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# Take Home Quiz (MMAE 452) 4/24/12 (Due on 4/26/12) (1) Answer the following questions briefly (24

points) (a) What is the effective exhaust velocity of a rocket? (b) What is the relationship between rocket exhaust velocity and vehicle speed (contrast this with an commercial airplane) (c) Define Characteristic velocity and thrust coefficient for a rocket. (d) Why do we have staging in rocketry (e) What are some considerations during fuel injection for liquid rockets (f) What is the role of the solid rocket grain shape (g) How is the thrust chamber cooled for liquid and solid rockets (h) Describe the type of nozzles used in rockets and what are their advantages and disadvantages (2) (26 points) Examine and describe briefly the configuration and staging strategy for (a) The Apollo Missions and (b) The Space Shuttle. What were some of the differences that you observed. What were the solid or liquid propellants used in both missions. Was there an improvement from (a) to (b)? (3) (25 points) In comparing the flight performance of a single-stage with a two-stage rocket, let us consider the two rockets have the same initial mass m0, the same payload mass mL, and the same overall structural mass ms. The structural mass fraction , which is defined as the ratio of stage structural mass to the initial stage mass, is also assumed to be the same for the single stage rocket and each of the two stages of the two-stage rocket. For the effective exhaust speed of 3000 m/s be constant for the single-stage and each stage of the two-stage rocket, calculate the terminal velocity for the two rockets in zero gravity and vacuum flight, for, mo = 150,000 kg mL = 700 kg ms = 15,000 kg single-stage = 0.15 stage-1 = stage-2 = 0.15

(4) (25 points) The propellant flow rate in a chemical nozzle is 10,000 kg/s. The nozzle exhaust speed is 2200 m/s and the nozzle exit pressure (p2) = 0.01 atm. The nozzle exit diameter (D2) is 2 m. (a) Calculate the pressure thrust (in MN) at sea level. (b) Calculate the effective exhaust speed in m/s at sea level. (5) Extra credit problem (25 points) - Optional Consider an alternative to the turbojet for a commercial aircraft and analyze a case where you decide to carry oxygen bottles at 2000 psig on board as oxidizer. The engine no longer uses air from the atmosphere as an oxidizer. In other words we dont have an inlet, a compressor or a turbine. However, you are still burning conventional aircraft fuel with the on-board oxidizer (oxygen tanks). How does this concept compare to the turbojet? Provide calculations and comments.