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Basic Spanish for the Virtual Student- Page 5

2/28/12 10:08 PM

Basic Spanish for the Virtual Student- Section 5
SHORT ACHIEVABLE GOALS
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
Direct Object Pronouns Indirect Object Pronouns Commands Irregular Tu Form Commands Reflexive Verbs Days of the Week Months of the Year Sentence Structure

DIRECT OBJECT PRONOUNS
me you her him it us them me te la le lo nos las, les, los

you (plural) os A direct object receives the action of the verb.

INDIRECT OBJECT PRONOUNS
(problem here--this is more sophisticated than my current explanation) to me to you to us to them me te nos les

to him, her, it le to you (plural) os If your sentence has both a direct object and an indirect object, the the indirect object comes before the direct object. Juan Marco tiene el lápiz, pero no me lo da. John Mark has the pencil, but he won't give it to me.\

An indirect object is used for the person to whom something is told, given, or sent. Why are indirect objects confusing? I'm not a linguistics expert. I suspect that our definition of a direct object (see above) is a part of the problem. For sentences with more than just a noun and a verb, I think (I could be wrong) that there should
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Page 5 2/28/12 10:08 PM be a direct object. 6. I can't explain this one. we're going to look at examples. Now. "Do you hear that?" I asked her. I have to drink.) 10. "I told him. "Keep still". -ir) in front of you as you see the rules http://www. we need a female person. so that we'll have a distinct difference: 'la' for direct object 'le' for indirect object Lestat made his mother. and she didn't stop me. 8. "Por esta noche. We should return to the tower. it has to be received by something." (the direct object might be 'the story'. los espasmos agónicos la asaltaban. I whispered (a warning) to her. Acercar. es suficiente.) The book used dashes instead of quote marks but my html translater can't handle that so I will default to quotes. 7. The word 'sentences' was inserted into the English version because it is thought to be the implicit direct object. Gabrielle. Se deslizó entre mis brazos y la conduje lejos de su victima. etc.) 11. right? (I could be wrong." I told her.com/archive/bsvs/cosas5. I told her all about the tower. 3. COMMANDS (these words also referred to as 'imperatives') Three parts to this explanation We talk about the different types of commands--who you are giving it to is important 1. it is enough. "¿Oyes eso?" Le pregunté. :( 2. We show the conjugations 2. 'the tale'. le expliqué." I told her.. "For tonight. I noted how the panic dominated her. (Lestat asks Gabrielle. Le acerque mis labios de nuevo y no me rechazó." le susurré. it appears to me that indirect objects are used for transferring objects and information. We point out the tricks. And there her I held up between my arms and to her I spoke (sentences) while it happened. "Tengo que beber". "Guarda silencio. De nuevo. Sorry for the inconvience. To contrast direct and indirect objects. (They were sleeping under the alter in the church and when they woke there was a night time church service going on.to bring closer. 4. into a vampire the night she was dying (she's feeling much better now.) There are quite a few sentences we use that you could argue the direct object is implicit. The innocence of the victims didn't bother her at all..." So far. but has includes an indirect object. just to be sure. 'the truth'. Deseaba enseñarle el tesoro. La inocencia de las víctimas no le preocupaba en absoluto. if an action is committed.html#command Page 2 of 6 ..ilovelanguages. -er. I went to kiss her again. Y allí la sostuve entre mis brazos y le hablé mientras sucedía. Le hablé con detalle de la torre. I wanted to show the treasure to her. Noté cómo la dominaba el pánico.) "I asked her. nearer (I brought my lips to her again. 9. The death spasms assaulted her again. Tenemos que regresar a la torre" le dije. 5. It helps to have all three forms (-ar.Basic Spanish for the Virtual Student.) 1. Perhaps it is possible to have a sentence that lacks a direct object. Gabrielle was uncomfortable with the situation. She slipped into my arms and I guided her away from her victim. After all.

please sign these papers. it looks like just a matter of taking off the 'r' ¡Corre! For negative 'tu' commands. "Madame President. No command exists for the first person singular tense. sign the equal rights bill. and ustedes Trends For positive 'tu' commands. negative 'vosotros'. Regular verb commands follow the format shown below This table shows the conjugations for the various commands first person singular third person singular first person plural second person plural third person plural --ame amemos amen --corre / no corras corra corramos corran --vive / no vivas viva vivamos vivan second person singular ama / no ames amad / no améis corred / no corráis vivid / no viváis If only one word is listed it works for both negative and positive commands There are patterns to the above conjugations We haven't covered the subjunctive form yet which is used above for negative 'tu' commands.com/archive/bsvs/cosas5. you put 'no' before the command.ilovelanguages. actually) to an authority. and then for -ar change 'a' to 'es' for -er change 'e' to 'as' for -ir change 'i' to 'as' ¡No corras! You will see these same vowel-crossovers with the subjunctive For an usted command (subjunctive verb used) It's third person singular except that 'a' changes to 'e' 'e' changes to 'a' 'i' changes to 'a' the negative command is the same as the positive For a first person plural command It's first person plural except that 'a' changes to 'e' 'e' changes to 'a' 'i' changes to 'a' the negative command is the same as the positive http://www.Basic Spanish for the Virtual Student.html#command Page 3 of 6 . take the 'r' off the verb.Page 5 2/28/12 10:08 PM Command verbs are conjugated into five groups. usted. so you can't give yourself a command. you are giving a command (you are imploring." First person plural commands are of the form "let's ----" You're friend jumps on you at 5:00 AM in the morning and says "Corramos!" (Let's run!) The 2nd person plural refers to a group of your peers Come with me and see for yourselves! The 3rd person plural refers to a formal If it pleases the members of this legislature. For the second person singular tense. please. there is one form for a positive command (run!) and another for a negative command (don't run!) For the third person singular.

the third person plural command uses the third person plural subjuntive IRREGULAR TU COMMANDS decir di hacer haz ir salir ve (or) anda sal poner pon tener ten venir ven REFLEXIVE VERBS Reflexive verbs are used when you perform an action on yourself. Recently.Basic Spanish for the Virtual Student.Page 5 2/28/12 10:08 PM for a second person plural positive command. one of the native speakers who looked at the page asked me to capitalize them. but don't be surprised if somewhere you find it done the other way. However. MONTHS OF THE YEAR enero January Page 4 of 6 http://www. the negative command for the second person plural is the subjunctive second person plural. My suggestion: by default assume you are supposed to use lower case. or someone performs an action on their self A reflexive verb adds 'se' to the infinitive example: ducharse 'ducharse' is an -ar verb meaning 'to shower oneself' I think the verb 'duchar' would mean you are washing someone else in the shower cepillarse irse lavarse levantarse to brush your teeth to go to wash oneself to get up out of bed maquillarse to put on makeup DAYS OF THE WEEK lunes martes jueves viernes sábado Monday Tuesday Thursday Friday Saturday miércoles Wednesday domingo Sunday I was taught not to capitalize months or days of the week. the 'r' of the infinitive is replaced with a 'd'.html#command . Perhaps there exist places where they capitalize these words (this sentence written using the subjunctive :). I received email from an instructor asking me to change the first letters to lower case.com/archive/bsvs/cosas5.ilovelanguages.

and that's about it. proveer la Defensa común.Basic Spanish for the Virtual Student. A sentence is given below in english that has a noun. I'm not sure if something can be both or if it is both. you almost aways put the adjective after the noun. or a reflexive pronoun) usually comes before a conjugated verb. establish Justice. it should be called something else. There are lots of sentences available in frases: Nosotros. a fin de formar una Unión más perfecta. How many grammar rules can you find used here? http://www. but I think it is also a prepositional phrase. and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity. nuestros Padres(N) la Constitución(DO) nuestros Padres(N) para toda la gente(PP/IO) la Constitución(DO). estatuimos y sancionamos esta Constitución para los Estados Unidos de América. not so common Para toda la gente(PP/IO) escribieron(V) None of the textbooks I've seen so far put a lot of time into memorizing rules for sentence structure. establecer Justicia.com/archive/bsvs/cosas5.html#command Page 5 of 6 We. and then you say something more about it. V N DO verb noun Direct Object IO/PP Indirect Object or Prepositional Phrase Our Fathers(N) common common Nuestros Padres(N) Nuestros Padres(N) not so common Escribieron(v) wrote(V) escribieron(V) escribieron(V) the Constitution(DO) la Constitución(DO) for all the people(PP/IO). an indirect object. do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America. para toda la gente(PP/IO). in order to form a more perfect Union.Page 5 2/28/12 10:08 PM febrero marzo abril mayo junio julio agosto octubre February March April May June July August October septiembre September noviembre November diciembre December SENTENCE STRUCTURE There is more flexibility to sentence structure in Spanish. provide for the common defense. This is logical because first you focus on the object you are talking about. . the people of the United States. el Pueblo de los Estados Unidos. You may find a general rule here and a general rule there. An object pronoun (it could be a direct object. promover el bienestar general y asegurar para nosotros mismos y para nuestros descendientes los beneficios de la Libertad. a direct object.ilovelanguages. and something that could pass for an indirect object. insure domestic Tranquility. Little rules like. a verb. afirmar la tranquilidad interior. promote the general Welfare. para toda la gente(PP/IO) la Constitución(DO).

We see a possessive adjective used for "nuestros descendientes". comes before the adjective "perfecta". más.ilovelanguages. A demonstrative adjective is used in "esta Constitución. a fin de promover We see adjective after the noun for "Estados Unidos" "more perfect Union". a comparative adjective.com/archive/bsvs/cosas5. a fin de proveer. to promote. a fin de establecer. to provide. We see "ourselves" expressed as "nosotros mismos" and recall that nosotros is a subject pronoun later on you will come across "yo mismo" (myself) or "tu mismo" (yourself). which is the same form.html#command Page 6 of 6 . to secure The Spanish construction "a fin de" sets off the infinitives It is only used once.Page 5 2/28/12 10:08 PM For the English we notice five infinitive verb constructions to form." http://www. to establish. to insure.Basic Spanish for the Virtual Student. a fin de afirmar. but it applies to all five cases a fin de formar.