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Introduction to Statistics

Statistics is a set of tools used to organize and analyze data. Data must either be numeric in origin or transformed by researchers into numbers. For instance, statistics could be used to analyze percentage scores English students receive on a grammar test: the percentage scores ranging from 0 to 100 are already in numeric form. Statistics could also be used to analyze grades on an essay by assigning numeric values to the letter grades, e.g., A=4, B=3, C=2, D=1, and F=0. Employing statistics serves two purposes, (1) description and (2) prediction. Statistics are used to describe the characteristics of groups. These characteristics are referred to as variables. Data is gathered and recorded for each variable. Descriptive statistics can then be used to reveal the distribution of the data in each variable. Statistics is also frequently used for purposes of prediction. Prediction is based on the concept of generalizability: if enough data is compiled about a particular context (e.g., students studying writing in a specific set of classrooms), the patterns revealed through analysis of the data collected about that context can be generalized (or predicted to occur in) similar contexts. The prediction of what will happen in a similar context is probabilistic. That is, the researcher is not certain that the same things will happen in other contexts; instead, the researcher can only reasonably expect that the same things will happen. Prediction is a method employed by individuals throughout daily life. For instance, if writing students begin class every day for the first half of the semester with a five-minute free writing exercise, then they will likely come to class the first day of the second half of the semester prepared to again free write for the first five minutes of class. The students will have made a prediction about the class content based on their previous experiences in the class: Because they began all previous class sessions with free writing, it would be probable that their next class session will begin the same way. Statistics is used to perform the same function; the difference is that precise probabilities are determined in terms of the percentage chance that an outcome will occur, complete with a range of error. Prediction is a primary goal of inferential.

History of Statistics

The Word statistics have been derived from Latin word “Status” or the Italian word “Statista”, meaning of these words is “Political State” or a Government. Shakespeare used a word Statist is his drama Hamlet (1602). In the past, the statistics was used by rulers. The application of statistics was very limited but rulers and kings needed information about lands, agriculture, commerce, population of their states to assess their military potential, their wealth, taxation and other aspects of government. Gottfried Achenwall used the word statistik at a German University in 1749 which means that political science of different countries. In 1771 W. Hooper (Englishman) used the word statistics in his translation of Elements of Universal Erudition written by Baron B.F 1

In this sense. The large number of weight figures will confuse the mind. At the beginning of the 20th century. Statistics on industrial production. but old statistics also used as a part of the present statistics. During the 18th century the English writer have used the word statistics in their works. These methods are used to draw conclusion about the population parameter. interpretation and presentation of numerical data. We may still go further and compute the averages and some other measures which may give us complete description of the original data. in his book statistics has been defined as the science that teaches us what is the political arrangement of all the modern states of the known world. theories and application of statistics. statistics or population growth of a country in different years etc. First of all. In this situation we may arrange the weights in groups such as: “50 Kg to 60 Kg” “60 Kg to 70 Kg” and so on and find the number of students fall in each group. (2) Singular Sense: In singular sense. it refers to the science comprising methods which are used in collection. There is a big gap between the old statistics and the modern statistics. A lot of work has been done in the end of the nineteenth century. statistics are also aggregates of facts which are expressed in numerical form. For Example: If we want to have a study about the distribution of weights of students in a certain college. 2 . the word statistics refer to numerical facts and figures collected in a systematic manner with a definite purpose in any field of study. so statistics has developed gradually during last few centuries. During the 20th century several statistician are active in developing new methods. analysis. we will collect the information on the weights which may be obtained from the records of the college or we may collect from the students directly.Introduction to Statistics Bieford. For example. Now these days the availability of electronics computers is certainly a major factor in the modern development of statistics. William S Gosset was developed the methods for decision making based on small set of data. This step is called a presentation of data. Meanings of Statistics The word statistics has three different meanings (sense) which are discussed below: (1) Plural Sense (2) Singular Sense (3) Plural of the word “Statistic” (1) Plural Sense: In plural sense.

trade statistics etc… Such as businessman make to use descriptive statistics in presenting their annual reports.Introduction to Statistics (3) Plural of Word “Statistic”: The word statistics is used as the plural of the word “Statistic” which refers to a numerical quantity like mean. it deals with techniques used for analysis of data. graphs and diagrams and findings averages and other measures which would describe the data. For Example: If we select 15 student from a class of 80 students. political and science of statecraft” 3 . making the estimates and drawing conclusions from limited information taken on sample basis and testing the reliability of the estimates. It is not nothing static. This average would be a statistic. (2) Inferential Statistics: In inferential statistics. It has gradually developed during last few centuries. In those days statistics was defined as “the science of kings. its presentation in various forms. measure their heights and find the average height. Definition of Statistics Statistics like many other sciences is a developing discipline. It is difficult to define statistics. A good definition of today may be discarded in future. Some definitions of the past look very strange today but those definitions had their place in their own time. We take a sample from the population and find the proportion of illiterates in the sample. Some of the definitions are reproduced here: (1) The kings and rulers in the ancient times were interested in their manpower. it has been defined in different manners. final accounts. variance etc…. In different times. calculated from sample value. For Example: Industrial statistics. They conducted census of population to get information about their population. such as tables. This study belongs to inferential statistics. Defining a subject has always been difficult task. bank statements. population statistics. median. For Example: Suppose we want to have an idea about the percentage of illiterates in our country. Kinds or Branches Statistics: Statistics may be divided into (1) Descriptive Statistics (2) Inferential Statistics two main branches: (1) Descriptive Statistics: In descriptive statistics. They used information to calculate their strength and ability for wars. it deals with collection of data. This sample proportion with the help of probability enables us to make some inferences about the population proportion.

average birth rates. (5) A definition due to W. Experts are interested in average deaths rates. Secrist has given a detailed definition of statistics in plural sense. average literacy rate and many other averages of different fields of practical life. natural or social phenomena from the results obtained from the analysis or enumeration or collection of estimates”. There are many other statistical tools like measure of variation. Average is very simple important in statistics. There are some areas of statistics in which probability is not used. “Statistics are the numerical statement of facts capable of analysis and interpretation and the science of statistics is the study of the principles and the methods applied in collecting. average development rate. measure of correlation. This definition is close to the modern statistics.Introduction to Statistics (2) A. counting of animals. But statistics is not limited to average only. It is close to the modern statistics. (4) Prof: Boddington has defined statistics as “science of estimate and probabilities” This definition covers a major part of statistics. It has now grown to rich methods of data analysis and interpretation. presenting. He has not given any importance to statistics in singular sense. Statistics today is not mere counting of people.” 4 . But it is not complete because it stress only on probability.L. Statistics both in the singular and the plural sense has been combined in the following definition which is accepted as the modern definition of statistics. King is “the science of statistics is the method of judging collection. Bowley defined statistics as “statistics is the science of counting” This definition places the entries stress on counting only. (3) A. analysis and interpreting the numerical data in any field of inquiry. measures of independence etc… Thus this definition is weak and incomplete and has been buried in the past. and average increase in per capita income. average inflation rate. A common man also thinks as if statistics is nothing but counting. counting of trees and counting of fighting force. average increase in standard of living and cost of living. average increase in population. But it does not cover the entire scope of modern statistics.I. His definition is given on the previous.L. Bowley has also defined as “science of averages” This definition is very simple but it covers only some area of statistics. This used to be the situation but very long time ago. average production of rice per acre.

(2) Statistical helps in proper and efficient planning of a statistical inquiry in any field of study. (2) Statistical methods are best applicable on quantitative data. Statistics are enumerated or estimated according to a reasonable standard of accuracy. So single observation is not a statistics. Statistics are affected to a marked extent by multiplicity of causes. Statistics are collected in a systemic manner. (3) Statistical cannot be applied to heterogeneous data. (6) Some errors are possible in statistical decisions. Particularly the inferential statistics involves certain errors. it deals with groups and aggregates only. 5 . Statistics are aggregates of facts. (4) Statistics helps in presenting complex data in a suitable tabular. (4) It sufficient care is not exercised in collecting. diagrammatic and graphic form for an easy and clear comprehension of the data. analyzing and interpretation the data.Introduction to Statistics Characteristics of Statistics Some of its important characteristics are given below: • • • • • • Statistics are aggregates of facts. Limitations of Statistics The important limitations of statistics are: (1) Statistics laws are true on average. Statistics must be comparable to each other. Functions or Uses of Statistics (1) Statistics helps in providing a better understanding and exact description of a phenomenon of nature. Statistics are collected for a predetermine purpose. Statistics are numerically expressed. (3) Statistical helps in collecting an appropriate quantitative data. We do not know whether an error has been committed or not. (5) Only a person who has an expert knowledge of statistics can handle statistical data efficiently. statistical results might be misleading.

unemployment. he should therefore. The bank earns profits out of these deposits by lending to others on interest. Statistical helps in describing these measurements more precisely. the imports and exports. So all the activities of the businessman based on statistical information. Now we discuss some important fields in which statistics is commonly applied. 6 . A successful businessman must be very quick and accurate in decision making. the quality of the products can also be checked more efficiently by using statistical methods. He can make correct decision about the location of business. (4) In Banking: Statistics play an important role in banking. Economics largely depends upon statistics. Statistics helps businessman to plan production according to the taste of the costumers. population growth rate. Botany. The banks make use of statistics for a number of purposes. Importance of Statistics in Different Fields Statistics plays a vital role in every fields of human activity. Astronomy etc…. know what to produce and sell and in what quantities. Trade.Introduction to Statistics (5) Statistics helps in understanding the nature and pattern of variability of a phenomenon through quantitative observations. In economics research statistical methods are used for collecting and analysis the data and testing hypothesis. Economics. Biology. schooling medical facilities etc…in a country. marketing of the products. Psychology. (3) In Mathematics: Statistical plays a central role in almost all natural and social sciences. Chemistry. Statistical methods are used for preparation of these accounts. Statistics has important role in determining the existing position of per capita income. differentiation and algebra are used in statistics. Statistics is branch of applied mathematics. (6) Statistics helps in drawing valid inference. Now statistics holds a central position in almost every field like Industry. the inflation rate. The bankers use statistical approaches based on probability to estimate the numbers of depositors and their claims for a certain day. housing. The banks work on the principle that all the people who deposit their money with the banks do not withdraw it at the same time. Mathematics. Commerce. Physics. along with a measure of their reliability about the population parameters from the sample data. The methods of natural sciences are most reliable but conclusions draw from them are only probable. so application of statistics is very wide. He knows that what his customers wants. The relationship between supply and demands is studies by statistical methods. financial resources etc… (2) In Economics: Statistics play an important role in economics. National income accounts are multipurpose indicators for the economists and administrators. estimation etc… is used in mathematics and different techniques of pure mathematics like integration. The large number of statistical methods like probability averages. dispersions. because they are based on incomplete evidence. (1) Business: Statistics play an important role in business. the per capita income are the problems which require good knowledge of statistics.

of Children in a family etc… 7 . An auditor determines the sample size of the book to be audited on the basis of error. Mathematics. Research chambers of commerce. know as statistics. Public Administration. No. Communication and Information Technology etc… (8) In Astronomy: Astronomy is one of the oldest branches of statistical study. Income. In auditing sampling techniques are commonly used. sizes. testing their significance in Biology. Business. Statistical data are now widely used in taking all administrative decisions. Some Basic Definitions in Statistics: Constant: A quantity which can be assuming only one value is called a constant. So statistics are the eyes of administration of the state. For Example: Value of Variable: A quantity which can vary from one individual or object to and other is called a variable. Example: This distance of moon from the earth is measured. statistical methods will be used to determine the rise in the cost of living. masses and densities of heavenly bodies by means of observations. During these measurements errors are unavoidable so most probable measurements are founded by using statistical methods. The correction of the values of current asserts is made on the basis of the purchasing power of money or the current value of it. (7) In Natural and Social Sciences: Statistics plays a vital role in almost all the natural and social sciences. Chemistry. Statistical methods are commonly used for analyzing the experiments results. Sociology.Introduction to Statistics (5) In State Management (Administration): Statistics is essential for a country. so much precision is not essential the decision may be taken on the basis of approximation. it deals with the measurement of distance. Temperature. It is usually denoted by the last letters of alphabets . Preparation of federal and provincial government budgets mainly depends upon statistics because it helps in estimating the expected expenditures and revenue from different sources. For Example: Heights and Weights of students. Meteorology. Since old days the astronomers have been statistical methods like method of least squares for finding the movements of stars. But for decision making purpose. It is usually denoted by the first letters and value of of alphabets . Different policies of the government are based on statistics. (6) In Accounting and Auditing: Accounting is impossible without exactness. Suppose if the government wants to revise the pay scales of employees in view of an increase in the living cost. Physics.

It can occur in decimals. 8 . Collection of Data: The first step in any enquiry (investigation) is collection of data. Marital Status. For Example: Wages. the life time of T. The data may be collected for the whole population or for a sample only. The enumerator or investigator is the well trained person who collects the statistical data. It can be measurable. Weights etc… Qualitative Variable: A characteristic which varies only in quality from one individual to another is called qualitative variable. It is mostly collected on sample basis. number of chairs in a room etc… Discrete Data: Data which can be described by a discrete variable is called discrete data. made on a set of objects included in the sample drawn from population is known as statistical data. Quantitative Variable: A characteristic which varies only in magnitude from on individual to another is called quantitative variable. It cannot occur in decimals. For Example: Heights and Weights of students Speed of a bus. For Example: Beauty.V etc… Continuous Data: Data which can be described by a continuous variable is called continuous data. Collection of data is very difficult job. number of houses in a street. number of flowers on the tree. For Example: Number of students in a college. the age of a Shopkeeper. For Example: Weights of 50 students in a class. Rich. (2) Grouped Data: Data presented in the form of frequency distribution is called grouped data. For Example: Number of students in a class. Heights. Smell etc… Collection of Statistical Data Statistical Data: A sequence of observation. It can occur in whole numbers. Poor. The respondents (information) are the persons whom the information is collected. Discrete Variable: A variable which can assume only some specific values within a given range is called discrete variable. Prices. (1) Ungrouped Data: Data which have been arranged in a systematic order are called raw data or ungrouped data.Introduction to Statistics Continuous Variable: A variable which can assume each and every value within a given range is called a continuous variable. It cannot be measured.

They are most original data in character and have not undergone any sort of statistical treatment. complied and published by the population census organization. Board of Revenue. Through Telephone: The researchers get information through telephone this method is quick and give accurate information. compiled and published by organization for some purpose. (2) Secondary Data: The secondary data are the second hand information which are already collected by some one (organization) for some purpose and are available for the present study. Through Investigation: Trained investigators are employed to collect the data. the Banks etc… Methods of Collecting Primary Data: Primary data are collected by the following methods: • Personal Investigation: The researcher conducts the survey him/herself and collects data from it. These investigators contact the individuals and fill in questionnaire after asking the required information. The secondary data are not pure in character and have undergone some treatment at least once. This method of collecting data is only applicable in case of small research projects. • • • Methods of Collecting Secondary Data: The secondary data are collected by the following sources: 9 .Introduction to Statistics Types of Data: There are two types (sources) for the collection of data. Collection through Questionnaire: The researchers get the data from local representation or agents that are based upon their own experience. The data collected in this way is usually accurate and reliable. Example: Population census reports are primary data because these are collected. Most of the organizing implied this method. (1) Primary Data (2) Secondary Data (1) Primary Data: The primary data are the first hand information collected. Example: Economics survey of England is secondary data because these are collected by more than one organization like Bureau of statistics. This method is quick but gives only rough estimate.

Labor etc… Semi-Official: e. 10 . Editing means the examination of collected data to discover any error and mistake before presenting it. either by directly collecting from each student himself personally or getting their ages from the university record. Chambers of Commerce etc… Technical and Trade Journals and Newspapers. Research Organizations such as Universities and other institutions. We collect the age’s data by two methods. Railway Board. Industry. They are not pure in character and have undergone some treatment at least once. They are most original data in character and have not undergone any sort of statistical treatment while the secondary data are obtained from some other sources or agencies. Boards of Economic Enquiry etc… Publication of Trade Associations. Ministry of Finance. • • • • Difference between Primary and Secondary Data: The difference between primary and secondary data is only a change of hand.Introduction to Statistics • Official: e. The publications of the Statistical Division. Central Cotton Committee. The data collected by the direct personal investigation is called primary data and the data obtained from the university record is called secondary data. The editing of secondary data is simpler than that of primary data. the Federal Bureaus of Statistics. Agriculture. Editing of Data: After collecting the data either from primary or secondary source. For Example: Suppose we interested to find the average age of MS students. The primary data are the first hand data information which is directly collected form one source. Ministries of Food. It has to be decided before hand what degree of accuracy is wanted and what extent of errors can be tolerated in the inquiry.g. the next step is its editing. State Bank.g.

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