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Relationships between spelling orthography and pronunciation
omophone: is a word of the same language which sounds like another, but has a different
spelling and meaning. Each homophone has a unique function within a sentence; using the wrong one can change the meaning of the sentence, or make it nonsensical. Two or three words that sounds alike. This category includes words that are spelled the same, such as:
wrest /r st/verb: take power or control after considerable effort or resistance. rest /r st/noun: cease work or movement in order to relax or recover strength. She wrests power from him because he takes a rest. /ʃ sts
ʊər frəm h m b k z hí
ə r st/
isle /áIl/: noun : a piece of land surrounded by water. aisle /áIl/: noun: a passage between rows of seats, pews, or supermarket shelves. I'll /áIl/: contraction: I will. I´ll build an aisle in the isle. /áIl b patient áIl n ðə áIl/ ʃənt/: noun: a person receiving or registered to receive medical treatment.
patience ʃənt/: noun: the capacity to tolerate delay, trouble, or suffering without becoming angry or upset. I’m running out of patience with the patient /áIm rʌn ŋ ʊt ə be /bí/: verb:“to exist.” bee /bí/: noun: refers to an insect. Marie wants to be a bee /mə blew / blue / w s ə ʃənt w θ ðə ʃənt/
verb: is the past tense of the verb to blow. adjective: refers to a color.
I blew a blue candle ə əl/
bye/báI/ interjection: is used to express farewell. buy /báI/ verb: means “to purchase.” by /báI/ preposition: means “next to” or “close to.” She will buy a book written by David before to say bye /ʃ l báI ə bʊk r tən báI əd bəf báI/
ewe /Jú/noun: means “a female sheep.” you /Jú/pronoun: is used to refer to the one or ones being addressed You are going to eat a ewe / ŋ /
hear /h r/ verb: means “to perceive (sound) by the ear.” here /h r/adverb: means “at or in this place.” I can’t hear you in here / hole / whole / n h r/ noun: means “an opening into or through something.” adjective: means “complete.”
I dig a hole the whole day / d gə ə /
hour / ʊər/noun: means “one of the 24 equal parts of a day.” our / ʊər/adjective: is the possessive form of we. Our cake will be ready in an hour / ʊə di ʊər/
knight /náIt/noun: means “a medieval gentleman-soldier.” night /náIt/noun: means “the period between sunset and sunrise, especially the hours of darkness.” The knight is going to travel at night /ðə náIt ŋ ə náIt/
made/méd/ verb: is a form of the verb to make. maid /méd/ noun: means “a girl or unmarried woman“ or “a woman servant.” She made her house when she was maid /ʃ ə ʊs w n ʃ ə /
meat /mít/noun: means “the edible flesh of animals.” meet /mít/verb: means “to come upon by chance or arrangement.” I meet David who does not eat meat / ə əz n
peace /pís/noun: means “the absence of war or other hostilities.” piece /pís/noun: means “a portion or part of something.” The one word on the piece of paper was the word peace. /ðə wʌn w rd ə ə ə ə ə w rd /
hair /h r/: any of the fine thread-like strands growing from the skin of mammals and other animals, or from the epidermis of a plant. hare /h r/: a fast-running, long-eared mammal resembling a large rabbit, with very long hind legs. The hare has white hair /ðə h t h r/
pray /pré/ verb means “to utter or address a prayer or prayers to God, a god, or another object of worship.” prey /pré/ noun means “an animal hunted or caught for food; quarry.” He prays when he hunt a prey ʌnts ə rain /rén/noun: means “a fall of water condensed from atmospheric vapor and falling in drops.” reign /rén/noun: means “the exercise of sovereign power, as by a monarch.” rein /rén/noun: a long narrow leather strap attached to each end of the bit of a bridle and used by a rider or driver to control a horse or other animal.
When It rains the queen takes the reins of her horse, when she reigns /w n ə ə əv hər h rs, w n ʃ /
red /r d /noun: refers to a color. read /r d /: is a form of the verb to read. Sara read a red book /s rə r d ə r d bʊk/ right /ráIt/adjective: means “correct“ or “fitting, proper, or appropriate.” write /ráIt/verb: means “to form (letters, words, or symbols) on a surface such as paper with an instrument such as a pen.” He writes with his right hand / ráIts w θ h z ráIt /
sea / noun: means the continuous body of saltwater covering most of the earth's surface or a relatively large body of saltwater completely or partially enclosed by land. see / verb: means “to perceive with the eye.”
The old man sees the sea /ðə sole / z ðə noun: means “the underside of the foot.”
soul / noun: means “the animating and vital principle in humans, credited with the faculties of thought, action, and emotion and often conceived as an immaterial entity. She wrote soul in her sole /ʃ n hə
son /sʌn/noun: means “one's male child.” sun /sʌn/noun: means “a star that is the basis of the solar system and that sustains life on Earth.” The Indians believed in the son of the sun /ðə ndiənz bə n ðə sʌn əv ðə sʌn/
steal / steel / carbon.”
verb: also means “to move, happen, or elapse stealthily or unobtrusively.” noun: means “a generally hard, strong, durable, malleable alloy of iron and
I steal a steel product /áI ə ə /
straight / adjective: means “continuously in the same direction without curving” or “having no waves or bends.” strait/ noun: means “a position of difficulty, perplexity, distress, or need.”
I go straight along the strait street /áI əl ŋ ə
tale /tél/noun: means “a narrative of real or imaginary events; a story.” tail /tél/noun: means “hindmost part of an animal, especially when extending beyond the main part of the body.” The witch cut the tail´s horse in the tale /ðə w tʃ kʌt ðə tea / tee / rs n ðə /
noun: means “a drink made by steeping tea leaves in boiling water.” noun: means “a small peg with a concave top for holding a golf ball.”
He put the golf ball in the tee after he drunk the tea /hí pʊt ðə g to / too / two / ə ə ʌŋ ə /
preposition: means “towards.” adverb: also means “more than enough” or “excessively.” noun: means “the number, written 2, that is equal to the sum of 1 + 1.
The two boys want to play too /ðə wait / weight / Iz w verb: means “to remain or rest in expectation.” noun: means “the measured heaviness of a specific object.”
I wait to lose weight /áI /
11 ware /w r/ noun: means pottery. energy. feeble.Homographs: are words that are spelled alike but have different meanings. make a difference to. absent /əbs nt/ verb: stay or go away.” This week I was too week /ð áI wə / . This experience affects me very much. affect /əf kt/noun: Psychology emotion or desire as influencing behaviour. / ə ksənt b k z əz n ə ə ŋ ʊəlz/ affect / f kt/verb: have an effect on. where /w r/adverb: means “at or in what place.14. meanings and origins but the same spelling. absent / bsənt/ adjective: not present.” Where is the ware /w r z ðə w r/ weak / week / adjective: means “lacking physical strength. or vigor. typically that of a specified type. She is absent because she absents /ʃ ənt b k z ʃ əbs nts/ abstract / bstrækt/ noun: a summary of a book or article.06.” noun: means “a period of seven days. abstract /əbstr kt/ verb: extract or remove we abstract the mean idea of the abstract / əbstr kt ðə ə əv ðə bstrækt/ accent / ksənt/ noun: a particular way of pronouncing a language accent /əks nt/verb: stress He has a bad accent because he does not accent the long vowels. These words have different pronunciation. So I need your affect /ð s ksp riəns f kt ri mʌtʃ áI r əf kt/ 6 .
/hí kəmpáʊnd kənd əŋ ʃə conflict /k rm kampaʊnd s ntənsəz/.or fruit-eating bird with a small head. My family contents me. Joe and Jane have a serious conflict. When shot at.11 dove /dʌv/ noun: a stocky seed. similar to but generally smaller and more delicate than a pigeon. If we discount those videos. ə ŋ content /kənt nt/ verb: satisfy (someone).06. /w n ʃ ə dʌv d ʊv ə bʊʃəz/ compound /'kampaʊnd/ noun: a thing composed of two or more separate elements. dove /d ʊv/verb: past of dive. noun: a serious disagreement or argument. compound /kəm'paʊnd/ verb: mix or combine (ingredients or constituents). conflict /kənfl kt/ verb: be incompatible or at variance. Mary house his father in her house /m ʊs h z f ə ə ʊs/ discount /'d skaʊnt/ noun: a deduction from the usual cost of something. Hi compound conjunctions to form compound sentences. they are always conflicting /d content /k d ə s riəs k / noun: a state of satisfaction. and a cooing voice. I feel perfectly content with my life. short legs. / fíl pərfəktli k θ f əli kənt nt house / house / ʊs/ noun: a building for human habitation.14. the dove dove into the bushes. we can get a discount / d skáʊnt ən g t ə d skaʊnt/ 7 . ʊz/ verb: provide with shelter or accommodation. clash. discount /d s'kaʊnt/ verb: deduct a discount from.
manufacture. The farm was used to produce produce. tear /t r/verb: destroy something. The mother insisted that work on her son's resume resume /ðə məðər ns stə ərk ə ə ʊm rə / colon / ən/ noun: a punctuation mark (:) used to precede a list of items. familiar: intimate friends. especially good relations between people. /w n d ristr ktəd d ð s s ntə ə ə / lt ə tw nd nh n: ə ʃʊ tear /t ər/ noun: a drop of clear salty liquid secreted from glands in a person's eye when they are crying or when the eye is irritated. a quotation. /ðə f resume/rə ə ə ʌdus/ / verb: begin again or continue after a pause or interruption. or create. N. How can I intimate this to my most intimate friend? ʊ kə object / ntəmet ð ntəmət fr nd/ / noun: a material thing that can be seen and touched. I did not object to the object.11 intimate / ntəmət/ adjective: closely acquainted. produce /prʌdus/ noun: things that have been produced or grown. He was in tears because Marie tears their friendship / əz n t ərz b k z mə rz ð r fr ndʃ p/ 8 . intimate / ntəmet/ verb: state or make known.06. object /əbd kt/ verb: express disapproval or opposition. Amer: a curriculum vitae. resume /r zjʊm/noun: a summary. / d dn əbd kt ə / produce /prə verb: make. colon / n/ noun: Anatomy the main part of the large intestine When Joe read this sentence he felt a twinge in his colon: colon use should be restricted to scholarly works.14. or an expansion or explanation.
use /jús/ noun: using the action of using or state of being used. Janice Joplin sang that song live when she lived in L. used to impart a pleasant smell to one's body or clothes. Rudolf Mayer defected from Russia /ð r wəz ə əʃə/ perfume /p rfjum/ noun: a fragrant liquid typically made from essential oils. perfume /pəfjúm/ verb: impart a pleasant smell to. There was a defect in the product he bought. live /lá v/adjective: given in concert.11 use /júz/ verb: take or consume an amount from a limited supply.06.14. imperfection. vehicle.A /d əs d ópl ŋ ŋ vw nʃ vd n L.A/ convict /kənv kt/ verb: declare to be guilty of a criminal offence by the verdict of a jury or the decision of a judge in a court of law. defect /d f kt/ verb: abandon one's country or cause in favor of an opposing one. The escorts escort the president /ðə sk rts sk rt ðə pr zəd nt/ 9 . he was convicted of a major crime /ðə k ə ə ə kənv ktəd əv ə ə m/ defect /d ’ kt/ noun: a shortcoming. and now he has to use a wheelchair / st ðə əv h z l ə ʃ r/ live /lɪv/ verb: be alive at a specified time. or lack. He lost the use of his legs. or group accompanying another to provide protection or as a mark of rank. She perfumes the room with her perfume /ʃ ə ə θ hər p rfjum/ kt n ðə pr ə ə ə ə ə escort / sk rt/ noun: a person. convict / k / noun: a person convicted of a criminal offence and serving a sentence of imprisonment. escort / sk rt/ verb: accompany as an escort. The convict was finally caught.
He always perverts the truth to suit his own sexual ends.14. The intern is intern in prison now /ðə ntərn z nt rn n pr zə ʊ/ exploit / kspl t/ verb: make use of and derive benefit from a resource. The Johnson’s son is a little pervert. protest /prət st/ verb: express an objection to an action or remark. exploit / kspl t/ noun: a bold or daring feat. Ana was in a protest. pervert / p rvərt / noun: a person with abnormal or unacceptable sexual behavior. /ðə d nsənz sən z ə l təl p rvərt pərv rts ðə θ s kʃuəl ndz/ essay / se/ noun: a piece of writing on a particular subject essay /əsé/ verb: formal attempt She wrote a long essay about what she wanted to essay /ʃ ə l ŋ se ə ʊt wət ʃ ntə ə / 10 .11 intern / ntərn/ noun: a recent medical graduate receiving supervised training in a hospital and acting as an assistant physician or surgeon. At present. He made an exploit exploiting all his qualities / kspl jt kspl t ŋ l h z kʊ ə / protest /prót st/ noun: a statement or action expressing disapproval of or objection to something.06. present /pr z nt/ verb: put (a show or exhibition) before the public. we are not going to present more paintings / zə ŋ z nt m ŋ / pervert / pərv rt / verb: alter from its original meaning or state to a corruption of what was first intended. intern / nt rn/ verb: confine as a prisoner. She was protesting for women's rights / ə ə ə ʃ ə ə ŋ w mə / present /pr zənt/ noun: the period of time now occurring.
11 ferment /fərm nt/ verb: undergo or cause to undergo fermentation. exile / ks / verb: expel and bar someone from their native country. The bear bears food /ðə b r b 11 . or figure. The cask of wine needs to ferment for 12 months before it reaches the appropriate acidity. ə ət əs dəti. ər/noun an underground conduit for carrying off drainage water and waste A seamstress and a sewer fell down into a sewer line. exile / ks / noun: the state of being barred from one's native country.06. ferment /f rmənt/ noun: agitation and social unrest. expressed by a word.” Homonyms are words that have the same sound and often the same spelling but differ in meaning. representing a particular quantity.Homonyms: comes from the Greek homo which means “same” and onym which means “name. The bad wine ferments the society /ðə ə sewer / sewer / matter. symbol.14. Player number 5 has a big number of fans / ər nʌmbə ə b g nʌmər ə / bear /b r/ noun: (animal) bear /b r/ verb: carry or convey. Can an exile exile another person? / ks ks ənəðər pərsən/ number /nʌmbər/ noun: an arithmetical value. A person who lives in exile. number /nʌmbər/ verb: amount to. ðə ərm nt f r 12 mənθs bəf r n f rmənts ðə sə əti/ ʃəz ðə ʊər/ noun a person that sews. /ə ə ə ʊər f ə ə n/ .
14. /ðə lean / lean / ʃ ərd bət ðə k wə / adjective: thin verb: rest against The lean girl was leaning against the wall /ðə rl wə ŋ əg nst ðə w l/ nail noun: a small metal spike with a broadened flat head. driven into wood to join things together or to serve as a hook. nail / / noun: a horny covering on the upper surface of the tip of the finger and toe ə ə nd ks f ŋ ər wəz nd ərd/ While hitting the nail. It was plain to the police officer that the criminal has been wounded. verb: of a bird or an airborne object soar without moving the wings.11 porter /p rtər/noun: a weak beer porter /p rtər/noun: a man who carries luggage The porter drinks a porter /ðə p rtər dr ŋ glass / glass / ə p rtər/ / noun: a hard. typically transparent or translucent. / noun: a drinking container made of glass. the nail of my index finger was injured. /ʃ əv rdən əd/ t wə ə pə fəsə t ðə kr mənə 12 . The bird planes next to the plane /ðə b plain plain ə noun: ordinary looking noun: flat country / She had a very plain and ordinary face.06. jl h t ŋ ə plane plane short for aeroplane. glide. The glass glass shattered but the plastic was okay. brittle substance.
pluck /plʌk/ noun: spirited and determined courage. Miss Doe misses her sister /m səz hər s stər/ pluck /plʌk/ verb: to remove feathers. Our quarry is hiding in a quarry ər kw ri d ŋ n ə kw ri/ miss /m s/ noun: unmarried woman miss /m s/ verb: notice the loss or absence of. She types in a special type of paper /ʃ train / train / ps n ə sp ʃə pə ər/ noun: a loco and trucks verb: to teach I train for the game in the train / r ðə n ðə verb: indicate unwillingness to do something. refuse /rə refuse /rə The dump was so fool that it had to refuse more refuse /ðə dəmp wə ʊ ə r rə / fair /f r/ adjective: appearance light. from which stone or other materials may be extracted. 13 . typically a large pit.06. He needed pluck to pluck the feathers əd plʌk plʌk ðə f ðərz/ type /tá p/verb: to write via keyboard type /tá p/noun: a category of people or things having common characteristics. quarry /kw ri/ noun: an animal being hunted.11 quarry /kw ri/ noun: a place. fair /f r/ adjective: reasonable. noun: matter thrown away as worthless. take hold of something and quickly remove it from its place. blonde. treating people equally.14.
bət ðə b d wəz st f/ hammer ər/ noun: a tool consisting of a heavy metal head mounted at the end of a handle.11 The girl with the fair hair is a fair person /ðə g rl w θ ðə f r h r z ə f r p rsən/ lie /lá / verb: horizontal position lie /láɪ/ noun: falsehood or untruth expressed as truth When he was lying in the floor he thought that everything was a lie /w blue blue ə ŋ n ðə fl θ vriθ ŋ əz ə / noun: the color scene theme these Pete mete noun: the feeling of sadness The blue sky makes me feel blue /ðə / bed /b d/ noun: piece of furniture incorporating a mattress or other surface bed /b d/ verb: provide with sleeping accommodation. but the bed was stiff / də nh ʊs. Play video or computer She always games poker games /ʃ ə / 14 . fork /f rk/ verb: divide into two parts take one route or the other at a fork dig or lift She forks the chicken with a fork /ʃ game game rks ðə tʃ kən w θ ə f rk/ noun: a form of competitive activity or sport played according to rules. I hammer the thief with his own hammer / ər ðə θ θh ər/ fork /f rk/ noun: a pronged implement used for lifting or holding food.14. verb: playing at games of chance for money. used for breaking things and driving in nails. hammer ər/ verb: hit or beat repeatedly with a hammer.06. He bedded me in his own house.
11 peel / peel / / verb: remove the outer covering or skin from a fruit. vegetable. Peel the banana and throw its peel in the trash.06.14. Also radio ham informal an amateur radio operator. ham noun: an inexpert or unsubtle actor or piece of acting. ə bə ham ə θ n ðə ʃ/ noun: salted or smoked meat from the upper part of a pig's leg. / noun: the outer covering or rind of a fruit or vegetable. etc. The ham is eating hams /ðə ŋ / 15 .
16 .11 Part 2 Long Vowels . Braid used for trimming. horses. magazine. or frequency ej: the island has a very low crime face noun: the front part of a person's head from the forehead to the chin. or the corresponding part in an animal. make noun: the manufacturer or trade name of a product. gate hate late noun: a hinged barrier used to close an opening in a wall. or the material written or printed on it. strong aversion. or knitting thread in patterns. adjective: acting. mace attackers. especially on military dress uniforms. noun: a measure. fence. quantity. lace noun: a fine open fabric of cotton or silk made by looping.06. noun: trademark an irritant chemical used in an aerosol to disable race noun: a competition between runners. or hedge. etc. used especially as a trimming. fade rage verb: gradually grow faint and disappear.Rule Number 1: Consonant + Vowel + Consonant Letter “a” Sound [e] date / noun: the day of the month or year as specified by a number. /noun: violent uncontrollable anger. or happening after the expected or usual time. The structure or composition of something. arriving. fate / noun: the development of events outside a person's control. noun: intense dislike. cage /noun: a structure of bars or wires in which birds or other animals are confined. twisting. or newspaper. regarded as predetermined by a supernatural power. page / / noun: one side of a leaf of a book. rate rate. vehicles. to see which is fastest over a set course.14.
tale noun: a fictitious or true story. daze gale verb: make unable to think or react properly. case noun: an instance of a particular situation. sale / /noun: the exchange of a commodity for money. animal. noun: a very strong wind.. the process of selling something. grasses. sugar.14. dame noun: the title given to a woman with the rank of Knight Commander or holder of the Grand Cross in the Orders of Chivalry. dale noun: a valley. / noun: a male person. etc. cape noun: a sleeveless cloak. /noun: a watch or vigil held beside the body of someone who has died. in order to achieve or preserve something. same/ /adjective: identical. /noun: a large area of water surrounded by land sake / /noun: for the purpose of or in the interest of something. especially bamboo or the slender. especially in northern England. especially in a leaded window. fake / lake / / noun: a person or thing that is not genuine. cane noun: the hollow jointed stem of tall reeds. or plant. / noun: an activity engaged in for amusement. especially one that is imaginatively recounted. name / / noun: a word or set of words by which someone or something is known. etc. addressed. eggs. fame / game/ /noun: the state of being famous. unchanged. 17 . or referred to. take/ wake / male/ / verb: reach for and hold with one's hands. an example of something occurring: a case of mistaken identity. came/ / noun: each of a number of strips forming a framework for enclosing a pane of glass. pliant stem of plants such as rattan.11 bake / noun: a dish consisting of a number of ingredients mixed together and baked: a vegetable bake. especially a short one. fat.06. cake / /noun: an item of soft sweet food made from baking a mixture of flour.
and NE Iraq). adjective: (of an old person) strong and healthy. Exceptions chain/tʃ day/ pain/ / / / bare /b r/ have / pare /p r/ chance /tʃ / / Letter “e” sound [i] cede verb give up power or territory. 18 . pink. etc. / noun: a single sheet of glass in a window or door. mete pete verb (mete something out) dispense or allot justice. hebe noun an evergreen flowering shrub with spikes of mauve. a distinct sequence of DNA forming part of a chromosome. name mere /mír/ adjective that is solely or no more or better than what is specified: mere mortals. gene /d noun a unit of heredity which is transferred from a parent to offspring and is held to determine some characteristic of the offspring. native to New Zealand Mede /míd/noun a member of an Indo-European people who inhabited ancient Media (present-day Azerbaijan.11 gape hale pane/ verb: be or become wide open.06.14. meme/mím/ noun Biology a cultural or behavioural element passed on by imitation or other non-genetic means. in particular. NW Iran. punishment. establishing an extensive empire during the 7th century BC. or white flowers. rede/rid/ noun advice or counsel. eve noun the day or period of time immediately before an event.
deme /dím/noun a political division in ancient or modern Greece. dice /dáIs /noun: a small cube with faces bearing from one to six spots.11 heme/hím/ noun US spelling of haem. dime/dáIm/noun: informal a small amount of money. dene/dín/ noun [usu.06.14. dine /dáIn/verb: eat dinner. narrow. seme/sím/ noun Linguistics another term for semanteme. cite/sáIt/ verb: quote (a book or author) as evidence for an argument. used in games of chance. dele /díl/noun a proofreader's sign indicating matter to be deleted. in place names] Brit. see also die. sere /sír/adjective variant spelling of sear. bite/báIt/ noun: a bitter greenish-brown alkaline fluid secreted by the liver and stored in the gall bladder. wooded valley. bile /báIl/noun: a bitter greenish-brown alkaline fluid secreted by the liver and stored in the gall bladder. bike /báIk/noun: a bicycle or motorcycle. which aids digestion. pele /píl/noun variant spelling of peel Exceptions here /h r / cere /s fete r/ / / Letter “i” Sound [ai] bide /báId/ verb: archaic or dialect remain or stay in a certain place. which aids digestion. rete /rít/noun Anatomy an elaborate network of blood vessels or nerve cells. deke /dík/noun a deceptive movement that induces an opponent to move out of position. deme /dím/noun a political division in ancient or modern Greece. a deep. 19 .
narrow mark or band. one more than four. like /láIk/noun: a similar person or thing.06. and smoke. nice/náIs/ adjective: giving pleasure or satisfaction. in which substances combine chemically with oxygen from the air and give out bright light. pike/páIk/ noun: a long-bodied predatory freshwater fish with long teeth 20 . jive /d áIv/noun: a lively dance popular in the 1940s and 1950s. mice/máIs/ verb: hunt for or catch mice. jibe /d áIb/noun: an insulting or mocking remark. pipe/páIp/ noun: a tube used to convey water. fine /fáIn/noun: very small particles found in mining or milling. or half of ten gibe /gáIb/ noun – verb: variant spelling of jibe hide /háId/noun: a camouflaged shelter used to observe wildlife at close quarters. live /láIv/verb: remain alive. dire/dáIr/ adjective: extremely serious or urgent. performed to swing music or rock and roll. oil. or other fluids.11 dive /dáIv/verb: plunge head first into water with one's arms raised over one's head. functional activity. and continual change.14. file/fáIl/ noun: a folder or box for keeping loose papers together and in order. hike /háIk/noun: a long walk or walking tour. lice /láIs/noun: a small wingless parasitic insect which infests human skin and hair. hive /háIv/noun: a beehive. gas. heat. pile/páIl/ noun: a heap of things laid or lying one on top of another. life /láIf/noun: the condition that distinguishes animals and plants from inorganic matter. or any salt or alkali containing calcium. five /fáIv/cardinal number: equivalent to the sum of two and three. line /láIn/noun: a long. slaked lime. fire /fáIr/ noun: the state of burning. lime /láIm/noun: quicklime. hire /háIr/noun: the action of hiring. kite /káIt/noun: a toy consisting of a light frame with thin material stretched over. including the capacity for growth.
or symbols used to represent others.06. code noun: a system of words.11 pine/páIn/ noun: (also pine tree) an evergreen coniferous tree having clusters of long needle-shaped leaves. place. ride/ráId/ verb: sit on and control the movement of a horse. especially cannabis or heroin. tide/táId/ noun: the alternate rising and falling of the sea due to the attraction of the moon and sun. used in overlapping rows for covering roofs. risen) come or go up. ripe/ráIp/ adjective: (of fruit or grain) ready for harvesting and eating. Exceptions give/g v/ night/náIt/ live /láIv/ niche /n tʃ/ since /s ns/ pea / / Letter “o“ sound [ou] bone / /noun: any of the pieces of hard. rise/ráIz/ verb: (past rose. grown for its soft wood or for tar and turpentine. figures. past part.14. coke/ k/ noun: a solid fuel made by heating coal in the absence of air so that the volatile components are driven off. bicycle. cone point. tile/táIl/ noun: a thin square or rectangular slab of baked clay. or central point.. whitish tissue making up the skeleton in vertebrates. dope /d p/ noun: informal an illegal drug. noun: a small sheltered bay. concrete. 21 . or motorcycle. etc. side/sáId/ noun: a position to the left or right of an object. especially for the purposes of secrecy. cope cove noun: an object which tapers from a circular or roughly circular base to a verb: deal effectively with something difficult.
joke /d /noun: a thing said to cause amusement. /noun: the bishop of Rome as head of the roman catholic church. mope / nope / /verb: feel dejected and apathetic. or thoughts. containing the nostrils and used in breathing and smelling. loose outer garment reaching to the ankles.06. / noun: the place where one lives permanently. /noun: a way in which something occurs or is done mole/ / noun: a small burrowing mammal with dark velvety fur. topics. noun: informal a sweet or adorable person. hose / /noun: a flexible tube conveying water. solitary. topics. /noun: a feeling of expectation and desire. used as an aid to memory.11 dole dome dose dote / doze/ hole / home/ hope / noun: informal benefit paid by the state to the unemployed. nose / /noun: the part projecting above the mouth on the face of a person or animal. noun: a quantity of a medicine or drug taken at one time. such as the soft part at the base of the outer ear. 22 . and very small eyes.14. pole / pope / pose / robe / /noun: a native or national of Poland. used as an aid to memory. note / /noun: a brief written record of facts. noun: a rounded vault forming the roof of a building or structure. drawn. / noun: a short light sleep. or thoughts. /noun: a position assumed in order to be painted. /noun: a long. /exclamation: informal variant of no. poke/ / noun: a brief written record of facts. or a person of polish descent. or photographed. lone / mode / /adjective: having no companions. feeding mainly on worms and grubs. used chiefly for watering plants and in firefighting. lobe / /noun: a hanging or projecting part. a long muzzle. /noun: an empty space in a solid body or surface.
making sharp calls and grunts. dupe /verb: deceive.sound [ju] cube / squares. quality. especially on the sea coast or in a desert. rope/ /noun: a length of stout cord made by twisting together strands of hemp. especially a large. vote/ / noun: a formal indication of a choice between two or more candidates or courses of action. and strength.14. Exceptions come /kəm/ dove /dəv/ done /dən/ gone /g n/ Letter “u” . vole noun: a small mouse-like rodent with a rounded muzzle. cure/kjúr/ verb: make healthy again after suffering from a disease or medical condition. dude /noun: a man. 23 . trick. etc. sisal. tone/ / noun: a musical or vocal sound with reference to its pitch. dune / noun: a mound or ridge of sand or other loose sediment formed by the wind.11 rode / /verb: fly on a regular circuit in the evening as a territorial display.06. duke noun: a male holding the highest hereditary title in the British and certain other peerages. expressed typically through a ballot or a show of hands. sole/ tome/ / noun: the underside of a person's foot. / noun: chiefly humorous a book. nylon. scholarly one. cute /noun: a symmetrical three-dimensional shape contained by six equal adjective: endearingly pretty.
14. tube/tj gases. / noun: a long. blend. especially one which characterizes a certain piece of Exeptions June /d lure /lʊr/ rude/ rule / / / / sure /ʃʊr/ cue / ruse/ / / 24 . typically sterile. Compare with hinny muse / mute / nude puke/ /noun: each of nine goddesses who preside over the arts and sciences. /adjective: large. noun informal vomit. or coalesce to form a single entity. /noun: the sixth month of the year.11 fume / fuse / huge / June /d j /noun: a gas or vapor that smells strongly or is dangerous to inhale. tune/tj music. pure/pjúr/ adjective: not mixed or adulterated with any other substance or material. lute /lj / noun: a stringed instrument with a long neck and a rounded body with a flat front. hollow cylinder used for conveying or holding liquids or / noun: a melody. noun: a naked human figure as a subject in art or photography. /verb: join. mule/ / noun: the offspring of a male donkey and a female horse. played by plucking. /noun: a person without the power of speech. /verb.06.
25 . commentate /kəmə event. brake noun: a device for slowing or stopping a moving vehicle. caber /kébər/noun: a roughly trimmed tree trunk used in the scottish highland sport of tossing the caber. astonish. noun a sharp double bend created to form an obstacle on a motorverb move or cause to move continuously or freely through a circulate /sərkjə closed area. collate /kə verb collect and combine texts or information. charm.11 . ər/noun: a playful skipping movement. noun: the flat cutting edge of a knife or other tool or weapon. especially with a verb provide a commentary on a sports match or other commemorate /kəm mə ceremony or memorial. verb remember and show respect for. ədet/noun: a person who applies for a job or is nominated for curate /kjʊrət/noun a member of the clergy engaged as assistant to a parish priest. capitulate /kəp tʃ surrender. noun: a very large or fiercely burning fire. captivate verb attract and hold the interest and attention of.06. noun: a device supporting a weak or injured part of the body. verb: assign responsibility for a fault or wrong to. ər/verb: provide food and drink at a social event.Rule number 2: … consonant + vowel + consonant+ … Letter “a” .sound [e] amaze /ə blade blame blaze brace verb: surprise someone greatly.14. charm. typically by applying pressure to the wheels. captivate chicane /ʃ racing track. caper cater candidate election. verb cease to resist an opponent or an unwelcome demand. verb attract and hold the interest and attention of. brave/ / adjective: having or showing courage.
Exceptions campaign chocolate/tʃ klət/ collage/kəl 26 . /noun: a small bomb thrown by hand or launched mechanically. deflate/də educate/ d ə engrave/ə grenade/grə imitate / mə inflate / migrate /maI / verb: let air or gas out of / verb: give intellectual. related /rə replace / əd/verb: give an account of. vibrate Ibret/verb: move with small movements rapidly to and fro. /verb: feel a powerful desire for. brigade/brə / noun: a subdivision of an army. surname /sə /noun: a hereditary name common to all members of a family. tall machine used for moving heavy objects by suspending them from a projecting arm. /verb: move from one habitat to another according to the seasons. /noun: a widespread but short-lived enthusiasm for something. crane / /noun: a large. /verb: take the place of. crate/ crave / craze / / noun: a slatted wooden case used for transporting goods.06. /verb: cut or carve (a text or design) on a hard surface. geminate /d mənet/Phonetics adjective: consisting of identical adjacent speech sounds.11 chase /tʃ /noun: an act of chasing.14. and social instruction to. doubled. operate / ə /verb: function or control the functioning of: market forces were allowed to operate freely. /verb: follow as a model. as distinct from a forename. /verb: expand or cause to expand by filling with air or gas. moral. typically consisting of a small number of battalions and forming part of a division. concave / /adjective: having an outline or surface that curves inwards like the interior of a circle or sphere.
atmosphere/ planet. etc. intervene/ ntə əsfír/ noun the envelope of gases surrounding the earth or another / verb come between so as to prevent or alter something. entire. athlete/ θ / noun a person who is proficient in sports. / plural form of this. free from pretence or deceit. a topic. usually accompanied by shivering. 27 . and in severe instances. sincerest) proceeding from or characterized by genuine feelings. besiege /bə /verb surround (a place) with armed forces in order to capture it or force its surrender.14. intense.. stampede/ / noun a sudden panicked rush of a number of horses. etc. fever/ ər/ noun an abnormally high body temperature. /noun the subject of a talk. deplete /də depleted. / verb finally admit that something is true. delirium. complete /kə concede/kə /adjective having all the necessary or appropriate parts. scene / theme /θ these/ extreme/ concrete/kə /noun the place where an incident in real life or fiction occurs or occurred. cattle.06. / adjective existing in a material or physical form. headache. delete /də /verb remove or erase (text). / adjective very great. text. biosphere / ír/noun the regions of the surface and atmosphere of the earth occupied by living organisms. undesirable. exhibition. or difficult) very great.11 conglomerate /kəngl ə ə considerate/kəns dərət/ Latter “e” sound [i] compete /kə /verb strive to gain or win something by defeating or establishing superiority over others: universities are competing for applicants. /verb reduce the number or quantity of: fish stocks are severely prevent/priv nt/ verb keep from happening or arising. severe /səvír/adjective of something bad. sincere /s nsír/adjective (sincerer.
imperfection.14. / verb get or bring back. deregulate/dir gjəlet/ verb remove regulations or restrictions from. deplete/də defect/ decency / / verb reduce the number or quantity of: fish stocks are severely depl kt/ noun a shortcoming. decelerate /dəs lə relieve/rə retrieve/rə / verb alleviate or remove (pain. categorize əgəráIz/ verb place in a particular category. bride/bráId/ noun a woman on her wedding day or just before and after the event. 28 . /verb move more slowly. or difficulty). bribery/bráIbəri/ verb dishonestly persuade someone to act in one's favor by a payment or other inducement.06.11 desensitize/dís nsət / verb make less sensitive. or lack. Exceptions interpreter / ntərprətər/ television/t ləv entered / ntərd/ asleep /ə ən/ / Letter “i” Sound [ai] astride /əstráId/ preposition and adverb: with a leg on each side of. brine /bráIn/noun water containing dissolved salt. deselect /dəsíləkt/ verb reject (an existing MP) as a candidate in a forthcoming election. bagpipe aIp/ noun: a musical instrument with reed pipes that are sounded by the pressure of wind emitted from a bag squeezed by the player's arm. college/k d / noun an educational establishment providing higher education or specialized professional or vocational training. ənsi/noun decent behaviour. classify. distress.
aIn/ verb: unite or merge to form a whole: combine the flour with the compile /kəmpáIl/ verb produce (a collection) by assembling material from other sources. despite /d spáIt/ preposition: without being affected by. in spite of. typically making large nests of earth and feeding on wood. supply. confide /kənfáId/ verb: (often confide in) tell someone about a secret or private matter in confidence. license /láIsəns/ verb: grant a license to. confine /kənfáIn/ verb: keep or restrict someone or something within certain limits of space. especially a beach area or holiday resort. or time.14. termite /tərmaIt/ noun: a small. sublime /səbláIm/ adjective: of such excellence. textile/t kstáIl/ noun: a type of cloth or woven fabric. silence /sáIləns/ noun: complete absence of sound. typically having a dry scaly skin and laying soft-shelled eggs on land.11 beside /bəsáId/ preposition: at the side of. provide /prəváId/ verb: make available for use. pale soft-bodied social insect. turtles. combine /k margarine. concise /kənsáIs/adjective: giving information clearly and in few words. 29 . understand clearly. despise /d spáIz/ verb: feel contempt or repugnance for. crocodiles. seaside aId/ noun: a place by the sea. or beauty as to inspire great admiration or awe. connive/kənáIv/ verb: secretly allow (a wrongdoing). grandeur. and tortoises. next to.06. lizards. realize /riláIz/ verb: become fully aware of as a fact. reptile/r ptáIl/ noun: a cold-blooded vertebrate animal of a class (Reptilia) that includes snakes. survive/sərváIv/ verb: continue to live or exist. collide /kəláId/ verb: hit by accident when moving. respite /r spa t/ noun: a short period of rest or relief from something unpleasant. scope. outside ʊtsáId/ noun: the external side or surface of something.
words.06. be made up of. Exceptions brier/bráIər/ brightness/bráItnəs/ caregiver/k rg vər/ chalice/ʧ əs/ Letter “o” Sound [o] stone noun: hard. appetite ətaIt/ noun: a natural desire to satisfy a bodily need. long tail. crocodile /kr ə aIl/ noun: a large predatory semi aquatic reptile with long jaws. closed adjective: not open or allowing access. and a horny textured skin. written) mark letters. wrote verb: (past wrote. service. especially for food. entire. past part. excitement / ksáItmənt/ noun: a feeling of great enthusiasm and eagerness. ər/ noun: a person who sells food and small household goods. clover ər/ noun: a herbaceous leguminous plant with dense white or red globular flower heads and leaves which are typically three-lobed demote/d punishment devote/d grocer verb: give a lower rank or less senior position to. 30 . describe/dəskráIb/ verb: give a detailed account of (someone or something) in words. or similar implement. with a pen. solid non-metallic mineral matter of which rock is made. or event in order to promote sales or attendance. pencil.14. short legs. adjective: complete. comprise /kəmpráIz/ verb: consist of. those whole plural form of that.11 advertise ərtáIz/ verb: publicize a product. stove noun: an apparatus for cooking or heating that operates by burning fuel or using electricity. or other symbols on a surface. often as a verb: give time or resources to a person or activity.
bellicose /b lə cheekbone /tʃ adjective: aggressive. ənt/ noun: a very brief period of time. past of stride. overalls ər lz/ adjective: taking everything into account. strobe strode stroke throne/θ compose /kə console /k episode/ pə noun: a stroboscope. mice. rhodium / əm/ noun: the chemical element of atomic number 45. verb: write or create a musical or written work. noun: an act of hitting: he received three strokes of the cane. bishop. typically a strong or unwelcome one in someone. proceed/prə verb: begin a course of action. especially as a result of rapid combustion or excessive internal pressure. explode / verb: burst or shatter violently. adjective: far away in space or time. and porcupines. noun: an event or a sequence of events. noun: the bone below the eye. noun: a ceremonial chair for a sovereign. verb: give consolation to. telephone/t lə noun: a system for transmitting voices over a distance using wire or radio. envelope / nvə noun: a flat paper container with a sealable flap. squirrels.11 lonely moment remote /rə adjective: sad because one has no friends or company. provoke/prə verb: stimulate a reaction or emotion. or similar figure. by converting acoustic vibrations to electrical signals.06. a hard. on the promise of good behavior. dense silvery-white metal parole /pə /noun: the temporary or permanent release of a prisoner before the expiry of a sentence. 31 . rodent ənt/ noun: a mammal of an order that includes rats. distinguished by strong constantly growing incisors and no canine teeth.14. ready to fight. used to enclose a letter or document. innocent / nəsənt/ adjective: not guilty of a crime or offence.
the air. mitigate. / verb: put a plan. immune / adjective: resistant to a particular infection owing to the presence of specific antibodies or sensitized white blood cells. used to impart a pleasant smell to one's body or clothes.11 Exceptions beloved/bələvd/ below/bə chore/tʃ r/ choreograph/k riə collect/kəl kt/ Letter “u” . verb: indicate unwillingness to do something. commute /kə on a regular basis.14. degree. pollute /pə substances. verb: eat. Into effect. verb: contaminate water. order. or ingest. / noun: a book forming part of a work or series. drink. with harmful or poisonous 32 . etc. confuse /kə consume/kə dispute /d execute / ksə perfume /pə noun: a fragrant liquid typically made from essential oils. verb: argue about something.06. reduce /rə refuse /rə resume /rəzj volume /v verb: make or become smaller or less in amount. etc.sound [ju] accuse /ə verb: charge with an offence or crime. noun: a group of people living together and sharing possessions verb: travel some distance between one's home and place of work verb: make someone bewildered or perplexed. defuse /də verb: remove the fuse from an explosive device in order to prevent it from exploding. excuse / verb: try or serve to justify a fault or offence. verb: begin again or continue after a pause or interruption. or size. commune /k and responsibilities.
or natural disaster. performer. or gift intended to show gratitude. funeral ərəl/ noun: a ceremony held shortly after a person's death. refugee /r fjud i/ noun: a person who has been forced to leave their country in order to escape war. persecution. humanism ən zəm/ noun: a rationalistic outlook or system of thought attaching prime importance to human rather than divine or supernatural matters. or admiration. respect.14. usually including the person's burial or cremation. ərəst/ noun: a humorous writer. / verb: suppose that something is the case on the basis of tribute/tr bjut/ noun: an act. Exceptions conjure/k communism/k ə ə / 33 . typically as a result of infection or other disease. statement. computer /kə ər/noun: an electronic device which is capable of receiving information and performing a sequence of logical operations in accordance with a predetermined but variable set of procedural instructions (program) to produce a result in the form of information or signals. or artist sputum /sp əm/noun: a mixture of saliva and mucus coughed up from the respiratory tract. fusillade succession. humid əd/ adjective: marked by a relatively high level of water vapor in the atmosphere. noun: a settled way of thinking or feeling.06. humiliate /hjum humorist verb: injure the dignity and self-respect of. fusion ə noun: a series of shots fired at the same time or in rapid ən/ noun: the process or result of fusing.11 presume/prə probability. argument / attitude ətj ə noun: a heated exchange of conflicting views.
noun: a break or hole in an object or between two objects. verb: talk at length.Rule number 1: consonant + vowel + consonant Letter “a” Sound [æ] bat noun: an implement with a handle and a solid surface. and retractile claws cap cab dad noun: a soft. Dan abbreviation: Daniel (in biblical references). flat hat without a brim and usually with a peak. fan noun: an apparatus with rotating blades that creates a current of air for cooling or ventilation.06. noun: a flexible container with an opening at the top. fad gap gab noun: a craze. used in sports such as cricket or baseball for hitting the ball. past and past participle of have. third: person singular present of have. noun: informal one's father. gal noun: Physics a unit of gravitational acceleration equal to one centimeter per second per second. 34 . fat noun: a natural oily substance in animal bodies.11 Short vowels . irrespective of its quantity. cat noun: a small domesticated carnivorous mammal with soft fur. dab verb: press against something lightly several times with a piece of absorbent material. noun: a taxi. especially when deposited under the skin or around certain organs. A piece of luggage. gas noun: an air-like fluid substance which expands freely to fill any space available. ham has had noun: salted or smoked meat from the upper part of a pig's leg. a short snout.14. bad bag adjective: of poor quality or a low standard.
noun: (pl. verb: fall behind.11 hat jab /d jam /d lab lad lag lap man mad noun: a shaped covering for the head. nap/n pan Pam pad pal ran ram rag noun: a short sleep. circulating in the vascular system of a plant. name / noun: a thick piece of soft or absorbent material. or bulge downwards gradually under weight or pressure or through lack of strength.14. 35 . sag verb: sink. verb: fall behind. noun: an uncast rated male sheep. map noun: a diagrammatic representation of an area of land or sea showing physical features. past of run. follow after a delay. noun: a metal container for cooking food in. insane. noun: a friend. subside. typically considered a serious pest Sam sad name adjective: feeling sorrow. especially one torn from a larger piece. mat noun a thick piece of material placed on the floor and used as protection from dirt. verb: squeeze or pack tightly into a space. for wiping the feet on. follow after a delay. typically with a brim and a crown. rat / noun: a rodent resembling a large. or as a decorative rug. unhappy. roads. long-tailed mouse.06. noun: informal a laboratory. verb: poke roughly or quickly with something sharp or pointed. adjective: mentally ill. chiefly water with dissolved sugars and mineral salts. sap noun: the fluid. noun: a piece of old cloth. etc. sat past and past participle of sit. noun: informal a boy or young man. especially during the day. men) an adult human male. cities.
36 . Exceptions ball /b l/ barb /b barn /b card /k bar /b harm /h harp /h / / / / Letter “e” sound [ ] Ben/b n/name bed/b d/ noun: a piece of furniture incorporating a mattress or other surface for sleeping or resting on. for holding. yam noun: the edible starchy tuber of a climbing plant. identification. tan noun: a yellowish-brown color.11 tab noun: a small flap or strip of material attached to something.06. manipulation. An electronic device attached to someone or something for monitoring purposes. zap verb: destroy or obliterate. etc. A golden-brown shade of skin developed by pale-skinned people after exposure to the sun. somewhat. van hack noun: a covered motor vehicle used for transporting goods or people. widely distributed in tropical and subtropical countries. tap noun: a device by which a flow of liquid or gas from a pipe or container can be controlled.14. tad adverb: to a minor extent. verb: cut with rough or heavy blows. tag noun: a label providing identification or giving other information. beg/b g/ verb: ask someone earnestly or humbly for something.
securing something in place. 37 .11 bet/b t/ verb: risk a sum of money or other valued item against someone else's on the basis of the outcome of an unpredictable event such as a race or game. especially one of less than 10 gallons or (in the US) 30 gallons.14. lay. medicinal. gel/d l/ noun: a jelly-like substance containing a cosmetic. den/d n/ noun: a wild animal's lair or habitation.06. pen/p n/ noun: an instrument for writing or drawing with ink. fitted into a metal or plastic holder. gem/d m/ noun: a precious or semi-precious stone. especially when cut and polished or engraved. men/m n/ plural form of man. allow. suffer. let/l t/ verb: not prevent or forbid. jet/d t/ noun: a rapid stream of liquid or gas forced out of a small opening. typically consisting of a metal nib or ball. receive. met/m t/ past and past participle of meet. get/g t/ verb: come to have or hold. or be afflicted with something bad. set/s t/ verb: put. or other preparation. hen/h n/ noun: a female bird. led/l d/ past and past participle of lead leg/l g/ noun: each of the limbs on which a person or animal walks and stands. net/n t/ noun: a piece of open-meshed material used typically for catching fish. or marking a position. as of blood or rubies. peg/p g/ noun: a short projecting pin or bolt used for hanging things on. hem/h m/ noun: the edge of a piece of cloth or clothing which has been turned under and sewn. or stand (something) in a specified place or position. Ken/k n/name keg/k g/ noun: a small barrel. pet/p t/ noun: a domestic or tamed animal or bird kept for companionship or pleasure. Experience. fed/f d/ past and past participle of feed. red/r d/ adjective: of a color at the end of the spectrum next to orange and opposite violet. especially of a domestic fowl. or a nylon tip.
or extent. bid/b d/ verb: offer a certain price for something. wed/w d/ verb: formal or literary marry.06. 38 . bit /b t/ noun: a small piece. by now or then. dig /d g/ verb: break up and move earth with a tool or with hands. paws.11 ten/t n/ cardinal number: equivalent to the product of five and two. did /d d/ past of do. used for propelling. fit /f t/ adjective: of a suitable quality. power. yet/j t/ adverb: up until the present or a specified or implied time. gig /g g/ noun: chiefly historical a light two-wheeled carriage pulled by one horse. and balancing.14. dip /d p/ verb: put or let something down quickly or briefly in or into (liquid). especially at an auction. Exceptions few/ Jew /d / Letter “I” sound [ ] bin/b n/ noun: a receptacle in which to deposit rubbish. or extent of something. steering. big/b g/ adjective: of considerable size. wet/w t/ adjective: covered or saturated with liquid. fig/f g/ noun: a soft pear-shaped fruit with sweet dark flesh and many small seeds. quantity. or type. gin /d n/ noun: a clear alcoholic spirit distilled from grain or malt and flavored with juniper berries. standard. dim /d m/ adjective: of a light or illuminated object not shining brightly or clearly. one more than nine Ted/t d/ name vet/v t/ noun: chiefly Brit. fin /f n/ noun: a flattened appendage on the body of a fish or other aquatic animal. etc. a veterinary surgeon.
pig /p g/ noun: an omnivorous domesticated hoofed mammal with sparse bristly hair and a flat snout. typically something circular.14. hid/h d/ past of hide hit/h t/ verb: direct a blow at with one's hand or a tool or weapon. kept for its meat pit /p t/ noun: a large hole in the ground. sip /s p/ verb: drink something by taking small mouthfuls. lid/l d/ noun : a removable or hinged cover for the top of a container. rig/r g/ verb: provide (a boat) with sails and rigging. rid/r d/ verb: make someone or something free of an unwanted person or thing.11 him /h m/ pronoun: used as the object of a verb or preposition to refer to a male person or animal previously mentioned. used for fastening pieces of cloth.06. nip/n p/ verb: pinch. or bite sharply. squeeze. sin/s n/ noun: an immoral act considered to be a transgression against divine law. sit /s t/ verb: be or cause to be in a position in which one's weight is supported by one's buttocks rather than one's feet and one's back is upright. rip/r p/ verb: tear or pull forcibly away from something or someone. kit /k t/ noun: a set of articles or equipment for a specific purpose: a first-aid kit. kin/k n/ noun: one's family and relations. lit/l t/ past and past participle of light. Kim/k m/ name kid/k d/ noun: a young child. lip /l p/ noun: either of the two fleshy parts forming the edges of the mouth opening. hip /h p/ noun :a projection of the pelvis and upper thigh bone on each side of the body. jib/d b/ noun:Sailing a triangular staysail set forward of the mast Jim /d m/ name jig /d g/ noun: a lively dance with leaping movements. 39 . paper. etc. pin /p n/ noun: a thin piece of metal with a sharp point at one end and a round head at the other. rim /r m/ noun: the upper or outer edge of something.
a small bed with high barred sides for a baby or very young child. which transfers motion by engaging with projections on another wheel or bar. chiefly N. fog /f / noun a thick cloud of tiny water droplets suspended in the atmosphere at or near the earth's surface which obscures or restricts visibility. God/g noun (in Christianity and other monotheistic religions) the creator and ruler of the universe. important as a food cog/k g/ noun a wheel or bar with a series of projections on its edge. tip /t p/ noun: the pointed or rounded extremity of something slender or tapering. noun a police officer. Amer. cod/k fish noun a large marine fish with a small barbel on the chin. zit/z t/noun: informal.14. and non-retractile claws. dot/d noun a small round mark or spot. conned) deceive (someone) into doing or believing something by lying to them. a spot on the skin. especially a castrated male reared for slaughter. g/ noun a spell of jogging. with a barking or howling voice. wit /w t/ noun: the capacity for inventive thought and quick understanding. an acute sense of smell. the supreme being. zip/z p/ noun: a fastener consisting of two flexible strips of metal or plastic with interlocking projections closed or opened by pulling a slide along them. cot/k cop/k Don/d dog/d g/ noun a domesticated carnivorous mammal probably descended from the wolf. conning. noun Brit. Letters “o” sound [ ] [ ] bop/b noun chiefly Brit. got /g hog/h hot/h jog/d past and past participle of get. 40 . the chemical element of atomic number 50. win/w n/ verb: be successful or victorious in a contest or conflict.11 tin /t n/ noun: a silvery-white metal. con /k verb (cons. a dance to pop music. noun a pig. adjective having a high temperature. keen intelligence.06.
jotted) write quickly. pod/p noun an elongated seed vessel of a leguminous plant such as the pea. verb decompose by the action of bacteria and fungi. or as a signal. bug/bʌg/ noun informal a harmful microorganism. name noun a very young child. noun the highest or uppermost point. assent. lot /l lop/l mob/m mom/m pronoun (a lot or lots) informal a large number or amount. especially of wood or metal. or surface. noun a disorderly or violent crowd noun North American term for mum mop/m noun an implement consisting of a bundle of thick loose strings or a sponge attached to a handle. log /l g/ noun a part of the trunk or a large branch of a tree that has fallen or been cut off. not/n adverb used chiefly with an auxiliary verb or ‘be’ to form the negative. noun a thin straight bar. sodding.06. lopped) cut off (a branch or limb) from a tree or body. flower. a great deal. informal a person's buttocks or anus. bud/bʌd/ noun a compact knob-like growth on a plant which develops into a leaf. sodded) rare cover with turf or pieces of turf.11 jot/d lob/l t/ verb (jots. lobbing. or understanding. 41 . or shoot. bus/bʌs/ noun a large motor vehicle carrying paying passengers on a fixed route. verb (sods. bum/bʌm/ noun Brit. decay. Letter “u” sounds [ʌ] bun/bʌn/ noun a small cake or bread roll.14. nod/n verb lower and raise one's head slightly and briefly. lobbed) throw or hit (a ball or missile) in a high arc. verb (lops. jotting. splitting open on both sides when ripe. part. used for wiping floors. especially in greeting. pot/p rod/r rot/r sod/s Tom/t tot/t top/t noun a rounded or cylindrical container used for storage or cooking. lopping. verb (lobs.
fun /fʌn/ noun light-hearted pleasure or amusement. humming. pun/pʌn/ noun a joke exploiting the different meanings of a word or the fact that there are words of the same sound and different meanings. incision. and obedience. lug/lʌg/ noun a box for transporting fruit. simple. nut/nʌt/ noun a fruit consisting of a hard or tough shell around an edible kernel.06. nun/nʌn/ noun a member of a female religious community. cud/kʌd/ noun partly digested food returned from the first stomach of ruminants to the mouth for further chewing. pug/pʌg/ noun a dog of a dwarf breed like a bulldog with a broad flat nose and deeply wrinkled face. cut) make an opening. a cylindrical container with a handle and a lip. single-storey house or shelter. dug/dʌg/ past and past participle of dig. chastity. 42 . typically with a handle. gum/gʌm/ noun a viscous secretion of some trees and shrubs that hardens on drying but is soluble in water Gus/gʌs/. for holding and pouring liquids. gun/gʌn/ noun a weapon incorporating a metal tube from which bullets or shells are propelled by explosive force.11 but/bʌt/ conjunction used to introduce a phrase or clause contrasting with what has come before or with what is expected. jut/d ʌt/ noun a point that sticks out. gut/gʌt/ noun he stomach or belly hum/hʌm/ verb (hums. hut/hʌt/ noun a small. steady continuous sound like that of a bee. mug /mʌg/ noun a large cylindrical cup with a handle. cut/kʌt/ verb (cutting. typically one living under vows of poverty. hummed) make a low. cup/kʌp/ noun a small bowl-shaped container for drinking from.14. jug/d ʌg/ noun Brit. hug/hʌg/ verb embrace (someone) tightly. or wound in (something) with a sharp tool or object. past and past part.
never having both or all feet on the ground at the same time. using a repeated back and forth motion. rum/rʌm/ noun an alcoholic spirit distilled from sugar-cane residues or molasses. rug/rʌg/ noun a small carpet. ʃ/ verb shine in a bright but brief. sudden. tug/tʌg/ verb pull hard or suddenly. rub/rʌb/ verb (rubs.. . run/rʌn/ verb move at a speed faster than a walk.. Any similar star. worn as a disguise. or for theatrical effect mash / slack / ʃ/verb reduce (a food or other substance) to a pulpy mass by crushing it. rut/rʌt/ noun a long deep track made by the repeated passage of the wheels of vehicles. with or without planets.06. Letter “a” sound [æ] splat / Splash / flash / flask / quack / / noun:a piece of thin wood in the centre of a chair back.. mask / /noun a covering for all or part of the face. sun/sʌn/ noun the star round which the earth orbits. or intermittent way. /noun a narrow-necked conical or spherical glass container.Rule number 2: .. sub/sʌb/ noun a submarine. /adjective not taut or held tightly in position. /noun the characteristic harsh sound made by a duck.consonant + vowel + consonant. loose 43 .14.11 pup/pʌp/ noun a young dog. rubbed) apply firm pressure to the surface of. for protection or hygiene. rubbing. sum/sʌm/ noun a particular amount of money. ʃ/ verb: make liquid strike or fall on something in drops.
11 stack / smack / hand. smash/ ʃ/ verb: break or cause to break violently into pieces. straw. adjective not damaged or impaired. etc. abstract/ / adjective heretical rather than physical or concrete magnet ət/ noun a piece of iron or other material which has the property of attracting iron-containing objects or aligning itself in an external magnetic field. 44 . verb trick someone into committing a crime in order to secure their ənt/adjective not present.14. ən/ noun a fast-flying bird of prey with long pointed wings ən/verb come about by chance. /noun a sharp blow or slap. constant /k damsel falcon happen ransom captive combat /k fantastic entrap/ prosecution. absent advent intact/ compact /k ə adjective occurring continuously. / noun a rectangular or cylindrical pile of hay. adjective closely set or packed together.06. əl/noun archaic or humorous a young unmarried woman. distant /d stənt/ adjective: far away in space or time. typically one given with the palm of the flax/ / noun a blue-flowered herbaceous plant that is cultivated for its seed and for textile fibre made from its stalks. dense. nt/ noun the outermost layer of the wall of a blood vessel. əm/ noun a sum of money demanded or paid for the release of a noun fighting between armed forces k/adjective imaginative or fanciful. remote from reality.
especially a drug or vaccine) into the body with a syringe. very impressive. elephant / ləfənt/noun a very large plant-eating mammal with a prehensile trunk.11 scraping remark /rəm Exceptions barb /b barn /b card /k ŋ verb drag or pull a hard or sharp implement across verb say as a comment. do. selfish/s lf ʃ/ adjective concerned chiefly with one's own profit or pleasure at the expense of consideration for others. system /s stəm/noun a complex whole. especially one set in a ring. / Letter “e” sound [ ] convent/k ə noun a Christian community of nuns living under monastic vows. and large ears eleven /əl vən/equivalent to the sum of six and five. or desirable extend / kst nd/verb make larger or longer in space or time. thorax. excess/ ks s/ noun an amount that is more than necessary.06. empty/ mpti/ adjective containing nothing. not filled or occupied. six legs. 45 . a set of things working together as a mechanism or interconnecting network. mention. Inject / nd kt/verb introduce (a liquid. permitted.14. address s/ noun the particulars of the place where a person lives or an organization is situated. and one or two pairs of wings. signet /s gn t/noun a small seal. insect/ ns kt/ noun an arthropod animal of a large class having a head. expected / ksp ktəd/verb regard as likely to happen. and abdomen. or be the case. long curved ivory tusks. one more than ten. contest/k noun an event in which people compete for supremacy. impel / mp l/verb force or urge to do something. two antennae. splendid/spl ndəd/ adjective magnificent. used instead of or with a signature to give authentication to an official document.
chick /tʃ k/ noun a young bird. deck /d k/ noun a floor of a ship. dent /dεnt/ noun a slight hollow in a hard even surface made by a blow or pressure. especially the upper. especially one newly hatche lizard/l zərd/ noun a reptile that typically has a long body and tail.11 enter/ ntər/ verb come or go into (a place). or spiny skin pink /p ŋk/ adjective of a colour intermediate between red and white. smelt /smεlt/ verb extract (metal) from its ore by a process involving heating and melting. or other decimal currency unit.06. kept for its meat fish/f ʃ/ noun a limbless cold-blooded vertebrate animal with gills and fins.14. dress /dr s/verb put on one's clothes helmet/h lmət/ noun a hard or padded protective hat. euro. as of coral or salmon. and a rough. 46 . mend /mεnd/verb restore to a sound condition. open level. Letter “I” sound [ ] pig /p g/ noun an omnivorous domesticated hoofed mammal with sparse bristly hair and a flat snout. rent /rεnt/ noun a tenant's regular payment to a landlord for the use of property or land. perverse/pərvərs/ adjective showing a deliberate and obstinate desire to behave unacceptably. four legs. movable eyelids. nest /nεst/ noun a structure or place made or chosen by a bird for laying eggs and sheltering its young. melt /mεlt/ verb make or become liquefied by heating. perk/pərk/ noun informal a benefit to which one is entitled as an employee or shareholder of a company. cent /s nt/ noun a monetary unit equal to one hundredth of a dollar. living wholly in water. scaly.
ring /r ŋ/ noun a small circular band. paper. thick/θ k/ adjective with opposite sides or surfaces relatively far apart. or other creature to fly. especially one who inherits the position by right of birth. king/k ŋ/ noun the male ruler of an independent state. trick /tr k/ noun a cunning or skilful act or scheme intended to deceive or outwit someone. thing /θ ŋ/ noun an object that one need not. especially words with a set tune. worn on a finger as an ornament or as a token of marriage. past and past part. swung) move or cause to move back and forth or from side to side while or as if suspended. cannot. engagement. used for fastening pieces of cloth. typically of precious metal. 47 . thin/θ n/ adjective (thinner. sung) make musical sounds with the voice. slit /sl t/ noun a long. kick /k k/ verb strike or propel forcibly with the foot.06. wing /w ŋ/ noun a modified forelimb or other appendage enabling a bird. etc. bat. thinnest) having opposite surfaces or sides relatively close together. swinging. pin /p n/ noun a thin piece of metal with a sharp point at one end and a round head at the other. the chemical element of atomic number 50. stick /st k/ noun a thin piece of wood that has fallen or been cut off a tree. or does not wish to give a specific name to. sing/s ŋ/ verb (past sang. insect. or authority.14. narrow cut or opening. pick /p k/ verb take hold of and remove (a flower or fruit) from where it is growing. past part. swing /sw ŋ/ verb (swings.11 sick/s k/ adjective affected by physical or mental illness. tin/t n/ noun a silvery-white metal.
list /l st/ noun a number of connected items or names written consecutively.11 crib/kr b/ noun chiefly N. mitt /m t/ noun a mitten. fill /f l / verb make or become full. swim/sw m/ verb (swims. swimming. or container fastened. past would) expressing the future tense.14. dock/d k/ noun an enclosed area of water in a port for the loading. soft lustrous fibre produced by silkworms in making cocoons.] used as the object of a verb or preposition to refer to a male person or animal previously mentioned. fist /f st/ noun a person's hand when the fingers are bent in towards the palm and held there tightly. unloading. past part.06. 48 . Amer. silk /s lk/ noun a fine. him/h m/ pronoun [third person sing. strong. pill /p l/ noun a small round mass of solid medicine for swallowing whole. a child's bed with barred or latticed sides. rock/r k/ noun the hard mineral material of the earth's crust. will /w l/ modal verb (3rd sing. hill /h l/ noun a naturally raised area of land. exposed on the surface or underlying the soil. not as high or craggy as a mountain. lid. Letters “o” sound [ ] [ ] lock/l k/ noun a mechanism for keeping a door. and repair of ships. swum) propel oneself through water by bodily movement. present will. past swam. stock/st k/ noun a supply of goods or materials available for sale or use. a cot. secreted by female mammals for the nourishment of their young. kill /k l/ verb cause the death of milk /m lk/ noun a white fluid rich in fat and protein. typically operated by a key.
stopping. typically with spasm of bronchial muscle and coughing. nominated by and having the power to elect the Pope cargo/k rg / noun (pl. dropping. stiff paper or thin cardboard. 49 . bombardment/bamb rdmənt/ verb attack continuously with bombs or other missiles bondage/b nd d / noun the state of being a slave or feudal serf. stopped) come or cause to come to an end chop /tʃ p/ verb (chops. dropped) fall or cause to fall vertically. chopping. carload/k rl d/ noun a powered road vehicle designed to carry a small number of people. card/k rd/ noun thick. bombardier/b mbərd r/ noun a rank of non-commissioned officer in certain artillery regiments. or truck. aircraft. cargoes or cargos) goods carried commercially on a ship. cardinal/k rdənəl/ noun a leading dignitary of the Roman Catholic Church. barn/b rn/ noun a large farm building used for storage or for housing livestock. barter/b rtər/ verb (often barter for) exchange (goods or services) for other goods or services. used for carrying loads.11 stop/st p/ verb (stops. chopped) cut with repeated sharp. bronchitis/br ŋk jtəs/ noun inflammation of the mucous membrane in the bronchial tubes. pond/p nd/ noun a fairly small body of still water. cultivated chiefly for use in brewing and stockfeed. bottleneck/b təln k/ noun a narrow section of road where traffic flow is restricted.14. heavy blows of an axe or knife. barley/b rli/ noun a hardy cereal with coarse bristles extending from the ears. cardboard/k rdb rd/ noun pasteboard or stiff paper. drop /dr p/ verb (drops. equivalent to corporal.06. cart/k rt/ noun a horse-drawn open vehicle with two or four wheels.
prompt/pr mpt/ verb cause or bring about. used for carrying goods. fold. cardiac/k rdi k/ adjective relating to the heart. or turn under or between two surfaces or into a confined space: he tucked his shirt into his trousers. bonk/b ŋk/ verb hit so as to cause a reverberating sound. and webbed feet. used for carrying loads. same or ducks) a waterbird with a broad. especially one without a definite or regular shape. club/kləb/ noun an association dedicated to a particular interest or activity. font/f nt/ noun a receptacle in a church for the water used in baptism.11 carter/k rtər/ noun a horse-drawn open vehicle with two or four wheels. materials. slug/sləg/ noun a tough-skinned terrestrial mollusc which lacks a shell and secretes a film of mucus for protection. lump/ləmp/ noun a compact mass. bunnies) informal a child's term for a rabbit. bunny/bəni/ noun (pl. Letter “u” sounds [ʌ] duck/dək/ noun (pl.14. truck /trək/ noun a large road vehicle. stomp/st mp/ verb tread heavily and noisily.06. typically in order to show anger. knock/n k/ verb strike a surface noisily to attract attention. or troops. fond/f nd/ adjective (fond of) having an affection or liking for. 50 . short legs. bond/b nd/ noun a thing used to tie or fasten things together. some kinds of which are domesticated. luck/lək/ noun success or failure apparently brought by chance. tuck /tək/ verb push. blunt bill.
past part. stuck/stək/ noun a thin piece of wood that has fallen or been cut off a tree. sunk /səŋk/ verb (past sank. chiefly N. jump/d əmp/ verb push oneself into the air using the muscles in one's legs and feet. skunk /skəŋk/ noun a black-and-white striped American mammal of the weasel family.11 pump/pəmp/ noun a mechanical device using suction or pressure to raise or move liquids. or force air into inflatable objects. jump /d əmp/ verb push oneself into the air using the muscles in one's legs and feet. compress gases. especially with the fist or a blunt implement. bunch/bəntʃ/ noun a number of things growing or fastened together. sunk) go down below the surface of liquid. junk/d əŋk/ noun informal useless or worthless articles. dusk/dəsk/ noun the darker stage of twilight. low sound pluck /plək/ verb take hold of (something) and quickly remove it from its place. able to spray foul-smelling irritant liquid from its anal glands at attackers. 51 . thump/θəmp/ verb hit heavily. bunk/bəŋk/ noun a narrow shelf-like bed. dump/dəmp/ noun a site for depositing rubbish or waste. hump /həmp/ noun a rounded raised mass of earth or land.06. cluck /klək/ verb (of a hen) make a short. puff/pəf/ noun a short burst of breath or wind. Amer.14. fail to reach the required standard in (an examination). trunk/trəŋk/ noun the main woody stem of a tree as distinct from its branches and roots. dust/dəst/ noun fine. become submerged. dry powder consisting of tiny particles of earth or waste matter. flunk/fləŋk/ verb informal.
superb /sʊpərb/ adjective excellent. submitting. 52 . buckwheat/bəkw t/ noun an Asian plant of the dock family. submit /səbm t/ verb (submits. musk/məsk/ noun a strong-smelling reddish-brown substance secreted by the male musk deer. producing starchy seeds used for fodder or milled into flour. used as an ingredient in perfumery.06.11 munch/məntʃ/ verb eat steadily and audibly.14. submitted) accept or yield to a superior force or stronger person.
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