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of a research. It contains contains findings, analyses of findings, interpretations, conclusions and recommendations. It should give a list of symbols used,
and references that have been cited in the body of the report. It should have appendices that contain all the details of data, and an example of calculation of quantities that have been reported in the body of the report but that had to be obtained from the observations or raw data. SIGNIFICANCE OF REPORT The most brilliant hypothesis, highly well designed and conducted research study, and the most striking generalizations and findings are of little value unless they are effectively communicated to others. The purpose of research is not well served unless the findings are made known to others. Report is a self-explanatory statement of facts relating to a specific subject and serves the purpose of providing information for decision making and follow up actions. Most business reports are dedicated to the analysis of statistical data related to marketing development or supply and demand balance. One can stress the report writing importance through its contribution to marketing management researches making. CHARECTERITICS OF REPORT 1. Complete and Compact Document : Report is a complete and compact written document giving updated information about a specific problem. 2. Systematic Presentation of Facts : Report is a systematic presentation of facts, figures, conclusions and recommendations. Report writers closely study the problem under investigation and prepare a report after analyzing all relevant information regarding the problem. Report is supported by facts and evidence. There is no scope for imagination in a report which is basically a factual document. 3. Prepared in Writing : Reports are usually in writing. Writing reports are useful for reference purpose. It serves as complete, compact and self-explanatory document over a long period. Oral reporting is possible in the case of secret and confidential matters. 4. Provides Information and Guidance : Report is a valuable document which gives information and guidance to the management while framing future policies. It
There are two ways in which to develop a subject: (a) Logically and (b) Chronologically. reports are also sent to shareholders and others connected with the company. drawing conclusion and making recommendations STEPS IN REPORT WRITING 1)Logical analysis of the subject matte: It is the first step which is primarily concerned with the development of a subject. Reports are also useful for solving problems faced by a business enterprise. lengthy and costly activity as it involves collection of facts. Chronological development is based on a connection or sequence in time or occurrence. It is an example of upward communication. 7. It is a self-explanatory and complete document by itself. Similarly. reports are also sent by company executives to the lower levels of management. 5. Reports are generally submitted to higher authorities. 8. 6. Acts as a Tool of Internal Communication : Report is an effective tool of communication between top executives and subordinate staff working in an organization. . Time Consuming and Costly Activity : Report writing is a time consuming. This is treated as downward communication. The logical development is made on the basis of mental connections and associations between the one thing and another by means of analysis. It provides feedback to employees and to executives for decision making. Acts as Permanent Record : A report serves as a permanent record relating to certain business matter. It may be pointed out that report writing / preparation acts as a backbone of any system of communication. Self-explanatory Document : Report is a comprehensive document and covers all aspects of the subject matter of study. In addition. The directions for doing or making something usually follow the chronological order.facilitates planning and decision making. Logical treatment often consists in developing the material from the simple possible to the most complex structures. It is useful for future reference and guidance.
While rewriting and polishing. the technique of analysis adopted by him. The entries in bibliography should be made adopting the following order: For books and pamphlets the order may be as under:(1)Name of author. and the second part may contain the names of magazines and newspaper articles. It should contain all housework which the researcher has consulted. The careful revision makes the difference between a mediocre and a good piece of writing. Generally. Unity and cohesion should maintained while writing report. the broad findings and generalisation and the various suggestions he wants to offer regarding the problem concerned. publisher. He will write down the procedure adopted by him in collecting the material for his study along with various limitations faced by him. through it is not the only way of presenting bibliography. The bibliography. one should check the report for weaknesses in logical development or presentation. which is generally appended to the research report.” (3)Preparation of the rough draft: This follows the logical analysis of the end the preparation of the final outline. last name first(2)Title. (4)Rewriting and polishing of the rough draft: Usually this step requires more time than the writing of the rough draft. underlined to indicate italics(3)Place. Grammar checking. is a list of books ins ome way pertinent to the research which has been done.(2)Preparation of the final outline: It is next step in writing the research report. “outlines are the framework upon which long written works are constructed. sentence correction etc is done in this stage. and date of publication(4)Number of volumes . The bibliography should be arranged alphabetically and may be divided into two parts. the first part may contain the names of books and pamphlets. this pattern of bibliography is considered convenient and satisfactory from the point of view of reader. Such a step is of utmost importance for the researcher now sits to write down what he has done in the context of his research study. 5)Preparation of the final bibliography: Next in order comes the task of the preparation of the final bibliography. They are an aid to the logical organisation of the material and a reminder of the points to be stressed in the report.
followed by acknowledgements in the form of „Preface‟ of „Foreword‟. (A) Preliminary Pages In its preliminary pages the report should carry a title and date. (B) Main Text The main text provides the complete outline of the research report along with all details. The final draft should be written in a concise and objective style and in simple language. and the like ones. avoiding vague expressions such as “it seems”. Then there should be a table of contents followed by list of tables and illustrations so that the decision-maker or anybody interested in reading the report can easily locate the required information in the report. The main text of the report should have the following sections: (i)Introduction. Each main section of the report should begin on a new page. “there may be”. beginning with the second page. Title of the research study is repeated at the top or the first page of the main text and then follows the other details on pages numbered consecutively. (iii)The results. (ii)Statement of findings and recommendations. and (v)The summary . the researcher must avoid abstract terminology and technical jargon. While writing the draft. (B) The main text.(6)Writing the final draft: This constitutes the last step. It must be remembered that every report should be an attempt to solve some intellectual problem and must contribute to the solution of a problem and must contribute to the solution of a problem and must add to the knowledge of both the researcher and the reader. Let us deal with them separately. Layout of report A comprehensive layout of the research report should comprise (A) Preliminary pages.(iv)The Implications drawn from the results. and (C) The end matter.
appendices should be enlisted in respect of all technical data such as questionnaires. mathematical derivations and the like ones. places and topics along with the numbers of the pages in a book of report on which they are mentioned or discussed) should invariably be given at the end of the report. However. suggestions. CONCLUSION In writing. Reports can be public or private. Index (an alphabetical listing of names. business. The purpose of reports is usually to inform. The value of index lies in the fact that it works as a guide to the reader for the contents in the report. such as recommendations.C) End Matter At the end of the report. and often address questions posed by individuals in government. sample information. reports may include persuasive elements. or other motivating conclusions that indicate possible future actions the report reader might take. which is tailored to the context of a given situation and audience. and science . a report is a document characterized by information or other content reflective of inquiry or investigation. education. Bibliography of sources consulted should also be given.
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