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Countable Noun
Plural Regular Irregular


Uncountable Noun
without a/an/ -s

a /an/the

Noun –s/ es

Note 1
a means/series/species – means .. a child – children a foot – feet a tooth – teeth a louse – lice a person – people a goose – geese a mouse – mice a man – men a woman – women on ox - oxen a fish - fish a carp – carp a cod – cod a salmon – salmon a deer – deer a sheep - sheep a crisis – crises a calf - calves a half - halves a knife - knives a leaf - leaves a life – lives a loaf - loaves -self - -selves a sheaf - sheaves a thesis – theses a diagnosis - diagnoses a hypothesis – hypotheses a parenthesis - parentheses an axis - axes an oasis - oases a phenomenon – phenomena a criterion - criteria a memorandum – memoranda a curriculum – curricula a bacterium - bacteria a syllabus – syllabi a cactus – cacti a fungus – fungi a stimulus – stimuli a radius – radii an appendix – appendices an index – indices a shelf - shelves a thief - thieves a wife - wives a wolf –wolves

Note 2: Twelve nouns ending in f or fe drop the f or fe and ad ves

a hoof – hooves/hoofs a safe – safes a roof – roofs a handkerchief – handkerchiefs a cliff – cliffs a belief- beliefs


NOUN 2: Compound Nouns
1. Normally the last word is made plural
boyfriends travel agents shop windows hitch-hikers traffic wardens river banks city streets corner shops street markets spring flowers November fogs church bells college libraries driving licenses

2. But when man and woman is prefixed both parts are made plural men drivers composed of noun + preposition + noun lookers-on runners-up sisters-in-law women drivers 3. The first word is made plural with compounds formed of verb + er or compounds

NOUN 3: Quantifiers
1. Many/several/various/numerous/diverse 2. A number of/numbers of 3. (A) few 4. Fewer/ the fewest >< >< >< >< Much An amount of/amounts of (A) little Less/ the least

NOUN 4: Numbers
1. a /two/three… hundred/thousand/million/billion/trillion + Noun 2. hundreds/thousands/millions/billions + OF + Noun 3. Compound adjectives A three-year-old boy A 16,000-page book 4. one/two/three percent (no –s) of Noun ; but a/the percentage of Noun


4 (1) Subject _ Verb Agreement (2) Tenses (3) Active Transitive V + Obj (4) Form a. After modal verb + Bare inf (can, could, may, might, shall, should, must, will, would, would rather, had better, have to, ought to, be to, be supposed to) V- ing ( active/ continuous tenses) b. After ‘be’ P. P (passive) c. After ‘have’ + P. P (perfect tenses) d. Gerund >< Infinitive e. Finite Verb >< Participle ( Present Participle >< Past participle) >< Passive V + No Object /Prepositional phrase (by, in, with…)

1. , 2. and 3. but 4. or 5. either …or 6. neither… nor 7. not only… but also 8. both … and 9. rather than 10. 11. whether … or as well as



1. Pronoun/Noun Agreement

they >< it/he/she/we their >< its/his/her/our them>< it/him/her/us themselves><itself/himself/herself/ourselves who/whom>< which that (of ) >< those (of) (plural)

2. Which type?
a. Subjective Pronouns (I/You/He/She/It/ We/You/They) Subject of a Verb After ‘Be’ Object of a Verb Object of a Preposition Before a Noun Before a Gerund: We are surprised by their nesting in such harsh

b. Objective Pronouns (me/you/him/her/it/us/you/them)

c. Possessive Adjectives (my/your/his/her/its/our/your/their)

d. Possessive Pronouns (mine/yours/his/hers/ours/yours/theirs) e. Reflexive Pro (myself/yourself/himself/herself/itself/ourselves/yourselves/themselves)

3. Wrong spelling ( hisself/ theirselves/ ourself/ themself) 4. The >< Possessive Adjective
Ex: His snake is a reptile. He devoted the life to science.

5. Double subject/object
Ex: Black Island in Long Island Sound it is surrounded by cold, dangerous waters.

6. Unnecessary relative pronoun >< Necessary relative pronoun
Ex: Certain types of turtles that may live as long as 100 years. The woman lives next door is too nosy.


innate >< >< >< >< possibly probably usually innately Modify the whole sentence .taste/feel/smell . I like my class . .probable . Modify prepositions/ clause markers: soon after / immediately after/ long before/ e. Before nouns Ex: an important meeting b. After ‘be’ and other linking verbs . d.general . c. Ex: A rapidly changing situation / A brightly colored dress. Ex: Ted seemed extremely curious about that topic.stay/remain ( = continue to be) .original >< >< >< >< Ex: Ex: The accident occurred incredibly quickly.turn/get/grow/go (= become) . generally basically particularly originally Generally.6 1. Adverbs a. Modify adjectives c.usual . Adjectives a.prove/find Ex: She looks . Modify adverbs: f.look/seem/appear/sound . Modify verbs: b.particular .possible . Some adjectives end in –ly: friendly/costly/cowardly/lovely/lively/ lonely/likely/ugly/early/monthly/weekly/daily/hourly/nightly/year ly/quarterly/timely/scholarly/womanly/manly/motherly/fatherly/ kindly 2. Modify participles shortly before Ex: Ann eagerly accepted the challenge.basic .

good (adj)  well (adv) VERB Differ Invent Compete Fertilize Decide Prohibit Prevent Beautify Originate Emphasize Glorify Mystify Socialize Generalize Simplify Free Construct Live NOUN Difference Invention Competition Fertilizer/fertility Decision Prohibition Prevention Beauty Origin Emphasis Glory Mystery Society Generalization Simplicity Freedom Construction Life ADJECTIVE Different Inventive Competitive Fertile Decisive Prohibitive Preventive Beautiful Original Emphatic Glorious Mysterious Social General Simple Free Constructive Live/living VERB Restrict Cultivate Empower Analyze Familiarize Popularize Classify Categorize Absent Interest Bore Fascinate Produce Necessitate Collect NOUN Restriction Culture Agriculture Power Importance Significance Analysis Familiarity Popularity Classification category Absence Interest Boredom Fascination Production Necessity Collection ADJECTIVE Restrictive Cultural Agricultural Powerful Important Significant Analytical Familiar Popular Classifiable Categorical Absent Interesting Boring Fascinating Productive Necessary Collective FIELD Music Poetry Administration Photography Athletics Philosophy Creation PERSON Musician Poet Administrator Photographer Athlete Philosopher Creator FIELD Surgery Architecture Farming Biology Theory Chemistry Politics PERSON Surgeon Architect Farmer Biologist Theorist Chemist Politician FIELD Dentistry Engineering Finance Physics Science Invention Crime/criminology PERSON Dentist Engineer Financier Physicist Scientist Inventor Criminal . high (adj)  high >< highly (figurative meaning) e.7 3. fast (adj)  fast (adv) b. Note a. long (adj)  long (adv) c. early (adj)  early (adv) f. hard (adj)  hard >< hardly d.

8 Law History Editing Magic Forecast Training Contest Discovery Lawyer Historian Editor Magician Forecaster Trainer Contestant Discoverer Humor Biography Writing Geography Hunting Dance Beauty Carpentry Humorist Biographer Writer Geographe r Hunter Dancer Beautician Carpenter Mathematics Manufacture Acting Collection Employment Competition Labor mathematician Manufacturer Actor/actress Collector Employee/er Competitor Laborer NOUN VERB ADJECTIVE NOUN Heat Light Brightness Thickness Richness Humidity Flatness/flat Height Darkness/dark White/whiteness Largeness VERB Heat Lighten Brighten Thicken Enrich Humidify Flatten Heighten Darken Whiten Enlarge ADJECTIVE Hot Light Bright/brilliant Thick Rich Humid Flat High Dark White Large Strength Strengthen Strong Hardness Harden Hard Softness Soften Soft Depth Deepen Deep Ripeness Ripen Ripe Solidity Solidify Solid Length Lengthen Long Shortness Shorten Short Weight Weigh Weighty/weightless Blackness Blacken Black Fat Fatten Fat Nouns: hearing/sight/smell/taste/touch Verbs: hear/see/smell/taste/touch WORD CHOICE 1. Wrong choice of MAKE or DO 1) MAKE an agreement/ an announcement/ an attempt/an effort/ a decision/a discovery/ an offer/a profit/ a promise/ advances in/ a comparison/ a contribution/ a distinction/ a forecast/ a law/ a point/ an investment/ a plan/ a prediction/ a sound/ noise/use of/ a choice/ a loan/an appointment 2) MAKE UP OF (= be composed of ). MAKE UP (= compose) 3) DO an assignment/the dishes/ the washing-up/the shopping/ the ironing/the cooking/a favor/homework/the laundry/ a paper//research/ .

o/sth 3. such. + Verb 3) A is like/unlike B 4) A and B are alike 5) Like + Noun 6) As + Subject +Verb Ex: My results were much like Paul’s Ex: I did my experiment just as Paul did 7) As + Noun (=in the role of) 8) serve as/ function as/ use sth as/ be used as/ be thought of as/ be referred to as 9) regard/consider/name/choose/elect/select/designate/appoint/declare/ nominate/proclaim/announce s.9 a job/ one’s work/ business with/ justice to/ wrong/ a kindness/one’s duty/harm/one’s best/a service/damage/ wonder 2. Wrong choice of like/ alike/like or as 1) Like/Unlike A.o/sth (as) s. Wrong choice of so. B + Verb 2) A. like/unlike B. too 1) so + adjective/adverb + that Subject + Verb 2) so + many/few + Noun (c) that Subject + Verb + much/little + Noun (u) that Subject + Verb 3) so + adjective + a/an + Noun (c. singular) that Subject + Verb 4) such + (a/an) + Noun that Subject + Verb 5) too adjective + (for someone) + to do something 6) enough + noun +( for someone) to do something 7) adjective/adverb + enough + (for someone) to do something .

one.10 4. Wrong choice of because or because of. although or in spite of /despite. no) + other + Noun (sing) • the other/the others Ex: Of the two teachers. when/while or during Adverb clause markers + S+ V • • • because although/though/even though when/while/as Preposition + Noun/NP    because of/ due to/ on account of in spite of/ despite during 5. one is experienced. and the other is not. Note: each other / one another from one … to another 6. every. Pronoun • another (an additional one) Ex: Give me another. any. some. Wrong choice of ANOTHER or OTHER Another Adjective • another + Noun (singular) Other • other + Noun (plural) • Determiner (the. Other word form problems BE CAREFUL WITH THESE PAIRS OF WORDS 1) no + noun >< not … any 2) no longer >< not … any longer/any more .

11 3) most + Noun most of the Noun almost all of the Noun/ almost no + Noun/almost every + Noun the most +adj/adv (superlative) 4) almost + quantifier/adjective/adverb (Word Order) 5) twice (adjective) >< double (verb) Note: be twice as… as… 6) earliest >< soonest 7) one /two/three…percent of >< a /the percentage of 8) after >< afterward (adv = after that ) 9) ago >< before 10) tell so that >< say that/say to so that Note: tell a story/a lie/lies/the truth/ a secret 11)hardly ever >< never 12)hard/hardly 13)and/but/or 14)be alive >< live + Noun 15)old > < of age 16)near (=close to) >< nearly (=almost) 17)some + Noun >< somewhat + adjective 18)affect so/sth >< effect of sth on so/sth 19)already (adv) >< be all ready ( adjective) 20)among (3 or more) >< between ( 2) 21)and (conjunction) >< also (adverb) 22)beside (=next to) >< besides (= in addition) 23)costume (=clothing) >< custom (traditional practice) 24)farther/further (distance) >< further (= more) 25)formally (=officially) >< formerly (=previously) 26)hard >< hardly 27)imaginary (= not real/fictional) >< imaginative (=creative) 28)later >< latter 29)lay lie laid lay laid lain laying +Object (= put/place) lying (= be situated/located) .

12 lie lied lied lying (= not tell the truth) 30)loose (adj) >< lose (verb) 31)no>< not>< none 32)pass (verb) >< past (adj/noun/preposition) Note: pass = go/come past 33)quiet (adj) >< quite (adv) 34)raise + object/ be raised (passive) >< rise (without an object) 35)set + object (=put/place) >< sit (without an object) 36)thorough (adj) >< through (adv) 37)out >< out of +Noun 38)away>< away from + Noun 39)out/in (preposition) >< outer/inner (adjective) 40)listen to >< hear 41)lone/live/sleeping + noun >< be alone/ alive/asleep 7. Redundancy connect together repeat again join together proceed forward advance forward only unique new innovations reread again return back same identical sufficient enough separated away from incorrect mistake progress forward important significant carefully cautiously established founded protect guard original first rarely seldom transmit send out single only around approximately chief main such as for example necessary needed Inversion .

Not only do they rob you. Only in an emergency should you use this exit. – Neither/Nor have I. Such is the popularity of the place that the theater is likely to be full every night.13 a) Inversion of the verb after certain adverbs Hardly ever Hardly … when In no circumstances Neither/nor Never No sooner… than Not only Nowhere On no account Only by/in/ at/once/recently Only in this way Rarely Seldom Scarcely ever Scarcely …when (So) + adj or participles (Such) + be + Noun Ex: I haven’t got a ticket. they smash everything too On no account must this switch be touched Only by shouting was he able to make himself heard. Only if you study hard can you pass the final exam. . b) The subject and verb of the second clause ( not the first clause) are inverted when the following expressions occur at the beginning of a sentence Not until Only when Only if Only because Only until Only after Ex: Not until he got home did he realize that he had lost it. Never before had I been asked to accept a bribe. Rarely did this remedy fail So suspicious did he become that … So confusing was the map that we had to ask a police officer for directions.

etc. Off the coast of California lie the Channel Islands. In front of the museum is a statue. In the door way stood a man with a gun. on. round. up . stand. If + Subject + auxiliary can be replaced in formal English by inversion of auxiliary and subject with if omitted.) can be followed by verbs indicating position (crouch. off. over. Ex: If I were in his shoes … If you should require anything… If he had known … = = = Were I in his shoes … Should you require anything … Had he known… Double Comparison . S + V Ex: d) Across the United States. be etc. Note: Prepositional Phrase. hang.). from. lie sit. in. out of. On a perch beside him sat a blue parrot Over the wall came a shower of stone.14 c) In written English adverb phrases introduced by preposition (down. by verbs of motion. Ex: From the rafters hung strings of onions. the general movement of air masses is from west to east.

the more he improves.a university/ a European/ a one-parent family/a union/a unicorn/ a unique character . the +comparative + S + (V) Note: the worse (not the worst). The most asteroids are beyond the orbit of the planet Mars. the better (not the best) Ex: The more he plays. the less (not the least).15 The + comparative + S + (V).an hour/ an honest man/ an honor/ an heir/ an heiress/ an MP/ an FBI . >< Ex: possessive adjectives • the The Ozark Mountains of Arkansas are known for the rugged beauty Note: . Incorrect Article Choice • • • Court a Ex: >< >< >< an without a/an (uncountable noun) the A eclipse of the sun may be either total or partial a/an a/an Ex: Rose Bird was a first woman in the history of California to serve on the State Supreme • a/an/the Ex: >< without a/an/the Slag consists of waste material and impurities which rise to top of melted metals.

such… that e. Results: so that. in that. additionally however. even if. in addition. as long as. so. Concessions/Contrast : although. yet. unless (. only if. whenever b. likewise for example. Clause marker (a) S+ V(f) (b) Present P (c) Past P (d) Adjective . (2) Conjunction (3) conjunctive adverbs S + V + (Object) . while. for instance of Conjunctive advs - . correspondingly. consequently otherwise then. or besides. Conditions: if. whereas. Manner : as if. in case d. moreover. in spite this therefore. . Time: after . Place: wherever g. because. even if. even though. Reason : as. though. so … that. meanwhile similarly. for. by the time. S + V + (Object) Conjunctions: . on the other hand. nevertheless. since. despite the fact that. but. provided. as though f. before. except that/however c.) (1) Clause marker 2. as a result. until. in spite of the fact that. now that. in contrast. likewise. as soon as.16 1. - and. once. since. S+V Common clause markers: a. when. accordingly. while. as.

and parts of the body) Ex: The tiger is the largest cat The heart pumps blood The Wright brothers invented the airplane. 2. With names of professions Ex: He is an engineer. 3. With certain expressions a dozen a couple a/one hundred/thousand/million a great many a great deal a lot of 4. . a/one half a/one third a/one quarter fifty miles an/per hour ten kilometers an/per hour $10 a/per day THE 1. Before a singular noun representative of a class of things ( usually names of animals. She is a doctor. Only one example of the thing/person or the identity of the person or thing is clear Ex: The moon is full today. inventions. To introduce a subject that has not mentioned before Ex: I saw a tiger. musical instruments. Before singular countable nouns Ex: Australia is a continent 2. plants. Please open the door.17 ARTICLES A/AN 1. She plays the guitar. With certain expressions the morning/afternoon/evening the past/present/future the front/back/center/top/bottom the beginning/middle/end the north/south/east/west 3.

18 4.. (specific) Trees provide shade. Before decades and centuries Ex: the 1930s the twenty-first century 6. (specific) Rice is a staple in many countries. (general) The rice that I bought today is in the bag. The + adjective (= people who are.) 10. (general) 9.(general) The trees in this park are mostly evergreens.. Before ordinal number (Note: No article is used before expressions with cardinal numbers. The coffee I had this morning was Brazilian (specific) Coffee originated in Ethiopia. 7.. Note: No article is used before the name of a language Ex: Ex: Ex: She learned to speak Vietnamese when she lived in Hanoi. The rich should help the poor. Quantifier + of + the + noun Many/ some/all/much/most/a few/all/. Before a group of people or a nationality Ex: The Vietnamese are very hardworking The Swedish are proud of their ancestors.) Ex: The First World War (But: World War One) The second chapter (But: Chapter Two) The third gate 5. the Vikings. of the + Noun Note: These expressions can also be used without the phrase of the Ex: Many books Some water 8.. Before superlative adjectives Ex: The biggest island on earth is Greenland. Before a specific noun not much paper a few pictures the fifties the 1800s the sixties the twentieth century (But: Gate Three) The seventh volume (But: Volume Seven) .

plural names of lakes Ex: The Titanic The Orient Express The Browns Ex: Ex: Ex: Ex: Ex: Ex: Ex: The pacific Ocean The Black Sea The Gulf of Mexico The Nile The Appalachian Mountains (But: Mount Everest) The Hawaiian Islands (But: Manhattan Island) The Great Lakes (But: Lake Michigan) 14. The + subject + of NP Subject (used alone) --> no article Adjective + Subject --> no article Ex: But: The literature of the twentieth century The history of The United States. colleges. oceans: b.19 11. 12. and schools that contain the word "of" or before countries that have a plural name or an adjective in the name. plural names of mountains f. except for Great Britain Ex: The United States of America The Socialist Republic of Vietnam (but: Vietnam) The State of Florida (But: Florida) The city of Boston ( But: Boston) The University of Texas ( But: Boston University) The Netherlands/ The Philippines 13. seas c. gulfs d. trains and people's family names . Before names of countries. Before a. planes. I major in literature I study American history. cities. plural names of islands g. states. rivers e. Before the names of ships. universities.

VERB + TO INF afford beg agree care appear consent arrange decide ask desire attemptdeserve learn expect manage fail mean forget need hesitate offer hope plan prepare swear pretend promise refuse seem struggle threaten want wish try intend Ex: Tom wants to become a doctor. VERB + OBJECT + TO INFINITIVE advise allow ask beg cause challenge convince dare encourage expect forbid force hire instruct invite order permit persuade remind require teach tell urge want warn invite recommend enable lead motivate use Ex: They begged us to come.20 GERUND AND INFINITIVE I. Would you mind not smoking in this class? . David promised not to be late again. I warn you not to drive so fast. II. Note: advise/allow/encourage/permit/recommend (1) + object + to inf (2) + V-ing Ex: He doesn’t allow smoking in his house He doesn’t allow anyone to smoke in his house Nobody is allowed to smoke in his house III. Susan pretended to sleep. VERB + V-ING admit appreciate avoid complete consider delay deny discusskeep dislike enjoy finish can’t help quit mention mind postpone practice risk recall recollect resent resist miss tolerate involve stop understand suggest include Ex: I dislike driving long distances I can’t help worrying about it.

VI. . Ex: He is busy doing his homework. It is very dangerous to drive in this weather. Note: be busy/worth + V-ing. We are ready to leave now. I am looking forward to going back to school. VERB + V-ING/ TO INFINITIVE begin start continue can’t stand hate love prefer like Ex: It began to rain/ raining Note: would like/love/prefer + to infinitive Ex: I would like to play tennis today. The book is worth reading.21 IV. VERB + PREPOSITION + V-ING succeed in count on keep on think about think of depend on put off dream about look forward to object to confess to devote to dedicate to commit to approve of give up rely on insist on Ex: John gave up smoking three years ago. V. To gets used to getting up early. 2. PREPOSITION + V-ING 1. ADJECTIVE + PREPOSITION + V-ING afraid of interested in capable of successful in tired of be/get accustomed to fond of be/get used to Ex: She is afraid of getting married now. ADJECTIVE / PARTICIPLE+ TO INFINITIVE anxious eager usual easy difficult hard dangerous ready willing able pleased prepared boring interesting … Ex: Tom is anxious to see his family.

he is not going to smoke any more. I had the mechanic repair my car. My friend needed to learn Spanish NEED + V-ING = NEED + TO BE DONE (PASSIVE) Ex: The grass needs cutting/ to be cut. 7. but I couldn’t. GO + V-ING GO boatingdancing jogging shopping swimming bowling fishing climbing sightseeing camping hiking runningskating canoeing huntingsailing skiing Ex: My sister went sailing yesterday 8. 5. 6. The television needs fixing/to be fixed. but it did not help.) He stopped to smoke (He stopped doing something in order to smoke) 2. TRY TRY + TO INF: make an effort to do something Ex: I was very tire. the second…. She is always the first to come and the last to leave. MAKE/LET/HAVE + OBJECT + BARE INFINITIVE Ex: Sad movies always make me cry. REMEMBER REMEMBER + TO INF: You remember to do something before you do it Ex: Please remember to post the letter. the last. VERBS OF PERCEPTION + V-ING/ BARE INFINITIVE see notice watch look at observe hear listen to smell feel Ex: I saw my friend running/run down the street. the only and sometimes after superlatives. TRY + V-ING: do something as an experiment or test Ex: I’ve got a terrible headache. 3. (I had my car repaired by the mechanic My parents do not let me go out late at night. I tried taking an aspirin. (= Don’t forget to post the letter) REMEMBER + V-ING: You remember doing something after you do it Ex: I clearly remember locking the door before I left. Ex: She loves parties. TO INFINITIVE can be used after the first. NEED NEED + TO INF (ACTIVE) Ex: John needs to paint the door. 4. . STOP He stopped smoking (He gave up smoking. He is the second man to be killed in this way. I tried to keep my eyes open. SPECIAL CASES 1.22 VII.

Ex: He made an effort to stand up. TO INFINITIVE can be used after certain nouns ability ambition anxiety attempt decision demand desire determinationplan eagerness effort failure offer request scheme willingness promise wish refusal readiness Ex: His ability to get on with people is his chief asset. catch/find/leave + Object spend/ waste + Time have fun/ a good time have trouble/difficulty have a hard time/ difficult time + + + + + V-ing V-ing V-ing V-ing V-ing . 10.23 9.

arrogance. depth. significance. kingdom. entrepreneurship. –hood : bath. sisterhood. dwarfism. treatment 6. –graphy : bibliography. accuracy. heroism. –ment : importance. breadth. plenty. brotherhood. an action. carriage. criticism. captaincy. confederacy. COMMON NOUN (THING) ENDINGS 1. friendship. accomplishment. faculty. authority. growth. biography . pleasure. slavery. truth. ornament. oath. banishment. freedom. piracy. patriotism. village.24 WORD ENDINGS A. wealth. craftsmanship. greenery. bakery. dubiety. enhancement. embodiment. likelihood. courtship 9. relationship. sufficiency. wisdom : childhood. filth. subsistence : bitterness. safety. subtlety : baggage. completion. humidity. advocacy. damnation. suggestion. tonnage. nature. barbarism. vicarage. presidency. 8. alcoholism. archery 15. –(t)ry: rivalry. fellowship. democracy. –cy : bankruptcy. superiority. –ism : baptism. aristocracy. pollution. a notion. resistance. –nce 3. brewery. excitement. . stealth. –logy : archaeology. zoology 16. membership. headship. scripture. failure. parallelism 2. hardness. livelihood 12. garment. citizenship. –ion 5. officialdom. professorship. privacy. homage language. horsemanship. neighborhood. ancestry. darkness. geology. tillage. falsehood. deficiency 14. –ness 4. sociology. industry. length. conceitedness. dotage. companionship. majority. honesty. obstinacy. death. –age : purity. delicacy. damage. machinery. scholarship. commencement. : abridgement. cruelty. organism. treasure 13. : earldom. hermitage. strength. marriage. kindheartedness : excision. bravery. picture. –dom 11. carpentry. efficiency. health. luggage. –th 10. dependence. fragment. birth. –ship : ambassadorship. cartage. chairmanship. vexation. expectancy. passage. legislature. scenery. theology. concoction. hardship. –ure : closure. –(i)ty 7.

arrival. – al : central. governor. boyish. glorious. comfortable. solicitor. villager. historic. powerful. – ish: boorish. accurate. Darwinist. escapee. – ant 3. general. New Yorker. visitor. – ous 8. – ful 4. electrician. necessary 13. considerate. tailor. separable. abundant. statistician. edible. compressible. colossal. – ician : hatter. geographer. foreigner. 6. ADJECTIVE ENDINGS 1. physician. inhabitant C. happy. – ly : beastly. idealist. – less 6. important. contrary. satisfactory Exceptions : dormitory. significant . – er 3. womanish. – or : actor. northerner. refugee. foolish. mortician. budgetary. messy. literate 16. tropical. astrologer. creator. geologist. absent. sorcerer : employee. talkative. : doubtless. : chemist. tireless. dentist. ignorant. icy. primary. brilliant.25 B. cottager. devotee. legless. reliable. beautician. guarantor. possessive : dangerous. qualitative. passive. feverish. Exceptions: handful. haughty. – ible : arrogant. economist. forgetful. tobacconist. spoonful are nouns : civic. Londoner. figurative. – ant (10%) : assistant. comparative. proposal. bachelor 2. old-timer. powerless. – (r)ate (10%): temperate. helpless : authoritative. 14. oral. airliner. immediate. sculptor. chilly. graceful. viscous. Marxist. predatory. demonstrative. – ary : arbitrary. territory are nouns 12. economic. withdrawal. hilarious. bearable. grateful. – able 9. apparent. politician. tidal 11. conferee. musician. mouthful. classic. monitor. donor. imitative. Buddhist. absentee. ferocious. slippery. payee. queenly. ardent 2. fearless. mournful. COMMON NOUN (PERSON) ENDINGS 1. ambivalent. careless. cowardly. horrible. expectant. active. bookish. ancient. conqueror. – ic 5. promontory. faceless. tidy. : beautiful. hatless. survival are nouns 10. bluish. – ent : independent. terrible Exceptions : rival. sufficient. – ee 4. – ory : mandatory. compulsory. temporary. suitable. successor. rascally 15. – ive 7. doctor. pessimist : magician. consultant. – y : angry. accountant. pianist. reddish . optimist. milky. : charitable. mathematician. murderous. artistic. : audible. dramatist. – ist 5. racist. contestant. countless.

petrify. clockwise : edgeways. firstly. happen. truly. agonize. otherwise. firstly. inward. deepen. shorten. – ward : crosswise. lengthen. fossilize. – ate 3. enlarge. eastward . evacuate : characterize. entangle. soften. ripen. jeopardize. secondly 2. hydrate. skyward. enslave. apologize. homeward. vaccinate. oxidize 4. idolize.26 D. fully. separate. satisfy. authorize. widen. – ize : assassinate. – wise 3. endways. sympathize. fascinate. enrich 2. extemporize. enable. – ly : amusingly. – ify : pacify. – en/ en – : listen. theorize. deservedly. felicitate. happily. Americanize. greatly. COMMON VERB ENDINGS 1. strengthen. – ways 4. lengthways. moralize. hourly. enlighten. sideways : backward. onward. solidify. lengthwise. entrust. fertilize. horrify E. COMMON ADVERB ENDING 1. carbonize. encourage. associate.

Sing Subject 1 and Sing Subject 2 + Plural Verb Ex: The actor and the singer are coming.27 SUBJECT – VERB AGREEMENT A. Note: However. My friends live in Boston. SPECIAL CASES 1. Ex: Neither Neither John nor his friends are going to the beach . Plural Subject + Plural Verb Ex: My friend lives in Boston. Jean and David are coming back to Australia. Subject 1 + + Verb Ex: One of my friends is here. phrases connected by and can be followed by singular verbs if we think of them as making up a single item. Singular Subject + Singular Verb 2. Growing flowers is her hobby. BASIC SUBJECT – VERB AGREEMENT 1. Ex: Meat pie and peas is Tom’s favorite at the moment Fish and chips is my favorite food of in addition to with together with + Subject 2 along with as well as no less than like/ unlike 2. B. You together with Tom are responsible for this failure. Either or + Subject 1 + + Subject 2 + Verb nor 3.

7. Everyone Everybody Everything Someone Somebody Something Anyone Anybody Anything No one Nobody Nothing + Singular Verb Ex: Everyone has his or her own idea. Every Each Either Neither Ex: Noun (singular) + of the Noun (plural) + Singular Verb Each boy/ each of the boys has a gift. Note: Each boy and each girl is to do this exercise. There + be + Noun Ex: There is a book on the shelf There are three books on the shelf 5.28 4. . There/ Here + Verb + Noun Ex: Here comes the Queen. Here lie many unknown soldiers. 6.

Plenty of potatoes are grown here. Plural Verb ( if they are seen as a collection of individual) Ex: The team is winning. Any of None of The majority of A lot of Plenty of All (of) Some (of) + Uncountable Noun + Singular Verb Ex: council association audience class club college committee community All the furniture was destroyed in the fire. c. (the team as a group) The team are going back to their homes. b.29 8. a. company crowd department electorate enemy family firm generation government group jury orchestra population press public school staff team university faculty choir gang couple cabinet Singular Verb ( if they are referred to as a group) 9. None of the answers are correct. (meaning individual members of the team) . A/the majority of A number of A lot of + Plenty of Some of None of Half of No Ex: Plural Noun + Plural Verb A number of refugees have been turned back at the border. The number of + Plural Noun + Singular Verb Ex: The number of books in the library has risen to over five million.

news measles rabies physicsstatistics diabetes politics mathematics gymnastics mumpsphysicsathletics economics phonetics linguistics 12. (A pair of pants is in the drawer) 11. Physics is difficult. money or measurement always take a singular verb Ex: Five minutes is not enough to do this exercise. . The pants are in the drawer. Nouns stating an amount of time. Gulliver’s Travels is a well-known children’s book. Four -hundred miles is too much to drive in one day.. The news is alarming.30 belongings clothes congratulations earnings goods outskirts particulars premises Ex: riches glasses savings pliers stairs pants surroundings + Plural Verb thanks scissors shorts jeans 10. plays. The + Ex: Adjective + Plural Verb The poor need help. always take a singular verb Ex: The Los Angeles Times is on the desk. The titles of books. movies. Thirty-five dollars is too much for this shirt. etc. police people cattle poultry Ex: + Plural Verb The police are looking for the missing child. 15. + Singular Verb Ex: 13. 14.

31 16. . Uncountable Noun + baggage garbage mail clothing hardware makeup coffee blood bread silver air chalk dirt confidence health justice peace violence information energy swimming soccer dew rain light Singular Verb equipment jewelry money tea butter glass oxygen corn salt courage help knowledge pride wealth … news homework traveling tennis fog sleet sunshine food junk cash milk cheese paper nitrogen dust sand education honesty laughter progress evidence work working chess hail snow electricity heat thunder fire humidity wind gravity fruit furniture luggage machinery changepostage oil meat wood smoke grass flour enjoyment hospitality music recreation proof grammar soup gold wool pollution hair wheat fun importance luck sleep time slang Fluids Solids Gases Particles Abstraction water gasoline ice iron steam rice pepper beauty happiness intelligence patience truth advice space vocabulary Activities driving baseball Natural phenomena weather lightning darkness Ex: Smoking is harmful to your health.

PREPOSITIONS OF TIME A. E. in the evening) the past/ future amounts of time ( in/within an hour) • B. on Sunday morning) C.32 PREPOSITIONS 1. To/until and between … and  These phrases are used with starting points and ending points . During  During is used with periods of time • • It snows a lot in Montreal during the winter His company grew rapidly during the 1980s  During is NOT used with dates or days of the week. in the nineties) year (in 2007) season ( in the summer) month ( in July) parts of the day ( in the morning. At • • time of day (at 9:20) night/ midnight/ noon /dawn/dusk/sunrise/sunset/the moment/the same time/present/ first/last D. In • • • • • • • century ( in the twenty-first century) decade ( in the 1970s. in the afternoon. From …. Until  Until is used with points of time to indicate that an action continues up to that point • • Helen practiced the piano until noon They won’t arrive until tomorrow F. On • • date (on September 11) day (on Monday.

From … to and between … and • • They're building a new road between Manchester and Sheffield. Mr. Since/ For  Since and for are generally used with a perfect tense • • • We've been waiting here since two o'clock. The factory has been here since the 1970s. PREPOSITIONS OF PLACE A. Nolan was in charge of the sales division. Between 1990 and 1993. in Ontario) in city ( in Munich) building (in the Empire State Building) room (in the living room) • • • • • • B.33 • • From 1990 to/until 1993. We had been talking for a good half hour. G. . Mr. At • • • address (at 634 Sutter Street) building (at the museum) home/school/college/work D. In • the world continent (in Asia) country ( in China) state/province (in California. Nolan was in charge of the sales division. They're building a new road from Manchester to Sheffield. 2. On • • • • earth (the origin of life on Earth) street ( on Wall Street) coast ( on the East Coast) floor ( on the second floor) C.

OTHER COMMON PREPOSITION COMBINATIONS A.) .) the rear (a passenger traveling in the rear of a car) line (The kids were standing in line waiting for their teacher.) the process of (The company is in the process of moving to new offices.) danger of (The bridge was in danger of collapsing.) a trip (We were all going on a trip.) part (The failure of the project was due in part to his lack of leadership.) trouble (I think I'm in trouble with Dad. on a plane) foot (It takes about 30 minutes on foot.) the back of (Two men were sitting in the back of the car. on a train. In • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • clothes ( in a gray suit) language ( written in Vietnamese) book ( in the Complete Guide to TOEIC) newspaper ( in the International Herald-Tribune) magazine ( in Times) department ( in the sales department) field ( in computer science) one’s opinion (in her opinion) a car / a taxi (I've left my bag in the car.) business (She's in New York this week on business) holiday (I'm away on holiday until the 1st of June.) the middle of (Jo was standing in the middle of the room. On • • • • • a vehicle ( on a bus. holding the lantern.34 3.) B. front of (He walked along in front of me. or 10 minutes by car.

) C.) the phone (Bridget's on the phone all day long. By. means “no later than”.  By is used after passive verbs to identify the agent of the action.  By is used with means of transportation and communication by car/plane/e-mail Note: in a/my car.) the market (Handguns are freely available on the open market) schedule (The majority of holiday flights depart and arrive on schedule. • • • • I will be home by noon.) the other hand (I'd like to eat out. This report was written by Peter. The man with the briefcase is the vice-president. but on the other hand I want to save money.) purpose (Fire investigators believe the fire was set on purpose. With  With is used to express the idea of accompaniment or ownership • • • • I went to the restaurant with Andrea. on a plane  Other • By chance/ hand/ far/check/credit card/ means of D.) a farm (Joe had worked on the farm all his life.) (the) television/radio (Later that evening we watched it all on television again.  By can mean “next to” She is standing by her friend.  With is also used to indicate the tool or instrument used to complete something He opened the door with his key. He paid for the bill with a credit car .35 • • • • • • • • • sale (These gloves were on sale for only $9. in this case.) time (Jack was worried about whether he'd be able to get there on time. BY  By is used before a point of time to indicate the latest time.

Private security firms have to work strictly within the law. “not in the company of someone” or “not doing the action mentioned” • • • • • • • • • • • They had gone two days without food. She spoke without much enthusiasm. the army opened fire. Within  Within can mean “during a particular period of time” • • • • • • • We should have the test results back within 24 hours. He found the place without difficulty. I don't know what I'd do without you. Within the space of a year. You can go anywhere you want within reason (=within reasonable limits) . three of the town's factories have closed down. Within an hour of our arrival. We live within easy reach of (=close to) the shops. He left without saying goodbye. experiencing or showing something”. Don't go out without your coat.  Within can mean “less than a certain distance from a particular place” The invading troops came within 50 miles of Paris. Adjust the driver's seat so that all the controls are within reach (=close enough to touch)  Within can also mean “ inside the range or limits of something” • • • We have to operate within a very tight budget. F.36 E. You can't make an omelet without breaking eggs. Don't go without me. Suddenly and without any warning. The rest of the group set off without him. Caroline was starting to complain. He fell sick and died within a matter of weeks. Without  Without means “ not having. He had gone out without his parents' permission.

or limit” • • • • • • • • More people are choosing to work beyond retirement age. The town centre had changed beyond all recognition. Beyond  Beyond can mean “more or greater than a particular amount. Expensive luxuries that are beyond the reach of ordinary people  Beyond can be used to say that “something is impossible to do” Scott's equipment was damaged beyond repair. level. READING COMPREHENSION STRATEGIES . Inflation has risen beyond the 5% level. Why Joan ever married such an idiot in the first place is beyond me. Due to circumstances beyond our control the performance has had to be cancelled.37 • He finds it hard to live within his income. G. Such tasks are far beyond the scope of the average school kid.

38 READING STRATEGIES 1. OVERVIEW QUESTIONS The most common overview question asks about the purpose or main topic of the passage.  What does this article/the memo mainly discuss?  What is this form?  What is the purpose of this letter/announcement/notice…?  Why was this notice/letter written?  In what business is the writer of the passage?  What kind of business is Mr. Other overview questions ask about the writer of the passage or the reader of the passage. ________ probably in?  Who issued/wrote this notice?  What is the author’s opinion of ______?  Who were these instructions written for?  Who would be most interested in the information in this announcement?  For whom is this advertisement/notice intended? .

or LEAST Focus on one or two key words in the question Scan the passage looking for the key words or related words (synonyms. EXCEPT. A ------------------------------------Initial position ---> usually read the previous sentence and find the noun that the referent replaces . wh.39 Don’t answer the initial overview questions until you have answered the other questions Usually focus on the title and the first sentence(s) of each paragraph for the topic and main idea. Negative Questions contain the words NOT. (You may have to read the sentence preceding or following that sentence as well. Skim (read very quickly) the rest of the passage for the key words that will confirm the topic and main idea. too specific (detailed) c. also focus on the last sentence for the conclusion and a possible restatement of the topic and main idea. irrelevant (not mentioned) II.. REFERENCE QUESTIONS 1. DETAIL QUESTIONS 1. Information/Factual Questions often begin with the phrases “According to the passage/the author. incorrect d. too general b...) Choose the correct answer III.” 2. Read the answer choices and eliminate the distractors which may have one of these characteristics: a.questions. word family) Carefully read the sentence in which the key words occur. --------------------------------.

rather than.   on   the   other  hand. read the previous sentence or phrase and summarize it. Others ----> Look for Some/Many + Noun 6. in spite   of this .   despite   the   fact   that. This/ That usually refer to the whole previous sentence or phrase. VOCABULARY IN CONTEXT 1. Another ---> Look for One + Noun 5. such as 3.   even   though.   even   if. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------. 4. 2.40 2. So. instead of .   while. yet. The former/the later/ respectively IV.  whereas. for instance. except that .not . ---------------------------------------------------------.but. Look for examples .  in spite of the fact that. Middle/Final Position ---> usually read the whole sentence in which the referent occurs 3.   though. Look for contrast .although. in contrast. Look for synonyms in the passage because the author may avoid repeating the same word.A. still .   nevertheless.for example.however.A----------------------.

or likely” or such phrases as “Why … mention?” “What …. and 3. . Focus on the general context and see if context clues in the sentence or in the sentences before or after can help you guess the meaning .. understand what the question is asking and know where to find the answer in the passage 2. determine what is true and not true in the answer choices • Note: Answer choices that contain such words as always. probably. guess.. all. V. suggest.probably do?” Answer choices to inference questions require students to 1. never.41 4. is probably true?” and “ What …. relate the information in the answer choice to a synonym or paraphrase of information in the passage. to do next?” “Which of these …. INFERENCE QUESTIONS Inference Questions usually include such words as “infer.Literal Meaning >< Figurative meaning Example: * He grasped my hand firmly * I don’t think you have quite grasped the seriousness of the situation. imply. and only are usually NOT correct.

42 LISTENING STRATEGIES PART 1: Strategies for sentences about photographs 1. a purse. a pair of glasses. Don’t wait for the statement that says. If you are previewing a photograph that involves a person or people. a mustache. Always complete each item as quickly as possible so that you can preview the photograph for the next item. a tie or anything else that differentiates the people?)  What do the people’s expressions tell you? (Do they look happy? Unhappy? Excited? Bored? Upset?) 3. ask yourself these questions . ask yourself these questions  What are the people doing?  Where are they?  Who are they? (Is there a uniform or a piece of equipment or anything else that indicates their profession or role?)  What distinguishes them? (Is there a hat. “Now look at photograph number ______” 2. If you are previewing a photograph of an object.

When will/ is/ is …expected. When you hear a choice that you think is correct. On March 3. As soon as you have finished marking the answer. (This technique helps you remember which choice you think is best. - - - . Gustavson predict the - Words you might hear in the answers yesterday/ last/ ago/ in (month. Identifying time Words you might hear in the questions When did …. Try to eliminate choices with problems in  Sound  Meaning  Sound & Meaning 7. I If you are previewing a photograph of a scene. Always guess before going on to the next item.43  What is it?  What is it made of?  What is it used for?  Where is it? 4. In 1953. At two o’clock sharp. move your pencil to that choice. Once you have heard all four sentences. Chen born? When will my laundry be ready? When does Mr. In about two hours. ask yourself these questions  Where is it?  What is in the foreground (the front of the picture)?  What – if anything – is happening?  What is in the background (the distant part of the picture)? 5. stop looking at and thinking about the photograph and move on to the next item. PART II: Strategies for Questions/Responses 1.) 6. at… Last Wednesday. due / be… Ving/ can How long What time When did Christopher arrive? When will the advertising seminar begin? When is Maria’s birthday? When was Mr. mark the oval that your pencil is resting on. year)/ this morning… at + time/ tomorrow/next/ in …/ this afternoon/ on (date) for/since/ over …. Don’t mark an answer until you have heard all four choices. Never leave any blanks. If you change your mind and hear a sentence that you think is better. rest your pencil on that oval on your answer sheet. 8.

Garcia do? What kind of novel do you like? What’s the name of the travel agency this company uses? What are your total production figures for this factory? Words you might hear in the answers  Something (…)  I don’t know - - - A suit and a tie. At 7:30. Over 1000 units a week. I was wondering where I left it! It’s Fran’s. Possessive case (It’s + name’s) Ms. It’s ten cents a day. Since 10:00 this morning. perhaps. She’s a computer programmer. A young intern from the marketing department was chosen. an action or idea Words you might hear in the questions What …? What kind/type of What do you think I should wear to the party What is the fine for overdue books? What was that loud noise I just heard? What kind of work does Ms.44 construction of the building will be finished? How long will this session last? How long has the photocopying machine been out of order? What time does your flight leave? What time is the news on television? - In about a month. I don’t know. Wantanabe for me? Who’s going to pick him up at the station? Whose coffee cup is this on my desk? Whose scarf is this? - Words you might hear in the answers Name/ Occupation title A man/woman … who …. - - 3. . For another hour. Identifying a thing. Identifying people Words you might hear in the questions Who Whose Who will go with you on the business trip? Who’s the new chef at the Fontaine’s bakery? Who did Mrs. I prefer adventure stories. Martelli pick to fill the position? Who can deliver this memo to Mr. I was planning to. I can do it when I’ve finished typing this letter. It’s on at 11. - 2. I think it’s called All Points Travel. Preston A man who worked at the Central Pastry Shop.

I think. Identifying a choice Words you might hear in the questions …. about 20 percent. Identifying an opinion Words you might hear in the questions How What’s your opinion of …? Do you think Tom will …. .45 What do you plan to do when school is finished? What do you estimate your firm’s profit will be in December? - Work for my father. A or B? …. I don’t know her well enough to say.? Words you might hear in the answers  Adjectives: great/ good/ terrific/ excellent / wonderful/ happy/ busy/ terrible/ boring…  Verbs: love/like/enjoy/prefer/believe/  Expressions: It’s a good/great idea - How did you like that new movie? What do you think of Scott Graham’s latest novel? What do you think of your new supervisor? - I enjoyed it. Optimistically speaking. but my husband didn’t.Lately. 5. please  Either one - Which does that artist produce more of – paintings or sculptures? Will you arrive in the morning or the evening? Do you want milk or sugar in your coffee? Should I wait here at the counter or follow you Note: The speaker can offer a third option . It’s terrific. 4. she has been doing a lot of paintings. Neither one. In the morning.? What do you think of …. prefer? … like better? Words you might hear in the answers  A/B will be repeated in the answer choice  Neither one/Both.

(turn down the offer) Thank you. come with me please.Yes. .? Can I…? Couldn’t you …?           Words you might hear in the answers OK I’d love to! Of course Sure That sounds like fun/ That’s a good idea/ Great.That’s a good idea. I’ll have them ready for you in a minute. offer. .Thanks.? Shouldn’t we/ Shall we …? Would/Wouldn’t you like me to ….Great. Let’s …. but I already have one . but …( turn down the offer) Sorry. .Sorry.46 back to the warehouse? What do you think. request Words you might hear in the questions Why don’t we …? Why don’t you…? Don’t you want to. sir? Don’t you want to go to the reception for Miss Gunther? I was wondering if you’d like to join us for dinner this evening? Couldn’t you stop at the post office today? What about visiting the flower show over - . please (accept the offer) No. thanks …. . but ……( turn down the offer) We’d love to – thanks! - Would you like to join us for a game of tennis? Would you like to order a calendar for next year? Shall we send you a reminder for your next dental appointment? Why don’t we go out this evening? Why don’t we take the earlier train home? How about a movie when we finish up here? Would you mind opening you bag so I can inspect it.Wednesday afternoon would be better for me. …( turn down the offer) Sorry. I’m exhausted. that would be helpful. . Either one is fine with me. I have other plans. plain or patterned carpet in the waiting room? Will the conference be held here or at the headquarters? Should they move the file cabinet to the right or over by the copy machine? Shall I put this file on your desk or back in the filing cabinet? Can you locate the files on the merger. . Identifying an invitation.Sorry. I’ll take it.Not at all . but I’m not feeling well. I’ve already made plans . Chan to do it? - Oh. … Yes.. It’s scheduled for this building. What/How about ….Sorry. or should I ask Mr. I think it looks good where it is.I might have time after lunch.? I was wondering if you’d like to …. . I’ve already made plans/ I have other plans. 6.

8.47 the weekend? - 7.I think there are mechanical problems. Identifying a description Words you might hear in the questions What is … like? What does ….He though he could handle it himself . Ortiz want to see the invoices? . Identifying a reason Words you might hear in the questions Why Words you might hear in the answers  To do sth  Because/ Because of Note: An implied reason ( usually a certain problem) can be given . Danforth bring the situation to the attention of his supervisor? Why didn’t you get to work on time? Why does Ms. .There’s a problem with the shipment. .Everyone was in a hurry.look like? What are your new co-workers like? What’s the weather like here in the winter? - Words you might hear in the answers an adjective or adjectives They seem very pleasant It’s cool and often rainy - 9. . Identifying manner or a method .There had been too many complaints.The traffic was terrible. . - Why is this train running late? Why didn’t you let us know you’d be late? Why did the board of directors change its policy? Why did the meeting begin so early? Why didn’t Mr.I couldn’t find a phone.

- - 10. Words you might hear in the questions Do/Does/Did/ Have…. - - How far …? Where should we meet so we can all go to the game together? Where are you staying ion Paris? Where did Maria leave the Oceanview contract? How far would you say Conrad Park is from here? - 11. it’s here.? Don’t/ Doesn’t/ Didn’t …? Have they delivered our lunch yet? Has the director already left? the copier? - - Didn’t anyone train the new employee to use - . he had an appointment. Yes/No Questions & Tag Questions Words you might hear in the answers Yes /No/ Not Yes.? How will you get to work tomorrow? How can we be sure that the order will arrive on time? How can I get more letterhead and envelopes? How do you handle inquiries? - Words you might hear in the answers By ( a means of transport …) With … I’ll get my car back from the mechanic. Identifying a location Words you might hear in the questions Where…? - Words you might hear in the answers Names of the places Prepositions of places (in/ next to/ near/ beside/ under/ over/ on/ on top of/ at/ from/ behind/ right/ left/ downtown / at the end of… … minutes away/ walk/drive … km Let’s meet at the stadium entrance. At the Grand Hotel.. Yes. Mike showed him everything works. It’s about 10-minute walk. I send out this pamphlet.48 Words you might hear in the questions How will/can. Express service is very reliable. She put it in Ms. Garcia’s mailbox. Contact Ms. McKay in the stockroom.

You can accomplish quite a bit during this time. it is priced fairly. They tell you what to listen for. didn’t he? Wilma gets reimbursed for the cost of driving her car to the meting. doesn’t she? This new product should sell well. Yes. shouldn’t it? You want me to retype this document.49 Did you ask them what time their flight would arrive? Your managing director resigned yesterday. do you? I still have time Yes. - Part 3: Short Conversations I. You need to mark your answers for the three questions and then preview the next three questions and answer choices. don’t you? You don’t want to start a new project this late in the day. That means there are twenty-four seconds between each conversation. . I would appreciate it No. but she has to submit a claim form. it was quite a surprise. Between each question is an eight-second pause. Yes. Strategies 1. I didn’t think of it.

Overview questions B. Don't close your eyes or look away. II. 6. Is it still possible for us to get a table for two? F: You’re in luck — a party of two just canceled their reservations. Detail questions C. Question types A. Questions about occupations 3. 5. take a guess. Never leave any answers blank.? Who…? What …doing? What…talking about? 1. Questions about activities 4. Overview Questions Types of over view questions 1. If the correct answer is not obvious. keep your eyes on the corresponding set of three questions and answer choices. always guess. Try to evaluate the four choices as you are listening.. If more than one answer choice is left.50 2.Terminal /carousel/check-in/departure lounge/ gate/ hangar /run-way  Airport . Questions about locations Questions • Where are they? • Where are the speakers? • Where is the man/woman? • Where is the conversation taking place? Tactics Listen for vocabulary that is associated with a certain location Examples M: We don’t have any reservations. Inference question A.Stage/cast/scene/box office/  Theater .Rolls/cake/bread  Bakery . If you are not sure. Remember that distractors are sometimes mentioned in the conversations but are not answers to the question. We can seat . Questions about topic Question Words Where. Mark your answers as quickly as possible so that you can preview the next item. While listening to each conversation.Chain/ring/necklace/bracelet  Jewelry . Questions about locations 2. 3. Don't choose an answer just because you hear a word or two from the answer in the conversation. 4. try to eliminate answer choices that seem to be incorrect.

Suite/front desk/reservation/ room/ receptionist/room service/ housekeeper  Hotel .51 store you in about fifteen or twenty minutes. but I guess this is our lucky night! Where are they? A. Questions about occupations Questions Tactics Listen for vocabulary that is associated with a certain occupation Examples M1: There’s something wrong with this switch.Waiter/waitress/bill/menu/order/table/ seat/ reservation  Restaurant 2.Spectators/ cheer/ clap/ match/ player  Stadium .Account/balance/statement /checkbook / deposit/credit/loan/ interest rates  Bank . At a restaurant .Bulldozer/hard hat/crane  Construction site . M1: But that will cost a • Who is the man/woman? • Who are they? • What is he/she? • What are they? • What is the man/woman’s profession / occupation/jon? . This whole building needs rewiring. I’m afraid.Kitchen/pot/knife  Cook .Software/keyboard/monitor  Computer .Parking tickets/law/illegal/fine  officer .Surf/towel/umbrella/wave/sunbathe  Beach .Menu/terminal/keyboard  Computer store .Dryer/hangars/detergent  Laundromat . Can you fix it? Police M2: It’s not just the switch. At an airport D.Lane/driver/exit  Freeway . M: Great! I was worried. At a party C.Lawyer/judge/witness/defendant/plaintiff/ jury  Courtroom .Class/exam/student  Teacher . At a theater B.Pen/envelopes/letterhead/postcard  Post office .

but he’s working on a new construction job.Newspaper/write/report/article  Journalist . Questions about activities Questions Tactics Examples .Money/deposit/withdrawal  Bank teller . An electri cian B. A sailor B.Medicine/nurse/hospital/patient  Doctor .Pipe/sink/faucet/leak/drip/fix  Plumber .Wood/furniture/ saw/ plane/ chisels/ hammer/nail  Carpenter 3. An engine er D. A mechanic C. Do you know anyone who does that kind of work? M: Why don’t you ask Thomas? He did a great job repairing the wooden stairway in my house.Runner/training/game  Athlete .Switch/rewiring/ fix  Electrician . A plumber D. Who is Tomas? A. A jewele r F: I want to put a new deck on the back of my house.Passenger/Fare/Tip  Taxi driver . A carpenter .Order/tip/guests  Waiter .Stage/drama/theater  Actor . A banke r C. F: I asked him.Cash register/change/receipt  Sales clerk .52 programmer fortune! Who is the second speaker? A.Instrument/orchestra/note  Musician .

Waiting for a bus: . dial. monitor. Paying a fare . character . popcorn . screen. pants. What are the speakers doing? A. Getting on a bus B. jeans. spoon. How often do the buses come? W: One stops here every twenty minutes M: Good.Making a telephone call: number. letter. coffee break .Eating dinner: .Going to the post office: mail. hang up . theater. screen.Ordering food at a restaurant: menu. waitress. answer. crash . waiter.Driving a car: 4. Questions about topics Questions Tactics Examples . postal clerk. cover. stamps.Using a computer: keyboard. sugar.Reading a book: novel. dress.53 • What are they doing? • What is happening now? • What is the man doing? • What is going to happen? Listen for vocabulary that is associated with a certain activity M: I’ve been waiting here 15 minutes.Buying a plane ticket: . cream. Taking a taxi D. dressing room . then. drink . receiver. pages.Moving furniture: . package .Buying clothes: suit. we only have five minutes to wait.Watching a movie: film.Parking a car: .Drinking coffee: cup. software. table. skirt. Waiting for a bus C.

The answer choices will be four plausible topics. B.54 • What/ whom are they discussing? • What are they referring to? • What is the topic of the conversation? • What are they talking about? • What is the conversation about? • What is the subject of the conversation Listen for vocabulary that is associated with a certain topic. How people dress at the man’s company C. Detail Questions . and the women wear dresses or suits. W: Oh. A social event that the man attended W: Is there a dress code at your company? M: No. but most of the men wear coats and ties. Incorrect answers may include details that the are main mentioned subject in of the the conversation but that are not conversation What are they discussing A. A new outfit that the woman is wearing B. it’s pretty formal then. Where to buy clothes for work D.

To have a break from working M: Do you hear about Mrs. Questions about plans as their new marketing Question Words Examples manager? • What is the man/woman What is the woman going to do? A. W2: Why don’t you see the play over the weekend Claudia? W1: It runs only Monday through 2. To join another company B. Questions about time • When…. Why is Mrs. Pay by check C. Questions about • What is the matter with …? What is Ms. M: I’ll wonder if they’ll appoint her 3. Fill out a form D. Wednesday C. I’ll need some form of identification or a major credit card. 4. Thursday D. Sompong leaving? A. Write her name on the card • What does the man/woman M: And how would you like to pay for the camera? plan to do? W: Could I write you a check? M: Certainly. To start her own business C. Our competitors made her an offer she couldn’t resist. Monday B. To enter a race D. Saturday W1: I need to call the theater to order tickets for Wednesday.55 Types of over view questions 1. Sompong’s resignation? W: Yes. Questions about reasons • Why did … happen…? • Why is the man/woman going to…? • Why does the man/woman want to…? • Why is the man/woman upset/ happy/ puzzled…? • Why did … not happen? • Why does the man/woman not want to…? Thursday.? • How often…? • At what time…? • How long…? When does Claudia want to go to the play? A. Kim worried about? . Sell the camera planning/going to do? • What does the man/woman plan to do next? • What plan has been suggested? B.

56 problems • What is the problem here? • What’s wrong with • What is the man/woman concerned/ worried about? • What is the man/woman’s problem? • What is bothering the man/woman? A. Whether she has enough money for her vacation. The company claims it has no money to meet the union’s demands. Questions about opinions • What does the man/ woman think of/ about …? • What is the man/woman’s opinion of …? • How does the man/woman 6. B. I’ll probably wind up working at the office all night again. 5. Walk to the office C. Whether she returned the book on labor dispute. Dan. Kim? W: Yes. Questions about advice feel about …? • What is the suggestion? advise … to do? • What • What is is the the man/woman man/woman’s suggesting? advice? man/woman’s What does Martha advise Dan to do? A. M: I guess you’re right. M: Are you all set for your vacation on Friday. but now I’m waiting to see if the airline we’ve booked our return flight on will go out on strike that day. make a better work schedule B. C. • What does the man/woman . Ms. W: You’ve got to allocate your time more carefully. I head that’s a possibility. Whether the airline will be operating or not. M: Oh yes. D. Give a shorter report M: I’ll never get this report finished before the weekend. Whether her union will get higher wages. Turn on the lights D.

Sandwiches D. Instead you have to draw a conclusion based on the information that is presented by the speakers. Hamburgers . Salad C. W: Same here. Inference Questions Questions • What does the man/woman imply? • What is the man/woman saying about …? • What can be said about…? • What is known about …? • What can be inferred from the conversation? • What does the man/woman mean? • What is probably true about? • What are they likely to…? Tactics The answers for inference questions are not directly stated in the conversations. get one free. Let’s check it out for lunch Examples What are they likely to eat out for lunch? A. Soup B.57 (See the strategies for part 2) C. M: I’m always looking to save some money. Read the question carefully and focus on one or two key words Listen for key words that help you make a logical conclusion M: I’ve heard nothing but praise for that new health food restaurant. And I’ve got a coupon for the salad bar – buy one.

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