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Computer-assisted curriculum

Patent 6334779 Issued on January 1, 2002. Estimated Expiration Date: ABSTRACT CLAIMS DESCRIPTION FULL TEXT January 5, 2018.

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Patent References
Teaching machine Electronic learning machine which is capable of giving learning problems matching the student's scholastic ability Interactive computer aided natural learning method and apparatus Intelligent education and simulation system and method Learning machine Instructional system for improving communication skills Method and apparatus for automated learning and performance evaluation Remote teaching system Computerized repositories applied to education Inventor


Siefert, David M.

NCR Corporation


No. 003525 filed on 01/05/1998
US Classes:

434/322, 434/323, 434/335, 434/350, 434/362

Primary: Nguyen, Hiep T. Assistant: Rovnak, John Edmund

Attorney, Agent or Firm

Welte; Gregory A.

International Classes

G09B 003/00 G09B 007/00
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The invention concerns computer-assisted education, in which a school curriculum is stored in computer repositories. A learning profile is maintained for every student, which indicates the student's capabilities, preferred learning style, and progress. Based on the profile, an Intelligent Administrator (IA) selects appropriate material for presentation to the student during each learning session.The IA then assesses whether the student has mastered the material. If not, the material is presented in a different way. If repeated different presentations fail to instill mastery, the IA establishes a video conference between the student and a professor.

I claim: 1. An automated educational system, comprising: a) multiple computer means for storing multiple curricula, in which i) each curriculum includes multiple subjects, and ii) each subject includes multiple topics, iii) some topics include different teaching strategies; b) profiles which describe learning characteristics of a student;

c) a progress record for each student, which indicates the student's mastery of each topic; and d) communication means for i) presenting material to the student from a selected one of the multiple computer means and ii) receiving input from the student. 2. A system according to claim 1, in which a) periodic learning sessions are given to each student from a selected one of the multiple computer means; b) an administrator means selects topics for each session from a selected one of the multiple computer means, based on a progress record of the students, wherein said administrator means includes a system of programs and computer objects. 3. A system according to claim 2, and further comprising means for updating the progress record, based on performance of the student in each session. 4. A system according to claim 1, in which the communication means comprise inputoutput devices located remote from the computer means. 5. A system according to claim 4, in which the input-output devices comprise computers, which link with the multiple computer means via one or more cellular telephone channels. 6. A system according to claim 1, in which periodic learning sessions are given to each student, and further comprising an administrator means which includes a system of programs and computer objects: e) for identifying lessons to be taught in each session, based on the student's profile and progress record; and f) for ascertaining whether multiple teaching strategies are available for topics within the lesson and, if so, selecting a teaching strategy, based on information contained in the profile. 7. A system as claimed in claim 1 including means for establishing a video conference with a selected student. 8. A system as claimed in claim 6 including means for establishing a video conference with a selected student.

RELATED APPLICATIONS U.S. Ser. No. 08/670,294, entitled "Ordering and Downloading Resources from Computerized Repositories," in which David M. Siefert is the inventor, filed on Aug. 21, 1996, and issued as U.S. Pat. No. 5,699,526 on Dec. 16, 1997, which is a File Wrapper Continuation of U.S. Ser. No. 08/217,062, filed on Mar. 24, 1994, abandoned. U.S. Ser. No. 08/217,063, entitled "Automated Updating of Computer Software," in which David M. Siefert is the inventor, filed on Mar. 24, 1994, pending. U.S. Ser. No. 08/700,921, entitled "Future Boolean Searching of Multiple Repositories of Resources," in which David M. Siefert is the inventor, filed on Jan. 3, 1996, abandoned on Mar. 11, 1997, which was a File Wrapper of U.S. Ser. No. 08/217,066, filed on Mar. 24, 1994, abandoned. U.S. Ser. No. 08/798,446, entitled "Security Aspects of Computer Resource Repositories," in which David M. Siefert is the inventor, filed on Feb. 10, 1997, allowed on Jul. 16, 1999, which is a File Wrapper of U.S. Ser. No. 08/217,067, filed on Mar. 24, 1994, abandoned. U.S. Ser. No. 08/217,422, entitled "Launching Computer Program Upon Download of Data Created by Program", in which David M. Siefert is the inventor, filed on Mar. 24, 1994, and issued as U.S. Pat. No. 5,564,043 on Oct. 8, 1996. U.S. Ser. No. 08/217,476, entitled "Computer System for Management of Resources," in which David M. Siefert is the inventor, filed on Mar. 24, 1994, allowed on Aug. 11, 1999. U.S. Ser. No. 08/218,024, entitled "Multiple Repositories of Computer Resources, Transparent to User," in which David M. Siefert is the inventor, filed on Mar. 24, 1994, and issued as U.S. Pat. No. 5,721,906 on Feb. 24, 1998. U.S. Ser. No. 08/334,775, entitled "Computer-Assisted Education", in which David M. Siefert is the inventor, filed on Nov. 4, 1994, allowed on Aug. 9, 1999. U.S. Ser. No. 08/334,776, entitled "Computerized Repositories Applied to Education", in which David M. Siefert is the inventor, filed Nov. 4, 1994, and issued as U.S. Pat. No. 5,810,605 on Sep. 22, 1998. U.S. Ser. No. 09/002,999, entitled "Computer-Assisted Education Using Video Conferencing", in which David M. Siefert is the Inventor, filed Jan. 5, 1998, allowed on Aug. 9, 1999, which was a Continuation of U.S. Ser. No. 08/334,777, filed on Nov. 4, 1994, abandoned. U.S. Ser. No. 08/334,778, entitled "Automated Lesson Selection and Examination in Computer-Assisted Education", in which David M. Siefert is the inventor, filed on Nov. 4, 1994, and issued as U.S. Pat. No. 5,904,485 on May 18, 1999. U.S. Ser. No. 09/003,000, entitled "Selecting Teaching Strategies Suitable To Student In

. using the existing public-access telephone system. pending. 1 illustrates a simplified form of one architecture which can accomplish the objectives of the invention. Large schools have evolved. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. without imposing the longdistance travel on students. 2 illustrates a high-level logic flow of the presentation of a lesson under the invention. or more. to attend classes. which serve wide geographic areas. FIG. 08/334. Ser. The invention concerns computerized systems used for education.S. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Many school systems have become highly centralized. It is desirable to offer the diverse curriculum. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION Highly Simplified Overview FIG.799. centralized school is that a vast. a system of computers store lessons which-are transmitted to computers used by students. No. and selects appropriate lessons for the student at the time. diverse curriculum can be offered. the invention assess the students' progress. The geographic area covered by some schools is so wide that certain students must make a round trip of one hundred miles. Another object of the invention is to provide formal education by the use of computers. An object of the invention is to provide formal education at geographic distributed sites. At intervals. filed on Jan. 5. in which David M. 1 illustrates one conception of the architecture of CLS. 1998. which was a Continuation of U. by which any STUDENT can gain access to any REPOSITORY. These Applications are hereby incorporated by reference. yet remain at home. OBJECTS OF THE INVENTION An object of the invention is to provide a system which allows students to attend school. FIGS. One benefit of a large. REPOSITORIES hold educational computer programs. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION In one form of the invention. Siefert is the inventor.Computer-Assisted Education". 3 and 4 illustrate a more detailed logic flow of the presentation of a lesson.

For example. and new programs will be developed as systems such as the present invention become more widely implemented. The invention provides several highly innovative features which significantly enhance the effectiveness of these teaching programs and testing programs. Educational Status Educational status refers to the student's present position in the student's educational career. some students can understand the Pythagorean Theorem directly from its mathematical statement. with emphasis on organic synthesis. The programs instruct the students in an interactive manner. Profiles One is that a PROFILE is generated for each student. such as their homes. Educational Characteristics Educational characteristics refer to the manner of teaching to which the student best responds. in simple terms. which is largely determined by the student's curriculum. For example. namely. and presents material in a manner compatible with the characteristics. the lessons needed by a college sophomore having a curriculum of college chemistry. That is. thereby eliminating the need to travel to a physical facility to attend classes. as discussed more fully below. a description of (a) the present educational status. secondary-school freshman is one status. the invention identifies learning characteristics of each student. Educational Needs Educational needs refer to the instruction needed by the student at the time. The students need not be present at the REPOSITORIES. (b) the educational needs and (c) the educational capabilities.Students obtain access to the programs needed. in order to determine the students' master of material. of the student. third-month. As adapted to the present invention. are also commercially available. As a simple example. but station themselves at convenient locations. Programs which test students. via the NETWORK indicated. . the PROFILE is. The invention uses the educational status in deciding what material to present the student at a given time. PROFILES are discussed in the Related Applications. The Educational Programs The teaching programs themselves are commercially available. are known.

For a "right-brain" student. the characterization of learning style of a student is not a perfect science. 2. Two. if required. Different Presentation of Given Lesson The invention includes educational programs which present a given lesson in different ways. For example. and done nonintrusively. to indicate progress made during the session. based on the learning characteristics of the student. there may be no perfectly . This updating is automatic.hypotenuse2 =side12 side22 Other students do not obtain information from such an abstract statement. For instance. right-brain" conception of human thinking. wherein the left-brain is believed to manage logic. computer-assisted examination of the student. Different Presentations of SAME Lesson for SAME Student The collection of presentations can be used to offer different presentations to a given student. Three. if the student fails to master a lesson when presented the first time. The selection is made based on the PROFILE. at each students' learning session. the invention selects a suitable manner of presentation from the collection. even if the classification of learning style becomes perfected. in order to accommodate the fact that different students assimilate material in different ways. it is expected that a given student does not maintain constant learning characteristics at all times. One. The PROFILE is updated. even if the learning characteristics never change. The invention uses the PROFILES to select material to present to the student during each session. and must see the Theorem applied to specific examples before they understand it. Three reasons exist which indicate that this approach may be desirable. the subject matter of some lessons may not be amenable to the learning style preferred by the student. and standard psychological assessment. 1. because different students have different learning characteristics. and the right-brain manages creativity and imagery. it is not clear that a perfect match can always be made between a style of presentation and the learning characteristics of the student. Different Presentations of SAME Lesson for DIFFERENT Students As discussed immediately above. The preferred learning styles are ascertained by a combination of student-counsellor interviews. Thus. there exists a "left-brain. there may exist no directly compatible teaching strategy for explaining "left-brain" subject matter. This collection of different presentations allows implementation of two teaching approaches.

In addition. the IA assesses the performance of the student. selects the proper lessons for each session. taking the form of a system of programs and computer objects. The IA itself can call upon its own SUBJECT MATTER EXPERTS when it encounters a condition which its programming and organization cannot handle. in a continual and non-intrusive manner. organizes the instructional activity. such as the CLS system described below. updates the PROFILE. Establishment of the video conference is allowed by commercially available systems. With no such restrictions. Ohio. The video conference allows the SUBJECT MATTER EXPERT to identify the difficulties encountered by the student. the SUBJECT MATTER EXPERT can be located anywhere in the world. and also described in the Related Applications. because such experts are a rare species. CLS provides the systems to allow the remote access and video conferencing described above. 1.compatible teaching strategy to explain the principles of artistic color theory to a rightbrain student undertaking a curriculum of nuclear physics. . the invention establishes a video conference between the student and a SUBJECT MATTER EXPERT. This feature allows Subject Matter Experts of the highest caliber to be obtained. Dayton. the invention presents a given lesson in successive. and not easily located. if the student does not master the lesson the first time. Linked Computers. except that the expert must be able to establish a communication link with the system. IA. CLS places no geographic restriction on the location of the SUBJECT MATTER EXPERT. different ways. CLS Uses Multiple. and to offer coaching. Subject Matter Expert If a student fails to demonstrate mastery of a lesson after a prescribed number of attempts. The IA does the following: examines the PROFILE of each student. and patches up the student with a SUBJECT MATTER EXPERT when necessary. Intelligent Administrator An INTELLIGENT ADMINISTRATOR. Therefore. and will then consider in greater detail the PROFILES and the IA. This discussion will explain some of the relevant features of CLS. administers examinations to the students. Greater Detail Concerning Invention Invention Utilizes Commercially Available Equipment The invention can be utilized in conjunction with the information management system sold under the trade name "Continuous Learning System" (CLS) and available from AT&T Global Information Solutions Company. The SUBJECT MATTER EXPERT is a consultant who is expert in the subject matter of the lesson causing difficulty.

A REPOSITORY includes one . or wireless links. The micro-computers are located at locations of the users' preference. the automated retrieval capabilities of CLS become significant. Entire Curriculum can be Stored. The micro-computers connect with CLS by data links. However. it is expected that the invention will utilize downloadable RESOURCES primarily. Static and Dynamic Resources RESOURCES consist of anything which has potential value in terms of recovering knowledge. information which can be downloaded. RESOURCEs include. Two examples of RESOURCES which are NOT downloadable are (a) a 35 mm film and (b) a book. such as the State-of-the-Union Address of the President of the United States. when television news media cover an event in real time. Storage facilities in CLS are called REPOSITORIES. such as a disc. Two examples of downloadable RESOURCES are (a) a computer program. These features are described in the Related Applications. This time is considered negligible. because the vast storage ability allows the invention to hold a curriculum of truly immense proportions. or vehicles. hard-wired telephone channels. computer applications. namely. for example.In CLS. computer-managed instruction. at the time of recovery. highly advanced. RESOURCES also include SYSTEMS. The RESOURCES discussed above are of the static type. but came into existence at the time recovery became possible. they are pre-existing. because these SYSTEMS allow recovery of knowledge. and (b) a file stored on a mass storage medium. information contained in the Address becomes available for recovery (if the news media is linkable to CLS or an equivalent). in paper format. offices. (Of course. CLS Has Vast Storage Capability. such as the well-known. such as data. and does not render the Address preexisting. users interact with micro-computers. Dynamic RESOURCES are not pre-existing at the time of recovery. Subject Matter Experts are also RESOURCES. RESOURCES can be classified into two types. but come into existence at the time of recovery. because.or tape drive. such as their homes. it is expected that many educational courses will refer to materials which cannot be rendered into downloadable format. such as the commercially available information services known as CompuServe and Prodigy. files. such as provided by cellular telephone service. or by commercially available telephone channels. CLS acts as a storage facility for materials which are generically called RESOURCES. such as private or public data networks. The information was not pre-existing.) Non-Downloadable RESOURCES Can be Used In general. for reasons such as copyright laws. For such courses. and inexpensive Personal Computer (PC). For example. as either static or dynamic. 2. The links can take the form of traditional. RESOURCES can be classified in a different way. there is an extremely short time delay between the time of the Address and time recovery becomes possible. namely (a) those which are downloadable and (b) those which are not.

will control the RESOURCES. located at a single place. in effect. the RESOURCES will likewise be widely distributed. Resources) of REPOSITORY. As a result. In principle. or the INTELLIGENT ADMINISTRATOR. a local school district. for example. under CLS the student can.) 3. Stated in other words. Further. A second feature is that CLS allows a user to see a list of RESOURCES. or other object that runs on a processor. One reason is that the architecture of CLS centers upon the PC. or a group of micro-computers at a single location. One. if possible. CLS allows the CUSTODIAN to designate the parties who shall be granted access to each RESOURCE. CUSTODIAN of Each REPOSITORY Controls Contents (ie. However. having physical custody of each REPOSITORY has the power to load RESOURCES into storage within the computers of the REPOSITORY. and are not. Expansion of storage in PCs is simple and inexpensive. This school district will . selects a RESOURCE. When the student. Therefore. additional PCs can be added to CLS with little or no software modification: CLS is designed to accommodate this expansion. ascertain the fact that the RESOURCES reside in different REPOSITORIES. CLS Has Database Characteristics. and despite the vast total storage capability of the overall system. without limitation.micro-computer. for practical purposes. and Controls Access to RESOURCES Contained within the REPOSITORY. Under the present invention. CLS can be viewed as a type of database. as discussed below. and launches it. as though located in the storage devices of the user's own computer. In the present context. all RESOURCES appear to be located at a single. convenient location. the PCs are directly concatenable. Thus. If the RESOURCE is a computer program. if desired. but with several distinguishing features. (Of course.) The REPOSITORIES themselves can be distributed over an extremely wide geographic area. The person. CLS automatically launches it. no matter where located. to the student. (REPOSITORIES can also contain more advanced computers. the CUSTODIAN controls the contents of the REPOSITORY. despite this geographically distributed storage of RESOURCES. there is no practical limit to the amount of storage available. CLS retrieves the selected RESOURCE. which contain the curriculum for the students. this feature is important. However. and allows the user to select a RESOURCE. because the REPOSITORIES are linked by CLS. Further. because the RESOURCES include educational computer programs. That is. such as main-frames and mini-computers. CLS allows the user to deal with all downloadable RESOURCES as though physically present on the user's computer. they can be spread world-wide. several school districts can maintain their own REPOSITORIES. to which the user is allowed access. because they are stored in the REPOSITORIES. the user sees all RESOURCES. the storage capacity of CLS is. 4. or agency. in fact.

c) information about physical characteristics of the RESOURCE (media type. the LEARNING PROFILE generation will probably be undertaken in a procedure which is a hybrid of these two examples. In practice. CLS itself can administer known. but the PROFILEs serve a function similar to that of the cards. e) security-related information. etc. standard tests. and develop the LEARNING PROFILEs without intervention of a counsellor. such as film and video tape.). The PROFILE contains. the books. LEARNING PROFILE Creation The LEARNING PROFILE can be created in numerous different ways. for example. For example. A "RESOURCE PROFILE" is a collection of information which describes a RESOURCE. Each RESOURCE Has a PROFILE.control access to the RESOURCES. a discussion is given regarding learning strategies. At the end of the Specification. 5. b) the REPOSITORY containing the RESOURCE. and can grant access to students of other districts. in a manner discussed in greater detail below. The LEARNING PROFILEs conform to the PROFILEs used by CLS for RESOURCEs generally. constitute RESOURCEs. The PROFILEs are somewhat analogous to the cards of the card catalog of a library. to distinguish them from RESOURCE PROFILES. Adaption of CLS to Education A LEARNING PROFILE is generated for each student. the RESOURCEs include a more diverse array of media types than a library. paper book. such as computer disc. and contains additional material relevant to LEARNING PROFILE generation. such as date of loading into the REPOSITORY. a) a descriptive title. if desired. As another example. The LEARNING PROFILES can be arranged to follow the students through their entire careers. In a library. standard psychological testing techniques and personal interviews can allow a counsellor to generate a LEARNING PROFILE. d) relevant dates. which describe RESOURCES. and other media. . In CLS. subject to legislation regarding privacy of the content of the LEARNING PROFILES. and not students. and these are called LEARNING PROFILES. video tape. f) and so on. The student-PROFILEs contain information about the student which is relevant to the INTELLIGENT ADMINISTRATOR. which is loaded into CLS.

younger students. As an example. all students tend to be given similar courses. the student does not initially study complete songs. From a more focused viewpoint. In contrast. the present standing refers to the courses presently being taken. if not all. Preferred teaching strategies. At the end of the Specification. namely. There is very little added cost in making the individual attention available to additional students. or status. their intensity. single notes. and the student is instructed accordingly. Under the invention. would recognize this fact. the Suzuki method of teaching piano illustrates one teaching strategy. Student's curriculum. can be given individualized attention. One reason is reduction in cost: the invention contains the vast array of lessons needed to provide individual attention. their duration. under another method. Under this strategy. Both methods have their advocates and critics. The invention allows education to be tailored to individual needs. Even very young students can be given a "major" if desirable. The invention." One benefit of the invention is that all students. but instead studies the components of songs. the present standing refers to the present educational level of the student. Without considering the debate itself. For these students. each student's PROFILE contains an indication of the student's preference. or another approach. From a lifetime viewpoint. different teaching strategies are available for most. or "major. and the progress made in each. That is. a teacher coaches the student. teaching strategies are discussed. the student plays complete (though simple) songs. . which indicate the student's present standing. while reading sheet scores of the music. in present educational systems. such as those in the earlier years of primary education. the present standing will indicate the number of lessons successfully completed. or college sophomore. Student's present standing. such as for the Suzuki method. and so on. While the student plays. at all educational levels. The PROFILEs contain a statement of the student's previous accomplishments. In general. students listen to recordings of piano music played by a master. For example. education tends to be non-specialized and generic. and then imitate the master by playing the music themselves. subjects.PROFILE Content The LEARNING PROFILES contain information such as the following: 1. in a high-school course in algebra containing 60 lessons. it seems reasonable to assume that neither method is perfectly suited to all students. Right from the start. are usually not given specific curricula. at all levels. 2. such as fifth grade. if called upon to teach piano. 3.

are commercially available today. and perhaps thousands. Significant personalized information. in many. . if not most. assume that a given student is undertaking a course in calculus. Based on PROFILEs. Calculus textbooks present material in a sequential manner. The PROFILEs. in general. A simple assessment of level of competency of a student can be done by determining in which chapter of the textbook the student's mastery ends. to accomplish this goal. The PROFILEs contain information such as that described above. or level of competency. As another example. the IA assesses a student's current standing within a curriculum. and determines the skills required for the student's present advancement. This is perhaps a sub-class of preferred teaching strategies. or in conjunction with an SME or other consultant. subjects. because the goal of the overall education process is to enhance ability to perform. Intelligent Administrator The Intelligent Administrator (IA) is a system of computer programs. in the sense that mastery of earlier material is required as a prerequisite to understanding later material. It is significant that the source of a student's knowledge which determine the level of competence is not germane to the assessment process. Level of competency can be determined. For example. wherein the order cannot be changed. and hundreds. based on a demonstration of level of competency by the student. a student who has a photographic memory may find that learning the vocabulary of a foreign language is an extremely simple task. The IA does the following: 1. There are numerous types of such programs. assume that the student is undertaking a course in gas turbine engine maintenance. plus additional information required. For example. A student's level of competency can be assessed by determining how much of a given sequence the student has mastered. Many maintenance procedures involve sequences of events. As another example. transparent manner.The present standing provides specific information for CLS to use in determining what material to present to a student during a given session. The assessment process seeks to determine a level of performance. or facilitate teaching. In the context of education. by assessment in a hierarchical fashion. RESOURCEs include a significant number of computer programs which teach. This section contains information about unique attributes of the student which either present difficulties in teaching the student. RESOURCEs include all materials made available by CLS. facilitate the IA's matching of the students' needs with the RESOURCEs which are suited to those needs. The present standing is preferably ascertained in a non-intrusive. RESOURCEs In general. a student who has a hearing impairment may require special lessons. which can operate alone. 4. as compared with a student having hearing abilities within the norm of a standard population.

) 3. standardized testing approaches. (In the general case. because of the capabilities of CLS. After each group of twenty is presented. A more rote-minded approach would be based on the fact that different teachers themselves probably make different presentations of a given topic. Different presentation of a given lesson was discussed above. One form of the invention includes the following components: a) CLS. b) The educational programs. and prompt the student to end a lesson when the rate is seen to significantly falter. say ten. The IA logs the time required by the student to learn each group. In the section entitled "Teaching Strategies Generally.For example. The IA locates the RESOURCEs necessary for the required lessons. the IA attempts a different teaching strategy. If that fails. and are used if the first-chosen strategy does not produce results." located below. then the IA patches the student into a Subject Matter Expert. Therefore. references are discussed which elaborate on the concept of different learning behavior of different students. the IA locates the multiple RESOURCEs which represent the multiple strategies. The lessons can be arranged such that learning is presented in groups of twenty concepts. The ten different lessons will provide ten different presentations for the collection of presentations. The invention measures the rate of learning of the student. lesson 13 can reside anywhere within the overall CLS system. Since multiple teaching strategies are available. 3. an assessment of the student is done. say thirty percent. Additional Considerations and Characterizations 1. the IA decides that lesson number 13 should be given next. including the different presentations of a given subject. Based on this assessment. although they can be. and that the student has successfully completed 12 of 60 lessons in analytic geometry. These references provide the general principles of creating different presentations. the IA may determine that a given student stands at the beginning of the junior year in high school. Lesson 13 will probably reside in the local school district's REPOSITORY. When the time falls below the best time by a predetermined amount. In this example. the IA would locate lesson 13. . identified above. these RESOURCEs will not be located in the same REPOSITORY. For example. such as biology. This assessment can be done by using known. the task of each writing a lesson explaining a topic. The IA assesses whether the RESOURCEs are successfully imparting the knowledge desired to the students. 2. given by computer. 2. one approach to generating the different presentations is to assign a number of teachers. suppose that a student is studying a subject which is memorization-intensive. but. after a predetermined number of attempts.

5. many of them congregate and compare opinions on the exam. is available. As an example. The distributed aspect of learning is important. The video conferencing feature of CLS allows a SUBJECT MATTER EXPERT to teach small groups of students. Other students prefer to have material presented in graphical format.which are commercially available. A." using a Communicator. Some students prefer to read material. Under the invention. Two learning styles are discussed herein. such as in a waiting lounge at an airport. Three examples are the following. A good example of this distinction is found in Gray's Anatomy. others prefer to hear an explanation of material spoken by a teacher. e) The SUBJECT MATTER EXPERTS. based on A) profile of student and B) success of previous lessons. a newly hired business person must learn certain internal procedures followed within the hiring organization. but by way of video conferencing. The business person can now learn how to fill out the expense "form. and the students to confer with each other. having mastered the procedure. 6. Then. either in writing (which is read) or in speech (which is heard)." There exist other distinctions in approaches to explaining subject matter to a student. or to an equivalent. d) The INTELLIGENT ADMINISTRATOR. c) PROFILES. (In a highly simplistic sense. after students in an ordinary school take an examination. A student can undertake learning at any location. at any desired location. or can be developed based on known principles. the person can fill out needed "forms" at any location whatsoever. such as a PC and a modem.) This instructional program is made available via CLS. namely. provided a link to CLS. . the program can merely repeat the text of written instructions which undoubtedly have been written. The details concerning implementation of the INTELLIGENT ADMINISTRATOR are known. provided a Communicator is available to link with CLS. such as filling out expense account forms. It is known in the art how to write a program which explains how to fill out such a form. "holistic" and "linear. 4. Some students prefer to have material presented in a verbal format. which primarily i) selects different teaching strategies. For example. B. which are developed according to the teachings of this Specification. given the mission of the IA as described herein. or an equivalent. similar behavior is possible.

C. and since the entry adventure should catch their interest and create enthusiasm for the coming year's studies. so the age. Sheldon at Harvard in the 1930's and 40's. Learning Speed The student's learning speed can be measured by how long it takes a student to solve a given problem. will influence the choice of entry adventure presented to the student. The invention then ascertains the student's preferred learning style through an entry adventure. There is another version which is primarily graphical. 1949. and is replete with pictures.) Physiology Can Correlate with Learning Speed There has been some research pioneered by W. 310-320).) Each student can take a new entry adventure every year. since girls and boys differ in their intellectual and social development. and previous learning completed in school. of interest to him. This information allows the AI to place the student in the proper grade. age. on the correlation between body type and learning characteristics.C. mesomorph (compact and muscular) and endomorph (large and or overweight). In this adventure students solve a problem. pp. The choices made indicate their comprehension speed and favored style of learning. Sheldon delineated three body types. or last grade completed. The invention can tally the total time elapsed for the student to solve the problems. some students prefer to see a demonstration. and contains few pictures.Two versions exist: there is a version which is primarily textual. the problems will provide information and then require the student to apply it in situations which require different levels of complexity and integration. Several problems will be embedded in the adventure. research has shown that even above-average students differ in their learning speed. others prefer to hear a description of the principles of that demonstration. Also. also defines three basic physiological types in a manner similar to . or pursue an adventure. Profiles and Learning Strategies One approach to Developing a Learning Profile The invention obtains necessary data from the student. (Different adventures will be given to students of different age. (This learning speed measure is different from IQ measurement. or to perform an assigned task. (Smith. Chopra has pointed out that a particular traditional medical system. and compare the total to the norm for that grade in the student's school district or region. such as name. based on the embryonic source of tissue: ectomorph (tall and skinny). different versions will be used for boys and girls. More recently. When technique is being taught. to ascertain whether the learning characteristics have changed.

S. then the measured physical parameters are used to indicate the learning characteristics of subsequent students. Entwistle (1981) writes about Pask's research categorizing students as "holist" or "serialist. Therefore. over time. pp. asserts that "the most widely examined" cognitive style is the continuum of field dependence/independence (Breland. the identification of learning characteristics can be made based on-the physiological parameters. (1977) which indicates that fieldindependent college students tend to major in the sciences while the more fielddependent students gravitate toward majors in education (p. Then. According to Chopra. refers to the way in which a student prefers to organize his or her thought processes--his or her preferred mode of thinking. There are a few different approaches which could be used. 38). Further. For example. some students (endomorphs) learn slowly but retain knowledge quite well. Preferred Style of Learning There is much written in educational psychology about learning styles. or derive. Hunter Breland. (Chopra 1990." The serialist style is called operation learning. called comprehension learning. involves "building descriptions of what is known. usually referred to as "cognitive styles. When correlations are found. the INTELLIGENT ADMINISTRATOR looks for correlations between learning speed. When correlations are found. which are presumably easier to ascertain. He quotes a study by Witkin et al. rather than testing for the characteristics themselves. there is evidence in primary education to support the fact that different teaching methods are effective to different degrees for students with different . the invention can be used to validate. or learning style. Known statistical techniques provide the correlation. a research psychologist for the U." The holist learning style. etc. p. physical examination of students may provide data indicative of learning characteristics. 38). and the parameters. a standard set of physiological parameters of students are measured and placed into the PROFILES. The basic difference between field dependent and field independent problem-solver is that the former tend to depend on cues from the environment to solve the problem. "the facet of the learning process concerned with mastering procedural details. 1981.. while the mismatched students generally scored less than 50% correct. but by far the largest body of research shows that learning style preferences usually fall into one of two groups.Sheldon's. 33-41). Known medical and public health techniques list these standard parameters. and others who learn quickly tend to forget just as quickly (ectomorphs)." Cognitive style." (p. correlations between measured physiological parameters and learning behavior. stereotyped as artistic or scientific thinking. national Educational Testing Service. the results were notable: the matched students were able to answer most of the questions regarding the lesson. and the latter tend to rely more on internal cues. Entwistle's conclusion is that although teachers will never provide as extreme an example of mismatching. 93) When Pask assigned students to either a matched or mismatched learning situation. preferred learning style.

External conditions are often in the form of verbal directions which guide the combination of simpler skills into a new integrated whole. procedure). feelings) or "left brain" skills (logic. he/she will be branched into a curriculum which favors explanations and examples in that style.g. the primary internal condition is that the student have prerequisite skills which provide the components of the new skill being learned. along with their subcategories. If a student is reasonably comfortable with both. the invention should be concerned with both." The internal conditions define prerequisite knowledge or skills. imagery. internal requirements are that the learner have a good . procedural. then he or she will be branched into the standard curriculum. a student displays a dear preference for one style. And.. Examples of these. This computer program can assess whether one of these learning styles is preferred on the basis of choices made in the context of the entry adventure. which is a mix of both styles. There are a few different schemes for classifying the necessary conditions for learning but Gagne's learning outcomes and conditions of learning are the most thoroughly developed and therefore the most useful in developing computer-based instruction. Gagne classified all possible learning outcomes into five performance categories: intellectual skills. All of these approaches have the same theme: the basic question is whether a student prefers to use logical.1. For the learning of intellectual skills. These are useful for design purposes in that they describe capabilities which apply across all subject matter areas. and the ideal is to be able to function well in both (e. If. an architect must think creatively to plan a house. verbal information. below. Some conditions are "internal" and some are "external. everyone must use both approaches at different stages in the solution of a problem. however. or the house will not materialize). 68). and external conditions define certain aspects of the instruction. and attitudes. 25-49). sequence. According to Gagne. The following descriptions of internal and external conditions required are derived from Gagne's The Conditions of Learning (1977. p. pp. cognitive strategies. There has been other research indicating that students differ in their preference of inductive or deductive reasoning. In terms of verbal information. analogies. structure. spatial processes. Most authors point out that many learners are flexible and can move relatively easily between the two cognitive styles. organization. linear thought processes or holistic creative (associative). but then he must also know clearly the sequence of building.personality characteristics. as most every author points out. are shown in Table 3. Delivering the Content and Mastery of the Material The curriculum must also be structured from sound learning principles. Another area of research has been whether students prefer to use what are commonly considered "right brain" skills (creativity. certain conditions are necessary for learning each of these types of outcomes. association. motor skills. taken from Gagne's Essentials of Learning for Instruction (1975. spatial relationships.

S. p. this is called "human modelling" (p. and he or she must also have previously existing "cognitive structures" (p. Especially in the case of a complicated procedure (e. remembering. carpentry. Constitution Intellectual Skill Showing how to do the following: Discrimination Distinguishing printed b's from d's Concrete Concept Identifying the spatial relation "be low" Defined Concept Classifying a "city" by using a definition Rule Demonstrating that water changes state at 100 C. most modern theories concur that more information is assimilated with each repetition (p. One way the invention will ensure mastery will be that the entire curriculum will be designed in accordance with these sound and widely accepted learning conditions of Gagne. thinking). which are then put together.g. Attitudes are expressed behaviorally. 1975. therefore one internal condition for learning new attitudes is that the learner must have mastered whatever skills or knowledge the behavior requires (e. constructing a chair) sometimes the sequence must be learned in parts. in the curriculum) requires the student to master in overall sequence and pattern of movements. Another is informing the learner of the objective of the learning.. Representing the Outcomes of Learning with Examples of Each Example of Human Performance Made Learning Outcome Possible by the Capability Verbal Information Stating the provisions of the First Amendment to the U. The most effective external condition is evidently frequent opportunities to practice strategizing.mastery of linguistic rules and vocabulary in order to understand statements presented. which makes performance more and more smooth and predictable.g.) The only external conditions which seem to be effective are that either the learner himself or a human model experiences the effects of an action as "good" or "bad. The main external condition required is repeated practice. 40). TABLE 3. or structures of meaningfully organized information which will give meaning and context to the new material presented.g. etc.. . practice refines and improves the strategies. etc. 93). Cognitive strategies refer to how the learner organizes his or her own thought processes (attention. 40). 46. knowledge of the rules in order to enjoy playing chess. given conditions of location and terrain Cognitive Strategy Originating a novel plan for disposing of fallen leaves Attitude Choosing swimming as a preferred exercise Motor Skill Executing the performance of planing the edge of a board The learning of motor skills (e. learning.1 Five Major Categories of Human Capabilities. One external condition is stimulation of the appropriate cognitive structure (usually in the form of an advance organizer).) Another internal condition is that the learner must have admiration and respect for people who are seen doing the behavior.. A third may be repeated hearing or reading of an informational passage. The internal conditions required are memory of intellectual skills and verbal information previously learned which relate to the new task presented. Higher-order Rule Generating a rule for predicting rainfall.2." A summary of the external conditions which facilitate learning is shown in Table 4. courses in drafting. from Essentials of Learning for Instruction (Gagne. According to Gagne. this focuses the learner's attention.

and a student may choose it once. Presenting verbal or other guidance to cue the learning of the executive subroutine 2. Attitude 1. The conference option with SUBJECT MATTER EXPERTS makes it possible for a . Stimulating the retrieval of previously learned component skills 2. Verbal description of strategy. alternatively. prerequisite skills or knowledge are lacking). or not at all during a unit of instruction. This first level HELP screen will allow the student to: change skill levels (learning speeds) change learning styles request another explanation request review of any previous material request a conference with a teacher Depending on the option chosen. Using a variety of contexts to promote transfer Cognitive Strategy 1. the invention will then adjust a student's learning speed up or down.The invention has two ways to help a student who demonstrates through his or her score that internal conditions of learning are deficient (e. insuring identification with an admired "human model" 2. Presenting verbal cues to the ordering of the combination of component skills 3. To avoid boredom or frustration. Performing the chosen action. TABLE 4. 2. or observing feedback in the human model Motor Skill 1. Presenting a meaningful context (including imagery) for effective coding Intellectual Skill 1. Furnishing feedback with immediacy and accuracy Students who score average or above average will be able to: go to the next unit change subjects Request a live conference with teacher Log off for now.2 A Summary of External Conditions Which Can Critically Influence the Processes of Learning Class of Learning Objective Critical Learning Conditions Verbal Information 1. or connect the student to a live video teleconference with a teacher. Giving feedback for successful performance. The first is that a HELP screen is always available at the students request. give another explanation and examples (one in the same learning style and one in a different learning style). Providing a frequent variety of occasions for the exercise of strategies. several times. Arranging repeated practice 3. a student will be able to access a HELP screen at any point during an instructional unit. Activating attention by variations in print or speech 2. or observing its performance by the human model 3. by posing novel problems to be solved. Reminding learner of success experiences following choice-of particular action. Access to this HELP screen is optional.. review specific sections in the unit (or all previous information in the unit). Scheduling occasions for spaced reviews 4.g.

student who has mastered the unit but who is curious about tangential or deeper levels of the material to ask questions while his or her interest is still fresh. he should automatically be connected with a teacher for a conference. or checks "Other" he/she will be connected with a teacher for a live teleconference. If the student requests. After this diagnostic step. the score is displayed. This will include new explanations. examples. This is the second way in which the system can assess lack of prerequisite skills. but the idea will be the same. If the student's score is still below average.) The computer system will automatically process the diagnostic results and adjust the curriculum accordingly. the student will then be given a menu screen with the choices: further study change subjects log off If the student chooses to either change subjects or log off. . and practice situations. When the remedial unit is complete. They will need to know these well so that they can give assignments within the system to cover different problems that may arise. as well as other problems. there will be one of these for each grade level. If the student chooses further study. The diagnostic check will be in the form of a question (Did you use the HELP screen during the unit?) and a menu for the student to choose from: Too easy Too hard Not straightforward enough (linear-biased learners will tend to think this about a curriculum that is too holistic) Explanations seem incomplete (holistic-biased learners will tend to think this about a curriculum that is too linear). the student could find the answer on the system at log on the next day. A student who scores below average on the unit would automatically be given a diagnostic check. the computer will automatically place him at the beginning of customized remediation for this unit the next time this subject is requested. and the above loop is repeated. If a teacher needs to research the answer. he will begin the customized remedial content for the unit. or CLS can page the student with a notice of the answer's availability. The teachers who work with this system will need to have Teachers' Guides containing all the content and resources in the system. Other (Re-wording may be necessary for younger learners.

The computer tracks how many choices it takes Johnny to solve the problem. and assesses Johnny's last grade completed in school. The testing indicated that Johnny is a slower learner who is more comfortable with a holistic learning style. The student could have a very short on-screen questionnaire immediately after the unit score is displayed. and the other uses logical. Assume that Johnny falls into the lower range. Johnny is given information of varying complexity at different points in the adventure. First he sees and hears the story which acts as the advance organizer for the year's science study: there is a benevolent extraterrestrial messenger who has been given one year to convince his superiors that the earth should be spared from destruction.The invention can be designed to provide many options. especially for the first two years of use. and the teacher could have the option of recording any comments about the content or design of the unit in the light of that students experience. the system can determine whether Johnny has a preferred learning style. Death and his forces are abroad again. Both the student and teacher should evaluate each unit of instruction as it is completed. role will be critical in guiding the student through any rough spots. Evaluation and revision must be built into the implementation of the system. Sample Lesson Johnny. The computer automatically branches Johnny into the fifth grade entry adventure for boys--the world of ancient Welsh legends. age 10. who introduces himself. and the student's preferences can lead him through the curriculum to some extent. and that Johnny call talk with him in person by choosing that option. but the teachers. To help Johnny solve this challenge. which in this case was fourth grade. no-frills explanations. He first sees a short video clip of the science teacher. two guides provide assistance: one explains things using analogies and associations. explains how the unit is structured. causing terrible damage. age. and being sure that the entire year's curriculum is completed on time. He is then asked to apply it in a number of situations. Johnny is frequently asked which of these guides he wants to ask for advice. logs on to the system for the first time. and compares this number to the norm. . where the quantum mechanical laws of nature are normally strong enough to hold him fast. CLS identifies Unit 1 of the science curriculum. brought to life again through a time warp caused by the bizarre collision of incompatible electromagnetic fields on the exact spot where the Lord of Death was vanquished centuries ago. The screen asks him to type his name. in this way. Having finished the entry adventure. linear. so he is branched into the holistic-dominant curriculum at the slower learning speed. The challenge is to find him and trap him into returning to this spot. Then Johnny begins Unit 1. and reminds Johnny that the HELP screen is available at any time.

He is automatically branched into a live teleconference with the teacher. He chooses the HELP screen and indicates that he wants a further explanation. Later in the unit. The learning outcomes expected in unit 1 also verbal information. and tells Johnny how he can get more information on the subject if he wants. Still confused after those he asks for further explanation. so that the messenger can relay the information. Johnny continues work in the unit until he has another question. ?" "Any ideas for making it better?") regarding the appeal and effectiveness of the unit. he isn't sure that he understands something and he chooses "practice questions" under HELP 1. Then Johnny will see the tasks (learning objectives) that he must master for Unit 1 on Geology. it includes geological reasons why the earth. Johnny must provide information to the messenger which indicates whether the features studied have value. and the study of its geology. At the end of each lesson. or logging off. .. His answer indicate that he understands. Gagne's critical learning conditions (e. he calls up the HELP screen and selects "further explanation. The learning objectives for the year will be listed in this context. He is asked to answer three short questions ("What did you like best about this unit?" "What did you like least . presenting important ideas in context or building in occasional reviews of what has been learned) from Table 4. At that point. and are incorporated by reference. games. Johnny finishes the unit with a test of his mastery of the learning objectives for the unit. . which still doesn't clear up the problem. FIGS." This time he understands well enough after the explanations to answer the two practice questions correctly. talking with the teacher. Johnny works along in this highly--but transparently structured--learning environment until he doesn't understand something. who sets him back on track. the system presents it as his report for the extraterrestrial.Johnny's lessons examine selected features of the earth. and adventures which comprise the unit of instruction.g. is important. and are considered self-explanatory. and he is branched back into the unit. 2-4 illustrate part of the procedures described above. He is given two more explanations (one in each learning style) with examples and two practice questions at the end.2 provide the structure for the stories. but tells him that now he can also go on if he prefers. Rather than calling it a test. intellectual skills (all levels) and cognitive strategies. Then he is given the options of going on to the next unit. Johnny finishes the unit with an average score. and he is then branched back into the unit. REFERENCES . in flow-chart fashion. he remembers that he can use the HELP screen. and should be preserved. The following references describe ascertainment of a student's learning style. changing subjects.

Hilgard. 394445. 1981. D. Noel. Standards for Educational and Psychological Tests. Chopra.. Thorndike. A subject is a subset of a curriculum. Cognitive Structure. American Psychological Association. and Briggs. Gagne. The Conditions of Learning. Principles of Instructional Design. and Hagen. Ball... Essentials of Learning for Instruction. Robert L. Hunter M.C. differential equations is a subject. Theory and Measurement of Individual Differences. Scarvia. Gagne. Smith.. and Bower. Robert M. Styles of Learning and Teaching.. 1981. The Dryden Pres. Encyclopedia of Educational Evaluation. Research Monograph Number 9. pp. for differential equations. a college curriculum for a major in mathematics has a known content. a topic is the Wronskian. The College Board. Rinehart and Winston. John Wiley and Sons. Perfect Health. Winston and Sons. 1977.Anderson. William A. Rinehart and Winston. 63-65. pp. Robert M. Prentice Hall. For example.. Curriculum is the overall course of study taken by a student. 1949. Theories of Learning. Elizabeth P. 38. pp. Richard T. and Peterson. USA.. Inc. Wayne. Deepak. For example. pp. Leslie J. D. Measurement and Evaluation in Psychology and Education. Holt. D. A lesson explains one or more topics. For example. Osgood.. 36-83. University of Florida. Definitional Matters One definition of the following terms is given. 17:310-320.. Inc. Washington. Gordon H. V. for a curriculum in mathematics. 87-116. Holt. Harmony Books. 1977. 1977. New York... Ltd. Ernest R. Entwistle. Fourth Edition. 1979." Journal of Personality. 1975. 1974. Murphy. "Psychometric Checks on Hypothesis Derived from Sheldon's Work on Physique and Temperament. 1979.. Assessing Student Characteristics in Admissions to Higher Education: A Review of Procedures. Robert M.. John Wiley and Sons. and Associates. . Second edition. H. 1990. H. USA.. Gagne. Washington.C.. 1975. Jossey-Bass Publishers. Fourth Edition. A Topic is a subset of a subject.. Samuel. p.C. Scott J. Breland. Christopher.

Darren R. Schwartz -University of Colorado. 1994. What is desired to be secured by Letters Patent is the invention as defined in the following claims. or sequence. A PC using a cellular modem provides an example of a Roving Communicator. auxiliary equipment. Ndi Manber & Michael F. Hardy and Michael F. and telephone." The Harvest Information Discovery and Access System • "The Harvest Information Discovery and Access System"by C. A home television. Schwartz. Department of Computer Science. and are progressive. Patching is a term taken from the ham radio art. 1993 -San Diego." by Darren R. Progressive means adaptable to arrangement in a progression. Numerous substitutions and modifications can be undertaken without departing from the true spirit and scope of the invention. 361-374 • "Harvest Effective Use of Internet Information. University of Colorado. Hardy.3 • Frequently Asked Questions ( and Answers) about Harvest Version 1. Hardy & Michael F. Last revised on Nov. However. Version 1. Concatenable means able to be expanded by concatenation." by Peter B. 13 pages • "Customized Information Extration as A Basis for Resource Discovery. known. For example. Boulder • "Debugging Autonomously Managed Distributed Systems & The Harvest Cache and Directory Replicator. Schwartz • Technical Discussion of the Harvest System • Harvest Demonstration Brokers • Harvest User's Manual • Instructioins for the Harvest distribution: Version 1. Schwartz. communicators are not limited to PCs. can be used as communicators. and refers to establishing a telecommunication link.0 Oct. Boulder.4 patchlevel 2. when equipped with appropriate. the subjects taught in grades 1 through 5 are arranges in a sequence. ***** Other References "Harvest User's Manual"by Darren R. 25-29. Hardy & Michael F. CA pp. Roving Communicators refer to the absence of tethers which force the Communicators to be used at a fixed location. Peter B. Communicators are devices which allow remote interaction with a computer. 1993 Winter USENIX -Jan. such as the holistic style. A PC containing a modem is one example. Mic Bowman. Danzig Compute • . 3.A teaching strategy is designed to accommodate a student's preferred learning style. 1994 • "Essence: A Resource Discovery System Based on Semantic File Indexing"by Darren R. Danzig.

Nov. No. Office Administration and Automation. Lan Magazine. 1993. Don Crabb • Macintosh User's Guide for desktop Macintosh computers. Katia Obraczka. UIUCnet V6-1. 1992. University of Minnesota • "The Internet Gopher Protocol a distributed document search and retrieval protocol" Network Working Group. by Craig Danuloff.0 & 7.. Peter Deutsch. Canada. Boulder Colorado. 51-86 • "A Network Under Control. 1991. 7. Canada. Mic Bowman. 8153 Computer. Oct. University of Southern Californial. 220-229 • "Internet Resource Discovery at the University of Colorado.Science Department. Udi Manber) (co-PI.0 • Apple Inside Macintosh vol. Department of Computer Science. 17." by C. U Arizona). Mike Schwartz (PI. IRTFRD: Mic Bowman (co-PI. Peter B. California. Transarc). 1993 • "The Whole Internet"User's Guide & Catalog." by Mark Cahill. III • Brady "Inside the Apple Macintosh. 9. Danzig and Shih-Hao Li. PC Magazine." by Ruth Halpern. No. Northwestnet's Guide to Our World Online. Jan. XLVI. Schwartz. Michael F. No. Los Angeles. Second Editon.648. Second Edition. Jongsuk Ahn. 287-330 • "Evolution of the Internet Gopher. John Noll. vol. Mar.1 • "Desktop Design Series. 1985. 9. Dec. Darren Hardy (PRA. 7. Montreal. Peter B. McGill University. University of Southern California. 48-62 • "Test Drive -Inside the Document Den. Release 3. USENIX -Winter '92 • "Distributed Indexing A Scalable Mechanism for Distributed Information Retrieval. Apr. pp. pp." by Katia Obraczka. pp. September 1991. 26 (1993) Sep. Mar. vol. USC). J. Part I-IV • "The System 7 Book". University of Colorado. second edition. U Colorado). Compouter Science Department. pp. Univeristy of Colorado at Boulder. Danzig. vol. 12. US • "The Internet Gopher: A Distributed Server Information System. by Ed Krol 384.5. McCahill & Farhad X." by Jim Held & Peter Norton • Macintosh Bible. Customizable Discovery and Access System. 1." by Michael F. ClarisWorks User's Guide • Guide to Macintosh System 7. " by Alan Emtage. Issue 4 • Road Map to A/UX." the Ventana Press .UCS. University of Southern California. Montreal. vol. 170-178 • Automating Document Management. CA. LAN Technology. Los Alamitos. edited by Arthur Naiman • Claris for Macintosh. Request for Comments: 1436. Fourth Edition • "archie -An Electronic Directory Service for the Internet. for 7. Pater Danizig (co-PI. McGill University. 4. 1993 • "Fields of Files." by Ruth Halpern. pp." by Peter A. 161 Kr 1994 • Internet Passport. Technical Report CU-CS-643-93." by Ed Perratore. No. Dec.Anklesaria. U Colorado) • "Internet Resource Discovery Services. 2." by Mark P. 1994 • Harvest: A Scalable.. Schwartz. Danzig. ACM SIGIR Conference 1991. 15 pages • Exploring the Power of the Internet Gopher. 1992 • "Research Problems for Scalable Internet Resource Discovery.

Files For Divorce • WOW!!! I Just Won the LOTTERY: Now What DO I DO? . Essentialist philosophy emphasizes that common subject matter can be identified in basic curriculum areas which all pupils must acquire. These core values become the basis for the standard with which the major institutions of the dominant society evaluate their members. When these patterns become well defined (and even institutionalized) and accepted by the dominant group within a society. was advocated by Dr. advocated implementation of a subject centered curriculum. not blacks. Pai[1] wrote: In attempting to deal with its daily problems. A stable curriculum.1. The academic as well as the social expectations our schools have of the young are rooted in the core . How would each of the two educators teach learners so that the latter might progress in an optimal manner? Bagley and the Curriculum Dr. collect greatest share of public aid dollars • 10 Best Cities For-Black Women • WHY Some WOMEN Choose THE WRONG MAN Time and Time and Time Again William Chandler Bagley (1874-1946) and William Heard Kilpatrick (1871-1964) had opposing philosophies of education in the school curriculum and in the curriculum of life. Subject matter taught should reflect basic. Pertaining to stabilizing versus core values.0.• • • • • An Overview of A/UX Release 3. Bagley stated his philosophy of education. Bagley. If essentials are to be emphasized in teaching. late professor at Columbia University in New York City. Robert Corvart What Is Microsoft Workgroup Add-On for Windows Microsoft Windows User's Guide Operating System Version 3. they constitute what anthropologistGeorge Spindler calls the core values of a culture. each society develops certain patterns of behavior and attitudes that are useful in meeting human needs and resolving conflicts between individuals and groups. not subject to continuous change. Novell Netware 4. whites. In the Essentialist Manifesto.advice for lottery winners • Who gets welfare? Despite prevailing stereotype. These standards in turn become the criteria for giving people opportunities for advancement and other rewards. Chapters 1 & 2 Mastering Windows 3. printed in 1938. essential learnings for all pupils. Network Computing Product Subject centered versus an activity centered curriculum by Marlow Ediger • • • 1 2 3 • Next More Articles of Interest • JANET JACKSON'S Husband RENE ELIZONDO Reveals Their Secret Marriage.1 Concepts. Bagley. no room is then available for pupils to be involved in choosing what to learn (the objectives) as well as the order of experiences (learning activities to achieve desired ends).

usable in society.values of our society. Content in general science stresses relatively enduring ideas and emphasizes a basic in the curriculum for all students. 2. which subject matter areas are essential and contain agreed upon content for learner attainment? 1. Science. History and geography. and division. According to Bagley. 3. There are word attack and comprehension skills which need to be taught by the teacher to make good readers among pupils. subject matter which tends to change as to its exactness. Social studies is too broad in scope and attempts to relate too many social science disciplines. Obedience on the part of learners is important in order that teachers may teach and pupils might learn." . Additional basic essential subject matter advocated by Dr. Content needs to be stable in its correctness and not subject to continual modification and change. precise subject matter. William Chandler Bagley opposed teaching 1. (c) The wide vogue of the so-called "activity movement. Arithmetic contains exact. can provide pupils with vital and relatively unchanging content. These academic disciplines have endured the test of time as to theft importance. 2." (b) The disparagement of system and sequence in learning and a dogmatic denial of any value in. William Chandler Bagley believed that the school curriculum should be relatively stable in terms of subject matter taught. Pupils need to study phonics thoroughly in order to become proficient readers. as two subject matter areas. Other word attack-skills also need developing such as syllabication skills to unlock new words. Content consisting of opinions and subjective ideas was definitely not advocated as being a part of the school curriculum. Thus. even of any possibility of learning through. and causal relationships of learning materials. chronological. a continuously changing curriculum should not be in evidence once essential content has been identified and taught. However. History and geography. Selected ideas taught in the social studies are not enduring and precise. the logical. Bagley advocated that essential. the possibility of maintaining social cohesion and cultural diversity depends on the dominant group's ability to deal with value conflicts arising from divergent alternative cultural patterns. common learnings be taught rather than stressing an activity centered curriculum. 4. Activity centered methods are time consuming and do not emphasize that which is basic for all to learn. and the passing of all pupils "on schedule. Arithmetic. Bagley includes a study of grammar for pupils to become skilled in oral and written communication. Wahlquist[2] listed seven vicious trends that Bagley wrote about in essentialist philosophy: (a) The complete abandonment in many school systems of rigorous standards of scholastic achievement as a condition of promotion from grade to grade. frills and fads in the curriculum. The teacher then must teach essential learnings which all pupils need to attain. Vital subject matter here can be chosen for all pupils to gain. the core values of the mainstream society are surrounded by other alternative (minority) patterns that often challenge or at least radically differ from the norms of the dominant group. subject matter which does not contain precise. subtraction. and exact content. multiplication. 3. Consequently. All pupils need to acquire proficiency in addition. specific. Reading. Dr.

the learner with teacher help needs to actually implement a project or activity. The pupil with teacher guidance within a flexible framework may select ongoing projects and activities. Individual and committee endeavors are emphasized in the project method. Learning by doing is important. Kilpatrick was saying that the child must make his own curriculum. (g) The "curriculum-revision" movement and its vagaries. 2. pupil execution. 3. activities and experiences. when the boy made his own plan his whole heartedness of purpose was increased. For all intents and purposes. it was preferable for children to have practice in all four steps of any given project: purposing. • • • JANET JACKSON'S Husband RENE ELIZONDO Reveals Their Secret Marriage. and/or reads to carry out what was planned. then let him make his own plan. planning. Furthermore. 2. pupil judging. Tanner and Tanner[3] wrote: Nevetheless. the process of planning needs adequate emphasis. To achieve goals or purposes. pupils being passive recipients in the classroom. Definite criteria by pupils with teacher guidance must be established. and judging. when pinned down to an actual choice between the child and teacher." (f) Using the lower schools to establish a new social order. as well as evaluation procedures. it needs evaluating. Whatever is studied and achieved must involve purposes of the involved learner. Thus. dramatizes. William Heard Kilpatrick advocated the following general philosophical framework in having pupils develop projects: 1. Kilpatrick. (e) An increasingly heavy emphasis upon the "social studies. said Kilpatrick. Kilpatrick and the Curriculum Dr. After a project has been completed. pupil planning." This was Thorndike's law of exercise. According to Kilpatrick. "if you want to educate the boy to think and plan for himself. pupils learning subject matter outside the framework of learner purposes. leading to satisfaction and more learning. After adequate planning has occurred. collect greatest share of public aid dollars . also late professor at Columbia University. not blacks. William Heard Kilpatrick opposed 1. pupil purposing. executing. Rather.(d) The discrediting of the exact and exacting studies. Files For Divorce WOW!!! I Just Won the LOTTERY: Now What DO I DO? . believed in heavy pupil involvement in ongoing units of study. Dr. Thus. Kilpatrick chooses the child. as he is in his dialogue in the Foundations of Method. This was the law of effect. Granted the teacher could come up with a better plan.advice for lottery winners Who gets welfare? Despite prevailing stereotype. whites. The pupil makes. Kilpatrick's choice of child over teacher tilted his philosophical position indisputably into the child-centered camp. although it was acceptable for the child to adopt the teacher's suggestion as his or her own. learners should be actively involved in choosing objectives. 4. the pupil perceives reasons for achieving and progressing. the involved learner with teacher guidance needs to plan appropriate means to achieve an end. writes. But. The completed project needs to be appraised utilizing vital standards. constructs.

In Summary Teachers and supervisors need to analyze and synthesize content pertaining to the following questions: 1. Of course.the job of parents. a teacher determined curriculum containing essential learnings for all pupils. It is the real task we have as educators.PRENATAL TO ADULTHOOD The discussion of the creation of adult human lives can be most fascinating . Kilpatrickdid not believe that essential subject matter could be identified in the school curriculum. educators and the whole. and evaluating each project? Regardless of one's position taken on essentialism versus project methods of learning. As such.10 Best Cities For-Black Women WHY Some WOMEN Choose THE WRONG MAN Time and Time and Time Again 3. conceive a plan of what needed to be done. to the families and communities who make up our world. one might say it was a problem located in a concrete natural setting in such a way that the learner had to size up the situation. There the project was an application on the farm and home of principles learned and school. . purposeful.. and check the results. the teacher needs to provide interesting. and sequential experiences for each pupil. Pertaining to the project method. devise ways and means of manipulating materials to execute his plan. Dr. is something we all would be glad to have happen to us. wider community. with the most satisfaction.. Can essential subject matter be identified for all pupils to achieve.but this is just the clay we have to work with. In fact. and all he or she may come into contact with. Brubacher[4] wrote: The ideas of the project was not altogether original with Kilpatrick. or is learning an individual or committee matter based upon learner purposes? 2. To find the kind of things each one can do best. it had many of the characteristics of the problem. • • A NEW CHILD-CENTERED CURRICULUM FOR EDUCATION . and how well it is done can make such an enormous difference to each individual. developing. meaningful. hereditary factors have a part . which can be then molded to the optimum `shape' for the well-being of the individual. as it had already been in use in teaching courses in agriculture. To what extent might project methods be emphasized in the school curriculum? Are learners adequately mature and responsible to be involved in planning.

and open the door on what is to come. High IQ people display the irony of the supposed goal of education .to see people highly educated. for the practical tasks that occur in the life sustaining requirements of food. less dangerous. basing development on a non-linear scale of intelligence. I perceive there are three basic. although this is not a well explored area. Note that some aural (sounds) and emotional stimulation can happen prebirth. writers and musicians make life interesting. or seven stages of cognitive development. It is the progression that's important. This is supposed to make life wonderful.. employment exploration The age ranges are will overlap and build on what has already taken place. making life more comfortable. the curriculum activities are cumulative . the universe 5) Ages 11-15: self and relationships study (puberty) 6) Ages 15 -17: Development of personal gifts and interests 7) Ages 16-adult: career.GROWTH STAGES 1) Conception to mobility: explore and develop the five sensory and innate perceptions 2) Pre-school: physical exploration of familiar environment 3) Ages 4-7: developing communication skills 4) Ages 7-11: general studies . being based on human mental growth steps. clothing and shelter. . but most children will be working on these topics at the about these ages. academic and practical. Not recognising the value and worth of creative and practical intelligence. Academic people can improve how we live.exploring creation.creative. Surely education should have the goal of developing the individual to the point where young people are ready for successful entry into adult life.. or even what they can do. Creative people such as actors.A NEW MODEL FOR INTELLIGENCE Looking again at the last three stages of cognitive development. It declares that all of us are intelligent. is why I see the school system failing just about everybody in terms of discovering and developing individual capabilities. overlapping areas .. in different ways (excluding actual brain damage).the next stage will involve the previous activities plus the new ones.This is the reason I am offering a new concept for a core curriculum. I propose a radical concept. So few of them leave school feeling sure of what they want to do. even worth living. We need people working at tasks that involve good hand-to-brain function. . So. The different kinds of intelligence are valuable and needed. .each stage is built upon the last . as follows.. The format is very simple.

A New Model for Intelligence. The following thoughts are filling out and developing some of ways it can be applied. the more likely we are to succeed. makes more sense than spending most teacher time on fixing weaknesses and having everybody end up with mediocre ability. I have outlined the major thoughts in the new concept.. yet without practical people. that all did well in our present academic school system .low or high that practical ability was bred out of the human race . building homes. caring for farm animals.. For this way. However. . (sorry. day-dreaming. Readiness to move to a more complex level is determined by a perception of the child's level of interest and occupation in the activities. somewhat light-hearted article on this crucial concept. and their physical ability to be able to participate in them for increasing lengths of time.but you may like to take at look at what is on it)The article is now on my site . respected.we would have serious problems in finding people who are able to enjoy and be good at the work involved in planting and harvesting crops. not better or worse than each other. This means whether a child is gifted or handicapped. persecuted by other jealous pupils (heard of nerds?). and second-class citizens. The reason we have done this is because we only see intelligence on a linear scale . Human abilities are as diverse as human needs. We think that the higher up the scale we are.successful. Both may lack the confidence to find and train in work that is satisfying and challenging to them. see my article online called: A New Model for Intelligence. we need to approach intelligence with a much wider focus. a child-centered curriculum. To read a more detailed. -ADVANTAGES OF THE NEW CURRICULUM But the beauty of this curriculum is that activities for each stage are developed on a wide basis according to the ability of the child. sewing clothes. non-academic practical people may feel they are failures. or to a highly complex level. it is no longer available on this high IQ site . we would die. yet I know many of the very highest achievers who have such a hard time at school. and not being extended by busy teachers.they are different... resulting in boredom. mischief making. and honored. Each person has gifts and intelligence . All children will feel they will have a place in the world.. Life proves this wrong time and time again. and rich. If we were able to choose the genetic makeup of our children .either just the rudiments. At the other end of the scale. all are needed. no one fails. they will cover each stage . it should be evident that finding out what each person does best.

which is where the carer has to be firm . but in the end. I feel that when children are doing things they enjoy. an artificial environment. It may seem an easier task to box everyone into school rooms.HOW DOES IT WORK? LESSON PLANS AND CONCEPTS . This will enable more teacher time to assist the really needy children to gain communication skills. From this healthy position.. I see extremely gifted children working with others via e-mail. I have enjoyed working on a few of the beginning a variety of ways . and tiny farms and businesses with local business people helping on occasion. hopefully from the carer. we need a huge pool of activity ideas . friends etc should all have their input. The classroom is after all. and feel they can get good at. society as a whole will be poorer. The first two pre-school stages require parents as teacher.for everybody's sake! The child needs to be given time and attention. aunts. in the main. some of the discipline problems will disappear. and aims gradually to teach the child to teach themselves . But it will be up to specialists in different areas to create expansion studies. I see practical children setting up gardens.. The child’s most basic emotional needs are:. At the first level of schooling I see a practical child gain basic number and written language skills.particularly in the school situation. However. much more than by experience! They need to learn that some things (which include other people) are not to be manipulated .PRESCHOOL The curriculum is feel safe. it can start working immediately. whilst a HiQ student explores university level mathematics. with a HiQ adult as majordomo. the positive atmosphere will be a great help in discipline. . accepted and important.lesson plans . but grandparents. and this will decrease .I can see each age range working at a widely varying depth of study. It will require some new kinds of teaching material and methods.that can be made available online. or in private schools.the internet is a must. in making school an enjoyable place to learn. various languages and literature . But in home-schooling situations. .DEVELOPING THE BLUEPRINT So what we have here is a "roadmap" And from here. human nature being what it is! And there will always be problems brought from home. they can begin to explore and to manipulate their environment .and some of that will involve making mistakes and learning what isn’t safe. Not all of them of course. plus needed resources.

... doctor's surgery.take them out to touch trees and leaves and flowers. grass. learning words.see above.sand paper..some will need to be arranged . they can explore their neighborhood.. Stimulate and develop the five senses : visuals . taste and smell. some things you watch them with . and a mix of company and solitary play.. So. factory. educators and the wider community? It is simple.some things you clean. low levels of tension around the baby. vegetables. textures..g.. the local store... ideas... This kind of balance.colors . 2/ The young child . And then there's combinations . and it can begin even before birth. relatives. need ideas of how to stimulate and develop the five senses . touch . that are in the home..textures of all sorts .anything from orange peel to leather to smelly shoes!.. The home and backyard have endless possibilities for discovery and manipulation .. rocks ... the whole orange to touch....(shapes and colors...shapes. but parents will need to have some control over this .variations ... is part of what a child needs to learn. sounds.the latter will be mostly involuntary learning. They need to begin exploring the familiar environment: [including which human beings. park. what can be done at each stage to enhance our children’s learning which is the job of parents.and from the rustle of shiny black plastic strips that catch and hide the light. cats. if the right amount is given at the right time. sounds . extended family. and provide a healthy emotional atmosphere .3-5 year olds need to learn about their environment to develop knowledge of the everyday world. animals etc. who can perceive both physical and emotional states.anything from classical music to motor noises smells . mirrors .. Parents.... tissues. smells). but then the parent/ carer can take some time for themselves or others. 1/ Newborn to two year old.. day-care centres etc.. This is just the beginning . are safe to interact with!] The child will begin to physically explore and endeavor to manipulate what they can get to.... a visit to a .a good one . ice. taste . some things are set up for this .each stage should carry through to the next stage and on into life. and leave where they can get into them.e. for a healthy outlook on the world. zoo. and about people and what they do. This means that the child's needs come first. the child can explore where things have come from..with maturity.torches . pine cones..

practical. Passes will be gained by reaching a certain standard. . the beach. a reform of the examination system is taking place. the workplaces. complex toys. physical learning. or others.. Numeracy and literacy will form part of the standard necessary for a level one pass. Wider ranging television and video games access.etc. in the cupboard things . the library. The rest of the day can be given to facilitated learning at each child‘s level. behind the couch. THE FORMAL EDUCATION SYSTEM Readiness for each stage may be determined by both observation. garage . the shops. where for an hour an appropriate agerange principle is presented. with support from the teacher. that classes or individual pupils should be allowed to work through things in their own way. rather than competing with other students in any particular school.explore the grass.milk processing plant. the zoo. and with binoculars. which are designed to be passed well by most people. I think it should be respected and discussed in an open way. And although spirituality is not usually able to be included in the state school program. for a holistic approach. where deeper things cannot be avoided. the beach and river and mountain . thepersonal computer. in the case of death of friends or family. I think.. to open the doors for the exploration. the rivers.. especially these days where children have so much of interest to keep them indoors. The child needs to know "Am I safe?" and "How can I affect my world?" and the balance of these will springboard them for the next step.shops. the critter thing .the picnics at home. There are difficult times in everyone’s life. a much wider range of subjects and credits should be the under the bed. Out to the park. the stars at night. Each day should have some set activities. where students gain credits in a wide range of subjects towards a National Certificate of Education Achievement. and entry mastery tests. so an exercise program and a sport of choice needs to be part of the curriculum.introduce them to the librarian. the factory.the hut things inside and out .magnifying glass. talk. etc mean too many overweight young ones. building site. This is a stage of hands on. ask the simple questions. the earth . The parent's job is to help them learn the safety issues. the school . Physical fitness is also important in education. if appropriate. microscope. the hospital. the marae. farm.. talk the language.. For older children. Here in New Zealand. Starting with home let them get into the pot cupboard. and to to lots of neighborhood people about themselves . the plasicware .

the need will be to keep giving them steps 1 & 2 in the classroom..or number language.unless there's actual learning problems . and the seeds get into his it's learning to read. Children can learn the basics of all of these sciences. geology.. write and listen well. literature. Each of these has a great deal of extension possibilities which can carry through to the next stage as soon as a useful level of ability is reached. and basic arithmetic/ number communication.. the child who is taught to teach him/herself can come into their own. which case. fish. aural and oral. spell. They will already have lots of words .reading. not holding back those who are gifted. emotional disorders . listen carefully. with an endless supply of books. anthropology. and then people studies social. the arts etc .. and basic arithmetic . They also should learn how to speak.. There are the sciences involved in light production: physics.complete with actions of course!] And here. so that children have a pool of decoding skills. chemistry :. . they can go as far as they wish to at their own speed.phonics should be taught along with the `look and say' method. history. and an new tree grows and a bee puts pollen in a flower to make a new apple ." And itis true. [I've kept kindergarten children enthralled with a story about what happens when a fox eats an apple. then on to ecological systems. or a language that can be used in a local cross-cultural situation. The child's own historical/ nonEnglish cultural background should be drawn upon here. if they are introduced with simplicity and enthusiasm. the first chapter of Genesis is a useful list covering all topics.. .communication studies begin with the five "R's" . introduction to various sciences.. for a number of reasons....these can be teacher assisted projects .matter. write. dyslexia.. Rudiments of other languages can also be taught to most children while their tongue/ear/mind connection is still flexible. the water cycle and the atmosphere. energy.brain damage. History... . "creeping things". caves and the sea.the kind of things children want to know . dinosaurs. All the basic skills should be there by age seven .3/ School entry: 5-7 year olds.. at the same time. life sciences. the internet and other resources. sociology. 4/ 7-11 year olds: Applying communication skills to learn about the universe.with children learning to teach themselves at their own pace. where children connect a picture with a word shape.. time.. with some guidance and encouragement from their tutors. who said he was studying to find out "how God made the universe. animals. writing. Communication skills development in early school . Calling this stage "learning about the universe" is a quote from Einstein. This will do a great deal towards improving literacy standards. plant biology. speak clearly. astronomy. amphibians. geography . This will give more time to teach communication skills to those having difficulty.

and metamorphic .extension can also be through trips to more technical/ complex places. and there's so much scope. Start with light/ heat/ waves/ sound . ecosystem. Get them to draw diagrams and labels and do graphs and layouts .why does frozen water get lighter when everything else gets heavier when it becomes solid? And then some geology fun .. evidence of earthquakes in layering. Some more biology .. river systems. whales.a class timeline with pictures and labels that they note down as you tell the story .carterobs.. and write it. Then the water's up to the teacher to think of different ways . How many different species of plant/tree can they find in your locality? ..history . Space .yuck!) And now for people . talk.this isn't hands on! This is where you get all the books. read it. Help them dissect a dead animal (fresh off the road .stsci. .answer some of the `whys' etc. vegetables.the foundations of our earth. look for the volcanic extrusions. and cultural events. waterfalls . grass hair. even a senior school might have fun showing young ones some things. and videos and take them on night trips to the observatory..And then there's museums. snow.g. models.It can all be used again.earthquakes.take them out to explore banks and cliffs . and keep it varied .some might want to make models. With the sciences .what would you . Can you set up a telescope? Here's a couple of internet sites http://www. pollination.. seeds . microbes and creepy crawlies . The "5 R’s" can be incorporated into these activities rather than in repetitive.sea plants . sedimentary. thunderstorms.volcanic rocks. And geography .use imagination/ stories.. do class books.. and http://hubble.. tigers.. songs. clouds.get out the books on fish and birds..teach them new words like habitat.. on dinosaurs.the story of man . and talk. cacti..they can keep diaries. or write stories.. tidal underground caves... dramatization.html .. bean sprouts. talk.experiments. Talk it.. and find out interesting things about them. you'll never run out of material.and put order into it . or cacti. and don't need to limit it to a few means of expression ..orchids. . draw it. visit a laboratory.what do plants eat? How do they grow? How big. lots of science experiments of the most basic sort.Have children make name labels for plant collections e. and self designed personal and group projects. And plant biology . how little .. Get them to suggest ways they might want to remember.. atmospheres. gardens .get them to write careful reports .nz/carter.As you start to teach them how to teach themselves . life cycle. floods .help them think of the ..strange plants . irrelevant exercises .

try their food. as well as their obvious gifts.I've been a teacher and my class of 7-11 year olds loved these kind of activities . He may enjoy cooking.. houses. 6/ 14-15 years: Study of many kinds of skills and how they can be applied for the good of yourself and others .. where things that the child feels are of interest are pursued.'Am I practical. first aid and other simple medical procedures. give them challenges . music. visits and visitors to help develop awareness of strengths and weaknesses. home crafts . Test what kind of learning style the child has.want to know if you went and stayed with some people in another country? Food.. and learning how to control and emotions.some of the positive and negative ways used to encourage people into a wholesome lifestyle. creative. This area should have a broad approach.they would tell it all again to their parents!] 5/ 12-14 years: Learning about oneself . creating a opportunities need to be given to try all the crafts. their songs.. even if they are not quite so interested. etc. helping agencies. The child needs to know where he/ she fits into the scheme of things. -Mechanics. crime and punishment. their language. abilities. discussion groups. it can be a time when various diagnostic activities can take place. award systems. This can be a stage where the door can begin to open to the adult world. in any case). interests .note it down. The range should be across all types of intelligence. and all its joys and pitfalls. Some are just an exploration of various kinds of activities that may be used in terms of a career . and be very good at computer . They need to discover their gifts. academic or a combination?' Plus social skills . driving skills. childcare. To do this..(which is valuable for everyone to have some knowledge of. There should also be some learning and discussion of social skills and activities .. and computer/ video learning . respect differences. theirpersonality profile.physical and psychological .. a report on a science experiment.self exploration and discovery: This has to be more than human biology . carpentry.stretching the mind. [Yes . It is an intensely selffocused and personal time in our lives. abilities..experiencing all kinds of activities.employment studies. and lots of discussion groups.these make a good list to ask the people from other places as you invite them in .there is a need to relate the maturation process to each individual.. balancing accounts. instructing others.a very generalized but fullon approach to the budding adult . film making. electronics... games etc ..

and personal circumstances.. and laying them out before the children.. along with a list of topics they could choose to work on individually.. preparation and entry into employment. finding out who to see. ready .. and enjoy doing .. we are trying to find the optimum use of the basic genetic material. It should mean that no-one leaves the education system unemployable. . having a C. with a range of options to follow according to the vagaries of the job market. they made up an A5 card. rather than trying to fit in with family expectations.surely the best kind of educating. and do the best we can to achieve it. but it is much better to aim at something high. and much longer for the academic. medical school etc.. These were 7-11 year olds. and auntie thinks boys shouldn't cook. grand-dad can't stand computers. maybe the adult may write a program that can create original recipes! 7/ 16+: Discovering and choosing a career path and beginning to learn the skills that will be needed. a small class of 15-20 pupils..for instance. Remember. for instance.the morning being taken up with set reading and mathematics subjects . These may seem too disparate to pursue . I’ve been trying to analyze how I did that.mapping these choices.a private school situation. So the ideas may well be of use as out of school activities.Yet. I remember getting all the books I could find on the subject matter. It could be that. This stage is one where employment types and opportunities are actively pursued. I gave them a format . In fact. and be ready to step into the desired field by having interviews.and work experience or further specialized education in the chosen course if necessary. and where to go to. I didn't have much time to work with . with creatures. also. maybe there should be a system where special needs children only attend school part of the day?..studies. to use those skills. It is then.V. and career or work options which can use what you're good at. and will finish when the young adult moves into the workplace. titled it with the animal name. with university.but there must be an inclusive attack here. rather than exclusive. CLASSROOM EXAMPLES I’ve been thinking of my experience as a teacher . a time to discover personal placement options. This is an idealistic approach.. or in a group. and so would try and influence the child.. This stage may take only a short period for the practical minded. and had .where over a year. I got my class to teach themselves .

for the sake of being balanced in development. it is important that each of the stages are covered. The difference in the pupils work was marked . language. which can always be gained from mixed groups . We learnt songs in other languages..this time they had to do sketches and notes as I lectured them [story style]. WHAT ABOUT MAJOR EXCEPTIONS? There will be some extremes such as the intellectually handicapped. and the guests had a great time too. e. dyslexia. and will also enjoy practical manipulation tasks such as cooking or clay work.and did great on props and the actual performance. food.a bit more difficult . clothes. for even a gifted child may not know something obvious in every area.[now how often does that happen with school work! My three boys never did!] Of course. Lots of books again for them to look at was the key..and rules/government.. They also added an original picture. or a visit behind the scenes at the local shops. who can read Shakespeare at the age of three. activities and family life. There are also to be considered those that could be called severely gifted. countryside. was write and perform a musical .... For history. with just a few children you can actually go to people's homes . or those impaired in a certain area e.but they had a go at the writing .to fill out a list of subtitles : habitat.g. rather than their intelligence the range there was marked as well . . appearance.. I called it "Visiting round the world" and invited people from other cultures into the class . There are socialization factors such as patience and tolerance.from very bright to intellectually handicapped. They came up with great questions of the really important stuff . And one other thing we did. houses.. appearance. The children loved it and would go home and repeat it all to their parents .as will a handicapped child.but first the class discussed what we would want to know if we went visiting another culture.g.. For geography.but by the length of time I had had them in my class. and they had to choose to develop their sketch into a proper picture and label and paste it correctly in place.. Yet even with such children.even better! I expect the internet would be great as well. a different learning situation again. games/ hobbies. . ate strange food. schooling & health.. and then we made up a timeline on continuous feed computer paper. we did a timeline . tried clothing on. The cards were displayed on the class wall afterwards. work.

It is helpful to use creative ideas like: ."Forgot to say please? . It can be fun .and everyone does what they can to help .and you don't want them to go hungry/ thirsty] It is all worth it in the long run. Because it's better that they learn that adults are humans with needs and tolerance levels too .... Children need to feel they are an important part of the family .'Doing to others what they want them to do to them" I think that the children need to learn that Mom isn't `all that pleasant to be around' when they don't behave. which can put too much pressure on. The aim with discipline is to gradually teach children to internalise it . for instance with tidying up. sometimes knowing more than their teachers do.pick up the toy and hold it in their hand as you take it the toybox.or at least a normal part of life .with a lot of encouragement and praise."We can protect and provide for our children.Wait a few minutes and ask me again in a more friendly way" ... and not expecting the impossible..THE INTERNET AS A CLASSROOM AND COMMUNITY This is an area of particular interest to highly academically gifted children who often have a difficult time in normal school.we'll have to look after them all our lives".[it's a long time for a little one . There is a need to help them see that the world goes better for them when they behave in healthy ways . but not always a useful thing to do.. A wise lady once said .with you .than with others that have no reason to care so much.self discipline. It is jolly hard .for stage 2...who can do the most!" it can be done... we are creating adult human beings here! Peace. I like that..but start by working with them to tidy up . Discovering useful links to areas of interest through search engines is soon as they are capable . using words like "Well done. After all. It needs to be supervised THOUGHTS ABOUT DISCIPLINE . but if we don't train them . Focusing on behaviour. what a good helper!" is better that "Good person" or "Bad person!" if they misbehave.where everyone does what they can to make things nice and comfortable. in their specialist subjects. grace and joy in your work Deb What are the advantages of subject centered curriculum? • • 3 years ago Report Abuse . and "It's a race .

and is generally considered the mainstream way to conceptualize curriculum development. Best Answer . How can the effectiveness of learning experiences be evaluated?" (1949. Many educators and adult literacy students find it familiar because of its wide use in public schools in the United States. Advantages One of the advantages of the traditional approach is that students like it: they're used to it and it fits their idea of what school should be. In which students can be guided from beginning to end. with students mastering a given set of skills or procedures in a logical instructional sequence. 83). Students will learn the fundamentals to challenges in the particular subj and improve and increase knowledge this way. laid out in the introduction to Tyler's book. Learning discrete skills in a step-by-step fashion lends itself to traditional testing. .Chosen by Voters The Traditional Approach [ Subject.ncsall. in due time. Students. Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction. identify the school as the holder of power in decision making about what gets taught: 1. p. "What educational purposes should the school seek to attain? 2. but instead. The traditional approach is efficient in a field in which resources for staff development are scant. Much like a student taking notes and having a divided folder. are taught sequentially over time. centered curriculum is beneficial to students because it is intently and intensely focused area. curriculum is a cumulative process: over the course of the schooling years.. hope this helps all the very best Source(s): www. How can learning experiences be selected which are likely to be useful in attaining these objectives? 3. Program administrators can use the results of traditional tests to justify their programs' achievements. Volunteer tutors and adult basic education teachers without much training or time can easily teach from an existing curriculum. The traditional approach is also accessible." Curriculum is organized around content units and the sequence of what is taught follows the logic of the subject matter (Knowles. In Tyler's • 3 years ago • Report Abuse 100% 2 Votes Other Answers (1) • Mesha Subj. It provides a thorough and detailed view of the subj. One spiral approach..ncsall. often draws upon a traditionalist approach to curriculum. The organizing principles.centred approach} The traditional model was laid out by Ralph Tyler in 1949 in his seminal book. which students and teachers can easily navigate. The brain works in a system of categorization. in more complexity over time. tutors and teachers can point to quantifiable progress. are widely available to learners who are interested in studying on their own. While in HS students may have multiplue subjs. Test scores can be easily quantified and explained to funders as program outputs. www. Skillsbased or competency-based instruction. 1984). Commercially produced traditional curricula and materials. The approach has a "subject-centered" orientation: students gain mastery of subject matter predetermined by a set of "experts. educational experiences accumulate to exert profound changes in the learner. can also be considered a traditional approach. especially in case of adult learners. they can also draw upon commercially or locally developed materials and methods." (1949. While teachers can create their own materials using a traditionalist approach. v-vi). They don't have to wait for a class to start or fit it into their schedules. common in adult basic education. Knowledge and skills are not duplicated. and that is certainly motivating. Traditional curriculum also lends itself well to mass production: publishers can produce workbooks that break down reading or math into subskills and processes. via workbook or computer. in which learners return to topics.meenaksh. How can learning experiences be organized for effective instruction? and 4. "in the ways water dripping upon a stone wears it away.

.. realistic story. designed to ensure that the student faces exactly the right progression of challenges to stretch and build his or her abilities. Source(s): . provides a meaningful.. motivating role for the student. at the core of each SCC..This article provides a great read and here is a quote from it: .