You are on page 1of 64

This dissertation is the work of 07051999 and has been completed solely in fulfilment of a dissertation for the MA in Mass

Communications at the London Metropolitan University.

Table of Content

1

ABSTRACT............................................................................................................... 4 INTRODUCTION....................................................................................................... 5
Chapter 1: Literary Review.........................................................................................................................................7 Scholarly Views ..................................................................................................................................................8 Film industry pre-liberalisation..........................................................................................................................10 Film industry post-liberalization........................................................................................................................11 Consumption of Hindi Films .............................................................................................................................12 Impact of Bollywood on Indian Diaspora .........................................................................................................13 Bollywood and Media Globalization.................................................................................................................14 Evolution of Bollywood : A rationale................................................................................................................18 Chapter 2: Methodologies..........................................................................................................................................19 Textual Analysis................................................................................................................................................20 Survey................................................................................................................................................................21 Document Analysis: ..........................................................................................................................................21 ...........................................................................................................................................................................21 Semiotic Textual Analysis ................................................................................................................................21 Research Design.................................................................................................................................................23 Government Policies..........................................................................................................................................23 Chapter 3: Research Findings...................................................................................................................................25 Government Policies in chronological order.....................................................................................................25 Audio-Visual Acts and its effects .....................................................................................................................28 Chapter 4: Discussion and Analysis..........................................................................................................................36 Research Question : How has Indian Government changed its policies to showcase India through Bollywood? ............................................................................................................................................................................36 A Critique on Government Policies ................................................................................................................38

CONCLUSION......................................................................................................... 47
References....................................................................................................................................................................49 Bibliography.................................................................................................................................................................55 Appendices 1................................................................................................................................................................59 Appendices 2................................................................................................................................................................61

2

Acknowledgements

Shehina Fazal Marion Banks Dipti and Bharatbhushan Kalra Shaneez Macdoombe Aditi Garg Jasjit Kalra

I thank these people deeply for their invaluable help and advice and support throughout my dissertation

3

Abstract

The main aim of this research is to bring forward the role of government in showcasing India through Bollywood. This study explores what role the government policies play in changing the face of India. It gives an idea of the way in which Hindi movies were consumed in the past and present. It explores the cultural influence of Bollywood on the Indians and South-Asian Diaspora. The study revolves around the main issue which is the globalisation of Bollywood and the factors responsible for it. The main objective of the study is to bring forth the link between government’s economic reforms and the evolution of Bollywood.

4

Introduction

The main objective of my research is to study the influence of government’s policies on Bollywood. And how the change in Bollywood affects the way India is seen on the global front. The research question that I will address here is, “How Indian government has changed its policies to showcase India through Bollywood.” In 2000, Amitabh Bachchan’s effigy was unveiled in Madame Tussauds. Later Aishwarya Rai, Shahrukh Khan and Salman Khan followed. In 2002, Selfridges dedicated a month to Bollywood. In 2003, Aishwarya Rai (Indian actress) was on the panel of Jury for the Cannes Film Festival. Shilpa Shetty (Indian actress) gained world-wide acclaim by winning the UK based reality television show, Big Brother. A reality show called ‘Gateway’ was started by Ashok Amritraj’s Hyde Park Entertainment, an American company, collaborated with Pix (from the house of Sony ) to promote Indian film makers in America. On July 15 th, 2008, Sonu Nigam (Indian singer) performed at City of Birmingham with a 75-piece symphony orchestra. The songs sung were a tribute to Mohammad Rafi, a legendary playback singer. “Who would have ever dreamt of seeing Indian cultural dancing on this program.” was the reaction of a judge on watching a couple perform on a Bollywood song on ‘So you think you can dance’, an Emmy nominated Fox production series. The dance was performed by Katie and Joshua. Both are Americans. The amalgamation of an Indian singer with a symphony orchestra, Bollywood dance performed by American dancers, effigy of four Bollywood actors in the Madame Tussauds Museum signify the evolution of Bollywood. The world’s perception of India as a cultural nation is accredited to Bollywood. Cinema in any country is a reflection of the society, the culture and their changing life-styles. It is a means of communicating with people belonging to different ethnicities. As Bollywood evolves, India’s image goes through a make-over as well. Bollywood is a term formed by conflating the word ‘Bombay’ and ‘Hollywood’. It is the largest film producer in India and second largest in the world. (Jha, 2005). Despite its strong cultural appeal, Bollywood as a film industry was never taken seriously in the past. There was a lack clear structure to film-making. Money laundering was rampant. Bollywood was dependent on unorganised funds for production. It took a while for the government to realise that Bollywood was a commodity that could reap huge returns in terms of money and popularity.

5

Before 1990, India was caught in the shackles of red-tape bureaucracy. The ‘license raj’ stifled any sort of growth in the economy. Things were worse for the private sector as they had to acquire licenses which were difficult to obtain unless through illicit means. The government’s rule of central planning and spending money on the growth of public sector left India in serious debt. But in 1991, the minority government of P V Narsimha Rao brought changes in the Indian economy. Dr. Manmohan Singh, the then finance minister of P V Narsimha Rao was the architect of the economic reforms of 1991. He began by dismantling the ‘license raj’. He issued “Statement of Industrial Policy July 24, 1991”. This New Industrial Policy ended public sector monopoly in many sectors and initiated a policy of automatic approval for foreign direct investment up to 51 percent. On licensing, the new policy explicitly stated, “industrial licensing will henceforth be abolished for all industries, except those specified, irrespective of levels of investment.”(Panagariya, 2004, pg36) In 2001, Bollywood was given the ‘industry’ status. This meant that it could have all the benefits that were applicable to other industries. As a result, film-makers organised their studios into corporate houses. The single screen cinemas were revived through the installation of digital systems under which films could be transmitted through satellite. As a result of deregulation of foreign direct investment, overseas corporations started to invest in the Indian film industry. De-regulation led to a real estate boom that led to construction of hundreds of shopping malls. Each of them contained a multiplex. The economic and cultural developments of the Hindi film industry have its roots in the government’s economic reforms of 1991. These reforms were gateway to opportunities that reshaped the way Bollywood functioned and is perceived. In my research, I have attempted to explore the relation between Bollywood and Government of India. I attempt in my dissertation to bring forth the effects, the changing Indian economy has had on Bollywood and the various aspects that support the evolution of this industry. In Chapter 1, Literary Review, I begin by giving a brief overview of scholars who have studied Bollywood and the changes in it. Thereafter, I give a brief history of Hindi film industry preliberalisation and post-liberalisation. Then I give a background on how the Hindi movies are consumed abroad and within the nation. The aim of the literary review is to highlight how a medium of film, Bollywood connects with its consumers culturally and emotionally. It also shows how the government can leverage this advantage into massive profits.
6

In chapter 2, Research Methodologies, I describe the methods I chose for the dissertation, namely textual analysis, specifically survey of government documents and semiotic analysis of newspaper articles. The advantages and disadvantage as well as a rationale of why these methods are best suited for my research are underlined. In chapter 3, Research Findings, describes the results obtained by surveying the government documents and semiotic analysis of two newspaper articles. In chapter 4, Discussion and Analysis, I address the question posed at the starting of the literary review and relate it to the research findings from survey and semiotic analysis. There is an elaborate break-down of sentences on which semiotics is applied. The break-down is aimed at analysing the sentence and connotations that emerge from it which ultimately answer the research question posed at the start of the literary review

Chapter 1: Literary Review

7

The aim of the literary review is to indicate the change in Bollywood due to the changes in government policies. It begins by providing views of scholars on the changes that took place in Bollywood. It then gives the history of the Hindi film industry starting from the year 1914 and explores the impact of Bollywood on Indians living in India and abroad. This is split in two parts. In ‘Consumption of films’ I map the different ways movies were consumed in India, in past and present. The ‘Impact of Bollywood on Indian Diaspora’ discusses how the films are consumed by Indians living abroad. Later I give a rationale explaining the relation between Bollywood and media globalisation. Finally, I sum up by explaining why it is necessary to study the relation between Bollywood and ‘Economic reforms in India’

Scholarly Views Scholars have put in tremendous amount of effort in studying the process of changes that Bollywood has gone through over a period of last ten years. Academicians like Gandhy, Willeman, Govil, Rajesh Pillana have observed changes taking place in Bollywood and have expressed their views on it. To hide illicit money gained on the black market, finances were pumped into the Indian film industry. This trend was fuelled by government’s economic policies such as License Raj (elaborate licenses, regulations and accompanying red tape) (definition of license raj). The source of funds for Bollywood had been distributors and money-lenders. This lasted until 1990 when the economic reforms started taking place. Bollywood gained ‘industry’ status in 2001 which meant the government (banks and financial institutions) would take active part in funding this entertainment segment. Consequently, relaxing the restrictions meant that all industries including Bollywood could freely export and import goods to and from other countries. As a result, because of these financial reforms, Bollywood got more exposure among the Indians and the South-Asian Diaspora. In 1999, The Film Federation of India announced that Indian film exports had topped $100 million for the first time. Bollywood was gaining visibility. At the same time, the film icon Amitabh Bachhan was voted ‘Star of the Millennium’ by a BBC online poll. However, as Govil observes, official entry of Bollywood on the global platform was marked when Amitabh Bachhan’s effigy was unveiled in the year 2000 at London’s Madame Tussauds Museum.

8

Today, entertainment industry is the fastest growing sector among many other sectors of the Indian economy. It already has a 60% growth rate in export which is increasing by leaps and bounds every year.(Lorenzen and Taeube) This is because Hindi film industry reaches not only to a very large population in India but also Indians and South-Asians spread all across the world. Therefore, industrialists like Anil Ambani, CEO of Reliance Big Entertainment have invested 1.5 billion dollars in Bollywood which is just the beginning.(Anil Ambani’s Hollywood studio to start operations in Jan 2009) Earlier movies were shot on celluloid film and reached cinema theatres on spools packed in grey coloured tin cans. This was a lengthy, slow and costly process. To screen a movie shot on celluloid films required huge investments in form of big cinema halls. The films were digitized in the year 2005. This meant that films could be copied onto disks or directly transmitted through satellite to the cinema halls. Due to this technology it was possible to have small cinema halls. Hence such cinema halls could be constructed even in small towns which were not possible earlier. Since the digitized film could be transmitted all over the country simultaneously, it became possible for producers to release their films on the same day and capture maximum market in the shortest possible period. Due to this technological advancement the distribution of films also underwent dramatic changes. In the past, distribution of films comprised of a team of people who spent a lot of time working out the logistics of shipping the film-cans all over the region. Whereas after 2005, distribution of movies could be done conveniently as no film stock was to be moved physically. With a click of button entire film could be transmitted via satellite to the cinema halls all over the region. This gave tremendous boost to the film business not only in India but also internationally. (Gupta, 2005) It was possible to release Hindi films in London or Chicago on the same day as in India. Bollywood being a very strong emotional link between Indians residing abroad, digitalization gave a massive boost to the demand of Hindi films all over the world. The technical advancement resulting into the ease of distribution caused the expansion of horizons of Hindi film industry. It was possible for Indian community even in small numbers living in Spain, France, Eldarado, Uganda, Kenya or Hawai to watch and enjoy Hindi movies. This was a finalshot of growth in the arm of Bollywood. Bollywood acts as a very strong cultural force that binds Indians spread all over the world. For the Indian and South-Asian Diaspora Hindi films are the nearest and the closest connecting link
9

between them and their country. Realising its importance, many Indian-American scholars (see Jigna Desai’s Beyond Bollywood : The cultural politics of South-Asian diasporic films) are studying this phenomena in-depth.(Assisi). Furthermore, Britain has the largest audience for Hindi movies.(Suroor, 2007) Therefore, it is not just India that has gained economic prosperity from Bollywood but millions of pounds are reaped every year in Britain as well. The growth in export of Hindi films was responsible for its popularization among a vast Indian Diaspora audience. In order to increase its appeal to these audiences, Hindi film scripts were rewritten. The length of the movies was shortened. Numbers of songs were reduced. Film stories based on a tried and tested formula of girl-gets-boy and the usual song-and-dance sequences were replaced by more realistic stories. Issues like homosexuality or lesbianism, child molestation which were taboo in India earlier were addressed directly (Fire (1996), Monsoon Wedding (2001)). Now it was not only Ben Kingsley making a film on Gandhi but even Deepa Mehta, a Canadian-born Indian making movies on issues like homosexuality (Fire 1996). All this was happening as a result of opening of the overseas market. Today not only in English, Hindi films have sub titles in Spanish, Dutch, Portuguese, Arabic and many other languages. This highlights that they are not meant only for Indian or SouthAsian audience but also for people of other ethnicity who have a fascination for Hindi cinema. Thus, this industry not only holds commercial value abroad but it also binds Indians from all over the world. Film industry pre-liberalisation Bollywood’s trysts with the international markets started in 1896 when Lumiere brothers screened short clips in Watson theatre of Bombay. Thereafter in 1914, Dadasaheb Phalke was invited to London to screen Raja Harishchandra along with two other feature films Mohini Bhasmasur and Satyavan Savitri. He started the Hindustan Cinema Films Company at Nasik in 1918 with finance from Dayashankar representing the first ever indigenous capital involved in film production. Much of the early finance for production, during the period 1915-1922, was an expansion of real-estate speculators entering theatre-building and thence distribution and production, notably in Punjab and western India.(Raminder and Sinha, 2005) In 1933 Himanshu Rai’s (founder of Bombay talkies) fourth international venture was partly shot in London where it received its world premiere. It was made in Hindi and English versions with Devika Rani as the lead actress. In 1937, V Shantaram made Duniya Na Mane : A bold statement on oppressive social practices such as arranged marriages and the stigma of
10

widowhood. In 1949 Indian Film Society was opened in London at Scala. 1951 saw the release of Awaara which was a phenomenal success in the USSR and the Middle East. In the same year Film Enquiry Committee was set up to study all the aspects of Indian Cinema. It recommended that a film institute, a national archive and a film finance corporation should be set up. These recommendations were not implemented until 1961 after the international success of Satyajit Ray (Pather Panchali, 1955). In 1953 ‘Do Bigha Zamin’ won the jury’s price at Cannes and in 1954 the Social Progress Award at Karlovy Vary. 1955 saw the event Festival of Indian Cinema in London, organized under the auspices of Asian Film Society. In 1956 Raj Kapoor’s ‘Jaagte Raho’ won first prize at Karlovy Vary. In the same year Indian Motion Picture Export Corporation (IMPEC) was formed. Film Finance Corporation was established in 1960 where money was lent to film producers at low interest rates. The following year was the official opening of the Film Institute of India in Pune in the old Prabhaat Studios. Since 1974, when TV training was introduced, it had been called the Film and TV Institute of India. In 1982 Doordarshan began colour telecast with Satyajit Ray’s Sadgati and Shatranj ke Khiladi. In 1985 Doordarshan became a fully commercial network, telecaster of the first major television series Humlog. (Gandhy and Willeman, 1982)

Film industry post-liberalization The films made after 1991 were treated differently on account of the change in attitude of the government towards the film industry. Although the liberalization policies came into effect a few years after they were framed, they were a huge impetus for the Hindi film industry. Transition of Hindi cinema began when the below mentioned events took place. 1991, Cable and satellite television came to India following the Gulf War. 1992, the government greatly liberalized the requirements resulting in a significant increase of foreign films released in India. 1995, VSNL(Vidhesh Sanchar Nigam Limited) introduced Internet services in India. (Acharya, S.) In 1991, a policy for automatic approval of Foreign Direct Investment upto 51% was implemented. As a matter of fact ‘Policy for import of cinematograph films and other films’ was introduced in 1997 which stated that “Import of cinematograph feature films and other
11

films (including film on video tape, compact video disc, laser video disc or digital video disc) shall be allowed without a licence.”(Ministry of Information and Broadcasting) Several factors have combined to reshape the movie industry in the post-reform era. First, import liberalisation and end to foreign exchange control have given the industry access to state-of-the-art equipment and talent as well as freedom to shoot films anywhere in the world. Second, official recognition to the sector as an industry under Industrial Development Bank of India Act 1964 in 2000 has opened the doors to legitimate sources of finance. Third, with increased prosperity, the audience at home has come to be dominated by urban young middleclass Indians who are westernised to varying degrees. Simultaneously, the overseas audience of the industry has been rapidly expanding. It contributed a little over 10% of the industry's boxoffice revenues in 2007. Finally, the success of reforms in stimulating growth and prosperity has inclined the audience more favourably towards entrepreneurs and corporations. ” (Panagariya, 2008) Consumption of Hindi Films Cinema was not taken so seriously by Indian people in the past. In fact the industry which was developed under colonial domination was looked down upon. Aruna Vasudev blames the cinema itself who disregarded public responsibility and let people perceive it just as a form of entertainment. After independence, the government that came into power was trying to revive Indian ideals and values. Most of the men in power considered cinema as ‘sinful’ and cinema as ‘an instrument for moral degeneration’. Such form of entertainment was referred to as ‘escapist entertainment’, the kind that was popular among the masses in those days. With production costs going high and the government’s strict rules and exorbitant taxes, the producers refrained from experimenting and stuck to the set stereotypes of the hero and villain, the good girl and bad girl, boy-meets-girls in song-and-dance sequence. (Vasudev, 1978) As compared to the yester years, today, watching movies in India is a great experience for people. According to an article in Financial Times, India is emerging as the multiplex cinema construction capital of the world as more of the subcontinent’s increasingly prosperous consumers indulge in the national pastime – going to the cinema. The liberalisation of foreign investment in real estate helps to fuel a real estate boom that is leading to the construction of hundreds of shopping malls, each of which typically contains a multiplex. At the same time, the leading Bollywood studios, which were once run as small fiefdoms, have begun to take on a corporate structure. Even the thousands of old single screen cinemas are being revived through
12

the installation of digital systems under which films can be beamed in by satellite. (Leahy, 2007) Along with multiplexes, the content of the movies has helped draw in audiences. There has been a notable change in the way scripts are written and produced these days. The demand for the quality content is backed by strong finances encouraging the directors to plunge in and take risks. The film financing market in India is organised now consisting of banks, private financial institutions and private financiers. The number of movies being financed by organized sources has increased from 10 in 2001 to 150 in 2005. Total funding from organized sectors has increased from 430 million(Rs) in 2001 to 1760 million(Rs) in 2005 and which has presumably crossed 5000 million(Rs) by now.(Arpana) Over the last six years, since the Reserve Bank of India issued guidelines to banks to lend to films, more banks joined IDBI’s success story. Collectively, between Rs 600-650 crores(60006500 million(Rs)) have flown into various film projects though the skew has been towards Hindi cinema. With corporate names, banks, private equity players and, lately, Hollywood studios as well as companies within the industry raising money from the markets and from abroad, funding for content has been in abundance.(Raghavendra, 2007)

Impact of Bollywood on Indian Diaspora There are almost 30 million Indians living abroad. Owing to the large overseas audience the film producers are compelled to make films based on mixed cultures. NRI theme based film and subjects dealing with Indian diasporas (Namaste London) make for good revenues at the box office. Star power is clearly visible in the Indian Diaspora. The craze of superstars like Shahrukh Khan and Aishwarya Rai is phenomenal. This came across quiet clearly very recently when two bigbudget films Om Shanti Om and Saawariya released on the same date. The box-office success of Om Shanti Om was a clear cut indication of Shahrukh’s hold over Indian Diaspora. The major reason why Bollywood movies are consumed among the Asians overseas is that just by paying a small sum of £5, a person goes back to his country in his imagination which means movies act as a great emotional link between people and their roots. Therefore they not only love movies but they crave for them. This craving is evident during the stage shows organised to showcase Bollywood stars. People spend lot of money to see their idols in flesh and blood.
13

This helps them to relate with their country subconsciously. Looking at the success of films in foreign countries, a huge amount of Bollywood stars have started travelling abroad to launch and promote their upcoming movies. Even before the liberalisation there was a strong demand for Indian films in overseas markets. Films are exported not only to countries with high South Asian and NRI population but also to countries in South Africa, Latin America, CIS states, etc. The opening-up of the economy in general and audio-visual sector in particular has made the domestic producers more export oriented. Many production houses, such as Yashraj Productions and Rajshri Production, have set up their own distribution networks in the international markets. Others are tying up with international distributors to distribute their films globally. To reach and attract a wider audience the industry is restructuring the content, adapting new marketing strategies, exploring the nontraditional markets (such as Japan, Kenya and Latin America), upgrading the technical and editorial standards to international level and exploring the possibilities of increasing exports by using digital technology, such as pay-per-view and web-casting. As a consequence, film exports have grown from more than US$ 48.4 million in 1998 (198 titles) to around US$ 100 million in 2000 (412 titles) to US$ 111 million in 2001. Presently, Indian films are exported to around 95 countries world-wide. Among them, the US and Canada accounted for 30 per cent of the total exports (by volume of prints) in the year 2000, followed by the UK (25 percent). (Mukherjee. 2003)

Bollywood and Media Globalization Rantane says, even though media and communications are very important for globalization, it lacks proper mention in the theoretical debates. Rantane refers to the relation between media and globalization as ‘blindingly obvious’. He draws upon various definitions pointing out that these definitions do not mark the differences between the phenomenon itself and its consequences. For an example of a definition that refers to consequences he quotes Giddens : “(globalization can be defined) as the intensification of world-wide, which link distant localities in such a way that local happenings are shaped by events occurring many miles away and vice-versa.” The consequence was that the local events were shaped by events happenings many miles away. And Rantane quotes Robertson’s definition of globalization as phenomenon

14

by saying,”Globalization as a concept refers both to compression of the world and the intensification of consciousness of the world as a whole.” Another definition by Robertson is “Concept of globalization refers both to time-space compression of the world and intensification and consciousness of the world as a whole (Williams, 1992), that is, the ever increasing abundance of global connection and our understanding of them. (Barker, 1999) Jan Aart Scholte (2000: 15-17) has argued at least five broad definitions of 'globalization' exist out of which one in the context of liberalization is : “In this broad set of definitions, 'globalization' refers to 'a process of removing government-imposed restrictions on movements between countries in order to create an "open", "borderless" world economy' (Scholte) Those who have argued with some success for the abolition of regulatory trade barriers and capital controls have sometimes clothed this in the mantle of 'globalization.” The process of globalisation triggered off world-wide with USA realising “they could effectively deploy its media industries as an engine of economic advancement. Consequently they sought to capitalise on this advantage by removing restrictions on media industries in order to support their growth and expansion overseas.” The catalyst to the media de-regulation was the Telecommunications Act of 1996 and attempts by Federal Communication Commission to relax rules determining ownership and operation of television. (Chadha and Kavoori, 2005). De-regulation has created shifts between media policies which have led to the domestication of global media formats in developing countries like India. It is apparent through television programs that clone foreign programs by adapting the nation’s cultural and economical setting. (Moran and Keane, 2004) Implications of Robertson’s definition give an overview of the changes that have come in the way information is disseminated over the years. The true essence of media globalisation was visible during the gulf war that was fought from January 16 to February 28, 1991. Through the US-based satellite newscaster CNN, a world-wide audience was allowed live coverage of the war. (Gulf War) Media plays a vital role in making any sport popular. Because of worldwide telecast of world cup soccer matches a large amount of revenue is generated. (CHF 609 million) (FIFA Financial report, 2006) This not only brings great rewards for players but enhances business opportunities directly and indirectly. In the Indian context Indian Premier League (cricket) is
15

the latest and most successful example of media globalization where industrial and film icons own teams that rope in international players. The projected revenue figures as per today are 902 million (Rs) and will be 4555 million (Rs) in the 10th year (Shah, Parekh. and Momaya) Without satellite and telecasting facilities this Indian dream would not have been possible. Now let us examine how the reforms affected and changed the media world in India. Akashwani (All India Radio) and Doordarshan (the only television network) were state-owned. In the year 1992 Zee TV and STAR(Rupert Murdoch group) entered the electronic media world of India and started commanding tremendous viewership. Soon realizing the need of entertainment among Indians living abroad it launched Zee TV in the UK / Europe (1995), the USA (1998), Africa (1998) and today is available across five continents. The Indian television industry witnessed explosive growth with the entry of Star Network (owned by Rupert Murdoch) in 1991. Today STAR broadcasts over 60 services in 10 languages, reaching more than 300 million viewers in 53 countries. STAR is watched by approximately 100 million viewers every day.( Transforming Asia’s Media landscape). The influx of Foreign Direct Investments (FDI) in India flourished subsequently due to the liberalization policies of 1990. FDI of “upto 100% in every sector without any prior permission from the government”.(Foreign Direct Investment Policy, 2006). Indian Government then formed an apex body called Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. This was done to properly channelize and maximise the benefits of these reforms. The prime task of this body was to administrate various media like information, broadcasting, press and films with the help of different laws. This ministry was basically responsible for interacting with counterparts in foreign countries on behalf of Government of India. (About Us). The policies that have played a major role in the globalisation in the Hindi film industry are Policy for the import of cinematograph films and other films and the Policy for certification of films for film festivals. There are several co-production agreements between Republic of India and countries like Great Britain, France, Germany, Italy and Brazil in the field of cinematograph and films. All these policies have laid the base for the coming changes that we see today in the entertainment industries. The impacts of these government initiatives were clearly visible in the film industry (Bollywood). Hindi films were revived in terms of movie-making. Foreign locations in Hindi films signify the willingness of Indian directors to take the advantage of policies implemented
16

by the government. Changes became more evident when the Bollywood films were shot on foreign locations. (Dilwale Dulhaniya Le Jaayenge(The brave hearted will take the bride) (1995), Koi Mill Gaya(I found someone)(2003), Kabhi Khushi Kabhi Gham(2001)). This wave of change received a tremendous boost when the global canvas like Oscars came its way. ‘Lagaan (Land Tax)’ (2002), Rang De Basanti (Paint it Yellow) (2006) and Taare Zameen Par (Stars on Earth)(2008) were nominated in the category of Best Foreign-Language Film. There could not have been a better global platform for Indian films other than this. With the increase in number of movies shot and shown abroad as the after effect of media globalisation, more and more Indians from affluent as well as upper middle class started going to foreign destinations for holidaying. It is not only the Indians travelling abroad, but, more and more foreigners have started finding India as their holiday destination. According to an online source, the figures of Indian tourists visiting foreign destinations like Switzerland rose by 14.2% in 2006 which is approximately 28,4000. (Swiss tourism celebrates boom year, 2007) According to Ministry of Tourism, the revenues generated as a result of the foreigners travelling to India, rose to US $5731 millions. (Indian tourism in 2005). While talking about the evolution of Bollywood it is imperative to look at the impact of Bollywood on the masses within the country: A very interesting and unexpected accomplishment made by Bollywood, is in the field of education. “In April, India's Central Board of Secondary Education, the country's premier educational body, announced the inclusion of Sholay (Embers; 1975), one of India's beloved blockbusters, in its school textbooks. Two recent blockbusters, Munnabhai MBBS (2003) and Rang De Basanti (2006), are being used for teachers' training in the capital city, New Delhi. The idea that Bollywood films could really help in the spread of literacy convinced Google to fund Dr. Kothari's (PhD student at Cornell University) unique venture in India, titled Planet Read. Planet Read, active in Mumbai and Pondicherry, uses the SLS methodology that provides "automatic reading practice to individuals who are excluded from the traditional educational system, or whose literacy needs are otherwise not being met. In July 2006, Rakesh Roshan's superhero blockbuster film ‘Krrish’ made its way to the hallowed precincts of Harvard University. It became the first Indian movie to be used for an international-level case study by the Indian Institute of Management (IIM) in collaboration with the Asia Case Research Centre, University of Hong Kong and Harvard Business Case
17

Clearance House. The film will be taught in IIMs as well as in Business Schools across Europe, Asia, Latin and North America. "(Anjum, 2006) Inclusion of Hindi films as part of the academic stream makes it apparent that they stand for strong Indian culture and the qualitative change they have gone through. Vice President of Reliance Big Entertainment, Mr. Rajesh Sawhney is of the opinion that multiplexes and (film) content are the two verticals which are two catalysts, making Bollywood truly global. According to him, the ratio between entertainment industry and total world-wide economy is 1% whereas it is 2.5% in India. CEO of Big Music and Home Entertainment says that they have partnered with four Hollywood studios namely Warner Bros, Paramount, DreamWorks SKG and Universal to produce and distribute movies world-wide. Indian media has become truly global as it influences the collective psyches of societies, individuals and other cultures. Films are a powerful medium through which a country speaks of its changing trends. Through Hindi cinema India has reached out to people belonging to different ethnicities and familiarised them with its culture and changing values. The above mentioned events contribute towards making Bollywood a world-wide phenomenon which is successfully interweaving many other cultures and influencing people all over the world.

Evolution of Bollywood : A rationale A country’s progress is gauged by measuring the progress of its various sectors. Economic reforms in India have resulted into change in the way business/organisations/corporations work. The dishevelled, chaotic functioning of these entities made it difficult for any kind of organised structure to settle in. A victim of such chaos was the entertainment industry which until the last decade depended on inappropriate means for its running. Economic reforms gave rise to a chain reaction where government flexed its policies. That led to businesses investing in Bollywood which in turn led to the boost it received and the visibility it gained. My dissertation deals with various factors that signify the growth of Hindi cinema as an industry. It addresses the change in the way of distributing, producing and marketing movies. As it progresses the research shows how Hindi films affect Indians living in India as well as overseas. By explaining the impact of Hindi films on people I underline a very important point. The scope of Hindi cinema. The economic value of Hindi cinema rises greatly as Indians from all over the world consume it feverishly.
18

Through my dissertation I have rendered a thorough picture giving a rationale that explains the relation between media globalization and Bollywood. By drawing upon the various theories of globalization the gap I have addressed is that Bollywood has progressed due to the economic reforms. In my dissertation I am addressing the core reason that answers the question “Why Bollywood evolved?”. On the foreground, Bollywood is a platform that has proliferated as a result of liberalisation that has come about through economic reforms. It is important to know about the changes in Bollywood as it is one of the areas where the effect of de-regulation from the side of government is visible.

Chapter 2: Methodologies

The research method that I have chosen for my dissertation is textual analysis which includes survey of government policies and semiotic analysis of two newspaper articles. The advantages and disadvantages of these methods and a rationale of why these methodologies are used for my research are given below. My research methodology includes researching texts related to my topic using qualitative methods like surveys of government documents and apply semiotics to two newspaper articles. The advantage of a qualitative method is that it “involves the collection and analysis of information based on its quality... They use un-constructed logic to unravel the meaning of research. This means there are no step-by step rules, terms or procedures that must be followed. Qualitative methods are often referred to as subjective.” (Qualitative Methods) Which is very true for my research as it is entirely based on my observations of the recent developments in the field of my research. Interviews would have been appropriate for my research because it generates highly individual information and the possibility of continuing the interview later, or even several times allows
19

the information to build naturally.(Bertrand and Hughes, 2005). Furthermore, I wanted to know about the formation of the policies, their consequences and if there were any more amendments the government was planning to make. In formal way of interviewing would have helped me get data which would add depth to my research. For my research I wanted to interview someone who was well versed with the government policies, specifically with the policies from the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. The foremost priority for me was to interview a government official from The Ministry of Information and Broadcasting or a Bollywood analyst who closely followed the issues of Bollywood and its aspect of evolution. I contacted two Bollywood analysts but did not get any positive responses from them. Also personal e-mail addresses of journalists are not so easily available on the internet. One of the biggest restrain in carrying out this methodology is that I presently reside in UK. This limits my options to interview people only through e-mails or phone calls. I also tried getting responses, to my e-mails, from renowned film institutions in India and the Ministry itself but was told that I could get whatever information I wanted from the website. Finally, owing to these various circumstances, I gave up the idea of interviewing. The second best alternative to ‘interviews’ was to survey the policies available on the website of Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. Every policy is listed on the website. Therefore, I thought this might be the best alternative research method which was feasible to implement. Hence I decided to carry out textual analysis. Below, I have described the methods used for my research, their strengths and weaknesses and how they will back up my research.

Textual Analysis “Textual analysis is a data gathering process for those researchers who want to understand the way in which members of various cultures and sub-cultures make sense of who they are, and of how they fit into the world in which they live in.”(McKee, 2003). Below is the description of the qualitative methods that I have chosen namely survey and semiotic analysis. The significance of these methods in my research has been explained below.

20

Survey Surveys are systematic collection of data, which can then be used for collating descriptive information, making comparison between groups of people and exploring relationships between variables. In media and communications research on audiences, surveys are done by document analysis, questionnaires and interviews. For my dissertation I will survey seven government policies which are ideal to underline my research question, and apply semiotics on two newspaper articles. (Bertrand and Hughes, 2005)

Document Analysis: Documents have long been the preferred data for humanities researchers, perhaps because so many have been trained in the document methods required by historical and literary research. The internet has become a major clearing house for all kinds of information about and responses to media programmes. Bertrand and Hughes underline the advantages and disadvantages of using documents for research. The advantages are “It (document analysis) documents a particular moment, thus allowing a researcher to follow changes in policy and practice. It is written in the institution’s professional language, which may be well part of what the researcher is studying. It is relatively permanent, so can be consulted repeatedly.” The disadvantages are that “Documentation may be difficult to track down, if the recordkeeping processes within the institution have been flawed, or if documentation has been culled over time. If it is incomplete (which is more likely as you move back in time), skews may be occurring which the researcher may not even know about.”

Semiotic Textual Analysis Semiotics can be applied to anything which can be seen as signifying something - in other words, to everything which has meaning within a culture. Even within the context of the mass media you can apply semiotic analysis to any media texts (including television and radio programmes, films, cartoons, newspaper and magazine articles, posters and other ads) and to the practices involved in producing and interpreting such texts. (Chandler). Semiotics has been applied, with interesting results, to film, theatre, medicine, architecture, zoology, and a host of
21

other areas that involve or are concerned with communication and the transfer of information. (Semiotic analysis, 2004). Semiotic analysis looks closely at small samples of text, so is particularly valuable in studying short, contained media texts, such as individual media stories. (Bertrand and Hughes, 2005). Semiotics is a study which includes reading signs. The process of reading signs is formed of two parts : a ‘signifier’ and the ‘signified’. According to Gripsrud, there are two types of signifiers, material signifier and immaterial signifier. Material signifiers are concrete entities such as dots, lines, shapes, sound waves etc. which we link to an idea or notion. The ‘idea’ is signified. ‘The meaning of read in German is ‘lesen’ and in French is ‘lire’ both of which are etymologically derived from latin word ‘leger’, meaning together of diverse elements to form a new whole.’(Gripsrud, 2006) The two steps to semiotics are denotations and connotations. Denotation is the direct or literal meaning any text might reveal whereas connotation is the indirect meaning or the hidden meaning that a piece of text may signify. The task of the semiotician is to look beyond the specific texts or practices to the systems of functional distinctions operating within them. The primary goal is to establish the underlying conventions, identifying significant differences and oppositions in an attempt to model the system of categories, relations (syntagmatic and paradigmatic), connotations, distinctions and rules of combination employed.(Chandler). I will use semiotics on two newspapers articles taken from The Financial Times and The Economic Times. They appear under the titles “Reliance looking at joint film deal with Spielberg.” and “Reliance Big to light up the screen with Spielberg” respectively. Both the articles discuss the investment plans of India’s leading Communications Industry, The Reliance Communications. My main aim is not to compare the texts of these articles but to analyse them in a way that they favour the outcomes of my research. By that I mean, the message conveyed through these articles acts as a strong signifier of the fact; ‘Bollywood is evolving’. Through a number of connotations in these two articles I have proved that Bollywood is going through a lot of changes. The strengths of Semiotic Textual Analysis are that semiotics can help to denaturalize theoretical assumptions in academia just as in everyday life; it can thus raise new theoretical issues (Culler 1985, 102; Douglas 1982, 199, cited by Mckee 2003). Unlike many academic disciplines, 'semiotics offers the promise of a systematic, comprehensive and coherent study of communications phenomena as a whole, not just instances of it' (Hodge & Kress 1988, Mckee
22

2003). Semiotics foregrounds and problematizes the process of representation. (Mckee, 2003). It can be applied to very small texts and it does not require that these be representative. (Bertrand. and Hughes, 2005) The weaknesses of semiotic analysis are that it is too time consuming to be applied to large samples of texts. The second disadvantage is that some problems of category definition remain: Government papers are complex documents, not easily broken down into measurable units.

Research Design I have chosen Government Documents and Newspaper Stories to validate my research question which is : How has Indian Government changed its policies to showcase itself through Bollywood? My objective is to interpret these documents in context of them justifying my research.

Government Policies In a democratic society government bodies are expected to open their activities to the public scrutiny, except where this might produce a risk to the security of the state. (Bertrand and Hughes, 2005, p134). Analysis of documents is at the heart of much debate about what ‘history’ is and does. This is relevant to my research as I plan to draw upon various government papers which were written in the early 1990’s, which is the generally referred to as the liberalisation period. The early steps taken by the government have lead to the big change that Bollywood as an industry is going through now. The government policies I have surveyed were formed as a result of a clause in Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) policy which allowed 100% FDI in the Film Sector. Thereafter, there are 7 co-production agreements signed between India and Foreign countries. These have not just been on paper; rather they have been acted immediately upon. The media has followed the formation and implementation of these policies closely. My focus is on the co-production policies as they are backed up by immediate results. That strengthens my research. My survey of the government’s documents has been carried out in two steps. In the first part, I have discussed what the policy states. I have quoted from the policies issued under the surveillance of Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. In the second part, I have listed out
23

the consequences of these policies. The events that have taken place after the implementation of policies are strong evidences of the changes in the Bollywood. The second part of my survey is a proof of the implementation of government policies. It has been covered by several newspapers, which reflects the serious involvement of the media.

Semiotic Analysis of newspaper stories There are international talent shows like ‘So You Think You Can Dance’ where a pair danced on Bollywood Song and got a lot of appreciation for it. Anjum Anand, an Indian-born chef, is author of the best selling cookery book, ‘Anjum’s New Indian’ in UK. Bollywood actress, Shilpa Shetty won great accolades after she won Big Brother last year. These are just a few glimpses of how the word ‘Indian’ has gradually started the buzz. Amitabh Bachhan very aptly puts the same feeling ; “...When a nation prospers economically, everything about that country becomes important. Everyone starts noticing the country and suddenly your arts, culture, science, economics and food become of interest.”(Verma, 2006). The newspapers in India and abroad have followed the rise of Bollywood frequently. I chose two articles that occurred in two newspapers namely, The Financial Times, UK and The Economic Times. These articles occurred on the same date and year. They discuss the collaboration of the famous Hollywood film-maker, Mr Steven Spielberg and Chairman of Reliance Communications, Mr Anil Ambani. I selected these articles because they encapsulate all the aspects of my research. They are indirect pointers to the factor which is mainly responsible for the changes, the effects of the government liberalisation policies. For an Indian reader who follows news and watches Bollywood films frequently is well aware that this is a big step towards the evolution of Bollywood. Newspapers run regular stories on the changes in the Hindi film industry as a result of which the world is taking notice of it. What underlay’s the buzz created by Bollywood are the government reforms of the 1990’s. And semiotic analysis will help me acknowledge this fact.

24

Chapter 3: Research Findings

Government Policies in chronological order The government policies that I have attempted to survey are : (1) The Cinematograph Act of 1952. (2) The Policy for Import of Cinematograph Films and other Films, 1997. (3) Policy for certification of films for film festivals, 2004. (4) Audio Visual Co-production Agreement between the Republic of India and the Government of the Italian Republic signed on 13th May, 2005. (5) Audio-Visual co-production agreement between the Government of Republic India and the Government of The Federal Republic of Germany 16th February, 2007. (6) Indo-brazil co-production agreement, 4th June, 2007. (7)Film Coproduction agreement between the Government of the Republic of India and the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, 12th May, 2008.

(1) The Cinematograph Act of 1952 : The Cinematograph Act of 1952 “provides for the certification of cinematograph films for exhibition and for regulating exhibitions by means of cinematographs. It provides for film censorship advisory panels, etc., Act 49 of 1981 amended this Act to provide for constitution of Appellate Tribunal for hearing appeals against any order of the board.” Under this Act, a Board of Film Censors (now renamed Central Board of Film Certification) with advisory panels at
25

regional centres is empowered to examine every film and sanction it whether for unrestricted exhibition or for exhibition restricted to adults. ” (Basu, A.) “Films can be publicly exhibited in India only after they have been certified by the Central Board of Film Certification (CBFC). The Board set up under the Cinematography Act, 1952, consists of a Chairman and a minimum of 12 and a maximum of 25 non-official members, all appointed by the Government. The Board functions with headquarters at Mumbai and nine regional offices at Bangalore, Mumbai, Kolkata, Hyderabad, Chennai Thiruvananthapuram, New Delhi, Cuttack and Guwahati. The films produced in 14 languages are certified by nine offices all over the country. The regional offices are assisted in the examination of films by members of advisory panels which include eminent educationists, art-critics, journalists, social workers, psychologists, etc. The Board examines films for certification in accordance with the provisions contained in the Cinematography Act, 1952, Cinematography (Certification) Rules, 1983 and the guidelines issued by the Central Government. The Film Certification Appellate Tribunal, New Delhi hears appeals against the decision of the CBFC. In 2000, the Board certified 855 Indian and 252 foreign feature films, 1,058 Indian and 194 foreign short films, 111 Indian video feature films and 38 foreign video feature films, 503 Indian video short films and 167 foreign video short films.” (Cinema) The most recent amendment to the act took place in 2007, where in a section 9 was modified to grant “exemption from the provisions relating to certification of films, contained in the Part II of the said Act and the rules made there under, to the exhibitions of the following categories of films : Recordings of sports telecast live in India. Recordings of animation programmes telecast in India. Purely educational programmes/films for levels of CBSE school curriculum from films certified as ‘U’ subject to the condition that the compiler will indicate the certificate number and category in respect of each such song included in te compilation. Video cassettes, CD or DVD copies of films already certified for theatrical release, provided that a legible copy of the certificate is inserted in the video cassette, DVD/CD. The outer surface of the video cassette, CD or DVD should also clearly mention the category of certification viz. ‘U’, ‘UA’, ‘A’ or ‘S’. Indian classical dance performances. Recordings of programs telecast by Doordarshan.(Govt of India, 2007)”.

(2) Policy for Import of Cinematograph Films and other Films
26

The next policy which has had a wide impact on Bollywood is the Policy for Import of Cinematograph Films and other Films. Under this policy, “Import of cinematograph feature films and other films (including film on video tape, compact video disc, laser video disc or digital video disc) shall be allowed without a licence. Prior to 2002, FDI in the film sector was subject to the following: Companies with an established track record in films, TV, music, finance and insurance would be permitted. The company should have a minimum paid up capital of US$ 10 million if it is the single largest equity shareholder and at least US$ 5 million in other cases. Minimum level of foreign equity investment would be US$ 2.5 million for the single largest shareholder and US$ 1million in other cases. Debt equity ratio should not be more than 1:1, i.e., domestic borrowing should not exceed the equity. After 2002, under Foreign Direct Investment Policy “All items/activities for FDI/NRI/OCB investment up to 100% fall under the Automatic Route” (Manual of Foreign Direct Investment).

(3) Policy for certification of films for film festivals In an attempt to support film festivals, the Government took a policy decision to exempt from certification to certain categories of films. This policy was issued on 17th January, 2006. According to this policy, “In those festivals which are non-commercial in nature and viewership is confined to delegates (definition of delegates would include filmmakers, media students, critics, film theorists, film lovers and all those associated with the production and business of film and members of the press duly registered with the festival authorities as well as its jury), the Government would grant exemption for both Indian and foreign films. However, the exemption would be subject to fulfilment of the conditions prescribed in para 3 below.” Para 3 being documents “sent by the Director of the Festival addressed to Joint Secretary (Films) along with the request for exemption. (i) List of films to be screened in the festival. (ii) Synopsis of each of the films. (iii) Composition of the Preview Committee, which should comprise persons who are related to the film industry or are critics/writers connected with films. (iv) Report of the Preview Committee certifying that the films have been recommended for exhibition at the festival. (v) Certificate from the Director of the Festival to
27

the effect that the screening of such films would be limited to delegates (definition of delegates would include film-makers, media students, critics, film theorists, film lovers and all those associated with the production and business of film and members of the press duly registered with the festival authorities as well as its jury.) (vi) Certificate from the Director of the Festival to the effect that the festival is non-commercial in nature.”

Audio-Visual Acts and its effects Indian audio-visual industry has grown significantly since the Uruguay Round and the country has now developed export potential in different segments of the television and film sectors. India is currently exporting films, television software and programmes, post production facilities, computer animation and graphics and the industry is exploring new markets and delivery platforms. India also has an import interest in the two sectors. In order to encourage the inflow of advance technology and development of skills, achieve economies of scale through large investment and increase efficiency through competition, India has unilaterally liberalised the television and film industry in the 1990s. It is, therefore, in India’s interest to push for liberalisation of trade in this sector. On its part, the country should broaden its commitments in the current round. (Mukherjee, 2003)

(4) Audio Visual Co-production Agreement between the Republic of India and the Government of the Italian Republic The co-production Agreement between India and Italy was signed on the 13th of May, 2005 in Rome. It lists out similar rules as mentioned in the Germany-India co-production treaty with additions such as “No restrictions should be placed on import, distribution and Indian film, television and video productions in Italy or that of Italian film and video productions in India other than those contained in the legislation and regulations in force in each of the two countries, including in case of Italy the obligation deriving from the norms of the European Union in so far as the free circulation of goods among Italy and other European Union countries is concerned, will be respected”(Ministry of Information and Broadcasting). In the Article 1(i) of this agreement, “A ‘co-production’ is a film including films, documentaries, science films, animation films and commercials, irrespective of length either on film, videotape or videodisc, which can be shown in cinemas, on television or on video
28

recorders jointly invested in and produced by producers from the two countries and made in accordance with the terms of recognition given by the competent authorities of India and Italy under this Agreement. New forms of production and distribution shall be included in the present Agreement by exchange of notes between the Parties.” This policy is an initiative to make India a BPO in the animation sector. “On the request of the Italian government, a Memorandum of Understanding had been signed on September 3, 2003, in Italy, expressing the intention of both countries to finalise in the near future an agreement on co-production.”(Audio Visual co-prodn agreement b/w India & Italy, July 2005)

(5) Co-production agreement with Germany in audio-visual: This agreement was signed on 16th February 2007, at Berlin. The definition of ‘audio-visual co-production’ in this agreement states that “(it is) a project irrespective of length, including animation and documentary productions, produced in any format, for exploitation in theatres, on television, videocassette, videodisc, CD-ROM, DVD or by any other form of distribution.” The Article 3 of this agreement states that “(1) Film which is produced within the framework of this Agreement shall be deemed national films. (2) These films shall be entitled to claim all state support benefits available to video and film industries and the privileges granted by the provisions in force in respective countries. ”(MIB) These rules suggest that Germany can benefit from the rapidly evolving audio-visual industry of India and “ Indian productions have a fair chance to benefit from Germany's annual film financing programme, which is estimated to be more than Euro 150 million.” (PTI, 2008)

(6) Film Co-production Agreement between the Government of Republic of India and the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland This agreement was signed on the 12th of May, 2008 at New Delhi. From the co-production agreement between UK, North Ireland and India it is apparent that both the countries have recognised that there is a “potential for film industries to work together” to make films that “reflect, enhance and convey the diversity of culture and heritage in both countries”(MIB).
29

Hence they have agreed to sign annex to film co-production agreement. In the annex these countries have agreed to “treat the films as national films for the purposes of any benefits afforded in that country to national films.” The agreement also says that “Nothing in the Agreement binds the relevant authorities in the UK or India to permit the public exhibition of a film, which has been granted Approved Co-production status.” This annex rules out the criteria’s for the co-producers of the respective countries to work together. It lays specific stress on the films to be made which are culturally beneficial to both the countries. There are financial rules and rules for the film to be taken to international film festivals. The annex also includes a paragraph wherein there is room for third-party coproducers to invest in the co-production resulting from this agreement. It states that “The total financial contributions of Third-party co-producers (taken together) shall not be less than 20% and not more than 60% of the total production cost”(p26). Also “the total financial contribution of each non-party Co-producers taken together shall not be less than 20% and not more than 60% of the total production cost.” The policy is open to reviews and amendments. (See Film Co-production Agreement between The Government of Republic of India and The Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland).

Semiotic Analysis I have applied semiotics on two articles taken respectively from Financial Times UK edition and The Economic Times. Both the articles are dated June 19, 2008. In both the newspapers, the news item that I have discussed revolves around the theme of Reliance-Spielberg collaboration. As there are different set of codes that each reader applies to anything he reads, I will be using my own ideological assumptions. These papers are interesting to analyze as they represent two different approaches to news presentation, two different ideologies and therefore two different potential reader groups. (Carter). The Economic Times is India’s largest financial daily and world’s second largest financial daily. It is widely read by professionals and city’s business houses. The main content is based on matters related to finance. It is associated with ‘quality journalism’ which gives indepth and balanced coverage of events. The Financial Times is one of the world’s leading business news organisations, is recognised internationally for its authority, integrity and accuracy. It provides extensive news, comments and analysis.(About us, ft.com)
30

According to me even in its initial stages, the discussion of the Spielberg-Reliance collaboration had been handled by the press as an important step benefiting both the countries culturally and economically. The coverage of the story has been different in both the newspapers. In The Economic Times the multi-national merger is one of the main stories. A front page story is associated with words like ‘importance’, ‘priority’ and ‘impact’ of the news item. This merger is a signifier of Indian government’s attitude towards the nations’ entertainment industry. It reflects a very serious interest the government has shown in Bollywood. It also connotes the conscious effort from the Indian press to support this motive. The merger comes as the consequence of the changes in the policies of FDI for the entertainment sector. This is a part of the economic reforms of the country on the whole. When the country is making a huge investment in its growth, such international amalgamation is a highlighter of the same. It is extremely crucial in maintaining the country’s position in the world market. This job is catered to by the country’s press which plays a very important role in influencing and shaping the opinion of the citizens. When a national newspaper runs a story on its front page, the readers consume those headlines as the most important. It is a general assumption among the masses that the headline in a newspaper is the most important story of the day. Especially when a newspaper with such large circulation prints it, it automatically grabs a lot of attention from its readers. Also as mentioned before, the large circulation of this newspaper assures that the news reaches the maximum number of readers of English newspaper. Professionals, bureaucrats, politicians, businessman make up the reader population of The Economic Times. Financial Times, on the other hand discusses nitty-gritty’s of those issues which have an impact on the economy of the country. When an international newspaper covers the merger of two foreign countries, it has many connotations. (1) Both the countries are well known and contribute to the world’s economy, (2) The companies in question are financially sound in their own sectors and (3) It is important as an observer to make note of such mergers, keeping in mind future interests of its own. The article in question here is spread across half of page 26 in companies/media section. The headline ‘Reliance looking at the joint film deal with Spielberg’ is accompanied with smaller sentences ‘Cash infusion for DreamWorks’ and ‘Move takes Viacom by surprise’. The meaning of these sentences is very explicit. It denotes that the Indian company Reliance is
31

planning to sign up a deal with American film-maker Steven Spielberg. The smaller sentences mean that Reliance is investing money in the American company DreamWorks which is owned by Spielberg. The second small sentence denotes that Viacom, an American media company, was not informed about this deal, in advance. Viacom is the company that bought DreamWorks in 2005. DreamWorks and Viacom have been in a tiff due to personal differences. The connotations of these three sentences are as explained; in the main headline which is ‘Reliance looking at joint deal with Spielberg’ there are two very important signifiers namely ‘Reliance’ and ‘Spielberg’. The significance of these two words is explained below. “The Reliance Group, founded by Dhirubhai H. Ambani (1932-2002), is India's largest private sector enterprise, with businesses in the energy and materials value chain.”(ril.com) In the article, the word ‘Reliance’ is used instead of Reliance Communications. Reliance – Anil Dhirubhai Ambani Group, is an offshoot of the Reliance Group founded by which was founded by Shri Dhirubhai H Ambani (1932-2002). It ranks among India’s top three private sectors business houses in terms of net worth. The business interest of this group ranges from telecommunications (Reliance Communications Limited) to financial services (Reliance Capital Ltd) and the generation and distribution of power (Reliance Energy Ltd).( Looking back, looking forward) Reliance is the biggest private sector company in India. Anil Ambani ranks sixth on the Forbes Billionaires list. “One of the most influential film personalities in the history of film, Steven Spielberg is perhaps Hollywood's best known director and one of the wealthiest filmmakers in the world. Spielberg has countless big-grossing, critically acclaimed credits to his name, as producer, director and writer.” “his knack for story-telling and his ability to produce crowd-pleasers is unequalled in movie history. 2006 saw Spielberg named as the most powerful person in movies by film magazine Premiere. Time magazine listed him in its 100 Greatest People of the Century and Life magazine named him the most influential person of his generation. He has won three Academy Awards and in 2001, he was made a Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire. His fortune is estimated to be in excess of US $3 billion.” (page 3 Steven Spielberg).He ranks 287 on the Forbes Billionaires’ List.(World’s Billionaires). Spielberg is the most revered film-maker of Hollywood. Both these names ‘Reliance’ and ‘Spielberg’ are well-known and coveted names in their respective industries. The unification of DreamWorks and Reliance is an explicit example of the mix of two cultures. It indicates the importance given to an Indian industrialist by a very
32

famous American film-maker. Here the importance is placed on the American film-maker because he is more popular than the Indian industrialist. His reach to the common man is much more than the business tycoon. When an international newspaper like The Financial Times covers the story in such detail, the importance and potential of the companies discussed comes forth. A quote from Financial Times, “News of the negotiation with Reliance, controlled by Anil Ambani, the billionaire industrialist, caught Viacom executives by surprise yesterday. The media company declined to comment.” connotes an idea that leaves an impression on the mind that the Indian company Reliance has been given more importance than Viacom. This can be because presently Reliance Communications is a well-established company and it promises an immense growth through its future investment plans. The current image of Reliance on the global platform is of being economically strong and trustworthy. If Steven Spielberg ties up with Reliance then DreamWorks will be assured of huge economic supports. This assumption is coined into a fact by another quote, “Under proposed deal with Reliance, ... the Indian company is expected to take a stake in the new Dreamworks venture, under which the partners would agree to make a certain number of films a year. The new company is expected to have funds of up to $1.5 billion including debt and equity.” Here the word ‘stake’ evokes a number of concepts. Firstly literal meaning of stake is risk. A company allows someone to have a stake of its own only if it trusts it and knows the company can maintain it. It also means that it expects equal involvement from the opposite person. In the context of this article, Reliance enjoys a stake in the Steven Spielberg’s venture because it is reliable and worthy of trust. One of the small sentences ‘Move takes Viacom by surprise’ also has numerous denotations and connotations. Financial Times uses the word ‘surprise’ to express the reaction of Viacom over the negotiations between Reliance and Spielberg. The usage of such word denotes the company’s (here Viacom executives) unawareness of its partner’s (Steven Spielberg) business deals. This points to a number of things : (1) the importance given to Reliance over Viacom and (2) the potential Spielberg foresees in this company. Financial Times comes across as opinionated with its usage of words like ‘surprise’. The Economic Times writes a few modest sentences on Viacom’s incognizance of Steven Spielberg’s future ventures. It says in a very off-hand manner that, “This will also mean that
33

Mr Spielberg, who sold his company DreamWorks to Viacom in 2006, will part ways with Viacom, with the funding that they receive from ADAG.” It mentions nothing about Viacom’s reactions. The common link ground for both the newspapers here is that both do not give any importance to the Viacom’s reactions. They do this by adopting two opposite approaches; Financial Times is firm and opinionated and The Economic Times doesn’t mention anything at all about Viacom. The text that appears in The Economic Times article denotes the focus of Reliance Communications to become one of the major entertainment companies worldwide. It says that Reliance’s entry in Hollywood is in tandem with its vision of becoming the biggest entertainment company in the world. It writes about the entry of Reliance in the USA by the name ‘Big’. It discusses its present and future plans of acquisitions. Financial Times takes a similar route in describing the company’s aspirations writing that : “Under the proposed deal, Reliance and DreamWorks would set up a joint venture to make Hollywood movies into which they would pump upto $1.5 bn in debt and equity.” It says that, “The plan represents the biggest motion picture deal attempted by an Indian company and a bold move by DreamWorks to tie up financing from one of the entertainment industry’s biggest growth markets”. Towards the end, the articles end in a different way. Financial Times mentions number of collaborations that have taken place between Indian and UK entertainment industry. The Economic Times concentrates on Reliance Communication’s investment plans. Financial Times gives a background of Bollywood by saying : “The world’s most prolific movie industry – with more than 1000 releases a year – Bollywood’s Hindi-language film business and its regional language cousins were, until recently, characterised by small unorganised producers and studios. But corporate investors have begun ploughing in money, attracted by rapid growth in revenues, which are forecast to rise at a compound annual rate of 16 percent to Rs175bn ($4bn) by 2011, according to PwC.” The below text denotes the evolvement of Bollywood in the words of Financial Times: “The rise of Bollywood has already caught Hollywood’s attention. Among the biggest deals was Walt Disney International raising its stake in UTV Software Communications, controlled by entrepreneur and film-making Ronnie Screwvala, to 32.1 per cent” The unwritten reason behind the evolution is the government economic reforms which transformed the way the Hindi movie industry works. So far, the various texts and usage of words like ‘entertainment industry’s biggest growth markets’ for Bollywood are pertinent to
34

the fact that India today is viewed as a growing entertainment market. Bollywood is instrumental in its growth on the global platform. Towards the last part of the articles, FT journalist delves into more such collaboration between India and big known names in the International industry, strengthening my message all the more which is evolution of Bollywood is happening. The collaborations connote the idea that I am compelled to mention. The base of these changes is the economic reforms of the 1990s of India. The Times also writes “For Hollywood actors and producers, partnering an Indian entertainment company would ensure South Asian audiences. Besides, they would get a strong producer and distributor, capable to explore new markets and concepts.” This re-instates the interest of diasporas which consume Bollywood films. English-speaking actors will be involved which again will be great for Bollywood as it will be watched by more number of foreign-born, English-speaking Indians or South-Asians. The last part of the article in FT includes update on recent developments in the Hindi Film Industry in context with its collaboration with international production- houses. “Disney has also agreed to make animated movies with Yash Raj, one of the India’s most respected filmmakers.” The Times on India discusses investments done by RBEL(Reliance Big Entertainment Ltd) in the foreign markets. I quote, “RBEL is focused on both international and domestic projects, and its vision is to become one of the major entertainment companies worldwide. The entry into mainstream Hollywood projects is in tandem with this vision”. FT highlights the strong Indian presence in the international market by highlighting Reliance activities as well as other various Indian-western film collaborations Whereas The Times draws upon the same information by elaborating on RBEL investment plans and successes. Barthes expressed his view that a newspaper photograph is, ‘an object that has been worked on, chosen, composed, constructed, treated according to professional, aesthetic or ideological norms which are so many factors of connotation.’(Carter, P.). The inset pictures in both the articles are of different sizes. This reflects the writers’ perception of the news item. There is a still picture of Indian movie ‘Saawariya’ on the corner right of the page in FT. The size of the image is fairly big. However, a photograph is a representation of a particular moment and situation in time. (Carter, P.) Here, the signifier (the image) speaks of one of the latest accomplishment that has been achieved by one such foreign collaboration which took place between Sony Pictures Ltd UK and Indian director, Sanjay Leela Bhansali. Due to the similarity in the image and the news item the placement of the image seems very relevant. In
35

Times of India, picture of a dinosaur (which is almost genericized as the brand Steven Spielberg.) is inset in the centre. The size of the picture is small as compared to the image in the Financial Times, UK. According to me, the placement of dinosaur in the centre of the news item can mean a number of things. The reason why this image is chosen over any other is because it stands for the iconic Steven Spielberg. Secondly, the newspaper is Indian and inclusion of that image shows the importance given to the foreign counterpart, Steven Spielberg.

Chapter 4: Discussion and Analysis

This chapter addresses the research question posed at the beginning of the dissertation. It relates the research findings gained from the survey of the government policies and semiotic analysis of the newspaper articles. It will also bring forth the important links that emerged between Bollywood and Indian Government. This chapter concludes on the understanding gained about how the Indian Government showcases India through Bollywood.

Research Question : How has Indian Government changed its policies to showcase India through Bollywood?

A number of issues emerge by surveying the government documents and applying semiotics on the newspaper stories. The government policies that I have studied are fairly recent. The steps taken to implement these policies have been very quick. It can be observed that the film-makers realise how these policies can benefit them. It also reflects the changes seen on the big screen by citizens of the country, the South-Asian Diaspora and the international film markets. The striking factor of these policies is their immediate consequences. Cinematograph Act of 1952 : After the implication of the amendment in the Cinematography Act of 1952, the film-makers got a larger audience. The censorship has relaxed its rules on exhibition of films. This enables people of all age-group to enjoy movies as they do not require any certification. An example of this assumption is Bollywood’s top most grosser for 2007, Om
36

Shanti Om. It reaped in $19 million dollars from within India itself, and $3 million dollars from UK and North America combined. (BS Reporter, 2007). Yet another example is Shahrukh Khan’s critically acclaimed movie Chak De India. It grossed Rs 64 crores (6.4 million) within 6 weeks from its release from within the country. (The biggest hits of 2007) The Policy for Import of Cinematograph Films and other Films : The anecdotal evidence that as many as three co-production agreements have been signed between Government of Republic of India and Governments of UK, Northern Ireland, Italy, France and Brazil have been made possible due to the implementation of FDI(Foreign Direct Investment) policy in India.. The Yash Raj Film and Walt Disney deal to have co-produced an animated movie by the named “Raghu Romeo” is an upshot of the amendments in the FDI policies. The CEO of Reliance Big Entertainment (Bollywood eyed for bigger hits). Anil Ambani’s declaration during last year’s Cannes Film Festival to sign eight deals with Hollywood production houses wouldn’t have been possible if it had not been for the opening of the overseas market. UTV is an Indian production company which has co-produced ‘The Happening’ directed by Manoj Night Shyamalan and also has major projects with Hollywood Studios like Walt Disney and also a tie-up with Will Smith’s production house. (Burman, 2008) Policy for certification of films for film festivals : This policy smoothens the process of getting foreign films for festivals. The problems caused as a result of delays in getting the stamp of approval from the Central Board of Film Certification can be avoided with the implementation of this policy. As a result foreign films which were released in India months after they were released in their home countries can now enjoy an international release on the same day. For example, films like Saawariya (2007) and Om Shanti Om(2007) (www.imdb.com) were released in India, USA, UK and Netherlands on the same date. The government has, however, made an exception in certain cases concerning national security, law and order or relations with other countries.(Sinha, 2006). Audio Visual Co-production Agreement between the Republic of India and the Government of the Italian Republic : According to a Variety dated 25th May, 2007, this agreement is not ratified. But producers are already planning to invest in the co-productions. “Adlabs Films and 7 Entertainment ASP White are readying $5 million action adventure “Chase” that will shoot entirely in Rome in August and September. Pic, which will use an allItalian crew and cast an Italian lead actress, is to be helmed by Anubhav Sinha and exec produced by Aditya Bhattacharya. Entertainment’s Bhattacharya says company is in talks with
37

veteran Italian playwright Dario Fo for an India-set adaptation of his classic “Accidental Death of an Anarchist.” (Frater, 2005) Co -production agreement with Germany in audio-visual : Enjoying the first fruits of this agreement is one of the Bollywood actor and a well-known celebrity Shahrukh Khan. His film ‘Don two’ will be a take on the mafia of Germany. It will be shot in Germany and Britain. If 2nd point in Article 7 of this agreement which says “Films produced on the basis of equal contributions shall be entered as a film of the country of which the director is a national, provided that the director is not from a country contemplated in Article 5(1) (a) (iv), in which case the film shall be submitted as a film of the country of which the lead actor is a national subject to agreement of the competent authorities of both Contracting Parties.” If this is applicable to “Don Two” then the star power of Shahrukh Khan will work two folds. His strong overseas standing will be an added-advantage for Bollywood; reaping in large amounts of money from the overseas box-office thereby strengthening the Diasporic bond with the motherland. Film Co-production Agreement between The Government of Republic of India and The Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland : The repercussions of this treaty can be seen in the film “London Dreams” starring Salman Khan and Ajay Devgan (Indian films actors and known celebrities) which is the first films to be coproduced under this bilateral treaty. After this agreement coming into force Indian and British film-makers will probably produce 10 films within the next two years. Even “YRF(Yash Raj Films) has recently entered into an agreement with The Walt Disney Studios, world-renowned leaders in family entertainment, to exclusively create a series of animation films in the Indian language. The collaboration marks the first time for both companies to enter a co-production to produce films in India. The first film to be co-produced in this alliance will be ‘Roadside Romeo’, set to release in October 2008”(London Dreams' is first film under India UK Film treaty) A Critique on Government Policies From the consequences of the policies mentioned above, a very striking fact comes forward Hardly any time has elapsed between the formulation of policies and implementation of it. The response to the government policies by the Bollywood film-makers is very ardent and quick. The reason is that the government always adopted a very restrictive approach towards the film industry. It under-estimated the reach and influence of Hindi film’s and kept it from being
38

called an industry for more than half a century. Hence, as soon as the government changed its policies, Bollywood film-makers were quick to act on it. And as can be observed above the results are equally fruitful. The diffusion of the Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) policies in the entertainment sector of India has benefitted Bollywood immensely. On the whole Indian government’s efforts to put India on the global cultural map has so far materialised very well and is still continuing to grow. An argument though arises out of them. From the policies it is explicitly clear that the Indian government gauges ‘globalisation of Bollywood’ by limiting its reach to places like USA, UK and Europe. A visible reason for such limitation can be that these places have large South-Asian Diasporas. Despite of that, the government’s efforts to globalise Bollywood still clash with what globalisation means in its true sense. Mahesh Bhatt, a renowned Bollywood director argues that although steps have been taken towards the development of the Bollywood, the development is only in terms of technology. According to him, “it (Bollywood) has absolutely nothing to offer the world market in terms of its products”. Bollywood movies may have reached larger Indian audiences within the nation and abroad but Hindi movies have still not been successful in wooing people of international origin. Bollywood still has a long way to go in terms of story-telling which has a universal appeal. There is an urgent need to invest massively in our story-telling skills. He passes a strong judgement, “The affluent westerner is just not interested in our Bollywood movies. We still have miles to go.”( Bhatt, 2008). On the up-side, these government policies have enabled a large Hindi film consuming community to enjoy more of their Bollywood. As the audio-visual policies go into practice, film-makers become more willing to take risks in terms of their scripts. Their stories may not appeal to the international masses, but a conscious effort has been made to include NRI’s in their narratives. NRI-centric stories not only attract larger South-Asian Diaspora but also expose the ability of the film-makers to imitate the life and style of people living abroad. The picturization of these subjects is so close to reality that they are bound to work well with the South Asian Diasporas. This in turn works in the favour of film-makers who reap in millions of dollars at the box-office. It is worth mentioning that the money made by showing an Indian film abroad within the first week of its release is far more than the business it does back in the country. Such strong economic gain drives the Indian film-makers to explore new ideas and stories that circle around NRI crowd.
39

All these policies are very recent and hence there is no mention of them in any books. The most reliable and quick sources which speak of the consequences of these policies are newspapers and interviews of people involved with the film industry or in policy-making directly or indirectly. Hence taking excerpts from the articles is evident. Although these policies have been covered by almost every national newspaper nothing has been mentioned about them in international newspapers such as The Guardian, The Telegraph or The Observer of Britain. Such wide media-coverage of these moves made by the government clearly indicates that India not only wants these policies to be signed on the paper but also to be put in practice. The fact that the newspapers have followed the development of these policies is the way media shows its support to the government. The Indian press has often mentioned, the international ventures taking place are a result of the various government policies. . The process of exhibiting a film, distributing and marketing it plays a major role in deciding the success or failure of the film (ANNEXURE IV of FDI Policy). With relaxations on the government rules in the advertisement sector (upto 74% FDI) as well, it compliments films sector which already enjoys a 100% FDI. Along with Bollywood, even the media has globalised in its approach. The distribution of films has taken a new form. Through semiotic analysis numerous connotations emerge which link the evolution of Bollywood very strongly with the governmental policies. The following tables are a study of the various signifiers and the denotations and connotations attached to it. Semiotics has been applied to the sentences below. They have been taken from The Financial Times and The Economic Times. Sentences from different newspapers which imply the same thing have been placed together. The break-down of them enhances my research finding. It addresses the research questions directly. The break-down of each sentence brings out connotations that represent changes in Hindi film industry. These connotations are indicators of the role played by government’s economic reforms. (a) Reliance looking at joint film deal with Spielberg Signifier Reliance Denotation Indian company headed by one of the world’s richest Spielberg man A very famous Hollywood film-maker.
40

Connotations

deal

A treaty signed between two The companies involved are companies Reliance and Spielberg

(b) Move takes Viacom by surprise Signifier Viacom Surprise Denotation American Media company Viacom’s reaction negotiations to Connotations owns Spielberg’s importance

It

DreamWorks the Highlights the

between given to an Indian Media company over Viacom. India’s sector. visibility in the international entertainment

Reliance and Spielberg

(c) the Indian company is expected to take a stake in the new DreamWorks venture Signifier stake Denotation A part in the company Connotations Stake in a company involves sharing of responsibility. Here Reliance financially company formed. in which contributes the will new be

(d) If the deal comes off it will transform not only Mr Ambani’s Media group but also India’s entire domestic entertainment sector. Signifier transform Denotation Connotations Change the company and Mr Ambani;s media group entertainment of India. represents India’s domestic entertainment sector. With the finalisation of the deal, the Indian entertainment industry will go through a massive evolution.
41

(e) World’s most prolific movie industry, until recently was characterised by unorganized procedures and studios. Signifier unorganized producers Denotation Connotations Film funds were not received Unorganized film funding has from organized sources. been the way movies were produced in the industry for over a century. The economic reforms of the 1990’s have changed the way movies are funded now. New FDI policies have It been implemented. from banks, involves financial

government support, finances institutions.

(f) Corporate investors have begun ploughing in money by rapid growth in revenues which are forecast to rise at a compound annual rate of 16% to Rs 175bn y 2011. Signifier Corporate investors Denotation Institutions like Connotations banks, Organized funds Bollywood. Involvement that from is the taken more corporate investors connotes Bollywood gets seriously as an industry. Bollywood exposure and more finance. As international funds are involved movies with a universal appeal will be made.
42

for

industrialists like Mr Ambani

This leads the film makers to take risks in terms of scripts and technologies.

(g) Sony made its own splash last year when it released Hollywood’s first made-for-Bollywood film ‘Saawariya’. (h) Among the biggest deals was Walt Disney International raising its stake in UTV Software Communications, controlled by entrepreneur and film-maker Ronnie Screwvala to 32 per cent. (i) Reliance unveils deals with Nicolas Cage, Jim Carrey, George Clooney, Tom Hanks and Brad Pitt and films makers Chris Columbus and Jay Roach. The three statements underline the evolution of Bollywood. Walt Disney’s stake in UTV reinstates in the minds of the reader, the idea that Indian entertainment industry has the potential and talent. That is why a company like Walt Disney considers raising its stake in an Indian company. The names like Nicolas Cage, Jim Carrey, Brad Pitt, etc represent world’s most famous film industry ‘Hollywood’. When these personalities sign deals with an Indian company the advantages of it are several; there is a massive cultural and financial exchange. Such deals create curiosity in the minds of movie consumers and prospective investors who are invest and work with Indian film-makers. Sony’s venture into Bollywood with ‘Saawariya’ will help other film-makers and production companies to recognise Indian talent and offerings.

Sentences from The Economic Times article, the signifiers and its denotations and connotations (a) ADAG will commit $500 million in the new venture, which will fund all of Mr Spielberg’s movies. The new company, to be formed between the two parties, will produce about six films a year. Signifier Denotation Connotations ADAG commit $500 million Reliance will finance the new Becoming a working partner in the new venture company that it will form in any company involves
43

with Spielberg.

great responsibility and equal risks. This brings out Reliance’s sound financial stand.

(b) The move cements Reliance Big Entertainment’s plan to become one of the largest players in the entertainment business in the world. Signifier players in Denotation Connotations The biggest media company Biggest players will be able to in the world. attract international investors, deals makers, with foreign of filmthe exposure

largest

the

entertainment business

foreign counter parts to the Indian culture and Indian way of making movies. Reliance is a synecdoche here as it represents the whole ‘India’. Rise of reliance is equivalent to the rise of India.

(c) RBEL, which runs cinemas in India through Adlabs, entered the US market under the brand name ‘Big’. The company has acquired more than 200 theatres across 28 locations in North America, including New York, New Jersey, Atlanta, Detroit, Chicago, San Jose, Los Angeles, Washington DC and Seattle. Signifier ‘Big’ Denotation Reliance’s adopted name for Big its foreign market. plans wide. Big signifies to reliance’s make huge foresight
44

Connotations symbolises Reliance’s to overtake the

entertainment market world-

investments in movies, sign more as deals with with foreign more producers and actors as well collaborate media companies abroad. Not only broaden its horizon as a company but also take Bollywood to a higher level and make it more visible.

(d) The entry into Hollywood projects is in tandem with this vision. Signifier Vision Denotation Connotations Foresight with respect to the Reliance’s long term plans to entertainment industry. work with every known international film-figure in Hollywood is a huge pointer of the huge leaps Bollywood is taking forward in becoming a global film industry.

(e) For Hollywood actors and producers, partnering an Indian entertainment company would ensure South Asian audiences. Signifier Denotation Hollywood actors partnering Audiences from Indian entertainment company Pakistan, would audience ensure South-Asian Nepal. Bangladesh Connotations audience for

India, Large

film-

and maker means huge profits at the box-office. Exposure to different audiences means a different approach towards

45

movies,

different

scripts,

more experiments and more cultural exchanges.

(f) they would get a strong producer and distributor, capable to explore new markets and concepts. Signifier Denotation Connotations strong producer, distributor, Bollywood’s gain after the India gains financially sound new market, concepts deal between Reliance and producers and distributors. Spielberg International markets other than the Diaspora. New concept: new scripts to appeal the new markets. Evolution of Bollywood in terms of story-telling, moviemaking and finance.

(g) RBEL has been in talks with private equity biggies like Kohlberg Kravis Roberts & Company (KKR), billionaire investor Carl Icahn, Japan’s Softbank and Abu Dhabi Investment Authority for selling a 10% stake for a valuation of $5 billion. Signifier RBEL in talks with private RBEL equity biggies plans Denotation future Connotations

investment Sincere efforts by RBEL to globalise itself as a company in turn raising the bars of India on the global map.

46

Conclusion The dissertation has been structured in four parts : Literary Review, Methodologies, Research Findings and Discussion and Analysis. The literary review traverses the various aspects of Bollywood namely, Bollywood in the past and present, the change in the way the Hindi movies are consumed all over the world. The literary review addresses the following issues (1) The cultural impact of Bollywood on Indians and South-Asians (2) The rise and growth of Bollywood in terms of finance, marketing, advertising and film scripts. (3) And the globalisation of Indian media that has catalysed the growth of Bollywood. The main aim of the literary review is to acknowledge the underlying issue : All these changes surrounding Bollywood are made possible with the support of government. The second chapter is an account of the research methods used to support my study. It discusses methods previously considered for the research and why they were rejected. Later it gives a rationale on the methods chosen and how they support my research and help me address the research question.
47

The third chapter, research findings is based on the second chapter as it is the implementation of the methods discussed. In this chapter I survey the government documents and apply semiotic analysis on two newspaper articles. The third chapter, Discussion and Analysis is a reflection on the dissertation so far. The arguments that could arise have been addressed. Criticism of government documents and the positive influence of their formation are covered in this section. Connotations and Denotations of two newspaper articles are done as part of semiotic analysis. The break-down of sentences is done with aim of signifying the research question which is : How has the government changed its policies to showcase India through Bollywood? The connotations of these sentences provide evidence of the globalisation of Bollywood, in turn of India on the world platform. A number of issues emerge from this study. First and foremost is the importance of Bollywood as a medium of communication. The power it holds in influencing the people who consume it. Secondly, the suppression of such a strong cultural force due to strict rules and licenses gives an insight into the short-sightedness of the Indian government. The vast population of people who could consume movies is a very big indication of the potential Bollywood always held but could not be at par with its western counter-part on account of the government planning which did not let private sector to rise. The de-moralization of Hindi films also acts as an obstacle is the growth of Bollywood. The government supports the sentiment by putting on several licenses and censorship. And finally, the last decade that has seen Bollywood in an absolutely different light. In India, Bollywood is considered as one of the most progressive sectors in entertainment. The international collaborations between Bollywood and Hollywood celebrities, investment within the industry by industrialists such as Mr. Anil Ambani have helped to expose India as a rising star on the global platform. Bollywood’s success on the world platform is in sync with the economic growth of India. This re-instates the fact that there is lateral growth of India culturally and economically. The growth of Bollywood has been well covered by newspapers and television as well as been noticed by the scholars and film analysts. My study highlights the conspicuous role of government policies which have shaped the current face of Bollywood. The government documents I chose to survey are the policy papers which were issued in order to steer Bollywood in the direction of growth. These policies are basically changes the government made in order to have more organised funds for the industry.

48

The policy papers reveal the conscious efforts of the government to raise the standards of Bollywood. The two newspapers articles that I applied semiotics were an amalgamation of all the aspects that have been discussed so far : The deal between an Indian industrialist and a Hollywood film-maker, The coverage of the event in UK’s prestigious newspaper Financial Times, the mention of other similar India-UK projects and the investment plans of Mr. Anil Ambani in Bollywood. All of these reveal the globalisation of Bollywood. The observations underline the research question posed at the starting that the role of government has been crucial in showcasing India through Bollywood.

References

About Us, Available at : www.ft.com About Us, Reliance Industries Ltd. Available at : http://www.ril.com/html/aboutus/aboutus.html About Us, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. Available at : http://www.mib.nic.in/informationb/ABOUT/frames.htm Acharya, S., Bollywood and Globalization, 2004,Available at : http://dishumdishum.com/BollyPresentation/GLOBALIZATION.PDF Anil Ambani’s Hollywood studio to start operations in Jan 2009, The Economic Times, Oct 3, 2008. Available at : http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/Entertainment/Anil_Ambanis_Hollywood_studio_to_star t_operations_in_Jan_2009/articleshow/3557119.cms Anjum Z., Bollywood goes to school, littleindia.com. Oct 12, 2006. Available at : http://www.littleindia.com/news/125/ARTICLE/1341/2006-10-12.html
49

Arpana, Government realises the Indian celluloid potential, glamsham.com. Available at : http://www.glamsham.com/movies/scoops/06/dec/25_government_realises_indian_celluloid_in dustry.asp Assisi F C, Bollywood engages Indian American Academics, indolink.com, Available at : http://www.indolink.com/displayArticleS.php?id=092904085840 Audio Visual co-prodn agreement b/w India & Italy, Indiainfo.com, July 25, 2005. Available at : http://news.indiainfo.com/2005/07/25/2507cabinet-italy.html Audio Visual Co-production Agreement between the Republic of India and the Government of the Italian Republic, Policy papers and Documents, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, May 13, 2005. Available at : www.mib.nic.in Audio-Visual co-production agreement between the Government of Republic India and the Government of The Federal Republic of Germany Policy papers and Documents, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, February 16, 2007. Available at : www.mib.nic.in Banerjee, S., New Indian Cinema, Directorate of Film Festivals, 1982. Barker C., Television, Globalization and cultural identities,1999, Open University Press Basu, A., Media Laws : An Overview. Available at: http://www.legalserviceindia.com/articles/media.htm Bertrand I. and Hughes P., Media Research Methods: Audiences, Institutions, Texts, 2005, Palgrave Macmillan Bhatt, M., Bollywood and Globalisation, The Hindu Business Line, Oct 10, 2008. Available at : http://www.thehindubusinessline.com/2008/10/10/stories/2008101050170300.htm Bollywood eyed for bigger hits, Arab Times , Oct 25. Available at : http://www.arabtimesonline.com/client/pagesdetails.asp?nid=23984&ccid=13 BS Reporter, Om Shanti Om’s collections gross $19 m, Business Standard, Nov 21, 2007. Available at : http://www.business-standard.com/india/storypage.php?tp=on&autono=30348 Burman, J., Anil Ambani’s Hollywood deal signals bigger role for India, May 19, 2008. Available at : http://www.thaindian.com/newsportal/entertainment/anil-ambanis-hollywooddeal-signals-bigger-role-for-india_10050417.html Carter, P., Semiotic analysis of a newspaper story, Available at : http://www.aber.ac.uk/media/Students/pmc9601.html Chadha K. and Kavoori A., Globalization and National Media Systems : Mapping Interactions in Policies, Markets and Formats, Mass Media and Society, 2005, Newyork Chandler D., Semiotics for Beginners. Available at : http://www.aber.ac.uk/media/Documents/S4B/sem12.html
50

Cinema, Available at : http://indianembassy.ru/cms/index.php? option=com_content&task=view&id=37&Itemid=471 Culler J., Saussure. 1985, London: Fontana Das Gupta S, Bollywood’s digital affair, Business Standard, August 10, 2005. Available at : http://www.business-standard.com/india/storypage.php?autono=219497 Definition of License Raj. Available at : http://www.glossary.com/encyclopedia.php? q=License_raj Douglas, M., 'The Future of Semiotics', Semiotica, 1982, 38(3/4): 197-203 Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and industry, Film industry in top gear, Sahara Time, July 22, 2006. Available at : http://www.ficci.com/news/viewnews1.asp?news_id=496 Foreign direct investment into India nearly tripped to $16 billion fiscal year, The Associate Press, April 19, 2007. Available at : http://www.iht.com/articles/2007/04/19/news/fdi.php FIFA Financial Report 2006, Available at : http://www.fifa.com/mm/document/affederation/administration/2006_fifa_ar_en_1766.pdf Film Co-production agreement between the Government of the Republic of India and the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Policy papers and Documents, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, May 12, 2008. Available at : www.mib.nic.in Foreign Direct Investment Policy, 2006. Available at : http://www.indianembassy.org/newsite//Doing_business_In_India/fdi_policy_2006.pdf Frater, P., INDIA ITALY PLOT PROD’NS, variety.com, May 24, 2007. Available at : http://www.variety.com/graphics/print_pdfs/0525cnd02.pdf Gandhy B and Willeman P, Scanning Indian Cinema, in BFI Dossier number 5, 1982, British Film Institute. Govil N, Bollywood and the frictions of global mobility, Media on the move Global flow and Contra flow, 2006, UK, Routledge Govt of India, Order-Grant exemption from provision relating to certification of films, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Sep 24, 2007 Gripsrud J., Semiotics: signs, codes and cultures, in Analysing Media Texts, Gillespie M. And Toynbee J.(Eds), 2006, Open University Press. pg 13 Garrahan, M. in Los Angeles, Chaffin, C in New,York and Leahy, J. in Mumbai, Reliance looking at joint film deal with Spielberg, June 19, 2008. Gulf War. Available at : http://lexicorient.com/e.o/gulfwar.htm Hodge, R & Gunther Kress, Social Semiotics. 1988, Cambridge: Polity
51

Indian Diaspora, india.gov.in. Available at : http://india.gov.in/overseas/diaspora/nri.php Indian Movies with subtitles in English/Spanish/and other languages, The Films Division of Intelligent India Enterprises. Available at : http://www.intelindia.com/videostore/spanish_subtitles.htm Indiantelevision.com's interview with Reliance Entertainment President Rajesh Sawhney, Available at : http://www.indiantelevision.com/interviews/y2k7/executive/rajesh_interview_1.php Indiantelevision.com's interview with Big Music &Home Entertainment CEO Kulmeet Makkar. Available at : http://www.indiantelevision.com/interviews/y2k8/executive/kulmeet_ed.php Indian tourism in 2005, Incredible India. Available at : http://www.incredibleindia.org/india_tourism_05_06.pdf Indo-brazil co-production agreement, Policy papers and Documents, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, June 4, 2007. Available at : www.mib.nic.in Jha, S. K. (2005). The Essential Guide to Bollywood. Roli Books. pp. 1970 Kaur R, Sinha A J, Bollywood: popular Indian cinema through translational lens, 2005, Sage Leahy J., Multiplexes spring up across India, Financial Times, June 25, 2007. Availabe at : http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/a52459dc-2345-11dc-9e7e-000b5df10621.html?nclick_check=1 London Dreams' is first film under India UK Film treaty, Indian EU film initiative. Available at : http://www.iefilmi.com/content/london-dreams-first-film-under-india-uk-film-treaty Looking back, looking forward, Available at : http://www.rcom.co.in/webapp/Communications/rcom/Aboutus/aboutus_reliancegroup.jsp Lorenzen M and Arun Taeube F, Breakout from Bollywood? Internationalisation of Indian film industry, Available at : http://www.druid.dk/wp/pdf_files/07-06.pdf McKee Alan, 2003, Textual Analysis, A beginner’s guide, Sage Publications Ltd Manual on Foreign Direct Investment. Available on : http://dipp.nic.in/manual/manual_0403.pdf Mukherjee A., Audio-Visual Policies and International Trade : A Case of India, 2003 Narayankar B D, Cinemata : First day first show for all, merinews.com, Oct 16, 2008. Available at : http://www.merinews.com/catFull.jsp?articleID=144639 Om Shanti Om, 2007. Available at : http://www.imdb.com/title/tt1024943/ Panagariya, A., India in the 1980s and 1990s: A Triumph of Reforms, Jan 3, 2004. Available at : http://www.bsos.umd.edu/econ/panagariya/apecon/Policy %20Papers/India_Growth_Panagariya_IMF_NCAER_Jan_03_04_Rev2.pdf
52

Panagariya A, Bollywood in the post reform era, The Economic Times, Oct 30, 2008. Available at : http://www1.economictimes.indiatimes.com/articleshow/msid-3653063,prtpage-1.cms Pillania, R. K., The Globalization of Indian Hindi Movie Industry, 2008. Available at : http://www.fm-kp.si/zalozba/ISSN/1854-4231/3_115-123.pdf Policy for certification of films for film festivals, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, 2004. Available at : www.mib.nic.in PTI, Shah Rukh unravels plans to make sequel to 'Don', The Economic Times, Feb 13, 2008. Available at : http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/Specials/Shah_Rukh_Khan_Special/Shah_Rukh_unravels _plans_to_make_sequel_to_Don/articleshow/2778366.cms Qualitative Methods, ERSC, Society Today. Available at : http://www.esrcsocietytoday.ac.uk/ESRCInfoCentre/Plain_English_Summaries/research_meth ods/qualitative/ Raghavendra N, Indian film industry on a bull run, The Economic Times, Oct 6, 2007. Available at : http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/Features/Special_Pages/Business_of_Bollywood/Indian_f ilm_industry_on_a_bull_run/rssarticleshow/2433695.cms Rantanen T., The Media and Globalisation, 2005, Sage, pg 17. Reliance big to light up screen with Spielberg, The Economic Times, June 19, 2008. Available at : http://epaper.timesofindia.com/Default/Client.asp?skin=pastissues2&enter=LowLevel Scholte J. A., Definitions of Globalization. Available at http://www.infed.org/biblio/defining_globalization.htm SECTOR SPECIFIC GUIDELINES FOR FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT, ANNEXURE IV of Foreign Direct Investment Policy. Available at : www.indianembassy.nl/pg145000.doc Saregama & CBSO present Rafi Resurrected with Sonu Nigam, Jul 15, 2008 : Available at :http://www.thsh.co.uk/view/saregama---the-cbso-present-rafi-resurrectedwithSawariya, 2007. Available at : http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0758053/ Semiotic analysis, 2004. Available at : http://www.sagepub.com/upmdata/5171_Berger_Final_Pages_Chapter_1.pdf Shah Y., Parekh D. And Momaya N., IPL and ICL financial perspective. Available at : http://www.scribd.com/doc/2572334/IPL-ICL-Financial-Prespective Sillito, D., Wax debut for Bollywood star, Dec 20, 2000. Available at : http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/entertainment/1078159.stm

53

Sinha, K., INDIA: Festival films get Censor exemption, The Times of India, Jan 30, 2006. Available at : http://www.asiamedia.ucla.edu/article-southasia.asp?parentid=38089 Show info, Season 3, 2008. Available at :http://www.fox.com/dance/show_info.htm. Steven Spielberg. Available at : http://www.thebiographychannel.co.uk/biography_story/2064:0/3/Steven_Spielberg.htm Suroor H, Bollywood’s irresistible pull, June 7, 2007. Available at : http://www.hindu.com/2007/06/07/stories/2007060705291100.htm Swiss tourism celebrates boom year, swissinfo.com, Feb 27, 2007. Available at http://www.swissinfo.org/eng/news/travel/Swiss_tourism_celebrates_boom_year.html? siteSect=411&sid=7569715&cKey=1172665636000&ty=st ”Television formats in the world, The World of Television Formats”, in A. Moran and M.Keane(eds)”Television Across Asia, Television Industries, Program Formats and Globalization”, London, Routledge The biggest hits of 2007. Available at : http://www.indicine.com/movies/bollywood/thebiggest-hits-of-the-year-2007/ The Cinematograph Act of 1952. Acts and rules, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting Available at : http://www.mib.nic.in/informationb/media/actsrules/frames.htm The Policy for Import of Cinematograph Films and other Films, Policy papers and Documents, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, 1997. Available at : www.mib.nic.in The Economic Times, Available at: www.wikepedia.com Transforming Asia’s Media landscape, Available at : http://www.startv.com/corporate/about/index.htm. Vasudev A., Liberty and License in Indian cinema, 1978, Vikas Verma, R., 60 seconds: Amitabh Bachchan, Metro, November 21, 2006. Williams M., Rethinking Sovereignty, in Globalization, Kofman E,Youngs G, 1992, London Sage, pg 117. World’s Billionaire, forbes.com. Available at : http://www.forbes.com/lists/2007/10/07billionaires_Steven-Spielberg_4XKR.html

54

Bibliography A chronology of Indian Cinema 1946-1955. Available at : http://www.upperstall.com/features/a-chronology-of-indian-cinema-1946-1955 Agrawal, B. C., Educational Media in India,in Perspective on distant education, Reddi, U. V. and Mishra, S. (Eds), Vancouver, 2005. Available at : http://www.col.org/colweb/webdav/site/myjahiasite/shared/docs/EdMedia_Asia.pdf#page=30 Bhardwaj P., Foreign shoots spread Bollywood's reach, 2006. Available at : http://www.atimes.com/atimes/South_Asia/HE19Df01.html Bollywood's Foreign Affairs, 2007. Available at : http://www.verveonline.com/48/life/bollywood.shtml Budha, K., India-Germany co-production pact, Feb 18, 2007. Available at : http://blogs.widescreenjournal.org/?p=174 Christoph Beat Graber, Audiovisual Media and the Law of the WTO, in: Christoph Beat Graber/Michael Girsberger/Mira Nenova (Hrsg.), Free Trade versus Cultural Diversity, Schulthess: Zürich 2004, 15-65 Available at : http://unilu.contentupdate.net/uniluadmin/web/unilu/files/schlussversion_freetradegraber.pdf Fiscal Policy and Government Budget , Available at :http://indiabudget.nic.in/es199091/7%20Fiscal%20Policy%20and%20Government%20Budget.pdf Floyd J. Fowler, Survey Research Methods: Fundamental Principles of Clinical Reasoning & Research, 2002,Sage. Available at : http://books.google.co.uk/books? hl=en&lr=&id=72pHgjvNS5gC&oi=fnd&pg=PP11&dq=survey+research+methods&ots=gYevesEkm&sig=jcvwwLR8GK16AoBRz-_8FZ4BBwg#PPA10,M1

55

Ganti, T., Bollywood: A Guidebook to Popular Hindi Cinema, 2004, Routledge. Available at: http://books.google.co.uk/books? id=DIVlw5AzQTgC&pg=PT53&lpg=PT53&dq=Hindi+cinema+postliberalization&source=web&ots=M1I1GB3DJ&sig=AFcCl5htzuvIJACixjgdthgV_Vc&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=5&ct=result# PPR5,M1 Glossary, EU-China Trade project, Available at : http://www.euchinawto.org/index.php? option=com_content&task=view&id=26&Itemid=57&lang=eeu Gokulsing, K. M., and Dissanayake, W., Indian popular cinema : a narrative of cultural change, USA, 2004 Government of India, SIA (FC Division),PRESS NOTE NO. 4 (2002 SERIES), Ministry of Commerce & Industry, Department of Industrial Policy & Promotion, 2002. Available at : http://siadipp.nic.in/policy/changes/press4_02.htm Government of India, Media and Entertainment, Industry in services, Available at : http://www.indiainbusiness.nic.in/industry-infrastructure/service-sectors/mediaentertainment.htm Hay, F., FDI and globalisation in India 2006, Sep 28-29, 2006, Available at : http://economix.u-paris10.fr/pdf/colloques/2006_India/Hay.pdf Held, D, McGrew, A., Goldblatt, D. and Perraton, J., Researching Globalization, Available at : http://www.polity.co.uk/global/research.asp IANS, IIM students to study Krrish, July 15, 2006. Available at : http://www1.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/1755385.cms IANS, Global players eye flourishing Indian entertainment industry, Mar 27, 2008. Available at : http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/articleshow/2902382.cms Indiantelevision.com's interview with Hyde Park Entertainment chairman and CEO Ashok Amritraj, Aug 6, 2007. Available at : http://www.indiantelevision.com/interviews/y2k7/executive/ashok_amritraj_interview.php Indiantelevision.com's interview with Baljit Singh Lalli, chief executive officer, Prasar Bharati, May 28, 2007. Available at : http://www.indiantelevision.com/interviews/y2k7/executive/b_s_lalli.php India-UK film co-production treaty in May, Businessofcinema.com, 2007. Available at : http://www.businessofcinema.com/news.php?newsid=2798PTI, SC issues notice to I&B ministry on PVR Plea,Jul 30, 2007. Available at : http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/articleshowarchive.cms?msid=2244521
56

Interview with information & broadcasting minister Priya Ranjan Das Munsh, Jan 25, 2006. Available at : http://www.indiantelevision.com/interviews/y2k6/executive/priya_das_munsi.htm INDIA-ITALY TO SIGN AGREEMENT ON FILM CO-PRODUCTION,Press release, Sep 2, 2003. Available at : http://pib.nic.in/archieve/lreleng/lyr2003/rsep2003/02092003/r020920032.html INDI-ITALY SIGN LOI ON AGREEMENT ON FILM CO-PRODUCTION, Sep 4, 2003. Available at : http://pib.nic.in/archieve/lreleng/lyr2003/rsep2003/04092003/r040920037.htmlJeffery, S, , What is globalisation?, Oct 31, 2002. Available at : www.guardian.co.uk http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2002/oct/31/globalisation.simonjeffery India-UK relationas. Available at : http://ukinindia.fco.gov.uk/en/working-with-india/india-ukrelations/ IMPPA, Our Objectives, Available at: http://www.indianmotionpictures.com/imppa/objectives.html 'Lagaan' nominated for Oscar, 2002, hinduonnet.com. Available at : http://www.hinduonnet.com/2002/02/13/stories/2002021303070100.htm Mohammad, R., Phir bhi dil hai Hindustan : Bollywood the homeland nation-state, and the diaspora, , 2007. Available at : http://www.envplan.com/epd/fulltext/d25/d441t.pdf Misra, A., Cinematography Act set to change, June 22, 2002. Available at : http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/13702410.cms McDowell, S.D., Globalization and policy choice: television and audiovisual services policies in India, 1997. Mitra, A., India-Italy sign MOU, April 6, 2007. Available at : http://www.screenindia.com/old/fullstory.php?content_id=15372 Mohan, L., Gulzar, J., Dissanayake, D. M., Bollywood: Popular Indian Cinema, 2002, Available at : http://books.google.co.uk/books? hl=en&lr=&id=xsEuVL1aGE0C&oi=fnd&pg=PP14&dq=Bollywood+100+years&ots=iDVxuTBmC&sig=zgh5GyJGh4zDLtiLZTc03pvaA7M#PRA1-PT40,M1 Mulchandani, L., World opening doors to Indian films, Aug 16, 2008. Available at : http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/articleshow/msid-3369464,flstry-1.cms Nelmes, J., An Introduction to Film Studies, 2003, Routledge, http://books.google.co.uk/books? id=jcCADouuE_UC&pg=PT389&lpg=PT389&dq=effect+of+liberalisation+on+Hindi+Films& source=web&ots=A6nEiTgXUx&sig=f55Zl8gGgQptYEK4r002vshQ6dU&hl=en&sa=X&oi=b ook_result&resnum=1&ct=result#PPT387,M1

57

PriceWaterHouseCoopers, Industry Previews. Available at : http://www.pwc.com/extweb/industry.nsf/docid/8CF0A9E084894A5A85256CE8006E19ED#fi lm PTI, Shahrukh Khan unravels, plans to make sequel to ‘Don’, Feb 13, 2008. Available at : http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/Specials/Shah_Rukh_Khan_Special/Shah_Rukh_unravels _plans_to_make_sequel_to_Don/articleshow/2778366.cms PWC, Interview with Marcel Fenez, Global Entertainment and Media Leader. Available at : http://onlinecongress.edgesuite.net/pwc/uk/cms_video/0608_em_outlook/video_template_standalone1.swf Regualtions,37th International film festival of India, Goa 2006. Available at : http://www.iffigoa.org/iffi2006/regulations.php Ruben Gowricharn ,Bollywood in Diaspora. Available at : http://www.forum.nl/leerstoel/pdf/bollywood_in_diaspora.pdf Singh, K., Foreign Direct Investment in India: A Critical Analysis of FDI from 19912005,2005. Available at : http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/apcity/unpan024036.pdf Singh, A. and Mohideen, N., Breathless in Bollywood, investor wager on movies, August 23, 2006. Available at: http://www.iht.com/articles/2006/08/22/bloomberg/sxbolly.php?page=1 Simon E. T., Bollywood under a lens, 2008. Available at : http://www.news.harvard.edu/gazette/2008/04.17/13-delacy.html Stafford, R., An introduction to popular Indian cinema (Part One), 2008, Available at : http://www.itpmag.demon.co.uk/Downloads/Indiancinema.html The Uruguay Round,Available at : http://www.wto.org/english/thewto_e/whatis_e/tif_e/fact5_e.htm TNN, Entertainment sector eyes $1-trn tag, Mar 27, 2007. Available at : http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/articleshow/msid-1812806,prtpage-1.cms Vitali, V., Nationalist Hindi Cinema: Questions of Film Analysis and Historiography,2006. Available at : http://www.kinema.uwaterloo.ca/vita042.htm

58

Appendices 1

The Economic Times,Mumbai Edition, June 19, 2008 DESTINATION HOLLYWOOD Reliance Big to light up screen with Spielberg ADAG To Invest $500 M In Ace Director’s Movies Our Bureau MUMBAI

AFTER its recent high-profile entry into Hollywood, Reliance Big Entertainment (RBEL), the entertainment arm of the Reliance Anil Dhirubhai Ambani Group (ADAG), is now close to inking a joint venture with Hollywood director Steven Spielberg. It is learnt that ADAG will commit $500 million in the new venture, which will fund all of Mr Spielberg’s movies. The new company, to be formed between the two parties, will produce about six films a year. The American film director, producer and screenwriter is a three-time Academy Award winner and is the highest-grossing filmmaker of all time. In a career spannig almost four decades, Mr Spielberg made classics such as Jaws, E.T. The Extra-Terrestrial and Jurassic Park, which became archetype the of highest-grossing modern films of blockbuster their time. filmmaking. During his early years as a director, his sci-fi and adventure films were often seen as the Hollywood However, a Reliance ADAG spokesperson offered “no comments” when questioned about the deal. This will also mean that Mr Spielberg, who sold his company DreamWorks to Viacom in
59

2006, will part ways with Viacom, with the funding that they receive from ADAG. The move cements Reliance Big Entertainment’s plan to become one of the largest players in the entertainment business in the world. Last month, Reliance ADAG announced a slew of projects at the Cannes film festival, roping in Hollywood stars including Tom Hanks, Brad Pitt, Jim Carrey and George Clooney, with an estimated investment of about $1 billion. Reliance ADAG is understood to be financing Mr Spielberg to ensure that DreamWorks is sufficiently funded so that its departure from Viacom’s Paramount Pictures is feasible. Rel Big in talks with PEs to divest 10% RECENTLY, RBEL, which runs cinemas in India through Adlabs, entered the US market under the brand name ‘Big’. The company has acquired more than 200 theatres across 28 locations in North America, including New York, New Jersey, Atlanta, Detroit, Chicago, San Jose, Los Angeles, Washington DC and Seattle. The group has also bought a US-based theatre management company to operate the US chain and has set up a distribution company to license rights. RBEL is focused on both international and domestic projects, and its vision is to become one of the major entertainment companies worldwide. The entry into Hollywood projects is in tandem with this vision. For Hollywood actors and producers, partnering an Indian entertainment company would ensure South Asian audiences. Besides, they would get a strong producer and distributor, capable to explore new markets and concepts. In February, when George Soros invested $100 million in RBEL, the internet, media and entertainment arm of ADAG, for a 3% stake, valuing the company at $3 billion, the move took everyone by surprise. The primary reason was that most of the businesses held under RBEL were either at the planning stage or characterised by earnings potential rather than actual undertaken, the plans seem earnings. to be gaining momentum. However, going by the recent spate of activities and the number of acquisitions that RBEL has Three months after the last investment, RBEL has been in talks with private equity biggies like Kohlberg Kravis Roberts & Company (KKR), billionaire investor Carl Icahn, Japan’s Softbank and Abu Dhabi Investment Authority for selling a 10% stake for a valuation of $5 billion.

60

Appendices 2 The Financial Times, June 19, 2008 Reliance looking at joint film deal with Spielberg By Matthew Garrahan in Los Angeles, Joshua Chaffin in New York and Joe Leahy in Mumbai Published: June 18 2008 07:33 | Last updated: June 19 2008 01:30 Steven Spielberg and the founders of the DreamWorks studio are in talks with India’s Reliance Big Entertainment about financing their new film venture, in a move that will see DreamWorks end its three-year association with Paramount Pictures, the Hollywood studio owned by Viacom. The deal to finance DreamWorks could be struck within six weeks, according to a person familiar with the talks. News of the negotiations with Reliance, controlled by Anil Ambani, the billionaire industrialist, caught Viacom executives by surprise yesterday. The media company declined to comment. Viacom bought DreamWorks in 2005 with the aim of using the company as a creative engine to reinvigorate Paramount. But although DreamWorks scored hits for Paramount such as Disturbia and Blades of Glory, relations between the companies soon began to deteriorate, with the DreamWorks founders clashing with Brad Grey, Paramount’s chairman.

61

Philippe Dauman, Via-com’s chief executive, also angered the DreamWorks contingent when he told investors at a conference that the departure of Mr Spielberg from the company would be “completely immaterial”. Mr Spielberg; David Geffen, DreamWorks co-founder; and Stacey Snider, DreamWorks chief executive, can all leave Paramount this year when their contracts expire. Rights to films produced by DreamWorks since it was bought by Paramount, such as Transformers, will stay with Paramount. Viacom no longer owns the DreamWorks library, which includes films such as Gladiator and Saving Private Ryan, having sold it to George Soros soon after it bought the company. Under the proposed deal with Reliance, which declined to comment, the Indian company is expected to take a stake in the new DreamWorks venture, under which the partners would agree to make a certain number of films a year. The new company is expected to have funds of up to $1.5bn including debt and equity. DreamWorks filled a hole in Paramount’s production slate last year. Since then, Paramount’s revival has gathered pace, with the studio scoring its own hits and leading rival Hollywood studios in market share thanks to the success of Iron Man,Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull – directed by Mr Spielberg – and Cloverfield. Cloverfield was produced by J.J. Abrams, who created the Lost television series. Mr Grey hopes Mr Abrams will emerge as a creative successor to Mr Spielberg. With its work on Transformers, last year’s blockbuster film about alien robots,Steven Spielberg’s DreamWorks SKG helped turn round the fortunes of Viacom’s Paramount Pictures. Now Anil Ambani, the Indian industrialist, is turning to Mr Spielberg and his company to perform the same transformational magic on Reliance Big Entertainment, the billionaire’s burgeoning new media arm. Under the proposed deal, talks on which are still in the preliminary stages, Reliance Big and DreamWorks would set up a joint venture to make Hollywood movies into which they would pump up to $1.5bn in debt and equity. Details of the plan, the biggest single motion picture deal attempted by an Indian company, have yet to be released, with Reliance on Wednesday declining to comment.
62

But analysts say it looks like a clever attempt by Mr Ambani to capitalise on a vacuum in film financing created by the departure of hedge funds and other financiers since the credit crunch. Vivek Couto, director of research at Media Partners Asia in Hong Kong, said: “Film financing is having a tough time all over so Anil Ambani has seen a window of opportunity”. If the deal comes off, it will transform not only Mr Ambani’s media group but also India’s entire domestic entertainment sector. Rajesh Sawhney, president of Reliance Big Entertainment, said the company’s approach was to act as a producer and financier working directly with Hollywood’s most talented directors and actors, who he said were becoming frustrated with what they perceived as the large studios’ lack of creativity and innovation. Mr Sawhney said: “Our own belief is the studio system is crumbling. When we talk to some of the talent, what we hear is that their avenues for creativity are fast shutting down.“It’s all becoming formulaic and the risk-taking ability is going down.” If his deal with DreamWorks comes to fruition, Mr Ambani will truly be sailing into uncharted waters. Reliance Big Entertainment has pushed to be India’s biggest production house, striking deals with several Hollywood stars at this year’s Cannes festival. “It just shows you that big Indian media companies now have to be taken seriously,” Vivek Couto, director of research at Media Partners Asia in Hong Kong, said. The world’s most prolific movie industry, with more than 1,000 releases a year, India’s Bollywood Hindi-language film business and its regional language cousins were until recently fragmented affairs, characterised mostly by small unorganised producers and studios. But in the past few years, corporate investors have begun ploughing in money, attracted by rapid growth in the industry’s revenues, which are forecast to rise at a compound annual rate of 16 per cent to Rs175bn ($4bn) by 2011, according to PwC.

63

The rise of Bollywood has already caught Hollywood’s attention. Among the biggest deals was Walt Disney International’s raising its stake in UTV Software Communications, controlled by entrepreneur and filmmaker Ronnie Screwvala, to 32.1 per cent. Disney has also agreed to make animated movies with Yash Raj, one of India’s most respected filmmakers. Meanwhile, Viacom has tied up with Raghav Bahl, another media entrepreneur, to make films with his Network18 group and Sony has an alliance with Eros International, another of India’s blue chip moviemakers. Sony made its own splash last year when it released Saawariya, Hollywood’s first made-forBollywood film. But there is an increasing push in the other direction. UTV’s Mr Screwvala pioneered this trend, forging co-production deals with Fox Searchlight, Sony Pictures and Will Smith’s Overbrook Entertainment. He has recently produced The Namesake, a film about Indian immigrants, and The Happening, a science fiction thriller starring Mark Wahlberg. However, typically, Reliance has sought to eclipse such initiatives. In Cannes this year, it announced it had signed deals with the production companies of Hollywood stars Nicolas Cage, Jim Carrey, George Clooney, Tom Hanks and Brad Pitt and filmmakers Chris Columbus and Jay Roach to make films generating revenue of up to $1bn.

64