environment. The load at router should increase with the BGP table increasing. There is an open question that can we invent a multicast protocol without above problems and more efficient and scalable. In this study, we try to solve this open question, try to invent a novel multicast protocol aiming above problems. We use the new addressing scheme of IPv6, called Anycasting that is defined that to route an Anycast address packet to a nearest router that registered the same Anycast address with the packet. To capitalize the advantage of Anycasting builds an efficient and scalable multicast tree without ISPs supporting. The rest this article is organized as follows. We present the proposed approach in Section II. Mathematically analyzed of proposed approach are given in Section III. Finally Section IV concludes this article.

Student Chi-Jen Wu 3/7 pages

Institute of Communication Engineering, National Chung Cheng University

Figure 3: the CIDR problem, exponential growth of BGP table

II. Proposed Protocol
In this section, we describe the scheme of proposed multicast protocol, which is full distributed Multicast protocol and is a share tree approach. To scale wide and receiver of Multicasting group, the tree maintenance overhead is distributed on End-router. In this study, we have some assumptions given follow: 1. Global Anycast is well work in internet: in current research, the Anycast routing is also an open issue. They discuss in the paper, “A Framework for Scalable Global IP-Anycast” of MIT and “IP- Anycast and a Possible Solution for Scalable Global IP-Anycast” of UT Austin. Each end user of a multicast group can control at least one router: The scenario is like in a big company or a campus. Per multicast group has a Anycast address: Router can be configured IP by User:

2. 3. 4.

Following, we describe the tree building of proposed multicast protocol. When a contents provider, S, or a new demand user, R, want to create or join a multicast group, G. It registers the Anycast address into a router that could be configurable by them. And then they use the Anycast address to find a nearest router to connect it, to form the multicast tree, if user is not a contents provider. Shows at Figure 4, any on tree router, implies that the routers join in the same multicast group, should be associated a multicast and an Anycast address, and use the Anycast address to find the nearest router of all on tree router. Figure 5 shows an example for a scenario of a new demand user joining.
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Institute of Communication Engineering, National Chung Cheng University

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Figure 4: a source creates a new multicast group; it will be associated a multicast and an Anycast address

P S R Multicast Anycast Internet R Multicast Anycast

Figure 5: an example for a new demand user join to this multicast tree

P S R Multicast Anycast Tunnel Internet R Multicast Anycast Tunnel

Figure 6: After found the nearest router, establish a tunnel between it and the found router
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Institute of Communication Engineering, National Chung Cheng University

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Figure 7: the CIDR problem, exponential growth of BGP table When new node finds the nearest router, it should establish a tunnel between it and the found router; so far, the new node can connect the nearest router, and the date transmission is forwarded toward by the tunnel. Figure 7 illustrates the overview of proposed protocol. It is conspicuous for that the multicast tree crosses a lot of ISPs, if one of all ISPs does not enable the multicast routing protocol, the performance and reliability of our approach do not sacrifice, because each user of per group can control at least one router.

III. Proof of Proposed Protocol
In this section, we try to prove efficient of this protocol is as well as minimized spanning tree (MST). In our assumptions includes that “Global Anycast is well work in internet”, it implies the routing of Anycast can find the nearest router. This assumption also means that the Anycast always returns a nearest router. We map this scenario onto the MST problem with the greedy algorithm solution. The greedy algorithm can always return the MST that is proved by Weighted Matriod theory that is discussed in Mark [8].

IV. Conclusion
In this study, we review the two problems of existing multicast protocols include DVMRP and PIM/SM, and we also try to propose a novel multicast protocol using Anycast, we expect the new protocol could improve extremely performance than existing multicast protocols.
Student Chi-Jen Wu 6/7 pages

Institute of Communication Engineering, National Chung Cheng University This new protocol adopts Anycast concept to build an efficient and ISPs supportlees multicast tree. In the design, per multicast group is assigned a unique Anycast address and per participator can configure an IPv6 router. Each router in the multicast tree is registered the Anycast address of the multicast group at all network interfaces and a new joining router send a Anycast request to find the nearest router in the multicast group to join the multicast tree. Finally, we show the mathematical analyses of proposed scheme to prove our proposed is as well as minimized spanning tree (MST). Reference [1] RFC1075 Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol. [2] RFC1546: Host Anycasting Service. [3] RFC2526: Reserved IPv6 Subnet Anycast Addresses [4] RFC3446: Anycast Rendevous Point (RP) mechanism using Protocol Independent [5] Linux IPv6 HOWTO.htm -- Add an IPv6 address [6] Deering S., Estrin D.L., Farinacci D., Jacobson V., Ching-Gung Liu, Liming Wei,,“The PIM architecture for wide-area multicast routing,” Networking, IEEE/ACM Transactions on , Volume: 4 Issue: 2 , April 1996. [7] Performance and resource cost comparisons for the CBT and PIM multicast routing protocols, Selected Areas in Communications, IEEE Journal on , Volume: 15 Issue: 3 , April 1997. [8] Mark Purtill Affiliation: MIT Destination: Institute Defense Analysis Field of Interest: Matriod and Greediod Theory, Combinatorial Optimization and The- ory of Computation.

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