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The design of the steering system has an influence on the directional response behaviour of a motor vehicle. The function of the steering system is to steer the front wheels in response to driver command inputs in order to provide overall directional control of the vehicle. However the actual steer angles achieved are modified by the geometry of the suspension system, the geometry and reaction within the steering system. The behaviour of driver-vehicle system is called handling. The driver-vehicle entity forms a closed loop in which driver gives input to the vehicle through steering wheel and the vehicle gives some feedback as observed and felt by the driver, the driver again modifies the input based on the feedback.


The Aim of this project is to DESIGN AND FABRICATE THE FOUR WHEEL STEERING SYSTEM to analyze the theoretical advantages of it.

To help achieve this goal in the available time, various tasks were set. These include: a) Research on design of automobiles having four wheel steering system. b) Compare the design aspects of front wheel steering system and four wheel steering system. c) Research on design requirements of 4WS system.

While fabrication of FOUR WHEEL STEERING SYSTEM, various objectives were decided. They are: i) Simplicity in design. ii) Obtain a TURNING RADIUS less than 3 metre. iii) Neutral Steering. iv) To achieve less swaying when the wheels will turn back to a straight ahead position. v) To eliminate rear wheel lag. vi) Quick response to steering system.


In Four-wheel steering system, all four wheels turn at the same time when the driver steers. The rear wheels generally cannot turn as far as the front wheels. There can be controls to switch off the rear steer and options to steer only the rear wheel independent of the front wheels. At low speed (e.g. parking) the rear wheels turn opposite of the front wheels, reducing the turning radius by up to twenty-five percent, sometimes critical for large trucks or tractors and vehicles with trailers, while at higher speeds both front and rear wheels turn alike (electronically controlled), so that the vehicle may change position with less yaw, enhancing straight-line stability. Four-wheel steering found its most widespread use in monster trucks, where maneuverability in small arenas is critical, and it is also popular in large farm vehicles and trucks. Some of the modern European Intercity buses also utilize four-wheel steering to assist maneuverability in bus terminals, and also to improve road stability.


Steering system is used to convert the rotary motion of steering wheel into angular displacement of front wheel. It maintains the straight ahead motion of vehicle while it encounters road bumps.

Steering of a four wheel vehicle is, as far as possible, arranged so that the front wheels will roll truly without any lateral slip. The front wheels are supported on front axle so that they can swing to the left or right for steering. This movement is produced by gearing and linkage between the steering wheel in front of the driver and the steering knuckle or wheel. The complete arrangement is called the steering system.


Steering system should have some qualities that it can bear different conditions. These include: a) It should be light and easy to operate. b) It should be capable of keeping the wheels in true rolling motion at all times without rubbing of tires on roads.

c) It should have a certain degree of self straightening action to keep the vehicle on a straight course. d) It should not transmit road shocks to the steering wheel. e) It should convert the angle of steering wheel into specific steering angle of the wheels. f) It should provide the driver with information on the vehicles condition of movement through the steering wheel. g) It should ensure the directional ability and smooth coupling. 2.2.1. SAFETY REQUIREMENT If a steering component is faulty or if it were to fail during operation, this has an effect on the function of steering system. Compromised steering can lead to severe accidents. In order to prevent injury to people and damage to objects the steering system must meet extremely high safety standards. Functional safety is therefore fundamental for steering components. 2.2.2. ECONOMIC REQUIREMENTS Economy of design and production play a large part in determining the competitiveness of a vehicle. Steering systems must therefore: a) b) c) d) Comprise only a few components Be easy to produce and fit Have a low space requirement Be maintenance free for the life of the vehicle.

2.2.3 TECHNICAL DRIVING REQUIREMENTS The technical driving requirements are influenced by the physics of driving and the steering kinematics and are also determined by the drivers demands on comfort. .2.3 MAIN PARTS OF STEERING SYSTEM Steering system has 10 parts mainly. They are: 1) Steering wheel 2) Steering column 3) Steering shaft 4) Steering gear box 5) Tie rod 6) Steering arm 7) King pin 8) Pitman arm 9) Steering knuckle and spindle 10)Ball joints

2.3.1 STEERING WHEEL A Steering wheel is a type of steering control in vehicles and vessels (ships and boats). Steering wheels are used in most modern land vehicles, including all mass-production automobiles as well as light and heavy trucks. The steering wheel is the part of the steering system that is manipulated by the driver; the rest of the steering system responds to such driver inputs.

Steering wheels for passenger automobiles are generally circular, and are mounted to the steering column by a hub connected to the outer ring of the steering wheel by one or more spokes. 2.3.2 STEERING COLUMN AND STEERING SHAFT The automotive Steering column is a device intended primarily for connecting the steering wheel to the steering mechanism or transferring the driver's input torque from the steering wheel. The steering column basically consists of: a) The outer tube which is screwed to the bodywork b) The steering shaft. The Steering shaft connects the steering wheel to the steering gear and is supported in an outer tube. It transmits the steering torque.

Steering columns have to satisfy the following requirements: i. ii. iii. iv. Ensure smooth steering, Damp out noise, Prevent or reduce injury to driver in the event of an accident, Have low frictional losses.

2.3.3. STEERING GEAR BOX The Steering gear box changes turning motion into a straight-line motion to the left or right. Steering gear box ratios range from 15:1 to 24:1 (with 15:1, the worm gear turns 15 times to turn the selector shaft once). It enables the driver to steer the vehicle easily. It changes the movement of steering shaft at a right angle, which in turn converted into a straight line motion by pitman arm. CONSTRUCTION OF STEERING GEAR BOX Steering gear are enclosed in casing known as Steering gear box. Heavy-duty construction provides unsurpassed reliability and longevity. Highly efficient design delivers more torque to the band wheel. Hollow shaft construction provides greater strength and reliability. RECIRCULATING GEAR BOX Re-circulating ball, also known as re-circulating ball and nut or worm and sector, is a steering mechanism commonly found in older automobiles, and some trucks. The recirculating ball steering mechanism contains a worm gear inside a block with a threaded hole in it; this block has gear teeth cut into the outside to engage the sector shaft (also called a sector gear) which moves the Pitman arm. The steering wheel connects to a shaft, which rotates the worm gear inside of the block. Instead of twisting further into the block, the worm gear is fixed so that when it spins, it moves the block, which transmits the motion through the gear to the pitman arm, causing the road wheels to turn.
6 STEERING WORKING As the driver turns the steering wheel, the two steer ball races roll in the grove and the nut travels along the length of the worm. The wheel sector gets its motion from the nut, which in turn, moves the drop arm to displace the front wheels. The ball guides recirculating the steel balls in the worm groove. RACK AND PINION GEAR BOX In this gear box, it uses rack and pinion gear in which pinion gear meshes with gear on the steering shaft. As gear rotates, pinion rotates and it moves rack right or left. It consists of: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. A rack Pinion Tie rods Ball joints Universal joints Rubber boots Spring pads CONSTRUCTION a) The pinion is attached to the end of steering shaft. b) A universal joint is provided at the end of the steering shaft to mount the steering box centrally and to provide more leg space. c) The casing houses the pinion on bearings and sometimes a yoke damper also. d) It engages with the rack to move sideways to give lateral movement to front wheels. e) The tie rod attached to rack with the help of ball joints enclosed with the help of rubber bellows.

f) This allows for rise and fall of wheels. g) Spring pads on the underside of rack to reduce the back lash between gears to a minimum. h) The rack backlash is adjusted by adding shims to damper cover plate. i) The pinion end play is adjusted by adding shims to the bearing cover plates. STEERING WORKING On revolving the pinion shaft through the steering wheel, the pinion revolves. As the pinion is in mesh with rack teeth, rack moves to and fro. While moving to one side it pushes the tie rod of that side while the other side tie rod will pulled, with the result the stub axle being tied up with this tie rods, also move and the vehicle gets steered. TIE RODS The tie rod is part of the steering mechanism in a vehicle. A tie rod is a slender structural rod that is used as a tie and capable of carrying tensile loads only. A tie rod consists of an inner and an outer end. The tie rod transmits force from the steering center link or the rack gear to

the steering knuckle. This will cause the wheel to turn. STEERING ARM The steering arm is the part of a vehicle's chassis that directs the input from the steering box to its components. It applies pressure from the steering box to the tie rods and results in the tires turning from left to right, or right to left. The steering arm is ahead of the axle center line on front steer models and behind the axle center line on rear versions. KING PIN The king pin is the main pivot in the steering mechanism of a car or other vehicle. Kingpins is fitted in the front axle beam eye and is located and locked there by a taper cotter pin. Although they are largely obsolete, kingpin suspensions have the advantage of being able to carry much heavier weights, which is why they are still featured on some heavy trucks. No longer restricted to moving like a pin, the part was not necessarily still called a kingpin; but in newer designs, the term may be used not for an actual pin but the axis around which the steered wheels pivot. PITMAN ARM The Pitman arm is the steering box transfer linkage in a Pitman type vehicle steering mechanism. It is the component in the system which translates the rotary motion of the steering wheel into the linear motion to turn the wheels. STEERING KNUCKLE AND SPINDLE A Steering knuckle is that part which contains the wheel hub or spindle, and attaches to the suspension components. It is variously called a steering knuckle, spindle, upright or hub, as well. The wheel and tire assembly attach to the hub or spindle of the knuckle where the tire/wheel rotates while being held in a stable plane of motion by the knuckle/suspension assembly. The knuckle usually has a spindle onto which the brake drum or brake rotor attaches. The wheel/tire assembly then attaches to the supplied lug studs, and the whole assembly rotates freely on the shaft of the spindle.


For perfect steering, we must always have an instantaneous centre about which all the wheels must rotate. For this purpose, inner wheel has to turn more than the outer wheel. To achieve this condition, two types of mechanisms have been devised. They are: 1) The Davis Mechanism 2) The Ackerman Mechanism 3.1.1 THE DAVIS MECHANISM Davis steering gear mechanism is the one which gives us exact steering alignment. In this mechanism we have two slotted links AM and BH, these two links are attached with front wheel axle and can move on fixed points A and B. On the other hand rod CD is restricted to move along the direction of front wheel axis by sliding members at P and Q. this rod CD is attached with slotted links AM and BH with the help of sliding and turning pair.

To know its relation, consider a = Vertical distance between AB and CD b =Wheel base

d =Horizontal distance between AC and BD c =Distance between pivots A and B of front axle x =Distance moved by AC to AC =CC = DD =Angle of inclination of links AC and BD Let us consider driver takes a left turn, then from triangle AAC tan ( + ) = AC / AA = ( d + x ) / a Now triangle AAC tan = AC /AA = d / a From triangle AAC tan ( ) = BD / BB = ( d x ) / a According to following formula tan ( + ) = [tan + tan ] / [ 1 tan .tan ] ( d + x ) / a = [d/a + tan ] / [ 1 (d/a).tan ] (d + x)(a d tan ) = a.(d + a tan ) Tan = ax / [a2 + d2 + dx] Similarly we will find out tan = ax / [a2 + d2 dx] Since we know that cot cot = c / b [(a2 + d2 + dx) / a.x] [(a2 + d2 dx) / a.x] = c / b After solving we will get desire result 2d / a = c / b Since d / a = tan Therefore tan = c / 2b

11 DISADVANTAGES This method is not used now-a-days because of more sliding members, resulting more wearing and friction but it provides us accurate alignment. So if we remove sliding members from the mechanism by maintaining same alignment then we will a perfect steering gear mechanism. 3.1.2 ACKERMAN STEERING MECHANISM This steering mechanism is much simpler than Davis gear mechanism but there are some differences and these differences are following

Entire mechanism is on the back of front wheel on the other hand in Davis, mechanism is in front of front wheels. Ackerman has turning pairs but Davis has sliding members.

The whole mechanism of Ackerman steering gear consists of ABCD four bar crank chain in which two shorter links BC and AD are of equal length and AB and CD are of unequal length. Shorter links are connected by hinge joints.

Ackerman steering gear mechanism In this mechanism when vehicle moves, longer links are parallel and shorter links are inclined at specific angle. When driver takes a turn say left, lines of front wheel axle meets at instantaneous point I for correct steering. In the end we can say that Ackerman steering gear mechanism is the modification of Davis steering gear mechanism. The correct Ackerman steering equation is cot o - cot i = t / b Where t and b is the track width and wheelbase of the vehicle respectively.



Steering geometry mainly found in three types: 1. ACKERMANN 2. PARALLEL 3. REVERSE ACKERMANN For low lateral acceleration Ackermann geometry is common. As this geometry ensures that all four wheels roll freely with no slip angles because the wheels are steered to track a common turn centre. At low speed all wheels are on a significantly different radius, the inside front wheel must steer more than the outer wheel.


For high lateral acceleration the load on the inner wheels will be much lower than the outer wheels. Tire performance curve shows that by increasing the wheel load, less slip angle is required to reach the peak of the lateral force. Under this condition the inner front wheel of a kinematic steering vehicle would be at a higher slip angle than required for maximum lateral force. Therefore the inner wheel of a vehicle in a high speed turn must operate at a lower steer angle than kinematic steering. This will avoid dragging the inside wheel at high slip angle than required, as it raises the tire temperature and slows the car down due to slip angle drag. (springer)



A wheel alignment consists of adjusting the angles of the wheels so that they are perpendicular to the ground and parallel to each other. The purpose of these adjustments is maximum tire life and a vehicle that tracks straight and true when driving along a straight and level road. It includes: (miliken)

4.1.1 CAMBER Camber is the tilt of the car wheels from the vertical. Camber is positive if tilt is outward at the top and it is negative if tilt inward at the top. EFFECT In case of positive camber, as the vehicle turns, the outside suspension tends to rise on wheel. When the wheel returns to straight ahead position, the weight of vehicle presses down on steering axis and this helps straighten the wheel.



Camber also works like steer, as when a tire is cambered it tends to pull the car in the same direction in which the top of the tire is leaning. Camber angle produces much less lateral force than slip angle. About 4 to 6 degree of Camber required to produce the same lateral force as 1 degree of slip angle on a bias ply tire. Camber stiffness of radial tire is generally lower than that of bias ply tires hence 10-15 degrees are required on a radial (springer) tire.

4.1.2 KING PIN INCLINATION The kingpin is set at an angle relative to the true vertical line, as viewed from the front or back of the vehicle. This is the kingpin inclination or KPI (also called steering axis inclination or SAI). SAI is non-adjustable, since it would change only if the wheel spindle or steering knuckles are bent. This has an important effect on the steering, making it tend to return to the straight ahead or centre position. This is because the straight ahead position is where the wheel is at its highest point relative to the suspended body of the vehicle - the weight of the vehicle tends to turn the kingpin to this position. About 7 to 8 degree. However, the exact amount is decided considering the camber angle.
15 EFFECT a. Effect of Vertical Force: - The vertical force acting on KPI results in a sine angle force component, which normally acts laterally on the moment arm design when the wheel is steered. With a steer angle , the moment on both the left and right wheels act together producing a centering moment (under steer) (gillispie)

b. Effect of Tractive Force: - The tractive force produces moments in opposite direction on left and right wheels this imbalance may produce a steering moment which is dependent on the lateral offset dimension.

16 KING PIN OFFSET Kingpin offset measured at the ground is the horizontal distance in front elevation between the point where the steering axis intersects the ground and the centre of tire contact.

Kingpin offset it is also known as scrub radius. It is positive when the centre of tyre contact is outboard of the steering axis intersection point on the ground. Kingpin offset is usually measured at static conditions (zero degree camber).The kingpin offset at the wheel centre is the horizontal distance in front elevation from the wheel centre to the steering axis. 4.1.3 CASTER The caster angle is the angular displacement from the vertical axis of the suspension of a steered wheel in a car, bicycle or other vehicle, measured in the longitudinal direction. It is the angle between the pivot line(in a car - an imaginary line that runs through the center of the upper ball joint to the center of the lower ball joint) and vertical. Car racers sometimes adjust caster angle to optimize their car's handling characteristics in particular driving situations. If the top of the pivot is leaning toward the rear of the car, then the caster is positive, if it is leaning toward the front, it is negative. If the caster is out of adjustment, it can cause problems in straight line tracking.



Effect of Vertical Force: - The caster angle results in a sine angle force component which normally acts forward on the moment arm. The moments on the left and right wheels are opposite in direction and to balance through the relay linkage. Imbalance due to load or geometric asymmetry may result in steering pull.

Effect of Lateral Force: - The lateral force acting at the tire print produces a moment through the longitudinal offset resulting from caster angle. With positive caster produces a moment attempting to steer the vehicle out of turn (under steer).


4.1.4 TOE IN OR TOE OUT The toe measurement is the difference in the distance between the front of the tires and the back of the tires. It is measured in fractions of an inch in the US and is usually set close to zero which means that the wheels are parallel with each other. Toe-in means that the fronts

of the wear pattern of tires are closer to each other than the rears. Toe-out is just opposite. Excessive toe in causes accelerated wear at the outboard edges of the tires, while too much toe out causes wear at the inboard edges. This type of tire wear is called a saw-tooth wear pattern. If the sharp edges of the tread sections are pointing to the center of the car, then there is too much toe-in. If they are pointed to the outside of the car then there is too much toe-out. Toe is always adjustable on the front wheels and on some cars, is also adjustable for the rear wheels. Toe-in increases the directional stability of the vehicle, and toe-out increases the steering response. Hence, a toe in setting makes the steering function lazy, while a toe out makes the vehicle unstable.


Included angle is the angle formed between the SAI and the camber. Included angle is not directly measurable. To determine the included angle, you add the SAI to the camber. If the camber is negative, then the included angle will be less than the SAI, if the camber is positive, it will be greater. The included angle must be the same from side to side even if the camber is different. If it is not the same, then something is bent, most likely the steering knuckle.


4.1.6 RIDING HEIGHT Riding height is measured, usually in inches, from the rocker panel to the ground. Good wheel alignment charts provide specs, but the main thing is that the measurements should be within one inch from side to side and front to rear. Riding height is not adjustable except on vehicles with torsion bar type springs. The best way to fix this problem is to replace the springs (Note: springs should only be replaced in matched pairs). Changes in riding height will affect camber and toe so if springs are replaced or torsion bars are adjusted, then the wheel alignment must be checked to avoid the possibility of tire wear. It is important to note that the only symptom of weak coil springs is a sag in the riding height. If the riding height is good, then the springs are good.

4.1.7 SET BACK

Set back is when one front wheel is set further back than the other wheel. With alignment equipment that measures toe by using only the front instruments, any setback will cause an un-centered steering wheel. Any good 4-wheel aligner will reference the rear wheels when setting toe in order to eliminate

this problem. Some good alignment equipment will measure set back and give you a reading in inches or millimeters. A set back of less than 1/4 inch is considered normal tolerance by some manufacturers. More than that and there is a good chance that something is bent.

4.1.8 THRUST ANGLE Thrust angle is the direction that the rear wheels are pointing in relation to the center line of the vehicle. If the thrust angle is not zero, then the vehicle will "dog track" and the steering wheel will not be centered. The best solution is to first adjust the rear toe to the center line and then adjust the front toe. This is normally done during a 4-wheel alignment as long as the rear toe is adjustable. If the rear is not adjustable, then the front toe must be set to compensate for the thrust angle, allowing the steering to be centered.


It includes: 1. UNDERSTEER 2. OVERSTEER 3. NEUTRAL STEER When a lateral disturbing force is applied at the CG (centre of gravity) of vehicle then the path traced by the vehicle determines its cornering behavior. When the front axle is more compliant than the rear (under steer), a lateral disturbing force produces more sideslip at the front axle, hence the vehicle turns away from the disturbance , if the rear axle exhibits more cornering compliance (over steer), the rear of the vehicle drifts out , and it turns into the disturbance.


(gillispie) The behavior of the vehicle during cornering can be understood with the help of a parameter called under steer gradient.

The relationship between front slip angle, rear slip angle and steering angle:-

On substitution:-


4.2.1 PARAMETERS AFFECTING CORNERING BEHAVIOUR 1. Static margin:-It is determined by the point on the vehicle where a side force will produce no steady-state yaw velocity (i.e. the neutral steer point)(gillispie)

When the point is behind the CG the static margin is positive and the vehicle is under steer. At the CG the margin is zero and the vehicle is neutral steer. When ahead of the CG the vehicle is over steer. On typical vehicle the static margin falls in the range of .05 to .07 behind the CG. 2. Aligning Torque: - The aligning torque experienced by the tire on a vehicle always resists the attempted turn, thus it is the source of an under steer effect. Aligning torque is due to the fact that lateral forces are developed by a tire at a point behind the tire centre. The distance is known as the pneumatic trail. The under steer due to this mechanism is less than .5(g/deg). (springer)


3. Tractive Force: - Front wheel drive vehicle have an over steer influence as it tries to pull the front of vehicle into the turn. Rear wheel drive vehicle have an under steer influence and on four wheel drive these mechanism suggest that the rear axle should over drive the front axle to ensure under steer behavior.

4.2.2 CHARACTERISTIC SPEED The under steer level may be quantified by a parameter known as the characteristic speed. Characteristic speed is simply the speed at which the steer angle required to negotiate any turn is twice the Ackermann angle.

4.2.3 CRITICAL SPEED In the oversteer case a critical speed will exist above which the vehicle will be unstable. Critical speed is dependent on the wheelbase of the vehicle for a given level of oversteer longer wheelbase vehicle have a higher critical speed than short wheelbase vehicle.





In conventional steering systems, vehicle steers by turning the front wheels in the desired directions, with rear wheels following. Primary function of steering system is to achieve angular motion of the front wheels to negotiate a turn. This is done through linkages and steering gear which convert the rotary motion of the steering wheel into angular motion of the front wheels. In conventional front -steered vehicle, the tires are subject to the forces of grip, momentum, and steering input when making a movement other than straight-ahead driving. These forces compete with each other during steering maneuvers. With a front steered vehicle, the rear end is always trying to catch up to the directional changes of the front wheels. This causes the vehicle to sway. As a normal part of operating a vehicle, the driver learns to adjust to these forces without thinking about them. When turning, the driver is putting into motion a complex series of forces. Each of these must be balanced against the others. The tires are subjected to road grip and slip angle. Grip holds the car's wheels to the road, and momentum moves the car straight ahead. Steering input causes the front wheels to turn. The car momentarily resists the turning motion, causing a tire slip angle to form. Once the vehicle begins to respond to the steering input, cornering forces are generated. The vehicle sways as the rear wheels attempt to keep up with the cornering forces already generated by the front tires. This is referred to as rear-end lag, because there is a time delay between steering input and vehicle reaction. When the front wheels are turned back to a straight-ahead position, the vehicle must again try to adjust by reversing the same forces developed by the turn. As the steering is turned, the vehicle body sways as the rear wheels again try to keep up with the cornering forces generated by the front wheels.

5.2 FOUR WHEEL STEERING Four-wheel steering, 4WS, also called rear-wheel steering or all-wheel steering, provides a means to actively steer the rear wheels during turning maneuvers. The idea behind fourwheel steering is that a vehicle requires less driver input for any steering maneuver if all four wheels are steering the vehicle. As with two-wheel steer vehicles, tire grip holds the four wheels on the road. However, when the driver turns the wheel slightly, all four wheels

react to the steering input, causing slip angles to form at all four wheels. The entire vehicle moves in one direction rather than the rear half attempting to catch up to the front. There is also less sway when the wheels are turned back to a straight-ahead position. The vehicle responds more quickly to steering input because rear wheel lag is eliminated. It is of two types: 1. Positive (In phase) four wheel steering 2. Negative (anti phase) four wheel steering The primary advantage of four wheel steer is derived from the better control of transient behaviour in cornering. 4WS system provides a quicker response with better damping of the yaw oscillation that occurs with initiation of a turn. Proper implementation of four wheel steering can result in a vehicle which is more maneurable at low speed and more stable, responsive at high speed. (gillispie)

5.2.1 NEGATIVE FOUR WHEEL STEERING This type of steering is useful in low speed maneuvering of vehicle, the rear wheels are steered in opposite direction to that of front wheel thus decreasing the turning radius. The turning centre lie between the front and rear axle of vehicle.

5.2.2 POSITIVE FOUR WHEEL STEERING This type of steering system is useful in high speed turning of vehicle since out of phase rear steer would constitute an oversteer influence which might be very unstable at high speed, Therefore rear wheel are steered in the same direction as that of front wheel. The turning centre lies behind the rear axle. Kinematic condition of pure rolling for four wheel steering is:-

5.2.3 ADVANTAGES OF FWS a) The vehicle's cornering behavior becomes more stable and controllable at high speeds as well as on wet or slippery road surface. b) The vehicle's response to steering input becomes quicker and more precise throughout the vehicle's entire speed range. c) The vehicle's straight-line stability at high speeds is improved. Negative effects of road irregularities and crosswinds on the vehicle's stability are minimized. d) Stability in lane changing at high speeds is improved. The vehicle is less likely to go into a spin even in situations in which the driver must make a sudden and relatively large change of direction. e) By steering the rear wheels in the direction opposite the front wheels at low speeds, the vehicle's turning circle is greatly reduced. Therefore, vehicle maneuvering on narrow roads and during parking becomes easier.






In the designing procedure turning radius is taken as our constraint We have assumed turning radius as 3m and taken wheel base, track width as 60and 50 respectively. -1 -2 -3 On using equation 1

a=distance of CG from rear axle Since our project model is symmetrical therefore taking a=l/2

Cot = (R-a)/l Cot = (118-30)/60 Cot = 1.902 Cot + Cot i =3.804 On using equation 3 Cot - Cot i =w/l Cot - Cot i =50/60 Cot - Cot i = .834 From equation 5 & 6 =23.34: i=34: -7 -6 -5


= R = R max R min R max = l/sin R max =151.5 R = 151.5 89


(on neglecting overhang part) R min = l/tan R min = 89 (using l=60 =23.33: = 34:)

R =62.5(1587mm)


=steering arm angle d = steering arm length w = track width Relationship between , d, w is:-

d= 2w [ sin sin {(2+i-)/2}. cos {(i+)/2} ] [ 2sin + cos(2+i-) -1 ] -7 steering ratio = sin1(c-factor/steering arm length) [c -factor = rack travel (in)/360: pinion rotation] (c-factor=1.33) since the steering ratio of passenger cars is 10-15 therefore assuming 13:1 13= sin-1(1.33/steering arm length) Steering arm length (d) = 5.9(149mm)


Eq. 7 gives the following relation between d & 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 d 74 59 48 39 31.5 25.25 19.5 15.3 11.2 7.5 4 .89 -2.12

The value of for which steering arm length (d=5.9) is compatible is 28: Therefore =28: & d=6(152mm)

Result : Wheel base = 60(1524mm) Track width = 50(1270) Turning radius = 118(3m) Steering ratio = 13:1

Steering arm length = 6(152mm) Steering arm angle = 28: Max. inner front wheel angle=34: Max. outer front wheel angle= 23: Min. space required for turning of vehicle =62.5(1587.5mm)



Kinematic equation for four wheel steering:


In our project we are working along with four wheel drive system, which includes CV (constant velocity) joint. Therefore constraining is to applied on the movement of CV joint which traverse 30: from mean position, hence taking max inner front wheel angle () =30: In order to avoid complication we worked on symmetrical four wheel steering i.e. the turning centre lie on a line that bisects the wheel base in two equal halves (c1=c2) For symmetric four wheel steering the above equation reduces to: Cot Cot =w f/l + w r/l Cot Cot i =2w/l (since w f = w r)

Turning radius R

Since CG is at the centre of wheel base therefore a1=a2 and c1=l/2, c2=-l/2

On using kinematic equation Cot Cot =2w/l Cot - Cot 30: =2.50/60

=16.4: Turning radius R: R = [(a2+c2) 2+ c12.cot2 f] Cot f = (Cot + Cot )/2 Cot f =2.54 R= [(30-30) + 30. (2.54)] R =76 (1.9m) Space required for turning of a four wheel steering vehicle R = R max-R min C is the CG of vehicle OA = R min OB = R max 20

In OAF Sin i= (l/2)/R min


Sin 30:= 30/ R min R min = 60 In OBG Sin = (l/2)/R max Sin 16.4: = 30/ R max R max =106.25 Therefore space required for turning of vehicle R = R max-R min R = 106.25 60 R = 46.25 (1174mm)

Designing of trapezoidal steering mechanism

The relation between steering arm angle and steering arm length is as discussed above is : d= 2w [ sin sin {(2+-)/2}. cos {(+)/2} ] [ 2sin + cos(2+-) -1 ] On assuming steering ratio 13:1 steering arm length is found as 5.9 For different value of steering arm angle above equation gives different values of steering arm length: 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 D 23.239 20.575 18.111 15.804 13.617 11.51 9.477

44 46

7.467 5.46

Therefore the steering for steering arm length 5.46 steering arm angle 46: is compatible. =46: d=6 Results: Wheel base: 60 (1524mm) Track width: 50(1270mm) Turning radius: 76 (1.9m) Steering ratio: 13:1 Steering arm length: 6(152mm) Steering arm angle: 46: Max. inner wheel steer angle: 30: Max. outer wheel steer angle: 16.4: Space required for turning: 46.25(1174.75mm) 22




Modification is made in the rear wheel assembly and addition of one more rack and pinion steering gear box for steering the rear wheels. A transfer rod is placed in between the front and rear steering gear box to transfer the motion to front and rear steering gear box.

Bevel gear is used to transmit the rotary motion, one bevel gear is introduced in the transfer rod and other is connected to the steering column. Transfer rod is supported with the help of bearings. Rear steering gear box will be fixed to body by bolts and nuts and the ends of the steering box are connected to the rear wheel hub where the tires will mounted.

As the steering is steered the rotary motion is transmitted to the transfer rod with the help of bevel gear to the front and rear steering gear box (rack). The arrangement is so made that the front and rear wheels are steer in the opposite direction.



Four wheel steering is more effective than front wheel steering in following ways: smaller turning radius Better straight line stability Improved cornering performance Improved steering response

So it can be concluded from the analysis and design of four wheel steering that it is more effective and efficient than front wheel steering system.


Race car vehicle dynamics- Milliken & Milliken


Fundamentals of vehicle dynamics- Gillespie Vehicle dynamics- Springer