POTENTIALS, APPLICATIONS & CHALLENGES OF GEOTHERMAL IN INDONESIA

by: y

eko agung bramantyo
agungbram@pgeindonesia.com Presented:

timbul h silitonga h.
thsilitonga@pgeindonesia.com

PT PERTAMINA GEOTHERMAL ENERGY

WHAT IS GEOTHERMAL ?

Geoscience & Reservoir
HOT WATER SYSTEM Surface A A Geothermal reservoir model Depth (Km) CAP BPoint Curve

hot WATER STEAM STEAM C A P HOT WAT ER HEAT SOURCE Liquid

100 200 T (oC)

300

DIENG
Surface A

BA C

CAP Depth (K Km)

A

BPoint Curve

STEAM Steam

B
100 200 T (oC) 300

D
PAVOUR SYSTEM

KAMOJANG

Reservoir dominasi airpanas ( T 260 – 280 C ) Reservoir 2-phasa ( ap Reser oir 2 phasa (uap + airpanas) ( T 220 – 260 C) Reservoir dominasi uap ( T 200 – 240 C )

SUBSURFACE .GEOTHERMAL ENERGY ENVIRONMENTAL FRIENDLY WELLS RESERVOIR Source : GEOTHERMAL EDUCATION OFFICE HEAT SOURCE .

GEOTHERMAL POTENTIALS .

Sumber gambar : GEOTHERMAL EDUCATION OFFICE .US .

GEOTHERMAL AREA IN INDONESIA TOTAL POTENTIAL 27.000 MW 27 000 UTILIZED 1194 MW (4.4%) .

APPLICATION OF GEOTHERMAL IN INDONESIA .

GEOTHERMAL ENERGY Eksploration 2 tahun Development 2-3 tahun Commenrcial 25-30 tahun .

9. 13. 12. 6.Wilayah Kerja Pengusahaan Geothermal of PGE (Concession A (C i Area of PGE) f 1 2 3 4 5 1. Cibereum-Parabakti Pengalengan g g Kamojang-Darajat Karaha Dieng Iyang-Argopuro Tabanan Lahendong Kotamobagu 12 13 14 15 10 11 8 9 . 8. 10. 4. 5. Sibayak-Sinabung Sibualbuali Sungaipenuh g p Hululais Lumut Balai Way Panas Ulubelu 6 7 7. 2. 3. 11. 14. 14 15.

Wells = 18 ) Development Drilling 30% Production Facilities 9% Feasibility Study 0% Power Plant 54% Exploration Drilling 6% (4 sumur eksplorsi)) Infrastructure Exloration (Survey) of Field 1% Development.DIAGRAM “COST STRUCTURE” OF GEOTHERMAL DEVELOPMENT CAPACITY 110 MW Field Development = 0.8 M – 1 million US $/MW POWER PLANT = 1 – 1. 2.2 million US $/MW ( Prod.38% . & reinject.

.

.

Direct use of Geothermal Energy Mushroom Plantation at Kamojang Cengkeh and Coconut Sugar Drying at Lahendong .

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steam sales to IP • Unit-3 (55 MW). • Monoblok 2MW ex-Dieng.3 (3x50 MW).Plant Capacity • OWN OPERATION – Kamojang • Unit-1 (30 MW). steam sales to PLN KOB – Chevron Darajat • Unit-1 (55 MW).6 (3x50 MW). steam sales to PLN – Sibayak ex Dieng.2 (2 x 110 MW). electrical sales to PLN • Unit-1&2 (2x5 MW). electrical sales to Dizamatra – Lahendong • Unit-1. JV (PT PERTAMINA dan PT PLN) . ( ) – Dieng • Unit-1 (50 MW).5. electrical sales to PLN • • . steam sales to IP Unit 2 • Unit-2 (55 MW). steam sales to PLN Unit 2 • Unit-2 (70 MW).5.6 • Unit-4. electrical sales to PLN – Chevron Gunung Salak • Unit-1. steam sales to IP Unit 4. steam sales to IP • Unit-4 (60 MW). electrical sales to PLN PT GEODIPA ENERGI.3 (3x20 MW). electrical sales to PLN – Star Energi Wayang Windu • Uniit 1. electrical sales to PLN • Unit-3 (110 MW).2.2.

UTILIZATION of GEOTHERMAL FOR ELECTRICITY 2500 FUTURE 2000 1500 MW PGE 1194 MW TOTAL 1000 22.78% 500 272 MW 0 YEAR .

REGULATION .

Undang-undang Panasbumi Permen ESDM 14/2008 Harga Patokan Listrik Panasbumi Permen ESDM 02/2006 Harga Listrik Energi Terbarukan Skala Menengah PP 59/2007 Permen ESDM 05/2009 Pedoman harga Pembelian Tenaga listrik oleh PT PLN oleh Koperasi atau Badan Usaha lain .PERATURAN & PERUNDANGAN (Government Regulation) • • • • • • • • • • KEPPRES 22/1981 Pengusahaan Panasbumi di Indonesia oleh Pertamina KEPPRES 45/1991 Pertamina dapat menjual listrik ke PLN/Bdan Usaha/koperasi KEPPRES 49/91 Setoran bagian Pemerintah (Pajak pajak) sebesar 34% (Pajak-pajak) KEPPRES 76/2000 Pengusahaan Sumber Daya panasbumi untuk Pembangkitan Tenaga LIstrik KEPMEN ESDM 667/2002 Penugasan DitJen GSDM dan LPE dalam Pengusahaan Panasbumi untuk Pembangkitan Tenaga Listrik UU27/2003.

BUSINESS .

OPERATIONAL BUSINESS SCHEME Develop and Operate Steam Field PERTAMINA OWN OR WITH ITS CONTRACTOR S T E A M PLN CONSUMERS OTHER COMPANY CONSUMERS Develop and Operate Steam Field and St Fi ld d Power Plant PERTAMINA OWN OR WITH ITS CONTRACTOR E L E C T R I C PLN CONSUMERS OTHER COMPANY CONSUMERS .

TRANSACTION OF GEOTHERMAL ENERGY TYPE 1 SELLING POINT STEAM FIELD Developed and Operated by PGE (others) POWER PLANT Developed and Operated by PLN (others) ELECTRICAL TRANSMISSION TYPE 2 SELLING POINT STEAM FIELD POWER PLANT ELECTRICAL TRANSMISSION Developed and Operated by PLN (others) ( ) Developed and Operated by PGE (or and others) TYPE 3 SELLING POINT SELLING POINT STEAM FIELD Developed and Operated by PGE POWER PLANT Developed and Operated by other p y company ELECTRICAL TRANSMISSION Developed and Operated by PLN .

Sumber Presentasi Dirut PLN. Bappenas Desember 2008 .

GEOTHERMAL AS A RENEWABLE ENERGY AND DIVERSIFICATION ENERGY FOR FOSIL ENERGY SUBSTITUTION .

250 BOEPD OF OIL 100 MW INSTALLED CAPACITY 864 TONNE / DAY OF COAL ECONOMIC SUBSITITUTION PRICE TECHNOLOGY TREND OF PRICING DEPENDENCY RELATED TO INCREASING OIL AND GAS INTERNATIONAL MARKET (UNCERTAINTY) THE INCREMENTAL OIL AND GAS INTERNATIONAL MARKET WHICH IS TRIGERRED TECHNOLOGY IN COAL/BIOFUEL PROCESSING ENVIRONMENTAL INTERNALIZED ENVIROMENTAL COST RELATED TO GAS EMMISION .OIL CONSUMPTION ENERGY TO GEOTHERMAL UTILIZATION COAL CONSUMPTION TO GEOTHERMAL UTILIZATION 100 MW INSTALLED CAPACITY 4.

Masterplan Team.74) Total (¢/kWh) 8.7 Oil (Diesel) 12.7 77 6.0 0.22 2.96 519 26.1.01) (0.500$/ton (*4) ‘@ 10$/ton Emission of Pollutants Sulfur dioxide Nitrogen oxide Carbon dioxide (lb/MWh) (*1) (lb/MWh) (*2) (kg/MWh) (*3) 0.00 4. Coal : 35 US $ /ton.7) *3 Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry.39 4.52) (0.7 Geothermal 11.9 Oil (Diesel) 17.01) (0.6U$/MMBTU from table below ditto ditto 8.Current State and Challenges Is geothermal an expensive energy? If we consider the fuel export effect and the environmental cost.8 1.2001 Nov) (See Fig 1. 45.00 15 0.00 0.38) (0. /t LNG 8.98) (0. Japan CRIEPI Review No.0 1.00) (0.33) (0.31 975 14.00) (0.1 Coal 10. Feb 2007 .02) (0. April ( (Source) ) *1 A Guide to Geothermal and the Environmental: Geothermal Energy Association USA (2005) See Fig.8) *4 US Emission Market 2006.g gy expensive energy for the society Item Selling Price Loss of fuel export opportunity cost Environmental cost (¢/kWh) (¢/kWh) (¢/kWh) Geothermal Hydro 11.00) (0.34) (0. geothermal energy is not p .00 742 Price of Emission ‘@ 700$/ton (*4) ‘@ 2.8 Natural Gas 7.49) (0.6 Remarks In case of IRR=18% Oil 50$/BBL.0 Coal 5.1 17 1 8.01) (0.6 Natural Gas 0.5 11 5 0.45) (0.6) (Source : JICA Geoth.5 Hydro 9.7 87 0.5 55 1.35 0.Dev.1.0 (Sulfur dioxide) (Nitrongen oxide) (Carbon dioxide) (¢/kWh) (¢/kWh) (¢/kWh) (0.00 11 *2 A Guide to Geothermal and the Environmental: Geothermal Energy Association USA (2005) See Fig.

ENERGY REFORMATION Decreasing of Oil and gas Resources Dependency of consumption Coordination Consumption crude Controling oil for of energy Energy Broker Action Export Import Transportation /Tanker Insurance ENERGY CRISIS (Oil and Gas) Apreciation f i i for using of non crude oil i f d il consumption Fiscal Business Price Diparsity Sensitive Smuggling Surrounding Non oil and gas Energy Resources Coal Nuclear GEOTHERMAL Market (consumer) Added Value Economical Accupation p opportunity Utilizing Partisipation Togetherness/ Justice KEN (PP No. 5/2006) : UTILIZING OF GEOTHERMAL ENERGY ~ 5 % ENERGY MIX ON 2025 . 3/2005. PP No.

solar & wind Clean Energy – Environment (renewable energy) Crude oil. gas & Batubara (un-renewablet energy) geothermal Perbandingan penggunaan energi : RENEWABLE Vs UNRENEWABLE source : GEOTHERMAL EDUCATION OFFICE . water.Geothermal Energy Vs Fuels + Coal Geothermal.

ETC ROAD.GEOTHERMAL ENERGY’S CONTRIBUTION DIVERSIFICATION FUEL (CRUDE OIL) THRIFTY ≈ 2 JUTA SBM PERTAHUN DEMAND OF ELECTRICITY BY INDUSTRY AND SOCIETY WATER HEATER(OFFICE & COMMUNITY) AGRI CULTURE MUSHROOM CULTIVATION. BRIDGE TOURIST DESTINATION EDUCATION ELECTRICITY DIRECT USE INFRA-STRUCTURE .

THANK YOU .