The Foreign Exchange Regulation Act (FERA) was legislation passed by the Indian Parliament in 1973 by the government

of Indira Gandhi and came into force with effect from January 1, 1974. FERA imposed stringent regulations on certain kinds of payments, the dealings in foreign exchange and securities and the transactions which had an indirect impact on the foreign exchange and the import [1] and export of currency. The purpose of the act, inter alia, was to "regulate certain payments, dealings in foreign exchange and securities, transactions indirectly affecting foreign exchange and the import and export of [2] currency, for the conservation of foreign exchange resources of the country". Coca-Cola was India's leading soft drink until 1977 when it left India after a new government ordered the company to turn over its secret formula for Coca-Cola and dilute its stake in its Indian unit as required by the Foreign Exchange Regulation Act (FERA). In 1993, the company (along with PepsiCo) returned after the introduction of India's Liberalization policy. FERA was repealed in 1999 by the government of Atal Bihari Vajpayee and replaced by the Foreign Exchange Management Act, which liberalised foreign exchange controlsand restrictions on foreign investment. FERA :       Regulated in India by the Foreign Exchange Regulation Act(FERA),1973. Consisted of 81 sections. FERA Emphasized strict exchange control. Control everything that was specified, relating to foreign exchange. Law violators were treated as criminal offenders. Aimed at minimizing dealings in foreign exchange and foreign securities.

FERA was introduced at a time when foreign exchange (Forex) reserves of the country were low, Forex being a scarce commodity. FERA therefore proceeded on the presumption that all foreign exchange earned by Indian residents rightfully belonged to the Government of India and had to be collected and surrendered to the Reserve bank of India (RBI). FERA primarily prohibited all transactions, except one’s permitted by RBI.

OBJECTIVES :       To regulate certain payments. To regulate dealings in foreign exchange and securities. To regulate transactions, indirectly affecting foreign exchange. To regulate the import and export of currency. To conserve precious foreign exchange. The proper utilization of foreign exchange so as to promote the economic development of the country.

an arms embargo and a ban on the export of certain items or raw materials could be aimed at supporting a peace process and restricting the financing of weapons by the combatants. sanctions and embargoes may be put in place by the Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe. For instance. as set out in the UN Charter. democracy and the rule of law.Sanctions. The main aim of all UN sanctions and embargoes. All recent UN and EU sanctions contain information as to why they have been imposed and specify what their aim is. The ultimate objective of a sanction varies according to the situation. disrupting terrorist operations. EU measures can also be imposed to uphold respect for human rights. Sanctions may also be aimed at preventing weapons from falling into the wrong hands. individuals or groups in a direction which will improve the situation in that country. who can also impose national arms embargoes. embargoes and restrictions What are sanctions and embargoes? Sanctions and embargoes are political trade tools. email the Department for Business. mainly put in place by the United Nations (UN) and the European Union (EU). The EU can impose measures to preserve peace and strengthen international security. Innovation & Skills Export Control Organisation on . is to implement decisions by its Security Council to maintain or restore international peace and security. For more information. The EU imposes sanctions and embargoes to further itsCommon Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP)objectives. and safeguard the common values and security of the EU. or trying to change the policies and actions of the target. Sanctions. including economic sanctions. promote international co-operation. Their principal purpose is usually to change the behaviour of the target country's regimes. are put in place for a number of reasons. In addition to UN and EU sanctions.

the exporter ships the goods. Upon receipt of payment. By accepting the draft. but before documents are released Transfer of Goods: After payment is made on sight Exporter Risk: If draft is unpaid.pdf Documents Against Payment (D/P) Collection Under a D/P collection. At maturity.bg/ivm/resources/Inter_NPD. In this arrangement. Upon receipt of payment. the documents are released to the importer to receive the goods upon acceptance of the time draft. along with instructions on how to collect the money from the importer.sponsorship Introduction An increasingly common form of promotional activity is sponsorship. Time of Payment: After shipment.IMD Notes http://mktg. the importer becomes legally obligated to pay at a future date. but upon acceptance of draft Exporter Risk: Has no control of goods and may not get paid at due date promotion . and then gives the documents to his bank. the collecting bank transmits the funds to the remitting bank for payment to the exporter. the collecting bank contacts the importer for payment.uni-svishtov. which will forward them to the importer’s collecting bank. the collecting bank releases the documents to the importer only on payment for the goods. In this case. What is sponsorship? . goods may need to be disposed Documents Against Acceptance (D/A) Collection Under a D/A collection. Time of Payment: On maturity of draft at a specified future date Transfer of Goods: Before payment. the collecting bank transmits the funds to the remitting bank for payment to the exporter. the exporter extends credit to the importer by using a time draft.

timing etc (5) Define the target audience (6) Consider what resources are needed to make the sponsorship a success. raise awareness of the brand.Sponsorship can be defined as follows: Supporting an event. Cadbury’s sponsor broadcasts of Coronation Street). This is usually in return for advertising space at the event or as part of the publicity for the event.g. arts events or organisations are not as well attended as sports events but are often regarded as more “worthy” and more in keeping with the image of certain businesses and brands. Are competitors already doing this and is it providing them with an advantage? (2) Define the sponsorship objectives: e. The increasing fragmentation of television in the UK through new digital channels is providing many more opportunities for sponsorship of this kind • Sports sponsorship: major sporting events have the advantage of being attended and (more importantly) watched by large numbers of people. • Arts sponsorship. There are many kinds of sponsorship: • Television and radio programme sponsorship (e.g. this can take several forms from the sponsoring of individual students at college through to the provision of books and computers nationwide using the redemption of product or store-related vouchers (e. activity or organisation by providing money or other resources that is of value to the sponsored event. They also attract significant media coverage. promote a new product (3) Agree the strategy: how does the sponsorship fit in with any other promotional activity? (4) Develop the tactics: agree the details of what to sponsor. price. . • Educational sponsorship. Tesco’s Computers for Schools) What is involved in developing a sponsorship promotion? Smith suggests a six-stage process to decide what and how to sponsor: (1) Analyse the current situation: look at which other businesses are sponsoring in the target area.g. build an image.

[10] Inbound marketing: involves creating and freely sharing informative content as a means of converting prospects into customers and customers into repeat buyers.[4] Search engine marketing (SEM): a form of marketing that seeks to promote websites by increasing their visibility in search engine result pages (SERPs) through the use of either paid placement. webvertising.[7] Email marketing: involves directly marketing a commercial message to a group of people using electronic mail. or through the use of free search engine optimization techniques. mobile advertising. contextual advertising. banner ads on specific websites.[6] Social media marketing: the process of gaining traffic or attention through social media websites such as Facebook.[1] Internet marketing ties together the creative and technical aspects of the Internet. Twitter and LinkedIn.[11        E-commerce: a model whereby goods and services are sold directly to consumers (B2C).0 strategies. or from consumer to consumer (C2C) using computers connected to a network. advertising and sales. email marketing. search engine optimization (SEO).[citation needed] Types of Internet marketing Internet marketing is broadly divided in to the following[4] types:   Display advertising: the use of web banners or banner ads placed on a third-party website to drive traffic to a company's own website and increase product awareness.[5] Search engine optimization (SEO): the process of improving the visibility of a website or a web page in search engines via the "natural" or un-paid ("organic" or "algorithmic") search results.[12] .[8] Referral marketing: a method of promoting products or services to new customers through referrals. iMarketing is used as an abbreviated form for Internet Marketing. usually word of mouth.[2] Internet marketing also refers to the placement of media along many different stages of the customer engagementcycle through search engine marketing (SEM).Internet marketing. development. and Web 2. online marketing. including design. is referred to as themarketing (generally promotion) of products or services over the Internet. businesses (B2B). but also includes marketing done via e-mail and wireless media.[9] Affiliate marketing: a marketing practice in which a business rewards one or more affiliates for each visitor or customer brought about by the affiliate's own marketing efforts. and paid inclusion. also known as web marketing. Digital customer data and electronic customer relationship management (ECRM) systems are also often grouped together under internet marketing. or emarketing.[citation needed] Internet marketing is considered to be broad in scope[citation needed] because it not only refers to marketing on the Internet.

affiliate links. the vast majority of affiliate marketing relationships come from e-commerce businesses that offer affiliate programs. etc.).. tracking facilities.[citation needed] The entity that owns the product may provide some marketing material (e.[citation needed] Local Internet marketing uses tools such as social media marketing.   .[citation needed] Local Internet marketing: a strategy through which a small company utilizes the Internet to find and to nurture relationships that can be used for real-world advantages. sales letters.g. These prospects are often referred to as organic leads.[citation needed] Similar to walk-in customers in retail world. however. local directory listing.[13] and targeted online sales promotions. Affiliate Marketing: a process wherein a product or service developed by one entity is sold by other active sellers for a share of profits. Lead-based websites: a strategy whereby an organization generates value by acquiring sales leads from its website.