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Relationships between spelling orthography and pronunciation

Part 1
omophone: is a word of the same language which sounds like another, but has a different

spelling and meaning. Each homophone has a unique function within a sentence; using the wrong one can change the meaning of the sentence, or make it nonsensical. Two or three words that sounds alike. This category includes words that are spelled the same, such as:

wrest /r st/verb: take power or control after considerable effort or resistance. rest /r st/noun: cease work or movement in order to relax or recover strength. She wrests power from him because he takes a rest. / sts

r frm h m b k z h

r st/

isle /Il/: noun : a piece of land surrounded by water. aisle /Il/: noun: a passage between rows of seats, pews, or supermarket shelves. I'll /Il/: contraction: I will. Ill build an aisle in the isle. /Il b patient Il n Il/ nt/: noun: a person receiving or registered to receive medical treatment.

patience nt/: noun: the capacity to tolerate delay, trouble, or suffering without becoming angry or upset. Im running out of patience with the patient /Im rn t be /b/: verb:to exist. bee /b/: noun: refers to an insect. Marie wants to be a bee /m blew / blue / w s nt w nt/

verb: is the past tense of the verb to blow. adjective: refers to a color.

I blew a blue candle l/



bye/bI/ interjection: is used to express farewell. buy /bI/ verb: means to purchase. by /bI/ preposition: means next to or close to. She will buy a book written by David before to say bye / l bI bk r tn bI d bf bI/

ewe /J/noun: means a female sheep. you /J/pronoun: is used to refer to the one or ones being addressed You are going to eat a ewe / /

hear /h r/ verb: means to perceive (sound) by the ear. here /h r/adverb: means at or in this place. I cant hear you in here / hole / whole / n h r/ noun: means an opening into or through something. adjective: means complete.

I dig a hole the whole day / d g /

hour / r/noun: means one of the 24 equal parts of a day. our / r/adjective: is the possessive form of we. Our cake will be ready in an hour / di r/

knight /nIt/noun: means a medieval gentleman-soldier. night /nIt/noun: means the period between sunset and sunrise, especially the hours of darkness. The knight is going to travel at night / nIt nIt/


made/md/ verb: is a form of the verb to make. maid /md/ noun: means a girl or unmarried woman or a woman servant. She made her house when she was maid / s w n /

meat /mt/noun: means the edible flesh of animals. meet /mt/verb: means to come upon by chance or arrangement. I meet David who does not eat meat / z n

peace /ps/noun: means the absence of war or other hostilities. piece /ps/noun: means a portion or part of something. The one word on the piece of paper was the word peace. / wn w rd w rd /

hair /h r/: any of the fine thread-like strands growing from the skin of mammals and other animals, or from the epidermis of a plant. hare /h r/: a fast-running, long-eared mammal resembling a large rabbit, with very long hind legs. The hare has white hair / h t h r/

pray /pr/ verb means to utter or address a prayer or prayers to God, a god, or another object of worship. prey /pr/ noun means an animal hunted or caught for food; quarry. He prays when he hunt a prey nts rain /rn/noun: means a fall of water condensed from atmospheric vapor and falling in drops. reign /rn/noun: means the exercise of sovereign power, as by a monarch. rein /rn/noun: a long narrow leather strap attached to each end of the bit of a bridle and used by a rider or driver to control a horse or other animal.


When It rains the queen takes the reins of her horse, when she reigns /w n v hr h rs, w n /

red /r d /noun: refers to a color. read /r d /: is a form of the verb to read. Sara read a red book /s r r d r d bk/ right /rIt/adjective: means correct or fitting, proper, or appropriate. write /rIt/verb: means to form (letters, words, or symbols) on a surface such as paper with an instrument such as a pen. He writes with his right hand / rIts w h z rIt /

sea / noun: means the continuous body of saltwater covering most of the earth's surface or a relatively large body of saltwater completely or partially enclosed by land. see / verb: means to perceive with the eye.

The old man sees the sea / sole / z noun: means the underside of the foot.

soul / noun: means the animating and vital principle in humans, credited with the faculties of thought, action, and emotion and often conceived as an immaterial entity. She wrote soul in her sole / n h

son /sn/noun: means one's male child. sun /sn/noun: means a star that is the basis of the solar system and that sustains life on Earth. The Indians believed in the son of the sun / ndinz b n sn v sn/


steal / steel / carbon.

verb: also means to move, happen, or elapse stealthily or unobtrusively. noun: means a generally hard, strong, durable, malleable alloy of iron and

I steal a steel product /I /

straight / adjective: means continuously in the same direction without curving or having no waves or bends. strait/ noun: means a position of difficulty, perplexity, distress, or need.

I go straight along the strait street /I l

tale /tl/noun: means a narrative of real or imaginary events; a story. tail /tl/noun: means hindmost part of an animal, especially when extending beyond the main part of the body. The witch cut the tails horse in the tale / w t kt tea / tee / rs n /

noun: means a drink made by steeping tea leaves in boiling water. noun: means a small peg with a concave top for holding a golf ball.

He put the golf ball in the tee after he drunk the tea /h pt g to / too / two / /

preposition: means towards. adverb: also means more than enough or excessively. noun: means the number, written 2, that is equal to the sum of 1 + 1.

The two boys want to play too / wait / weight / Iz w verb: means to remain or rest in expectation. noun: means the measured heaviness of a specific object.

I wait to lose weight /I /


ware /w r/ noun: means pottery, typically that of a specified type. where /w r/adverb: means at or in what place. Where is the ware /w r z w r/ weak / week / adjective: means lacking physical strength, energy, or vigor; feeble. noun: means a period of seven days.

This week I was too week / I w /

.Homographs: are words that are spelled alike but have different meanings. These words
have different pronunciation, meanings and origins but the same spelling.

absent / bsnt/ adjective: not present. absent /bs nt/ verb: stay or go away. She is absent because she absents / nt b k z bs nts/

abstract / bstrkt/ noun: a summary of a book or article. abstract /bstr kt/ verb: extract or remove we abstract the mean idea of the abstract / bstr kt v bstrkt/

accent / ksnt/ noun: a particular way of pronouncing a language accent /ks nt/verb: stress He has a bad accent because he does not accent the long vowels. / ksnt b k z z n


affect / f kt/verb: have an effect on; make a difference to. affect /f kt/noun: Psychology emotion or desire as influencing behaviour.
This experience affects me very much. So I need your affect

/ s ksp rins

f kt

ri mt

r f kt/


dove /dv/ noun: a stocky seed- or fruit-eating bird with a small head, short legs, and a cooing voice, similar to but generally smaller and more delicate than a pigeon. dove /d v/verb: past of dive. When shot at, the dove dove into the bushes. /w n dv d v bz/

compound /'kampand/ noun: a thing composed of two or more separate elements. compound /km'pand/ verb: mix or combine (ingredients or constituents). Hi compound conjunctions to form compound sentences.

/h kmpnd knd
conflict /k

rm kampand s ntnsz/.

noun: a serious disagreement or argument.

conflict /knfl kt/ verb: be incompatible or at variance; clash. Joe and Jane have a serious conflict, they are always conflicting /d content /k d s ris k / noun: a state of satisfaction.

content /knt nt/ verb: satisfy (someone). I feel perfectly content with my life. My family contents me. / fl prfktli k f li knt nt

house / house /

s/ noun: a building for human habitation. z/ verb: provide with shelter or accommodation.

Mary house his father in her house /m s h z f s/

discount /'d skant/ noun: a deduction from the usual cost of something. discount /d s'kant/ verb: deduct a discount from. If we discount those videos, we can get a discount / d sknt n g t d skant/


intimate / ntmt/ adjective: closely acquainted; familiar: intimate friends. intimate / ntmet/ verb: state or make known. How can I intimate this to my most intimate friend? k object / ntmet ntmt fr nd/

/ noun: a material thing that can be seen and touched.

object /bd kt/ verb: express disapproval or opposition. I did not object to the object. / d dn bd kt /

produce /pr

verb: make, manufacture, or create.

produce /prdus/ noun: things that have been produced or grown. The farm was used to produce produce. / f resume/r dus/

/ verb: begin again or continue after a pause or interruption.

resume /r zjm/noun: a summary. N. Amer: a curriculum vitae. The mother insisted that work on her son's resume resume / mr ns st rk m r /

colon / n/ noun: a punctuation mark (:) used to precede a list of items, a quotation, or an expansion or explanation. colon / n/ noun: Anatomy the main part of the large intestine

When Joe read this sentence he felt a twinge in his colon: colon use should be restricted to scholarly works. /w n d ristr ktd d s s nt / lt tw nd nh n:

tear /t r/ noun: a drop of clear salty liquid secreted from glands in a person's eye when they are crying or when the eye is irritated. tear /t r/verb: destroy something, especially good relations between people. He was in tears because Marie tears their friendship / z n t rz b k z m rz r fr nd p/


use /jz/ verb: take or consume an amount from a limited supply. use /js/ noun: using the action of using or state of being used. He lost the use of his legs, and now he has to use a wheelchair / st v h z l r/

live /lv/ verb: be alive at a specified time. live /l v/adjective: given in concert. Janice Joplin sang that song live when she lived in L.A /d s d pl vw n vd n L.A/

convict /knv kt/ verb: declare to be guilty of a criminal offence by the verdict of a jury or the decision of a judge in a court of law. convict / k / noun: a person convicted of a criminal offence and serving a sentence of imprisonment. The convict was finally caught; he was convicted of a major crime / k knv ktd v m/

defect /d kt/ noun: a shortcoming, imperfection, or lack. defect /d f kt/ verb: abandon one's country or cause in favor of an opposing one. There was a defect in the product he bought. Rudolf Mayer defected from Russia / r wz / perfume /p rfjum/ noun: a fragrant liquid typically made from essential oils, used to impart a pleasant smell to one's body or clothes. perfume /pfjm/ verb: impart a pleasant smell to. She perfumes the room with her perfume / hr p rfjum/ kt n pr

escort / sk rt/ noun: a person, vehicle, or group accompanying another to provide protection or as a mark of rank. escort / sk rt/ verb: accompany as an escort. The escorts escort the president / sk rts sk rt pr zd nt/


intern / ntrn/ noun: a recent medical graduate receiving supervised training in a hospital and acting as an assistant physician or surgeon. intern / nt rn/ verb: confine as a prisoner. The intern is intern in prison now / ntrn z nt rn n pr z /

exploit / kspl t/ verb: make use of and derive benefit from a resource. exploit / kspl t/ noun: a bold or daring feat. He made an exploit exploiting all his qualities / kspl jt kspl t l h z k /

protest /prt st/ noun: a statement or action expressing disapproval of or objection to something. protest /prt st/ verb: express an objection to an action or remark. Ana was in a protest. She was protesting for women's rights / w m /

present /pr znt/ noun: the period of time now occurring. present /pr z nt/ verb: put (a show or exhibition) before the public. At present, we are not going to present more paintings / z z nt m /

pervert / prv rt / verb: alter from its original meaning or state to a corruption of what was first intended. pervert / p rvrt / noun: a person with abnormal or unacceptable sexual behavior. The Johnsons son is a little pervert. He always perverts the truth to suit his own sexual ends. / d nsnz sn z l tl p rvrt prv rts s kul ndz/ essay / se/ noun: a piece of writing on a particular subject essay /s/ verb: formal attempt She wrote a long essay about what she wanted to essay / l se t wt nt /


ferment /frm nt/ verb: undergo or cause to undergo fermentation. ferment /f rmnt/ noun: agitation and social unrest. The cask of wine needs to ferment for 12 months before it reaches the appropriate acidity. The bad wine ferments the society / sewer / sewer / matter. t s dti. rm nt f r 12 mns bf r n f rmnts s ti/ z

r/ noun a person that sews. r/noun an underground conduit for carrying off drainage water and waste

A seamstress and a sewer fell down into a sewer line. / r f n/

.Homonyms: comes from the Greek homo which means same and onym which
means name. Homonyms are words that have the same sound and often the same spelling but differ in meaning. exile / ks / noun: the state of being barred from one's native country. A person who lives in exile. exile / ks / verb: expel and bar someone from their native country.

Can an exile exile another person? / ks ks nr prsn/

number /nmbr/ noun: an arithmetical value, expressed by a word, symbol, or figure, representing a particular quantity. number /nmbr/ verb: amount to. Player number 5 has a big number of fans / r nmb b g nmr /

bear /b r/ noun: (animal) bear /b r/ verb: carry or convey. The bear bears food / b r b


porter /p rtr/noun: a weak beer porter /p rtr/noun: a man who carries luggage The porter drinks a porter / p rtr dr glass / glass / p rtr/

/ noun: a hard, brittle substance, typically transparent or translucent,

/ noun: a drinking container made of glass.

The glass glass shattered but the plastic was okay. / lean / lean / rd bt k w /

adjective: thin verb: rest against

The lean girl was leaning against the wall / rl w g nst w l/


noun: a small metal spike with a broadened flat head, driven into wood to join things together or to serve as a hook.

nail /

/ noun: a horny covering on the upper surface of the tip of the finger and toe
nd ks f r wz nd rd/

While hitting the nail, the nail of my index finger was injured. jl h t plane plane

short for aeroplane. verb: of a bird or an airborne object soar without moving the wings; glide.

The bird planes next to the plane / b plain plain noun: ordinary looking noun: flat country /

She had a very plain and ordinary face. It was plain to the police officer that the criminal has been wounded. / v rdn d/ t w p fs t

kr mn



quarry /kw ri/ noun: a place, typically a large pit, from which stone or other materials may be extracted. quarry /kw ri/ noun: an animal being hunted. Our quarry is hiding in a quarry r kw ri d n kw ri/

miss /m s/ noun: unmarried woman miss /m s/ verb: notice the loss or absence of. Miss Doe misses her sister /m sz hr s str/

pluck /plk/ verb: to remove feathers, take hold of something and quickly remove it from its place. pluck /plk/ noun: spirited and determined courage. He needed pluck to pluck the feathers d plk plk f rz/

type /t p/verb: to write via keyboard type /t p/noun: a category of people or things having common characteristics. She types in a special type of paper / train / train / ps n sp p r/

noun: a loco and trucks verb: to teach

I train for the game in the train


n verb: indicate unwillingness to do something. noun: matter thrown away as worthless.

refuse /r refuse /r

The dump was so fool that it had to refuse more refuse / dmp w r r /

fair /f r/ adjective: appearance light; blonde. fair /f r/ adjective: reasonable, treating people equally.


The girl with the fair hair is a fair person / g rl w f r h r z f r p rsn/ lie /l / verb: horizontal position lie /l/ noun: falsehood or untruth expressed as truth When he was lying in the floor he thought that everything was a lie /w blue blue n fl vri z /

noun: the color scene theme these Pete mete noun: the feeling of sadness

The blue sky makes me feel blue / /

bed /b d/ noun: piece of furniture incorporating a mattress or other surface bed /b d/ verb: provide with sleeping accommodation. He bedded me in his own house, but the bed was stiff / d nh s, bt b d wz st f/

hammer r/ noun: a tool consisting of a heavy metal head mounted at the end of a handle, used for breaking things and driving in nails. hammer r/ verb: hit or beat repeatedly with a hammer.

I hammer the thief with his own hammer / r h r/

fork /f rk/ noun: a pronged implement used for lifting or holding food. fork /f rk/ verb: divide into two parts take one route or the other at a fork dig or lift She forks the chicken with a fork / game game rks t kn w f rk/ noun: a form of competitive activity or sport played according to rules. verb: playing at games of chance for money. Play video or computer

She always games poker games / /



peel / peel /

/ verb: remove the outer covering or skin from a fruit, vegetable, etc. / noun: the outer covering or rind of a fruit or vegetable.

Peel the banana and throw its peel in the trash. b ham n /

noun: salted or smoked meat from the upper part of a pig's leg.

ham noun: an inexpert or unsubtle actor or piece of acting. Also radio ham informal an amateur radio operator. The ham is eating hams / /



Part 2 Long Vowels .Rule Number 1:

Consonant + Vowel + Consonant

Letter a Sound [e] date / noun: the day of the month or year as specified by a number.

fate / noun: the development of events outside a person's control, regarded as predetermined by a supernatural power. gate hate late noun: a hinged barrier used to close an opening in a wall, fence, or hedge. noun: intense dislike; strong aversion. adjective: acting, arriving, or happening after the expected or usual time.

make noun: the manufacturer or trade name of a product. The structure or composition of something. rate rate. noun: a measure, quantity, or frequency ej: the island has a very low crime

face noun: the front part of a person's head from the forehead to the chin, or the corresponding part in an animal. lace noun: a fine open fabric of cotton or silk made by looping, twisting, or knitting thread in patterns, used especially as a trimming. Braid used for trimming, especially on military dress uniforms. mace attackers. noun: trademark an irritant chemical used in an aerosol to disable

race noun: a competition between runners, horses, vehicles, etc. to see which is fastest over a set course. cage /noun: a structure of bars or wires in which birds or other animals are confined. page / / noun: one side of a leaf of a book, magazine, or newspaper, or the material written or printed on it. fade rage verb: gradually grow faint and disappear. /noun: violent uncontrollable anger.



bake / noun: a dish consisting of a number of ingredients mixed together and baked: a vegetable bake. cake / /noun: an item of soft sweet food made from baking a mixture of flour, fat, eggs, sugar, etc. fake / lake /

/ noun: a person or thing that is not genuine. /noun: a large area of water surrounded by land

sake / /noun: for the purpose of or in the interest of something; in order to achieve or preserve something. take/ wake / male/

/ verb: reach for and hold with one's hands. /noun: a watch or vigil held beside the body of someone who has died. / noun: a male person, animal, or plant.

sale / /noun: the exchange of a commodity for money; the process of selling something. tale noun: a fictitious or true story, especially one that is imaginatively recounted.

came/ / noun: each of a number of strips forming a framework for enclosing a pane of glass, especially in a leaded window. fame / game/

/noun: the state of being famous. / noun: an activity engaged in for amusement.

name / / noun: a word or set of words by which someone or something is known, addressed, or referred to. same/

/adjective: identical, unchanged.

cane noun: the hollow jointed stem of tall reeds, grasses, etc., especially bamboo or the slender, pliant stem of plants such as rattan. cape noun: a sleeveless cloak, especially a short one.

case noun: an instance of a particular situation; an example of something occurring: a case of mistaken identity. dale noun: a valley, especially in northern England.

dame noun: the title given to a woman with the rank of Knight Commander or holder of the Grand Cross in the Orders of Chivalry. daze gale verb: make unable to think or react properly. noun: a very strong wind.


gape hale pane/

verb: be or become wide open. adjective: (of an old person) strong and healthy. / noun: a single sheet of glass in a window or door.

Exceptions chain/t day/ pain/ / / /

bare /b r/ have / pare /p r/ chance /t / /

Letter e sound [i] cede verb give up power or territory.

gene /d noun a unit of heredity which is transferred from a parent to offspring and is held to determine some characteristic of the offspring; in particular, a distinct sequence of DNA forming part of a chromosome. mete pete verb (mete something out) dispense or allot justice, punishment, etc. name

mere /mr/ adjective that is solely or no more or better than what is specified: mere mortals. eve noun the day or period of time immediately before an event.

hebe noun an evergreen flowering shrub with spikes of mauve, pink, or white flowers, native to New Zealand Mede /md/noun a member of an Indo-European people who inhabited ancient Media (present-day Azerbaijan, NW Iran, and NE Iraq), establishing an extensive empire during the 7th century BC. meme/mm/ noun Biology a cultural or behavioural element passed on by imitation or other non-genetic means. rede/rid/ noun advice or counsel.


heme/hm/ noun US spelling of haem. seme/sm/ noun Linguistics another term for semanteme. deme /dm/noun a political division in ancient or modern Greece. deke /dk/noun a deceptive movement that induces an opponent to move out of position. rete /rt/noun Anatomy an elaborate network of blood vessels or nerve cells. dene/dn/ noun [usu. in place names] Brit. a deep, narrow, wooded valley. sere /sr/adjective variant spelling of sear. deme /dm/noun a political division in ancient or modern Greece. dele /dl/noun a proofreader's sign indicating matter to be deleted. pele /pl/noun variant spelling of peel Exceptions here /h r /
cere /s fete

r/ /

Letter i Sound [ai] bide /bId/ verb: archaic or dialect remain or stay in a certain place. bike /bIk/noun: a bicycle or motorcycle. bile /bIl/noun: a bitter greenish-brown alkaline fluid secreted by the liver and stored in the gall bladder, which aids digestion. bite/bIt/ noun: a bitter greenish-brown alkaline fluid secreted by the liver and stored in the gall bladder, which aids digestion. cite/sIt/ verb: quote (a book or author) as evidence for an argument. dice /dIs /noun: a small cube with faces bearing from one to six spots, used in games of chance. see also die. dime/dIm/noun: informal a small amount of money. dine /dIn/verb: eat dinner.


dive /dIv/verb: plunge head first into water with one's arms raised over one's head. file/fIl/ noun: a folder or box for keeping loose papers together and in order. fine /fIn/noun: very small particles found in mining or milling. fire /fIr/ noun: the state of burning, in which substances combine chemically with oxygen from the air and give out bright light, heat, and smoke. five /fIv/cardinal number: equivalent to the sum of two and three; one more than four, or half of ten gibe /gIb/ noun verb: variant spelling of jibe hide /hId/noun: a camouflaged shelter used to observe wildlife at close quarters. hike /hIk/noun: a long walk or walking tour. hire /hIr/noun: the action of hiring. hive /hIv/noun: a beehive. jibe /d Ib/noun: an insulting or mocking remark. jive /d Iv/noun: a lively dance popular in the 1940s and 1950s, performed to swing music or rock and roll. kite /kIt/noun: a toy consisting of a light frame with thin material stretched over. lice /lIs/noun: a small wingless parasitic insect which infests human skin and hair. life /lIf/noun: the condition that distinguishes animals and plants from inorganic matter, including the capacity for growth, functional activity, and continual change. like /lIk/noun: a similar person or thing. lime /lIm/noun: quicklime, slaked lime, or any salt or alkali containing calcium. line /lIn/noun: a long, narrow mark or band. live /lIv/verb: remain alive. mice/mIs/ verb: hunt for or catch mice. dire/dIr/ adjective: extremely serious or urgent. nice/nIs/ adjective: giving pleasure or satisfaction. pipe/pIp/ noun: a tube used to convey water, gas, oil, or other fluids. pile/pIl/ noun: a heap of things laid or lying one on top of another. pike/pIk/ noun: a long-bodied predatory freshwater fish with long teeth


pine/pIn/ noun: (also pine tree) an evergreen coniferous tree having clusters of long needle-shaped leaves, grown for its soft wood or for tar and turpentine. ripe/rIp/ adjective: (of fruit or grain) ready for harvesting and eating. rise/rIz/ verb: (past rose; past part. risen) come or go up. ride/rId/ verb: sit on and control the movement of a horse, bicycle, or motorcycle. side/sId/ noun: a position to the left or right of an object, place, or central point. tide/tId/ noun: the alternate rising and falling of the sea due to the attraction of the moon and sun. tile/tIl/ noun: a thin square or rectangular slab of baked clay, concrete, etc., used in overlapping rows for covering roofs. Exceptions give/g v/ night/nIt/ live /lIv/ niche /n t/ since /s ns/ pea / /

Letter o sound [ou] bone / /noun: any of the pieces of hard, whitish tissue making up the skeleton in vertebrates. code noun: a system of words, figures, or symbols used to represent others, especially for the purposes of secrecy. cone point. cope cove noun: an object which tapers from a circular or roughly circular base to a verb: deal effectively with something difficult. noun: a small sheltered bay.

dope /d p/ noun: informal an illegal drug, especially cannabis or heroin. coke/ k/ noun: a solid fuel made by heating coal in the absence of air so that the volatile components are driven off.


dole dome dose dote / doze/ hole / home/ hope /

noun: informal benefit paid by the state to the unemployed. noun: a rounded vault forming the roof of a building or structure. noun: a quantity of a medicine or drug taken at one time. noun: informal a sweet or adorable person.

/ noun: a short light sleep. /noun: an empty space in a solid body or surface. / noun: the place where one lives permanently. /noun: a feeling of expectation and desire.

hose / /noun: a flexible tube conveying water, used chiefly for watering plants and in firefighting. joke /d

/noun: a thing said to cause amusement.

lobe / /noun: a hanging or projecting part, such as the soft part at the base of the outer ear. lone / mode /

/adjective: having no companions; solitary. /noun: a way in which something occurs or is done

mole/ / noun: a small burrowing mammal with dark velvety fur, a long muzzle, and very small eyes, feeding mainly on worms and grubs. mope / nope /

/verb: feel dejected and apathetic. /exclamation: informal variant of no.

nose / /noun: the part projecting above the mouth on the face of a person or animal, containing the nostrils and used in breathing and smelling. note / /noun: a brief written record of facts, topics, or thoughts, used as an aid to memory. poke/ / noun: a brief written record of facts, topics, or thoughts, used as an aid to memory. pole / pope / pose / robe /

/noun: a native or national of Poland, or a person of polish descent. /noun: the bishop of Rome as head of the roman catholic church. /noun: a position assumed in order to be painted, drawn, or photographed. /noun: a long, loose outer garment reaching to the ankles.


rode / /verb: fly on a regular circuit in the evening as a territorial display, making sharp calls and grunts. rope/ /noun: a length of stout cord made by twisting together strands of hemp, sisal, nylon, etc. sole/ tome/ / noun: the underside of a person's foot. / noun: chiefly humorous a book, especially a large, scholarly one.

tone/ / noun: a musical or vocal sound with reference to its pitch, quality, and strength. vote/ / noun: a formal indication of a choice between two or more candidates or courses of action, expressed typically through a ballot or a show of hands. vole noun: a small mouse-like rodent with a rounded muzzle.


come /km/ dove /dv/ done /dn/ gone /g n/

Letter u - sound [ju] cube / squares. cute

/noun: a symmetrical three-dimensional shape contained by six equal

adjective: endearingly pretty.

cure/kjr/ verb: make healthy again after suffering from a disease or medical condition. duke noun: a male holding the highest hereditary title in the British and certain other peerages. dude

/noun: a man.

dune / noun: a mound or ridge of sand or other loose sediment formed by the wind, especially on the sea coast or in a desert. dupe

/verb: deceive; trick.



fume / fuse / huge / June /d j

/noun: a gas or vapor that smells strongly or is dangerous to inhale. /verb: join, blend, or coalesce to form a single entity. /adjective: large. /noun: the sixth month of the year.

lute /lj / noun: a stringed instrument with a long neck and a rounded body with a flat front, played by plucking. mule/ / noun: the offspring of a male donkey and a female horse, typically sterile. Compare with hinny muse / mute / nude puke/

/noun: each of nine goddesses who preside over the arts and sciences. /noun: a person without the power of speech.
noun: a naked human figure as a subject in art or photography.

/verb. noun informal vomit.

pure/pjr/ adjective: not mixed or adulterated with any other substance or material. tube/tj gases. tune/tj music.

/ noun: a long, hollow cylinder used for conveying or holding liquids or / noun: a melody, especially one which characterizes a certain piece of

Exeptions June /d lure /lr/ rude/ rule /

/ / /

sure /r/ cue / ruse/

/ /



.Rule number 2: consonant + vowel + consonant+

Letter a - sound [e] amaze / blade blame blaze brace verb: surprise someone greatly; astonish. noun: the flat cutting edge of a knife or other tool or weapon. verb: assign responsibility for a fault or wrong to. noun: a very large or fiercely burning fire. noun: a device supporting a weak or injured part of the body.

brake noun: a device for slowing or stopping a moving vehicle, typically by applying pressure to the wheels. brave/

/ adjective: having or showing courage.

caber /kbr/noun: a roughly trimmed tree trunk used in the scottish highland sport of tossing the caber. caper cater candidate election. r/noun: a playful skipping movement. r/verb: provide food and drink at a social event. det/noun: a person who applies for a job or is nominated for

curate /kjrt/noun a member of the clergy engaged as assistant to a parish priest. captivate verb attract and hold the interest and attention of; charm. capitulate /kp t surrender. captivate chicane / racing track. verb cease to resist an opponent or an unwelcome demand; verb attract and hold the interest and attention of; charm. noun a sharp double bend created to form an obstacle on a motorverb move or cause to move continuously or freely through a

circulate /srkj closed area. collate /k

verb collect and combine texts or information. verb remember and show respect for, especially with a verb provide a commentary on a sports match or other

commemorate /km m ceremony or memorial. commentate /km event.



chase /t

/noun: an act of chasing.

crane / /noun: a large, tall machine used for moving heavy objects by suspending them from a projecting arm. crate/ crave / craze /

/ noun: a slatted wooden case used for transporting goods. /verb: feel a powerful desire for. /noun: a widespread but short-lived enthusiasm for something.

brigade/br / noun: a subdivision of an army, typically consisting of a small number of battalions and forming part of a division. concave / /adjective: having an outline or surface that curves inwards like the interior of a circle or sphere. deflate/d educate/ d engrave/ grenade/gr imitate / m inflate / migrate /maI

/ verb: let air or gas out of / verb: give intellectual, moral, and social instruction to. /verb: cut or carve (a text or design) on a hard surface. /noun: a small bomb thrown by hand or launched mechanically. /verb: follow as a model. /verb: expand or cause to expand by filling with air or gas. /verb: move from one habitat to another according to the seasons.

operate / /verb: function or control the functioning of: market forces were allowed to operate freely. related /r replace /

d/verb: give an account of. /verb: take the place of.

surname /s /noun: a hereditary name common to all members of a family, as distinct from a forename. vibrate

Ibret/verb: move with small movements rapidly to and fro.

geminate /d mnet/Phonetics adjective: consisting of identical adjacent speech sounds; doubled. Exceptions campaign chocolate/t klt/ collage/kl


conglomerate /kngl

considerate/kns drt/ Latter e sound [i] compete /k /verb strive to gain or win something by defeating or establishing superiority over others: universities are competing for applicants. complete /k concede/k /adjective having all the necessary or appropriate parts; entire. / verb finally admit that something is true.

biosphere / r/noun the regions of the surface and atmosphere of the earth occupied by living organisms. fever/ r/ noun an abnormally high body temperature, usually accompanied by shivering, headache, and in severe instances, delirium. besiege /b /verb surround (a place) with armed forces in order to capture it or force its surrender. deplete /d depleted. /verb reduce the number or quantity of: fish stocks are severely

prevent/priv nt/ verb keep from happening or arising. scene / theme / these/ extreme/ concrete/k /noun the place where an incident in real life or fiction occurs or occurred. /noun the subject of a talk, text, exhibition, etc.; a topic. / plural form of this. / adjective very great. / adjective existing in a material or physical form.

athlete/ / noun a person who is proficient in sports. stampede/ / noun a sudden panicked rush of a number of horses, cattle, etc.

delete /d /verb remove or erase (text). severe /svr/adjective of something bad, undesirable, or difficult) very great; intense. sincere /s nsr/adjective (sincerer, sincerest) proceeding from or characterized by genuine feelings; free from pretence or deceit. atmosphere/ planet. intervene/ nt sfr/ noun the envelope of gases surrounding the earth or another / verb come between so as to prevent or alter something.


desensitize/ds nst

/ verb make less sensitive.

college/k d / noun an educational establishment providing higher education or specialized professional or vocational training. deselect /dslkt/ verb reject (an existing MP) as a candidate in a forthcoming election. deregulate/dir gjlet/ verb remove regulations or restrictions from. deplete/d defect/ decency / / verb reduce the number or quantity of: fish stocks are severely depl kt/ noun a shortcoming, imperfection, or lack. nsi/noun decent behaviour. /verb move more slowly.

decelerate /ds l relieve/r retrieve/r

/ verb alleviate or remove (pain, distress, or difficulty). / verb get or bring back.

Exceptions interpreter / ntrprtr/ television/t lv entered / ntrd/ asleep /


Letter i Sound [ai] astride /strId/ preposition and adverb: with a leg on each side of. bagpipe aIp/ noun: a musical instrument with reed pipes that are sounded by the pressure of wind emitted from a bag squeezed by the player's arm. bride/brId/ noun a woman on her wedding day or just before and after the event. bribery/brIbri/ verb dishonestly persuade someone to act in one's favor by a payment or other inducement. brine /brIn/noun water containing dissolved salt. categorize grIz/ verb place in a particular category; classify.


beside /bsId/ preposition: at the side of; next to. collide /klId/ verb: hit by accident when moving. combine /k margarine. aIn/ verb: unite or merge to form a whole: combine the flour with the

compile /kmpIl/ verb produce (a collection) by assembling material from other sources. concise /knsIs/adjective: giving information clearly and in few words. confide /knfId/ verb: (often confide in) tell someone about a secret or private matter in confidence. confine /knfIn/ verb: keep or restrict someone or something within certain limits of space, scope, or time. connive/knIv/ verb: secretly allow (a wrongdoing). despise /d spIz/ verb: feel contempt or repugnance for. despite /d spIt/ preposition: without being affected by; in spite of. license /lIsns/ verb: grant a license to. outside tsId/ noun: the external side or surface of something.

provide /prvId/ verb: make available for use; supply. realize /rilIz/ verb: become fully aware of as a fact; understand clearly. reptile/r ptIl/ noun: a cold-blooded vertebrate animal of a class (Reptilia) that includes snakes, lizards, crocodiles, turtles, and tortoises, typically having a dry scaly skin and laying soft-shelled eggs on land. respite /r spa t/ noun: a short period of rest or relief from something unpleasant. seaside aId/ noun: a place by the sea, especially a beach area or holiday resort.

silence /sIlns/ noun: complete absence of sound. sublime /sblIm/ adjective: of such excellence, grandeur, or beauty as to inspire great admiration or awe. survive/srvIv/ verb: continue to live or exist. termite /trmaIt/ noun: a small, pale soft-bodied social insect, typically making large nests of earth and feeding on wood. textile/t kstIl/ noun: a type of cloth or woven fabric.



advertise rtIz/ verb: publicize a product, service, or event in order to promote sales or attendance. appetite taIt/ noun: a natural desire to satisfy a bodily need, especially for food.

comprise /kmprIz/ verb: consist of; be made up of. crocodile /kr aIl/ noun: a large predatory semi aquatic reptile with long jaws, long tail, short legs, and a horny textured skin. describe/dskrIb/ verb: give a detailed account of (someone or something) in words. excitement / ksItmnt/ noun: a feeling of great enthusiasm and eagerness. Exceptions brier/brIr/ brightness/brItns/ caregiver/k rg vr/ chalice/ s/

Letter o Sound [o] stone noun: hard, solid non-metallic mineral matter of which rock is made.

stove noun: an apparatus for cooking or heating that operates by burning fuel or using electricity. those whole plural form of that. adjective: complete; entire.

wrote verb: (past wrote; past part. written) mark letters, words, or other symbols on a surface, with a pen, pencil, or similar implement. closed adjective: not open or allowing access.

clover r/ noun: a herbaceous leguminous plant with dense white or red globular flower heads and leaves which are typically three-lobed demote/d punishment devote/d grocer verb: give a lower rank or less senior position to, often as a verb: give time or resources to a person or activity. r/ noun: a person who sells food and small household goods.


lonely moment remote /r

adjective: sad because one has no friends or company. nt/ noun: a very brief period of time. adjective: far away in space or time.

rodent nt/ noun: a mammal of an order that includes rats, mice, squirrels, and porcupines, distinguished by strong constantly growing incisors and no canine teeth. strobe strode stroke throne/ compose /k console /k episode/ p noun: a stroboscope. past of stride. noun: an act of hitting: he received three strokes of the cane. noun: a ceremonial chair for a sovereign, bishop, or similar figure. verb: write or create a musical or written work. verb: give consolation to. noun: an event or a sequence of events.

explode / verb: burst or shatter violently, especially as a result of rapid combustion or excessive internal pressure. proceed/pr verb: begin a course of action.

provoke/pr verb: stimulate a reaction or emotion, typically a strong or unwelcome one in someone. envelope / nv noun: a flat paper container with a sealable flap, used to enclose a letter or document. innocent / nsnt/ adjective: not guilty of a crime or offence. overalls r lz/ adjective: taking everything into account.

telephone/t l noun: a system for transmitting voices over a distance using wire or radio, by converting acoustic vibrations to electrical signals. rhodium / m/ noun: the chemical element of atomic number 45, a hard, dense silvery-white metal parole /p /noun: the temporary or permanent release of a prisoner before the expiry of a sentence, on the promise of good behavior. bellicose /b l cheekbone /t adjective: aggressive; ready to fight. noun: the bone below the eye.



Exceptions beloved/blvd/ below/b chore/t r/ choreograph/k ri collect/kl kt/

Letter u - sound [ju] accuse / verb: charge with an offence or crime.

defuse /d verb: remove the fuse from an explosive device in order to prevent it from exploding. excuse / verb: try or serve to justify a fault or offence; mitigate.

immune / adjective: resistant to a particular infection owing to the presence of specific antibodies or sensitized white blood cells. reduce /r refuse /r resume /rzj volume /v verb: make or become smaller or less in amount, degree, or size. verb: indicate unwillingness to do something. verb: begin again or continue after a pause or interruption. / noun: a book forming part of a work or series. noun: a group of people living together and sharing possessions verb: travel some distance between one's home and place of work verb: make someone bewildered or perplexed. verb: eat, drink, or ingest. verb: argue about something. / verb: put a plan, order, etc. Into effect.

commune /k and responsibilities. commute /k on a regular basis. confuse /k consume/k dispute /d execute / ks

perfume /p noun: a fragrant liquid typically made from essential oils, used to impart a pleasant smell to one's body or clothes. pollute /p substances. verb: contaminate water, the air, etc, with harmful or poisonous



presume/pr probability.

/ verb: suppose that something is the case on the basis of

tribute/tr bjut/ noun: an act, statement, or gift intended to show gratitude, respect, or admiration. argument / attitude tj noun: a heated exchange of conflicting views.

noun: a settled way of thinking or feeling.

computer /k r/noun: an electronic device which is capable of receiving information and performing a sequence of logical operations in accordance with a predetermined but variable set of procedural instructions (program) to produce a result in the form of information or signals. refugee /r fjud i/ noun: a person who has been forced to leave their country in order to escape war, persecution, or natural disaster. funeral rl/ noun: a ceremony held shortly after a person's death, usually including the person's burial or cremation. fusillade succession. fusion noun: a series of shots fired at the same time or in rapid

n/ noun: the process or result of fusing.

humanism n zm/ noun: a rationalistic outlook or system of thought attaching prime importance to human rather than divine or supernatural matters. humid d/ adjective: marked by a relatively high level of water vapor in the atmosphere. humiliate /hjum humorist verb: injure the dignity and self-respect of.

rst/ noun: a humorous writer, performer, or artist

sputum /sp m/noun: a mixture of saliva and mucus coughed up from the respiratory tract, typically as a result of infection or other disease.

Exceptions conjure/k communism/k /



Short vowels
.Rule number 1: consonant + vowel + consonant

Letter a Sound [] bat noun: an implement with a handle and a solid surface, used in sports such as cricket or baseball for hitting the ball. bad bag adjective: of poor quality or a low standard. noun: a flexible container with an opening at the top. A piece of luggage.

cat noun: a small domesticated carnivorous mammal with soft fur, a short snout, and retractile claws cap cab dad noun: a soft, flat hat without a brim and usually with a peak. noun: a taxi. noun: informal one's father.

dab verb: press against something lightly several times with a piece of absorbent material. Dan abbreviation: Daniel (in biblical references).

fan noun: an apparatus with rotating blades that creates a current of air for cooling or ventilation. fat noun: a natural oily substance in animal bodies, especially when deposited under the skin or around certain organs. fad gap gab noun: a craze. noun: a break or hole in an object or between two objects. verb: talk at length.

gal noun: Physics a unit of gravitational acceleration equal to one centimeter per second per second. gas noun: an air-like fluid substance which expands freely to fill any space available, irrespective of its quantity. ham has had noun: salted or smoked meat from the upper part of a pig's leg. third: person singular present of have. past and past participle of have.


hat jab /d jam /d lab lad lag lap man mad

noun: a shaped covering for the head, typically with a brim and a crown. verb: poke roughly or quickly with something sharp or pointed. verb: squeeze or pack tightly into a space. noun: informal a laboratory. noun: informal a boy or young man. verb: fall behind; follow after a delay. verb: fall behind; follow after a delay. noun: (pl. men) an adult human male. adjective: mentally ill; insane.

mat noun a thick piece of material placed on the floor and used as protection from dirt, for wiping the feet on, or as a decorative rug. map noun: a diagrammatic representation of an area of land or sea showing physical features, cities, roads, etc. nap/n pan Pam pad pal ran ram rag noun: a short sleep, especially during the day. noun: a metal container for cooking food in. name

/ noun: a thick piece of soft or absorbent material.

noun: a friend. past of run. noun: an uncast rated male sheep. noun: a piece of old cloth, especially one torn from a larger piece.

rat / noun: a rodent resembling a large, long-tailed mouse, typically considered a serious pest Sam sad name adjective: feeling sorrow; unhappy.

sag verb: sink, subside, or bulge downwards gradually under weight or pressure or through lack of strength. sat past and past participle of sit.

sap noun: the fluid, chiefly water with dissolved sugars and mineral salts, circulating in the vascular system of a plant.


tab noun: a small flap or strip of material attached to something, for holding, manipulation, identification, etc. tan noun: a yellowish-brown color. A golden-brown shade of skin developed by pale-skinned people after exposure to the sun. tad adverb: to a minor extent; somewhat.

tag noun: a label providing identification or giving other information. An electronic device attached to someone or something for monitoring purposes. tap noun: a device by which a flow of liquid or gas from a pipe or container can be controlled. van hack noun: a covered motor vehicle used for transporting goods or people. verb: cut with rough or heavy blows.

yam noun: the edible starchy tuber of a climbing plant, widely distributed in tropical and subtropical countries. zap verb: destroy or obliterate. Exceptions ball /b l/ barb /b barn /b card /k bar /b harm /h harp /h

/ / /

Letter e sound [ ] Ben/b n/name bed/b d/ noun: a piece of furniture incorporating a mattress or other surface for sleeping or resting on. beg/b g/ verb: ask someone earnestly or humbly for something.


bet/b t/ verb: risk a sum of money or other valued item against someone else's on the basis of the outcome of an unpredictable event such as a race or game. den/d n/ noun: a wild animal's lair or habitation. fed/f d/ past and past participle of feed. gem/d m/ noun: a precious or semi-precious stone, especially when cut and polished or engraved. get/g t/ verb: come to have or hold; receive. Experience, suffer, or be afflicted with something bad. gel/d l/ noun: a jelly-like substance containing a cosmetic, medicinal, or other preparation. hen/h n/ noun: a female bird, especially of a domestic fowl. hem/h m/ noun: the edge of a piece of cloth or clothing which has been turned under and sewn. jet/d t/ noun: a rapid stream of liquid or gas forced out of a small opening. Ken/k n/name keg/k g/ noun: a small barrel, especially one of less than 10 gallons or (in the US) 30 gallons. led/l d/ past and past participle of lead leg/l g/ noun: each of the limbs on which a person or animal walks and stands. let/l t/ verb: not prevent or forbid; allow. men/m n/ plural form of man. met/m t/ past and past participle of meet. net/n t/ noun: a piece of open-meshed material used typically for catching fish. pen/p n/ noun: an instrument for writing or drawing with ink, typically consisting of a metal nib or ball, or a nylon tip, fitted into a metal or plastic holder. peg/p g/ noun: a short projecting pin or bolt used for hanging things on, securing something in place, or marking a position. pet/p t/ noun: a domestic or tamed animal or bird kept for companionship or pleasure. red/r d/ adjective: of a color at the end of the spectrum next to orange and opposite violet, as of blood or rubies. set/s t/ verb: put, lay, or stand (something) in a specified place or position.


ten/t n/ cardinal number: equivalent to the product of five and two; one more than nine Ted/t d/ name vet/v t/ noun: chiefly Brit. a veterinary surgeon. yet/j t/ adverb: up until the present or a specified or implied time; by now or then. wed/w d/ verb: formal or literary marry. wet/w t/ adjective: covered or saturated with liquid.

Exceptions few/ Jew /d /

Letter I sound [ ] bin/b n/ noun: a receptacle in which to deposit rubbish. bid/b d/ verb: offer a certain price for something, especially at an auction. big/b g/ adjective: of considerable size, power, or extent. bit /b t/ noun: a small piece, quantity, or extent of something. dim /d m/ adjective: of a light or illuminated object not shining brightly or clearly. did /d d/ past of do. dig /d g/ verb: break up and move earth with a tool or with hands, paws, etc. dip /d p/ verb: put or let something down quickly or briefly in or into (liquid). fin /f n/ noun: a flattened appendage on the body of a fish or other aquatic animal, used for propelling, steering, and balancing. fig/f g/ noun: a soft pear-shaped fruit with sweet dark flesh and many small seeds. fit /f t/ adjective: of a suitable quality, standard, or type. gin /d n/ noun: a clear alcoholic spirit distilled from grain or malt and flavored with juniper berries. gig /g g/ noun: chiefly historical a light two-wheeled carriage pulled by one horse.


him /h m/ pronoun: used as the object of a verb or preposition to refer to a male person or animal previously mentioned. hid/h d/ past of hide hit/h t/ verb: direct a blow at with one's hand or a tool or weapon. hip /h p/ noun :a projection of the pelvis and upper thigh bone on each side of the body. jib/d b/ noun:Sailing a triangular staysail set forward of the mast Jim /d m/ name jig /d g/ noun: a lively dance with leaping movements. kin/k n/ noun: one's family and relations. Kim/k m/ name kid/k d/ noun: a young child. kit /k t/ noun: a set of articles or equipment for a specific purpose: a first-aid kit. lid/l d/ noun : a removable or hinged cover for the top of a container. lit/l t/ past and past participle of light. lip /l p/ noun: either of the two fleshy parts forming the edges of the mouth opening. nip/n p/ verb: pinch, squeeze, or bite sharply. pin /p n/ noun: a thin piece of metal with a sharp point at one end and a round head at the other, used for fastening pieces of cloth, paper, etc. pig /p g/ noun: an omnivorous domesticated hoofed mammal with sparse bristly hair and a flat snout, kept for its meat pit /p t/ noun: a large hole in the ground. rim /r m/ noun: the upper or outer edge of something, typically something circular. rid/r d/ verb: make someone or something free of an unwanted person or thing. rig/r g/ verb: provide (a boat) with sails and rigging. rip/r p/ verb: tear or pull forcibly away from something or someone. sin/s n/ noun: an immoral act considered to be a transgression against divine law. sit /s t/ verb: be or cause to be in a position in which one's weight is supported by one's buttocks rather than one's feet and one's back is upright. sip /s p/ verb: drink something by taking small mouthfuls.


tin /t n/ noun: a silvery-white metal, the chemical element of atomic number 50. tip /t p/ noun: the pointed or rounded extremity of something slender or tapering. win/w n/ verb: be successful or victorious in a contest or conflict. wit /w t/ noun: the capacity for inventive thought and quick understanding; keen intelligence. zip/z p/ noun: a fastener consisting of two flexible strips of metal or plastic with interlocking projections closed or opened by pulling a slide along them. zit/z t/noun: informal, chiefly N. Amer. a spot on the skin. Letters o sound [ ] [ ] bop/b noun chiefly Brit. a dance to pop music.

con /k verb (cons, conning, conned) deceive (someone) into doing or believing something by lying to them. cod/k fish noun a large marine fish with a small barbel on the chin, important as a food

cog/k g/ noun a wheel or bar with a series of projections on its edge, which transfers motion by engaging with projections on another wheel or bar. cot/k cop/k Don/d dog/d g/ noun a domesticated carnivorous mammal probably descended from the wolf, with a barking or howling voice, an acute sense of smell, and non-retractile claws. dot/d noun a small round mark or spot. noun Brit. a small bed with high barred sides for a baby or very young child. noun a police officer.

fog /f / noun a thick cloud of tiny water droplets suspended in the atmosphere at or near the earth's surface which obscures or restricts visibility. God/g noun (in Christianity and other monotheistic religions) the creator and ruler of the universe; the supreme being. got /g hog/h hot/h jog/d past and past participle of get. noun a pig, especially a castrated male reared for slaughter. adjective having a high temperature. g/ noun a spell of jogging.


jot/d lob/l

t/ verb (jots, jotting, jotted) write quickly. verb (lobs, lobbing, lobbed) throw or hit (a ball or missile) in a high arc.

log /l g/ noun a part of the trunk or a large branch of a tree that has fallen or been cut off. lot /l lop/l mob/m mom/m pronoun (a lot or lots) informal a large number or amount; a great deal. verb (lops, lopping, lopped) cut off (a branch or limb) from a tree or body. noun a disorderly or violent crowd noun North American term for mum

mop/m noun an implement consisting of a bundle of thick loose strings or a sponge attached to a handle, used for wiping floors. nod/n verb lower and raise one's head slightly and briefly, especially in greeting, assent, or understanding, or as a signal. not/n adverb used chiefly with an auxiliary verb or be to form the negative.

pod/p noun an elongated seed vessel of a leguminous plant such as the pea, splitting open on both sides when ripe. pot/p rod/r rot/r sod/s Tom/t tot/t top/t noun a rounded or cylindrical container used for storage or cooking. noun a thin straight bar, especially of wood or metal. verb decompose by the action of bacteria and fungi; decay. verb (sods, sodding, sodded) rare cover with turf or pieces of turf. name noun a very young child. noun the highest or uppermost point, part, or surface.

Letter u sounds [] bun/bn/ noun a small cake or bread roll. bum/bm/ noun Brit. informal a person's buttocks or anus. bus/bs/ noun a large motor vehicle carrying paying passengers on a fixed route. bud/bd/ noun a compact knob-like growth on a plant which develops into a leaf, flower, or shoot. bug/bg/ noun informal a harmful microorganism.


but/bt/ conjunction used to introduce a phrase or clause contrasting with what has come before or with what is expected. cud/kd/ noun partly digested food returned from the first stomach of ruminants to the mouth for further chewing. cut/kt/ verb (cutting; past and past part. cut) make an opening, incision, or wound in (something) with a sharp tool or object. cup/kp/ noun a small bowl-shaped container for drinking from, typically with a handle. dug/dg/ past and past participle of dig. fun /fn/ noun light-hearted pleasure or amusement. gun/gn/ noun a weapon incorporating a metal tube from which bullets or shells are propelled by explosive force. gum/gm/ noun a viscous secretion of some trees and shrubs that hardens on drying but is soluble in water Gus/gs/. gut/gt/ noun he stomach or belly hum/hm/ verb (hums, humming, hummed) make a low, steady continuous sound like that of a bee. hug/hg/ verb embrace (someone) tightly. hut/ht/ noun a small, simple, single-storey house or shelter. jug/d g/ noun Brit. a cylindrical container with a handle and a lip, for holding and pouring liquids. jut/d t/ noun a point that sticks out. lug/lg/ noun a box for transporting fruit. mug /mg/ noun a large cylindrical cup with a handle. nun/nn/ noun a member of a female religious community, typically one living under vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience. nut/nt/ noun a fruit consisting of a hard or tough shell around an edible kernel. pun/pn/ noun a joke exploiting the different meanings of a word or the fact that there are words of the same sound and different meanings. pug/pg/ noun a dog of a dwarf breed like a bulldog with a broad flat nose and deeply wrinkled face.


pup/pp/ noun a young dog. rub/rb/ verb (rubs, rubbing, rubbed) apply firm pressure to the surface of, using a repeated back and forth motion. run/rn/ verb move at a speed faster than a walk, never having both or all feet on the ground at the same time. rum/rm/ noun an alcoholic spirit distilled from sugar-cane residues or molasses. rug/rg/ noun a small carpet. rut/rt/ noun a long deep track made by the repeated passage of the wheels of vehicles. sub/sb/ noun a submarine. sun/sn/ noun the star round which the earth orbits. Any similar star, with or without planets. sum/sm/ noun a particular amount of money. tug/tg/ verb pull hard or suddenly.

.Rule number 2: ...consonant + vowel + consonant...

Letter a sound [] splat / Splash / flash / flask / quack / / noun:a piece of thin wood in the centre of a chair back. / verb: make liquid strike or fall on something in drops. / verb shine in a bright but brief, sudden, or intermittent way. /noun a narrow-necked conical or spherical glass container. /noun the characteristic harsh sound made by a duck.

mask / /noun a covering for all or part of the face, worn as a disguise, for protection or hygiene, or for theatrical effect mash / slack / /verb reduce (a food or other substance) to a pulpy mass by crushing it. /adjective not taut or held tightly in position; loose


stack / smack / hand.

/ noun a rectangular or cylindrical pile of hay, straw, etc. /noun a sharp blow or slap, typically one given with the palm of the

flax/ / noun a blue-flowered herbaceous plant that is cultivated for its seed and for textile fibre made from its stalks. smash/ / verb: break or cause to break violently into pieces.

distant /d stnt/ adjective: far away in space or time. abstract/ / adjective heretical rather than physical or concrete

magnet t/ noun a piece of iron or other material which has the property of attracting iron-containing objects or aligning itself in an external magnetic field. constant /k damsel falcon happen ransom captive combat /k fantastic entrap/ prosecution. absent advent intact/ compact /k adjective occurring continuously.

l/noun archaic or humorous a young unmarried woman. n/ noun a fast-flying bird of prey with long pointed wings n/verb come about by chance. m/ noun a sum of money demanded or paid for the release of a

noun fighting between armed forces k/adjective imaginative or fanciful; remote from reality. verb trick someone into committing a crime in order to secure their

nt/adjective not present. nt/ noun the outermost layer of the wall of a blood vessel. adjective not damaged or impaired. adjective closely set or packed together; dense.


scraping remark /rm Exceptions barb /b barn /b card /k

verb drag or pull a hard or sharp implement across verb say as a comment; mention.

Letter e sound [ ] convent/k noun a Christian community of nuns living under monastic vows.

selfish/s lf / adjective concerned chiefly with one's own profit or pleasure at the expense of consideration for others. splendid/spl ndd/ adjective magnificent; very impressive. expected / ksp ktd/verb regard as likely to happen, do, or be the case. contest/k noun an event in which people compete for supremacy.

Inject / nd kt/verb introduce (a liquid, especially a drug or vaccine) into the body with a syringe. system /s stm/noun a complex whole; a set of things working together as a mechanism or interconnecting network. excess/ ks s/ noun an amount that is more than necessary, permitted, or desirable extend / kst nd/verb make larger or longer in space or time. signet /s gn t/noun a small seal, especially one set in a ring, used instead of or with a signature to give authentication to an official document. impel / mp l/verb force or urge to do something. address s/ noun the particulars of the place where a person lives or an organization is situated. insect/ ns kt/ noun an arthropod animal of a large class having a head, thorax, and abdomen, six legs, two antennae, and one or two pairs of wings. elephant / lfnt/noun a very large plant-eating mammal with a prehensile trunk, long curved ivory tusks, and large ears eleven /l vn/equivalent to the sum of six and five; one more than ten; empty/ mpti/ adjective containing nothing; not filled or occupied.


enter/ ntr/ verb come or go into (a place). deck /d k/ noun a floor of a ship, especially the upper, open level. dress /dr s/verb put on one's clothes helmet/h lmt/ noun a hard or padded protective hat. perk/prk/ noun informal a benefit to which one is entitled as an employee or shareholder of a company. perverse/prvrs/ adjective showing a deliberate and obstinate desire to behave unacceptably. cent /s nt/ noun a monetary unit equal to one hundredth of a dollar, euro, or other decimal currency unit. melt /mlt/ verb make or become liquefied by heating. mend /mnd/verb restore to a sound condition. nest /nst/ noun a structure or place made or chosen by a bird for laying eggs and sheltering its young. dent /dnt/ noun a slight hollow in a hard even surface made by a blow or pressure. smelt /smlt/ verb extract (metal) from its ore by a process involving heating and melting. rent /rnt/ noun a tenant's regular payment to a landlord for the use of property or land.

Letter I sound [ ] pig /p g/ noun an omnivorous domesticated hoofed mammal with sparse bristly hair and a flat snout, kept for its meat fish/f / noun a limbless cold-blooded vertebrate animal with gills and fins, living wholly in water. chick /t k/ noun a young bird, especially one newly hatche lizard/l zrd/ noun a reptile that typically has a long body and tail, four legs, movable eyelids, and a rough, scaly, or spiny skin pink /p k/ adjective of a colour intermediate between red and white, as of coral or salmon.


sick/s k/ adjective affected by physical or mental illness. trick /tr k/ noun a cunning or skilful act or scheme intended to deceive or outwit someone. thick/ k/ adjective with opposite sides or surfaces relatively far apart. pick /p k/ verb take hold of and remove (a flower or fruit) from where it is growing. stick /st k/ noun a thin piece of wood that has fallen or been cut off a tree. kick /k k/ verb strike or propel forcibly with the foot. pin /p n/ noun a thin piece of metal with a sharp point at one end and a round head at the other, used for fastening pieces of cloth, paper, etc. tin/t n/ noun a silvery-white metal, the chemical element of atomic number 50. thin/ n/ adjective (thinner, thinnest) having opposite surfaces or sides relatively close together. sing/s / verb (past sang; past part. sung) make musical sounds with the voice, especially words with a set tune. wing /w / noun a modified forelimb or other appendage enabling a bird, bat, insect, or other creature to fly. thing / / noun an object that one need not, cannot, or does not wish to give a specific name to. king/k / noun the male ruler of an independent state, especially one who inherits the position by right of birth. swing /sw / verb (swings, swinging; past and past part. swung) move or cause to move back and forth or from side to side while or as if suspended. ring /r / noun a small circular band, typically of precious metal, worn on a finger as an ornament or as a token of marriage, engagement, or authority. slit /sl t/ noun a long, narrow cut or opening.



crib/kr b/ noun chiefly N. Amer. a child's bed with barred or latticed sides; a cot. fill /f l / verb make or become full. fist /f st/ noun a person's hand when the fingers are bent in towards the palm and held there tightly. hill /h l/ noun a naturally raised area of land, not as high or craggy as a mountain. list /l st/ noun a number of connected items or names written consecutively. kill /k l/ verb cause the death of milk /m lk/ noun a white fluid rich in fat and protein, secreted by female mammals for the nourishment of their young. pill /p l/ noun a small round mass of solid medicine for swallowing whole. silk /s lk/ noun a fine, strong, soft lustrous fibre produced by silkworms in making cocoons. will /w l/ modal verb (3rd sing. present will; past would) expressing the future tense. swim/sw m/ verb (swims, swimming; past swam; past part. swum) propel oneself through water by bodily movement. mitt /m t/ noun a mitten. him/h m/ pronoun [third person sing.] used as the object of a verb or preposition to refer to a male person or animal previously mentioned.

Letters o sound [ ] [ ]

lock/l k/ noun a mechanism for keeping a door, lid, or container fastened, typically operated by a key. stock/st k/ noun a supply of goods or materials available for sale or use. rock/r k/ noun the hard mineral material of the earth's crust, exposed on the surface or underlying the soil. dock/d k/ noun an enclosed area of water in a port for the loading, unloading, and repair of ships.


stop/st p/ verb (stops, stopping, stopped) come or cause to come to an end chop /t p/ verb (chops, chopping, chopped) cut with repeated sharp, heavy blows of an axe or knife. drop /dr p/ verb (drops, dropping, dropped) fall or cause to fall vertically. pond/p nd/ noun a fairly small body of still water. barley/b rli/ noun a hardy cereal with coarse bristles extending from the ears, cultivated chiefly for use in brewing and stockfeed. barn/b rn/ noun a large farm building used for storage or for housing livestock. barter/b rtr/ verb (often barter for) exchange (goods or services) for other goods or services. bombardier/b mbrd r/ noun a rank of non-commissioned officer in certain artillery regiments, equivalent to corporal. bombardment/bamb rdmnt/ verb attack continuously with bombs or other missiles bondage/b nd d / noun the state of being a slave or feudal serf. bottleneck/b tln k/ noun a narrow section of road where traffic flow is restricted. bronchitis/br k jts/ noun inflammation of the mucous membrane in the bronchial tubes, typically with spasm of bronchial muscle and coughing. card/k rd/ noun thick, stiff paper or thin cardboard. cardboard/k rdb rd/ noun pasteboard or stiff paper. cardinal/k rdnl/ noun a leading dignitary of the Roman Catholic Church, nominated by and having the power to elect the Pope cargo/k rg / noun (pl. cargoes or cargos) goods carried commercially on a ship, aircraft, or truck. carload/k rl d/ noun a powered road vehicle designed to carry a small number of people. cart/k rt/ noun a horse-drawn open vehicle with two or four wheels, used for carrying loads.


carter/k rtr/ noun a horse-drawn open vehicle with two or four wheels, used for carrying loads. bond/b nd/ noun a thing used to tie or fasten things together. bonk/b k/ verb hit so as to cause a reverberating sound. fond/f nd/ adjective (fond of) having an affection or liking for. font/f nt/ noun a receptacle in a church for the water used in baptism. knock/n k/ verb strike a surface noisily to attract attention. cardiac/k rdi k/ adjective relating to the heart. stomp/st mp/ verb tread heavily and noisily, typically in order to show anger. prompt/pr mpt/ verb cause or bring about. Letter u sounds [] duck/dk/ noun (pl. same or ducks) a waterbird with a broad, blunt bill, short legs, and webbed feet, some kinds of which are domesticated. bunny/bni/ noun (pl. bunnies) informal a child's term for a rabbit. slug/slg/ noun a tough-skinned terrestrial mollusc which lacks a shell and secretes a film of mucus for protection. club/klb/ noun an association dedicated to a particular interest or activity. tuck /tk/ verb push, fold, or turn under or between two surfaces or into a confined space: he tucked his shirt into his trousers. luck/lk/ noun success or failure apparently brought by chance. truck /trk/ noun a large road vehicle, used for carrying goods, materials, or troops. lump/lmp/ noun a compact mass, especially one without a definite or regular shape.



pump/pmp/ noun a mechanical device using suction or pressure to raise or move liquids, compress gases, or force air into inflatable objects. thump/mp/ verb hit heavily, especially with the fist or a blunt implement. jump /d mp/ verb push oneself into the air using the muscles in one's legs and feet. junk/d k/ noun informal useless or worthless articles. trunk/trk/ noun the main woody stem of a tree as distinct from its branches and roots. bunk/bk/ noun a narrow shelf-like bed. sunk /sk/ verb (past sank; past part. sunk) go down below the surface of liquid; become submerged. skunk /skk/ noun a black-and-white striped American mammal of the weasel family, able to spray foul-smelling irritant liquid from its anal glands at attackers. dump/dmp/ noun a site for depositing rubbish or waste. puff/pf/ noun a short burst of breath or wind. hump /hmp/ noun a rounded raised mass of earth or land. jump/d mp/ verb push oneself into the air using the muscles in one's legs and feet. cluck /klk/ verb (of a hen) make a short, low sound pluck /plk/ verb take hold of (something) and quickly remove it from its place. stuck/stk/ noun a thin piece of wood that has fallen or been cut off a tree. bunch/bnt/ noun a number of things growing or fastened together. dusk/dsk/ noun the darker stage of twilight.

dust/dst/ noun fine, dry powder consisting of tiny particles of earth or waste matter. flunk/flk/ verb informal, chiefly N. Amer. fail to reach the required standard in (an examination).


munch/mnt/ verb eat steadily and audibly. musk/msk/ noun a strong-smelling reddish-brown substance secreted by the male musk deer, used as an ingredient in perfumery. buckwheat/bkw t/ noun an Asian plant of the dock family, producing starchy seeds used for fodder or milled into flour. submit /sbm t/ verb (submits, submitting, submitted) accept or yield to a superior force or stronger person. superb /sprb/ adjective excellent.