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Ask our editor questions in the Q & A section... where he is better known as “Mr. Steve will highlight some of his personal favorites.reefhobbyistmagazine. In this article. Reﬁll . Join Us! We’re constantly looking for the best writers and photographers to contribute to our free magazine. Ugly”. Norm introduces us to the deadly side of the beautiful creatures he loves. Here Robin shares his extensive knowledge of clowns with his fellow hobbyists... Norman Tom is a respected enthusiast in the zoanthid hobby. RHM WANTS YOU! Can’t ﬁnd free copies of Reef Hobbyist Magazine at your LFS? E-mail us at distribution@rhmag. Participate in our photo contests for cool reef prizes. Communicate with other reefers and manufacturers on our forums.. Local Fish Stores! Did you run out of RHM? Email us and we’ll make sure you’re stocked up as soon as possible.com On The Cover Come visit us online at www. . 5 AWESOME STONY CORALS Steve Tyree’s Interested in Advertising.com with your LFS’s name and phone number and we’ll make sure they have copies available for you in the future. We believe that free quality information is the key to helping our hobby advance. Watch and submit videos in our video library.com And see what we have to offer you! • • • • • Read Reef Hobbyist Magazine online. please contact our editor Jim Adelberg via email: jim@rhmag. In this series of in-depth articles. professional clownﬁsh breeder in Northern California. This series of articles will examine the fundamentals of successful reefkeeping. 4 Jim Adelberg Tamara Sue Dave Tran Art Director Zen and the Art Advertising of.com.com for information on the most cost-effective advertising package in the industry! Steve Tyree grows some of the rarest and most desirable corals in our hobby and has been an avid collector of rare corals for years.com Tell us what you think at comments@rhmag. Spring 2007 | Volume 1 RHM Staff Executive Editor 12 Clownin’ Around: a Basic Guide to Clownﬁsh Care Part 1. Robin Bittner is a well known. Images Greg Rothschild gregrothschild.. If you’d like to join us in our mission. Jim Adelberg is an advanced hobbyist and industry professional from the San Francisco bay area.Features 10 Deadly Beauty: Zoanthids.with Reef Hobbyist Magazine? Email advertising@rhmag.
O is often what limits our animals’ growth in captivity. These issues are all relatively easy to understand and learning just a bit about them will help you keep your tank in top condition. There are currently only a few high intensity lighting options available in the hobby and all the highest output bulbs are either metal halide or high-pressure sodium bulbs. wider tanks) will naturally have a higher dissolved oxygen level. the waste products can build up pretty quick! Without adequate water quality. more feeding means more water changing. like in the ocean. Achieving the right balance between feeding and water changes is critical. Lumens and PAR (photosyntheticly active radiation) and PAR is the more important value since that’s the one the zooxanthellae respond to. much like planting a terrestrial garden. The patience required during the initial cycling of a new tank. After all. there are lives depending on it! Regular. Heavy protein skimming and light feeding will allow your water quality to stay higher for a longer time between water changes. Anywhere between 25% weekly and 25% monthly seems to be the norm.. Without adequate and appropriate feeding marine animals don’t do well. (dissolved oxygen) levels at or above saturation. without the massive dilution effect of the ocean at work. consume food and oxygen and produce waste products and CO2. The easiest way to keep your tank’s D.reefhobbyistmagazine. Although it is very difﬁcult to keep the D. water is brought to the surface to be re-oxygenated. tank to tank. This allows the zooxanthellae living inside the animal to photosynthesize and produce simple sugars. time is required to achieve the grown-in look that is so satisfying. Good skimmers and ﬁlters can extend the periods between water changes. water changes also help in this regard. A strong and well-maintained protein skimmer will also be useful here because protein skimmers remove the dissolved organics from the water which otherwise would reduce the waters oxygen carrying ability. which are designed to speciﬁcally feed certain ﬁsh. Foods. The ﬁrst and most important concept is one of balance. low D. In the next edition of this series.. which the animal can consume.com today! 4 . Maintaining high water quality should be every hobbyist’s primary concern. photo by Jim Adelberg Zen and the Art of. but is critical to the long-term success of your system. we’ll dissect and analyze the decision-making process that goes into a new tank set-up.. Another balance that must be achieved is related to stocking levels and overall bioload in the tank. marine animals don’t do well. and feeding issues. we’ll go into more detail regarding the speciﬁcs of each of these issues but for now there’s one other major challenge we all face and it bear mentioning here. There is a large selection of commercially available foods. The second reason is that. Marine tank hobbyists are well served by a healthy dose of patience. but at least some feeding is required for most of the animals we keep. The biggest difference is clearly water volume and the consistent.hether you’re a brand new marine hobbyist or a salty old reefer we all must confront the same basic issues in order to keep our tanks healthy. The problem with feeding is that. at an acceptably high level is through the use of various water pumps and powerheads designed to move the water By Jim Adelberg in the tank so that low D. partial water changes are the backbone of any successful tank but exactly how much and how often will vary greatly. Another way of “feeding” photosynthetic animals is by exposing them to the right intensity of the right spectrum of light.O. high water quality the oceans provide for most of the animals living there. but in the end. corals etc. Naturally. I try to start by looking at the differences between a tank and the ocean from the animals’ perspective. In future installments of this series. Light levels are measured in 2 ways for aquaria. are next on the priority list and luckily. Keeping any animal that comes from a really large body of water in a much smaller body of water is a delicate matter of balancing a number of different concerns and priorities. Want to win cool reef stuff? Visit us online at www.O. Almost all reef tank creatures.O. due to the process of “cycling” which every tank must go through. This is a good time to mention that most of the gas exchange in home reef tanks occurs at the surface area of the display tank and tanks with a higher surface area to volume ratio (squatter. from the smallest bacteria on up. Unfortunately that simply cannot happen for a few reasons. and the slow stocking of livestock can at times be frustrating. Once someone has spent a bunch of time and/or money assembling a tank. there is a very natural expectation that it should look good right away. the hobby has come a long way in this ﬁeld. It is the dissolved oxygen in your tank water that allows your animals to breathe and use nutrients to grow. First.. Some of these waste products and gases can be consumed and bound up in the growth of plants and anaerobic bacteria (in the case of a deep sand bed) but much of it just builds up in the tank’s water and must be diluted through water changes.
reefhobbyistmagazine. While witnessing stony coral growth in our captive systems some 13 to 15 years ago. That was the ﬁrst real attraction or ﬁrst real ‘buzz’ that Reef Building Stony Corals created within the captive reef market. but quite a few of those ﬁrst Acropora specimens actually grew at decent growth rates. Proper calcium additions and proper carbonate buffer maintenance not only maintained their health. On natural reefs these corals typically do not extend their polyps during the day. we were amazed to realize that actual reef structure was being created within captivity. This was an adaptation within captivity caused by the lack of natural coral polyp predators within our reef systems. Although these stony corals were more difﬁcult than soft corals and ﬁsh. Many of the Reef Building Stony Corals began to extend their polyps during the day. Some of us ‘oddball’ hobbyists still found the corals interesting and while we were improving our understanding of the corals’ captive 5 requirements. These corals were still considered to be the drab colored ‘ugly ducklings’ of the captive reef world. That was the original challenge that many of the pioneering stony coral aquarists had to overcome about 15 years ago. The original metal halides had emitted a color or spectrum of light that roughly approximated light at the surface of natural reef waters. Those of us who quickly switched to the higher wattage and better spectrum lights. there were some basic reef keeping techniques that allowed us to successfully maintain Reef Building Stony Corals. Compared to the bright green Sinularia. Reef Building Stony Corals were primarily colored drab brown with only the possibility of developing some green pigments. ‘They have no color’ and ‘They do not move’. but we were still unfortunately considered to be the odd or weird hobbyists who were strangely attracted to those boring Reef Building Stony Corals. Then about 10 to 12 years ago. Many of these corals were arriving here in the United States with brilliant pigmentation. some new spectrum lights with higher wattages were introduced to the captive reef market. began Looking for a reef club in your area? Search online at www. The main problem back then was in maintaining the corals’ natural pigmentation. but these original pigments were quickly fading in captivity. the blue and red Mushroom corals. The mainstream reef community acknowledged our success. a strange transformation began to occur with these ‘boring oddballs’ of the captive reef world. Some of the common complaints I heard 12 years ago were. After we had actually acquired our ﬁrst captive Acropora specimens. So now these ‘nonmoving’ boring Reef Building Stony Corals began to show movement as many species extended their soft polyps during the daylight photoperiod.<< Part 1 Series Introduction and the Awesome Watermelon Corals Awesome Stony Coral Series By Steve Tyree It may seem shocking to new captive reef aquarists. There was however still one more challenge to overcome before the mainstream reef community completely accepted Reef Building Stony Corals. the ‘impossible to keep label’ was quickly discovered to be a misnomer. the colorful polyp soft corals and even the bright green hammer corals.com today! photo by Greg Rothschild . but there was a time in the recent past when Reef Building Stony Corals were actually considered to be ‘impossible to keep’. These new lights were emitting colors or spectrums of light that better matched the type of light that corals were experiencing at depths between 15 and 50 feet.
With this new lighting. This term is based on the relatively small sized polyps that those corals possess. This has led to the creation of new markets for rare and exotic species or morphs. Montipora and Pocillopora corals. Many of the pigments developed within the SPS corals can also develop on the LPS corals. Learning the varied requirements of speciﬁc species has been challenging. Many of the LPS corals also appear to be easier to maintain in captivity. The mainstream hobby has coined the term ‘LPS’ to describe the Echinophyllia. There are some differences however between these two polyp-size based groups of stony corals.reefhobbyistmagazine. Besides the SPS corals there are also Reef Building Stony Corals that possess larger sized polyps. Acanthastrea and Favia corals.to see some incredible pigmentation develop within our Reef Building Stony Corals. Some awesome stony corals that contain incredible pigment patterns and brilliant pigment intensities have been discovered. In our captive systems it has become very apparent that techniques developed to grow and maintain the SPS corals are also applicable to the LPS corals. The term LPS stands for Large Polyped Stony and its use is based on the relatively larger sized polyps these corals possess. The ‘impossible to keep’ ‘ugly duckling’ corals were now some of the most colorful and interesting corals growing in captive reefs. They can also readily be fed larger food particles within our captive reef systems. Additionally. Experienced Reef Building Stony Coral aquarists are also constantly searching for unique species or morphs that are new to captivity. while less demanding species generally require low lighting and weak currents. freshly imported corals were maintaining their original pigmentation for far longer. experienced aquarists are experimenting with species and morphs that are more difﬁcult to keep. Some of these more demanding SPS species require intense lighting and intense currents. Some of these Reef Building Stony Corals are now called ‘SPS’ by the mainstream reef hobby. The ﬁnal and last challenge had been successfully overcome.com and ﬁnd out how! 6 . I will be using the term Reef Building Stony Corals to describe both the SPS and the LPS corals that are primary reef constructors on natural tropical reefs. The term SPS stands for Small Polyped Stony and it is typically used to describe the Acropora. Large polyp stonies generally require lower light intensities. some of our older captive corals were developing more dramatic colorations. Sometimes an awesome pigmentation is apparent when a new coral colony >> Submit your original photographs for a chance to win Blue Life prizes! 250 or 400 watt Metal Halide Bulb log on to see the 2nd and 3rd place prizes! Would you like to contribute to Reef Hobbyist Magazine? Visit us at www. Now that we have become successful with many of the easier to keep SPS and LPS species.
The original Watermelon coral is located on the right side of this image.com and show off your photo skills! . Three Alien Eye Corals (image 1-B) Image taken by Steve Tyree from Hugo Zuniga’s reef. When the polyp mouths of these corals are open. >> Original Watermelon Coral (image 1-A) Image taken by Steve Tyree. Ron traded some of his ﬁrst Watermelon coral fragments to Hugo Zuniga (snipersps) who added the phrase ‘Alien Eye’ to the corals’ name. Note the thick ﬂuorescing green growing edge pigmentation. The ﬁrst true ‘Watermelon’ coral was acquired and maintained by Ron Johncola. Collector markets exist where stony aquarists either purchase known awesome corals or they conduct searches for ‘hidden gem’ corals that are originally drab colored when imported or acquired.reefhobbyistmagazine. 7 Enter the Blue Life sponsored photo contest at www. The typical ‘Alien Eye’ look can be seen in the left green corallite which has its polyp mouth slightly opened. The coral is called the ‘Watermelon’ coral (see image 1-A) and its brilliant ﬂuorescing pigmentation patterns can quite literally make it the centerpiece of a captive reef display. The main body is primarily colored bright pink.>> Awesome Stony Coral Series is imported. On the left is the original Tubs Alien Eye coral. A true hidden gem coral will develop or intensify hidden pigments and can turn a “diamond in the rough” into an awesome living gem. Ron called the coral ‘Watermelon’ because it contained a brilliant ﬂuorescing green colored edge. Hugo added the term ‘Alien Eye’ The Awesome because this coral possessed the same brilliant green coral polyp pigments that are also contained within the original ‘Alien Eye’ Echinophyllia coral found by John Susbilla (Tubs). That coral can be seen on the left side of the ‘Three Alien Eye’ coral image (see image 1-B). New coral species and morphs containing different color patterns similar to the original Watermelon pigmentation have recently been acquired or found by captive aquarists. A closeup of the original Watermelon coral is located on the far right side of that image. This was Hugo Zuniga’s colony that was grown from a Ron Johncola original fragment. they can develop a strange ‘Alien Eye’ appearance. > > continued pg 9 Watermelon Corals The ﬁrst Reef Building Stony Coral featured within this Awesome Stony Corals Series is one of the most incredibly pigmented LPS corals ever seen within captivity. The coral has also been called the ‘Watermelon Alien Eye’ coral. The newer Red Watermelon coral is located in the center. The ‘Tubs Alien Eye’ coral also contains a bright green colored edge or growth rim. It has a bright green edge and bright green corallite centers. but at other times speciﬁc corals have developed incredible pigmentation only after being maintained within captive reefs for a period of time. while its inner surface areas were colored bright ﬂuorescing pink.
its amazingly brilliant pigmentation was already apparent. Although the newer spectrum and higher wattage metal halide lamps have helped to maintain these original pigments. Aquarists should note that not all pinkish or green edged Echinophyllia-like corals have the ability to develop intense pink or red base pigments. It is called the ‘Bazooka Joe Watermelon’ coral and its main base coloration is a mixture of pink and blue (see image 1-D). which has a bright red base pigmentation instead of the brilliant pink. In other cases the corals can have the green corallite centers or eyes and will develop the pink base pigments and bright green ﬂuorescing growth edge after being maintained within captivity. Corallites also have well developed ridges or round mounds that surround each polyp. This new pink and blue Watermelon coral has very prominent large ridges or protrusions around the corallite centers.Jayda’s Yellow Eyed Watermelon Coral (image 1-C) Image taken by Steve Tyree. This Watermelon coral has a pink and blue base pigmentation.. Bazooka Joe Watermelon Coral (image 1-D) Image taken by John Dakan.S.com! . They only possessed a faint hint of pink pigmentation. Greg Carroll named this coral after his daughter Jayda. This rare Yellow Eyed Watermelon coral also contains the normal bright green leading growth edge along with some brilliant pink main body pigmentation. There are however less expensive ways to acquire awesome corals. Share your reef vidoes and browse our video collection at www. These large protruding corallite ridges along with an unusually high density of corallite eyes.reefhobbyistmagazine. In some cases hidden Watermelon gems may lack the green edge or green eyes. When the original Watermelon coral was imported into the U. >> Awesome Watermelon Corals Hugo Zuniga discovered the ‘Red Watermelon Alien Eye’ coral. Both the Red Watermelon and the Jayda’s Watermelon corals discussed within this article were originally brownish colored when imported. but still possess some base pink pigmentation. Both of these corals turned out to be hidden gems that were developed into living jewels within captive systems. Another Watermelon morph has been discovered and developed by Greg Carroll. help to give the Bazooka Joe Watermelon a very unique appearance. It is called the ‘Jayda’s Yellow Eyed Watermelon’ and its corallite centers or eyes contain yellow pigments (see image 1-C) which give the coral’s eyes a yellow coloration. This Watermelon-like colored species also has slightly elevated large round protrusions or ridges around the corallite eyes. while both the original Watermelon and the Red Watermelon corals lack large corallite ridges or protrusions. Whole imported coral colonies containing awesome pigmentation patterns typically have very high wholesale prices. A closeup examination of the green corallite centers and green growth edge of this coral also reveals amazing spots or dots of colorful pigmentation. Only true Watermelon corals will develop those awe inspiring pigmentation intensities. It can also develop an amazing number of corallites or alien eyes on its surface. This new ‘Red Watermelon’ morph can be seen in the center of the ‘Three Alien Eye’ image (see image 1-B). the Watermelon corals seem to prefer to be located near the bottom of brightly lighted reefs. Another new morph of Watermelon coral was recently acquired by John Dakan. Aquarists can purchase small captive grown fragments or they can try their luck at discovering a hidden gem. The 9 Bazooka Joe Watermelon also arrived from nature with its brilliant pigmentation intact and fairly intense. Coral exporters have also become aware of the fact that brilliantly pigmented corals are highly desirable to collectors and farmers.
the neurotoxin ﬁrst isolated from Palythoa toxica. once brushed with the Limu Make. polyps of the genus Zoanthus feed by absorption of dissolved nutrients. The villagers threw the ashes into a nearby tide pool whereupon its seaweed became poisonous. villagers discovered a shark god living in disguise amongst them. Some hobbyists have become specialized propagators of these corals in order to share and trade with others. According to ancient legend. University of Hawaii cancer researchers recently have been experimenting with attaching palytoxin molecules to antibodies designed speciﬁcally to attack cancer cells. They can be particularly striking when displayed in a desktop nano tank where one can appreciate their brightly colored details up close. are relatively hardy. This seaweed became known as Limu Make O Hana. Note that a single crystal of table salt weighs approximately 65 micrograms! Palytoxin disrupts the ability of cell membranes to control ion ﬂow. asterinas. good water quality.com! 10 . Zoanthids. In general. All of these are photosynthetic and contain symbiotic zooxanthellae. from power compacts to metal halides. Additionally. though not required. sundial snails. Today’s zoanthid fans have their own websites and online forums dedicated to sharing all things zoanthid. palytoxin has been estimated to be lethal to humans in dosages of as small as 4 micrograms. Zoanthids. Types of zoanthids commonly maintained in the home reef aquarium include those from the genera Zoanthus. palytoxin may one day play an important role in saving human lives. hydrogen peroxide. but a zoanthid of the species Palythoa toxica. As potentially deadly as it may be. may harbor pests or be subject to disease. the toxin causes rupture of red blood cells. A complex molecule with a chemical formula of C129H223N3O54. ﬂuke/ﬂatworm medications. Though tolerant of less than pristine water conditions. one should always wash one’s hands with hot soapy water after handling these animals. and Parazoanthus actively take in particulate food material. or some other unusual or uncommonly beautiful characteristic. Some coral vendors. Recent years have seen an increasing interest in collecting and maintaining unique zoanthid morphs. a sparkly stardust pattern. colorful striations. With proper precaution.reefhobbyistmagazine. Protopalythoa. fresh or salt water based dips of iodine. Death can occur within minutes after poisoning. The latter. and white “zoa pox”. The heart muscle is particularly sensitive and poisoning results in constriction of the blood vessels of the heart and lungs. Zoanthid palytoxin has been found to have anti-tumor and anticancer effects. or Furan-2. and unstable blood pressure. Be sure to avoid contact to eyes. grew in a secret Hawaiian tide pool. depending on the predator or ailment. like any other marine animal. Palythoa. red planaria. zoanthids can be used to form an attractive reef aquarium display all on their own or along with other reef invertebrates. Deadly Beauty Zoanthids By Norman Tom photo by Jeremy Hale Once revealed. mouth and/or abrasions when handling zoanthids. Symptoms of palytoxin exposure include chest pains. Protopalythoa. breathing difﬁculties. foramaniferans. is said to be the most toxic organic substance known. whereas Palythoa. racing pulse. taking note of zoanthid popularity among hobbyists. and good water circulation. fungus. These may be remedied by a variety of treatments including manual removal. The diversity of our natural reefs provides much more to be appreciated than just eye candy to reef hobbyists. these corals are easily kept by the beginning reef hobbyist. do seem to enhance color depth and highlights. Palytoxin. would bring instant death upon ﬁnding its mark. and Parazoanthus. Any spear tip. The creature had been preying upon the villagers and was found to be responsible for numerous mysterious disappearances. the Deadly Seaweed of Hana. have chosen to specialize in providing exotic specimens to their customers. cuts. The reef aquarium hobbyist should inspect newly acquired zoanthid specimens for such things as predatory nudibranchs.L imu Make O Hana. the shark god was torn to pieces and burned until nothing remained but ashes. Available in a myriad of colors and patterns and various combinations thereof. Ask our advertisers questions about their products in our forum at www. an eye catching metallic sheen. all beneﬁt from regular water changes. Prized morphs may bear multiple bright colors. Each collector has his or her own favored zoanthid morphs that may be of an interesting color or pattern. Due to the possibility of palytoxin exposure. Zoanthids do well under a variety of lighting systems. also known as button polyps and sea mat. One recommended antidote is papverine injected directly into the heart. Scientists frequently have turned to nature in searching for complex biological compounds that might prove useful to mankind. We now know that this seaweed actually is not a plant. Local warriors used the Limu Make to prepare their weapons for battle. zoanthid spiders.
this movie helped increase the popularity of saltwater aquariums more than any other single event over the past few decades. While aquarium purists still cringe whenever a child (or adult for that matter!) passes a tank of clownﬁsh and squeals. but their generally hardy dispositions make many of them good candidates for the novice as well as the experienced aquarist. “Oh look. Of course. as the star of the movie.reefhobbyistmagazine. as it is a very rare store that doesn’t have at least a handful of specimens from the roughly 2 dozen species of clowns commonly available. 11 Enter the Blue Life sponsored photo contest at www. NEMO!!!”. For some this results in just another colorful resident in their little slice of the ocean. Part of the appealing nature of the clowns is their engaging behavior. “Nemo” (aka Percula and Ocellaris clownﬁsh) also increased in popularity and became the desired pet of tens of thousands of >> budding aquarists. while for others the attraction to this friendly little ﬁsh becomes so strong that a saltwater aquarium just wouldn’t seem complete without one (or a pair) of these characters.A basic guide to clownfish care By Robin Bittner Clownin’ around: photo by RHM photo by Greg Rothschild L ikely every marine aquarist considers at one time or another the addition of a clownﬁsh to their aquatic menagerie.com and show off your photo skills! . which focused on the adventures of an Ocellaris (False Percula) clownﬁsh off the coast of Australia. Helping push the popularity of these ﬁsh is their nearly ubiquitous presence in the aquarium industry. This popularity was further fueled by the release of the “Finding Nemo” movie a few years ago.
S. However. Although the tomato and clarkii clowns are very common. and endearing “wiggle” as it dances above its favorite spot in the aquarium. skunk. as any owner of a Percula clownﬁsh will agree if they’ve been nipped by an overprotective clown while cleaning the tank! >> Clownin’ Around Where Do They All Come From? With recent advances in marine breeding and rearing technology. Although these captive breeding efforts have contributed signiﬁcantly to the supply of these highly desired ﬁsh. all of the common clownﬁsh species are now currently being captive bred and raised at commercial facilities in the U. England.There’s More Than Just One To Choose From Despite the relatively large number of clownﬁsh species available. but in general the tomato. this is not to say that the smaller ﬁsh cannot be quite aggressive also. assorted tomato clowns (reddish body with a bare or single white stripe on the head). relatively hardy nature. In our next article. demand still is outstripping the captive supply such that wild caught clownﬁsh remain one of the “bread and butter” staple imports of the aquarium trade. and the Caribbean. the clownﬁsh family can be broken down into ﬁve general groupings — the clarkii. the ocellaris clown can arguably be crowned as the most popular clownﬁsh due to its small size. This high demand for clownﬁsh has also led to the formation of a cottage industry of hobbyists who typically have 5-10 tanks dedicated to the breeding and raising of one or two species of clownﬁsh. we’ll take a closer look at one such hobbyist setup to better understand what it takes to experience the joy of raising these fun little ﬁsh.. Australia. tomato.com and email us your LFS’s information! photo by Greg Rothschild photo by Greg Rothschild Typically the clowns seen most often in aquarium stores are the clarkii variants (brownish body and yellow belly with 2 white stripes). photo by Greg Rothschild .reefhobbyistmagazine. and maroon groups are the most aggressive while the Percula and skunk groups are smaller and more peaceful. clarkii. and the Percula/ocellaris clowns (orange body with 3 white stripes and varying levels of black). Percula. Each of these groups exhibits varying levels of behaviors and needs. and maroon complexes. pleasant personality. 13 Want your LFS to carry free copies of RHM? Visit us at www.
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