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# Code: 45003

R07
(CIVIL ENGINEERING)

SET-1

JAWAHARLAL NEHRU TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY HYDERABAD III.B.TECH - I SEMESTER REGULAR EXAMINATIONS NOVEMBER, 2009 WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING-I Time: 3hours Max.Marks:80

1.a) b)

Answer any FIVE questions All questions carry equal marks --Define precipitation. What is cyclonic precipitation? Distinguish between cold front and warm front. The computation for an isolyet map of a 2000 ha basin following a 6-hr storm gave the following data. Determine the average precipitation for the basin Isohyet Area (ha) 35-40cm 40 30-35 80 25-30 170 20-25 310 15-20 480 10-15 670

[8+8] 2.a) What is a flow duration curve? Explain the detailed procedure to plot the flow duration curve. b) The mass curve of an isolated storm in a 500 ha watershed is as follows: Time from 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 start (h) Cumulative 0 0.8 2.6 2.8 4.1 7.3 10.8 11.8 12.4 12.6 rainfall(cm) If the direct runoff produced by the storm is measured at the outlet of the watershed as 0.340 Mm3, estimate the -index of the storm and duration of rainfall excess. [8+8] 3.a) Describe in detail the unit hydrograph method of calculating peak flood runoff from a catchment. In what way is this method superior to other methods of calculations you know of ? b) Ordinates of 2 hour unit hydrograph are given as below. Using this, derive the ordinates for a 6 hour unit hydrograph for the same catchment. Time (h) 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 Discharge 0 25 100 160 200 170 110 70 30 20 8 0 (cumecs) [8+8] 4.a) Explain the terms flood frequency and flood hydrograph. Write any three empirical flood formulae developed in India, clearly indicating the units of various terms involved. b) Route the following hydrograph through a river reach for which K=22.0 hr and x=0.25. At the start of the inflow flood, the outflow discharge is 40 m3/s. Data of a inflow hydrograph through a river Time (hr) 0 12 24 36 48 60 72 84 96 108 120 132 144 Inflow (m3/s) 40 65 165 250 240 205 170 130 115 85 70 60 54

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Below 10 cm 250

[8+8] Cont..[2]

[2] 5.a) b) Describe with neat sketches confined, semi-confined (or leaky), unconfined and perched aquifers. During a recuperation test, the water in an open well was depressed by 2.5 m and it recuperated 1.875 m in 1.5 hours. Estimate the yield from the well of 2m diameter under a depression head of (a) 2.5 m; (b) 2.25 m; and (c) 2m [8+8] Write a brief note on History of development of irrigation in India. What is Soil Fertility. Explain how Soil Fertility can be maintained. [8+8]

6.a) b) 7.a)

Describe with the help of a sketch, various forms of soil moisture. Which of these soil moistures is mainly available for utilization by the plants? b) The root zone of a certain soil has a field capacity of 25% and permanent wilting percentage is 8%. (i) What is the depth of moisture in the root zone at field capacity and permanent wilting point? (ii) How much water is available if the root zone depth is 1.1 m ? The dry weight of the soil is 13.75N/m3 [8+8] 8.a) Explain the terms: (i) Feeder canal; (ii) Carrier canal; (iii) Water course; (iv) Branch canal; b) Design an irrigation channel to carry a discharge of 10 cumec. Assume N = 0.0225 and m=1. The channel has a bed slope of 0.3 m per kilometer. [8+8]

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Code: 45003

R07
(CIVIL ENGINEERING)

SET-2

JAWAHARLAL NEHRU TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY HYDERABAD III.B.TECH - I SEMESTER REGULAR EXAMINATIONS NOVEMBER, 2009 WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING-I Time: 3hours Max.Marks:80

Answer any FIVE questions All questions carry equal marks --1. a. Given the following data. Compute the average precipitation over the catchment: Isohyet(cm) 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 Catchment area Enclosed (km2) -35 90 150 310 430 600 b. Determine the optimum number of rain gauges for a basin with following data: Number of existing gauges =6 Allowable percentage error = 8% The average rainfall at the existing gauges = 90, 100, 85, 65, 55 and 46 cm [8+8] 2.

a. What is the moving-boat technique of the measurement of discharge? What are its advantages over the conventional area-velocity method? b. In a 140-min storm, the following rates of rainfall were observed in successive 20-min intervals: 6.0, 6.0, 18.0, 13.0, 2.0, 2.0 and 12.0 mm/h. Assuming the -index value as 3.0 mm/h and an initial loss of 0.8 mm, determine the total rainfall, net runoff and W-index for the storm. [8+8]

3. a. What is hydrograph? Sketch and explain the component parts of a hydrograph. Explain the significance of the inflection point on the falling side of a hydrograph of runoff. b. The following data give hourly ordinates of S-hydrograph derived from a sustained 1 cm/hr effective rainfall. 0, 55, 141, 251, 344, 413, 463, 501, 523, 538, 546 cumecs. Compute and draw the ordinates of 3-hr. unit hydrograph. [8+8] 4. a. Define flood frequency. What do you understand by the terms 100-year average return period flood? Briefly explain salient features of Gumbels method of flood frequency analysis. b. A bridge is to be constructed over a river for a design flood of 500 m3/s. The mean and the standard deviation for annual flood series are 250 m3/s and 100 m3/s, respectively. Calculate the return period corresponding to this design flood using Gumbel method. [8+8] Cont.[2]

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[2] 5. a. Explain the terms well losses, specific capacity, specific drawdown, well efficiency. b. Ground water flows through an aquifer with a cross-sectional area of 1.0 x 104 m2 and a length of 1500 m. Hydraulic heads are 300 m and 250 m at the groundwater entry and exit points in the aquifer, respectively. Groundwater discharges into a stream at the rate of 1500 m3/day. What is the hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer? If the porosity of the material is 0.3, what is the pore velocity of water? [8+8] 6. a. Explain the terms (i) Flow irrigation; (ii) Lift irrigation; (iii) Inundation irrigation ; and (iv) Perennial irrigation b. What is Land Levelling and What is the criteria for land levelling . Explain. 7. a. Explain the terms:

(i) Saturation capacity; (ii) Field capacity; (iii) Moisture equivalent; (iv) Wilting point ; (v) Available moisture; (vi) Readily available moisture. b. Find the field capacity of a soil for the following data: (i) Depth of root zone (iii)Dry density of soil (ii) Existing water content (iv) Water applied to soil

8. a. For a channel discharge Q, rugosity coefficient N, critical velocity ratio m and bed width ratio B/D are given. Explain how would you design the channel using Kennedys theory. b. Distinguish between the following terms. a. Berm and counter berm b. Spoil bank and canal bank c. Hydraulic gradient and longitudinal gradient. -oOo-

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(v) Water lost due to evaporation and deep percolation = 10 % = 1000 m2 [8+8]

## (vi) Area of land irrigated

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= 2m =6% = 1400 kg/ m3 = 500 m3

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[8+8]

[8+8]

Code: 45003

R07
(CIVIL ENGINEERING)

SET-3

JAWAHARLAL NEHRU TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY HYDERABAD III.B.TECH - I SEMESTER REGULAR EXAMINATIONS NOVEMBER, 2009 WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING-I Time: 3hours Max.Marks:80 Answer any FIVE questions All questions carry equal marks --a. What are the basic conditions for the occurrence of precipitation ? Explain how these conditions are satisfied? b. 2. Describe in detail the origin, time of occurrence and spread of the southwest monsoon. [8+8]

a. Differentiate between the following: (a) Positive base flow and negative base flow (b) Effluent and influent streams (c) Rainfall excess and effective rainfall (d) Surface run-off and direct run-off (e) Interflow and base flow

b. What are the empirical formulae commonly used for estimating the consumptive use? Outline the characteristics of the formulae. [8+8] 3. a. Describe the unit hydrograph method of determining runoff from a catchment.

4. a. Explain the rational method of computing the peak discharge of a small catchment. Where is this method commonly used and what are its merits and demerits? b. A stream has the flood peaks of 1200 m3/s and 1060 m3/s for the return periods of 100 and 50 years, respectively, using Gumbel method for a dataset spanning 30 years. Find (i) mean and standard deviation; and (ii) flood peak corresponding to a return period of 500 years. [8+8]

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b. For a drainage basin of 104 km2 , the basin length and the distance from the centroid of the basin to the outlet are found to be 200km and 100 km, respectively. Determine the peak discharge of a 3-hr. unit hydrograph. Assume Ct = 1.0 and Cp = 5.0. [8+8]

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5. a. Differentiate between (a) Confined aquifer and unconfined aquifer (b) Flowing artesian well and non-flowing artesian well (c) Water table and piezometric surface. Cont..[2]

[2] b. Calculate the coefficient of permeability from the following data of a 15 cm diameter strainer tube well discharging 50 l.p.s. The length of the strainer is 40 m and the drawdown is 5 m. The radius of influence may be assumed as 300 m. Determine the discharge when (a) the depression head is increased to 6m (b) the well diameter is increased to 30 m (c) the strainer length is increased to 60 m. [8+8] 6. a. Explain the terms (i) contour farming; (ii) Wild flooding; (iii) Corrugations b. What are the different methods of sub-irrigation? Describe the methods. Point out the pre-requisites for adoption of this method. [8+8] 7. a. Explain how frequency of irrigation is determined.

b. A loam soil has field capacity 27% and permanent wilting percentage 12%. The dry weight of the soil is 13.73 kN/ m3. If the depth of root zone is 1m, determine the storage capacity of the soil. Irrigation water is applied when moisture content drops to 15 %. If water application efficiency is 75%, determine the water depth required to be applied in the field. [8+8] 8. a. Explain the terms: (i) bed load; (ii) suspended load; (iii) critical tractive force b. Design an irrigation canal to carry a discharge of 10 cumec. Assume N = 0.225, m = 1.0 and (B/D) = 3.5. [8+8]

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Code: 45003

R07
(CIVIL ENGINEERING)

SET-4

JAWAHARLAL NEHRU TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY HYDERABAD III.B.TECH - I SEMESTER REGULAR EXAMINATIONS NOVEMBER, 2009 WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING-I Time: 3hours Answer any FIVE questions All questions carry equal marks --1. a. How would you determine the optimum number of rain gauges for a basin? b. Find the mean precipitation for the area sketched below by Thiessens method. The area is composed of a square plus an equilateral triangular plot of side 2.5 kilometers. Rainfall readings in cm at the various stations are given in the figure. Max.Marks:80

2. a. How would you estimate the runoff from the infiltration capacity curve? What are its limitations? What is the advantage of - index method? b. Present the Blaney-Criddle formula and its modification as suggested by Doorenbos and Pruitt. Outline the criticism about the method. [8+8] 3. a. How would you derive a unit hydrograph from a hydrograph of a complex storm? b. A drainage basin has an area of 1700 sq.km. Determine the values of : (i) Lag period (ii) Base period or duration of runoff, and (iii) Peak discharge using Snyders equation for an unit hydrograph of 6 hour duration. Assume Ct=1.2, Cp=5, L=82 km, Lca=48 km with usual notations. [8+8] 4. a. Distinguish between: a. Hydraulic and hydrologic method of flood routing b. Hydrologic storage routing and hydrologic channel routing c. Prism storage and wedge storage b. A hydraulic structure on a stream has been designed for a discharge of 350 m3/s. If the available flood data on the stream is for 20 years and the mean and standard deviation for annual flood series are 121 m3/sec and 60m3/s respectively, calculate the return period for the design flood by using Gumbel/s method. [8+8] Cont..[2]

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[8+8]

[2] 5. a. Derive Dupuit-Thiems equation for the yield of a well penetrating an unconfined aquifer. What are the basic assumptions of the Theory? b. Two identical tube wells of 25 cm diameter are spaced 60 m from each other. Calculate the discharge of each well under a drawdown of 4 m when working simultaneously. Take the radius of influence as 250 m and the thickness of the confined aquifer as 60m. The coefficient of permeability is 5.6 x 10-4m/s.What would have been the discharge under the same drawdown, had there been only one well? [8+8] 6. a. b. Describe in detail sprinkler method of irrigation. Indicate the advantages and limitations of this method Do you think that the socio-economic development of an area depends on the development of agriculture? Explain. [8+8]

7. a. Explain the terms duty and delta. Derive a relationship between the two for a given base period. b. A water course has culturable commanded area of 1000 hectares. The intensity of irrigation for crop A is 40% and for crop B is 45%, both the crops being rabi crops. Crop A has a kor depth of 150 mm and kor period 3 weeks; and crop B has a kor depth of 100 mm and kor period 2 weeks. Calculate the discharge of the water course. [8+8] 8. a. What is balancing depth in a canal ? Derive an expression for the same. b. A channel section is to be designed for the following data : Discharge Q = 10 1 cumec, silt factor f= 1.0, side slope = (H) ; 1 (V). Also determine the 2 bed-slope of the channel.

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[8+8]