CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

The design of the steering system has an influence on the directional response behaviour of a motor vehicle. The function of the steering system is to steer the front wheels in response to driver command inputs in order to provide overall directional control of the vehicle. However the actual steer angles achieved are modified by the geometry of the suspension system, the geometry and reaction within the steering system. The behaviour of driver-vehicle system is called handling. The driver-vehicle entity forms a closed loop in which driver gives input to the vehicle through steering wheel and the vehicle gives some feedback as observed and felt by the driver, the driver again modifies the input based on the feedback.

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1.1 PROJECT OBJECTIVE
The Aim of this project is to DESIGN AND FABRICATE THE FOUR WHEEL STEERING SYSTEM to analyze the theoretical advantages of it.

To help achieve this goal in the available time, various tasks were set. These include: a) Research on design of automobiles having four wheel steering system. b) Compare the design aspects of front wheel steering system and four wheel steering system. c) Research on design requirements of 4WS system.

While fabrication of FOUR WHEEL STEERING SYSTEM, various objectives were decided. They are: i) Simplicity in design. ii) Obtain a TURNING RADIUS less than 3 metre. iii) Neutral Steering. iv) To achieve less swaying when the wheels will turn back to a straight ahead position. v) To eliminate rear wheel lag. vi) Quick response to steering system.

OVERVIEW OF FOUR WHEEL STEERING SYSTEM
In Four-wheel steering system, all four wheels turn at the same time when the driver steers. The rear wheels generally cannot turn as far as the front wheels. There can be controls to switch off the rear steer and options to steer only the rear wheel independent of the front wheels. At low speed (e.g. parking) the rear wheels turn opposite of the front wheels, reducing the turning radius by up to twenty-five percent, sometimes critical for large trucks or tractors and vehicles with trailers, while at higher speeds both front and rear wheels turn alike (electronically controlled), so that the vehicle may change position with less yaw, enhancing straight-line stability. Four-wheel steering found its most widespread use in monster trucks, where maneuverability in small arenas is critical, and it is also popular in large farm vehicles and trucks. Some of the modern European Intercity buses also utilize four-wheel steering to assist maneuverability in bus terminals, and also to improve road stability.

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CHAPTER 2 THE STEERING
2.1 STEERING SYSTEM
Steering system is used to convert the rotary motion of steering wheel into angular displacement of front wheel. It maintains the straight ahead motion of vehicle while it encounters road bumps.

Steering of a four wheel vehicle is, as far as possible, arranged so that the front wheels will roll truly without any lateral slip. The front wheels are supported on front axle so that they can swing to the left or right for steering. This movement is produced by gearing and linkage between the steering wheel in front of the driver and the steering knuckle or wheel. The complete arrangement is called the steering system.

2.2 REQUIREMENTS OF STEERING SYSTEM
Steering system should have some qualities that it can bear different conditions. These include: a) It should be light and easy to operate. b) It should be capable of keeping the wheels in true rolling motion at all times without rubbing of tires on roads.
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SAFETY REQUIREMENT If a steering component is faulty or if it were to fail during operation. Compromised steering can lead to severe accidents.3 TECHNICAL DRIVING REQUIREMENTS The technical driving requirements are influenced by the physics of driving and the steering kinematics and are also determined by the driver’s demands on comfort. g) It should ensure the directional ability and smooth coupling.2. f) It should provide the driver with information on the vehicle’s condition of movement through the steering wheel. e) It should convert the angle of steering wheel into specific steering angle of the wheels. Steering systems must therefore: a) b) c) d) Comprise only a few components Be easy to produce and fit Have a low space requirement Be maintenance free for the life of the vehicle.1.2.2. Functional safety is therefore fundamental for steering components. 2.c) It should have a certain degree of self straightening action to keep the vehicle on a straight course. 2. . this has an effect on the function of steering system. In order to prevent injury to people and damage to objects the steering system must meet extremely high safety standards. d) It should not transmit road shocks to the steering wheel. ECONOMIC REQUIREMENTS Economy of design and production play a large part in determining the competitiveness of a vehicle. They are: 1) Steering wheel 2) Steering column 3) Steering shaft 4) Steering gear box 5) Tie rod 6) Steering arm 7) King pin 8) Pitman arm 9) Steering knuckle and spindle 10)Ball joints 4 . 2.3 MAIN PARTS OF STEERING SYSTEM Steering system has 10 parts mainly.2.2.

including all mass-production automobiles as well as light and heavy trucks. 2. The steering wheel is the part of the steering system that is manipulated by the driver. 5 .2 STEERING COLUMN AND STEERING SHAFT The automotive Steering column is a device intended primarily for connecting the steering wheel to the steering mechanism or transferring the driver's input torque from the steering wheel. The Steering shaft connects the steering wheel to the steering gear and is supported in an outer tube.2. Steering wheels are used in most modern land vehicles. Steering wheels for passenger automobiles are generally circular.1 STEERING WHEEL A Steering wheel is a type of steering control in vehicles and vessels (ships and boats). and are mounted to the steering column by a hub connected to the outer ring of the steering wheel by one or more spokes. The steering column basically consists of: a) The outer tube which is screwed to the bodywork b) The steering shaft. the rest of the steering system responds to such driver inputs.3.3. It transmits the steering torque.

the worm gear is fixed so that when it spins. Damp out noise. Highly efficient design delivers more torque to the band wheel.3. 2. it moves the block.1.3. causing the road wheels to turn. also known as re-circulating ball and nut or worm and sector. Hollow shaft construction provides greater strength and reliability. which rotates the worm gear inside of the block. It enables the driver to steer the vehicle easily. It changes the movement of steering shaft at a right angle. iii. 2. The recirculating ball steering mechanism contains a worm gear inside a block with a threaded hole in it. the worm gear turns 15 times to turn the selector shaft once). this block has gear teeth cut into the outside to engage the sector shaft (also called a sector gear) which moves the Pitman arm. Instead of twisting further into the block.3. Ensure smooth steering. RECIRCULATING GEAR BOX Re-circulating ball. which in turn converted into a straight line motion by pitman arm. 6 .3.3.3. Steering gear box ratios range from 15:1 to 24:1 (with 15:1.Steering columns have to satisfy the following requirements: i. 2. is a steering mechanism commonly found in older automobiles. The steering wheel connects to a shaft. Have low frictional losses. Prevent or reduce injury to driver in the event of an accident. iv. CONSTRUCTION OF STEERING GEAR BOX Steering gear are enclosed in casing known as Steering gear box. which transmits the motion through the gear to the pitman arm. ii. and some trucks. Heavy-duty construction provides unsurpassed reliability and longevity.2. STEERING GEAR BOX The Steering gear box changes turning motion into a straight-line motion to the left or right.

As gear rotates. 7.3 RACK AND PINION GEAR BOX In this gear box. moves the drop arm to displace the front wheels.1 STEERING WORKING As the driver turns the steering wheel. 2. The ball guides recirculating the steel balls in the worm groove. A rack Pinion Tie rods Ball joints Universal joints Rubber boots Spring pads 7 . pinion rotates and it moves rack right or left. it uses rack and pinion gear in which pinion gear meshes with gear on the steering shaft. which in turn. It consists of: 1. 3.3. 6.3.3. the two steer ball races roll in the grove and the nut travels along the length of the worm. 4.3.2. 2. 5. The wheel sector gets its motion from the nut.2.

3. i) The pinion end play is adjusted by adding shims to the bearing cover plates. f) This allows for rise and fall of wheels. h) The rack backlash is adjusted by adding shims to damper cover plate.3.2.3. e) The tie rod attached to rack with the help of ball joints enclosed with the help of rubber bellows.3. the pinion revolves.3. 2. The tie rod transmits force from the steering center link or the rack gear to 8 . 2. also move and the vehicle gets steered. g) Spring pads on the underside of rack to reduce the back lash between gears to a minimum. As the pinion is in mesh with rack teeth.3. A tie rod consists of an inner and an outer end. with the result the stub axle being tied up with this tie rods. c) The casing houses the pinion on bearings and sometimes a yoke damper also. rack moves to and fro. b) A universal joint is provided at the end of the steering shaft to mount the steering box centrally and to provide more leg space.4 TIE RODS The tie rod is part of the steering mechanism in a vehicle.3.3. d) It engages with the rack to move sideways to give lateral movement to front wheels.2 STEERING WORKING On revolving the pinion shaft through the steering wheel. A tie rod is a slender structural rod that is used as a tie and capable of carrying tensile loads only. While moving to one side it pushes the tie rod of that side while the other side tie rod will pulled.1 CONSTRUCTION a) The pinion is attached to the end of steering shaft.

3.3.3. 2.3. and attaches to the suspension components. but in newer designs.the steering knuckle. 2. The knuckle usually has a spindle onto which the brake drum or brake rotor attaches.5 STEERING ARM The steering arm is the part of a vehicle's chassis that directs the input from the steering box to its components. It applies pressure from the steering box to the tie rods and results in the tires turning from left to right. The wheel/tire assembly then attaches to the supplied lug studs.3. kingpin suspensions have the advantage of being able to carry much heavier weights. The wheel and tire assembly attach to the hub or spindle of the knuckle where the tire/wheel rotates while being held in a stable plane of motion by the knuckle/suspension assembly. Although they are largely obsolete. spindle. 9 . Kingpins is fitted in the front axle beam eye and is located and locked there by a taper cotter pin. which is why they are still featured on some heavy trucks. or right to left.6 KING PIN The king pin is the main pivot in the steering mechanism of a car or other vehicle. 2. the term may be used not for an actual pin but the axis around which the steered wheels pivot. the part was not necessarily still called a kingpin. The steering arm is ahead of the axle center line on front steer models and behind the axle center line on rear versions. upright or hub.8 STEERING KNUCKLE AND SPINDLE A Steering knuckle is that part which contains the wheel hub or spindle.3.3. and the whole assembly rotates freely on the shaft of the spindle. 2. It is variously called a steering knuckle. No longer restricted to moving like a pin. as well.7 PITMAN ARM The Pitman arm is the steering box transfer linkage in a Pitman type vehicle steering mechanism.3. This will cause the wheel to turn. It is the component in the system which translates the rotary motion of the steering wheel into the linear motion to turn the wheels.

1. For this purpose. They are: 1) The Davis Mechanism 2) The Ackerman Mechanism 3. On the other hand rod CD is restricted to move along the direction of front wheel axis by sliding members at P and Q. inner wheel has to turn more than the outer wheel. these two links are attached with front wheel axle and can move on fixed points A and B. consider a = Vertical distance between AB and CD b =Wheel base 10 . we must always have an instantaneous centre about which all the wheels must rotate.CHAPTER 3 STEERING MECHANISM AND GEOMETRY 3. two types of mechanisms have been devised.1 STEERING MECHANISM For perfect steering.1 THE DAVIS MECHANISM Davis steering gear mechanism is the one which gives us exact steering alignment. To know its relation. In this mechanism we have two slotted links AM and BH. To achieve this condition. this rod CD is attached with slotted links AM and BH with the help of sliding and turning pair.

d =Horizontal distance between AC and BD c =Distance between pivots A and B of front axle x =Distance moved by AC to AC’ =CC’ = DD’ α =Angle of inclination of links AC and BD Let us consider driver takes a left turn.x] – [(a2 + d2 – dx) / a.x] = c / b After solving we will get desire result 2d / a = c / b Since d / a = tan α Therefore tan α = c / 2b 11 .tan φ] ( d + x ) / a = [d/a + tan φ] / [ 1 – (d/a).(d + a tan φ) Tan φ = ax / [a2 + d2 + dx] Similarly we will find out tan θ = ax / [a2 + d2 – dx] Since we know that cot φ – cot θ = c / b [(a2 + d2 + dx) / a.tan φ] (d + x)(a – d tan φ) = a. then from triangle AA’C’ tan (α + φ) = A’C’ / A’A’ = ( d + x ) / a Now triangle AA’C tan α = A’C /AA’ = d / a From triangle AA’C tan ( α – θ ) = B’D’ / BB’ = ( d – x ) / a According to following formula tan ( α + φ ) = [tan α + tan φ] / [ 1 – tan α.

1 DISADVANTAGES This method is not used now-a-days because of more sliding members. The correct Ackerman steering equation is cot δo . 3. resulting more wearing and friction but it provides us accurate alignment. longer links are parallel and shorter links are inclined at specific angle. When driver takes a turn say left.1. 12 .cot δi = t / b Where t and b is the track width and wheelbase of the vehicle respectively. lines of front wheel axle meets at instantaneous point I for correct steering. mechanism is in front of front wheels.1. In the end we can say that Ackerman steering gear mechanism is the modification of Davis steering gear mechanism.1.3. The whole mechanism of Ackerman steering gear consists of ABCD four bar crank chain in which two shorter links BC and AD are of equal length and AB and CD are of unequal length. Shorter links are connected by hinge joints. Ackerman has turning pairs but Davis has sliding members. So if we remove sliding members from the mechanism by maintaining same alignment then we will a perfect steering gear mechanism. Ackerman steering gear mechanism In this mechanism when vehicle moves.2 ACKERMAN STEERING MECHANISM This steering mechanism is much simpler than Davis gear mechanism but there are some differences and these differences are following   Entire mechanism is on the back of front wheel on the other hand in Davis.

Tire performance curve shows that by increasing the wheel load. REVERSE ACKERMANN For low lateral acceleration Ackermann geometry is common. This will avoid dragging the inside wheel at high slip angle than required. the inside front wheel must steer more than the outer wheel. less slip angle is required to reach the peak of the lateral force. ACKERMANN 2. Under this condition the inner front wheel of a kinematic steering vehicle would be at a higher slip angle than required for maximum lateral force.3. as it raises the tire temperature and slows the car down due to slip angle drag. (springer) 13 .2 STEERING GEOMETRY Steering geometry mainly found in three types: 1. PARALLEL 3. At low speed all wheels are on a significantly different radius. Therefore the inner wheel of a vehicle in a high speed turn must operate at a lower steer angle than kinematic steering. As this geometry ensures that all four wheels roll freely with no slip angles because the wheels are steered to track a common turn centre. miliken For high lateral acceleration the load on the inner wheels will be much lower than the outer wheels.

Camber is positive if tilt is outward at the top and it is negative if tilt inward at the top. as the vehicle turns. 4. When the wheel returns to straight ahead position.CHAPTER 4 WHEEL ALIGNMENT PARAMETERS 4.1 EFFECT In case of positive camber. the outside suspension tends to rise on wheel. 14 . It includes: (miliken) 4.1. the weight of vehicle presses down on steering axis and this helps straighten the wheel.1 CAMBER Camber is the tilt of the car wheels from the vertical.1.1. The purpose of these adjustments is maximum tire life and a vehicle that tracks straight and true when driving along a straight and level road.1 WHEEL ALIGNMENT A wheel alignment consists of adjusting the angles of the wheels so that they are perpendicular to the ground and parallel to each other.

About 4 to 6 degree of Camber required to produce the same lateral force as 1 degree of slip angle on a bias ply tire. About 7 to 8 degree. This has an important effect on the steering. making it tend to return to the straight ahead or centre position. This is the kingpin inclination or KPI (also called steering axis inclination or SAI). 15 . Camber angle produces much less lateral force than slip angle. However. as viewed from the front or back of the vehicle. since it would change only if the wheel spindle or steering knuckles are bent.2 KING PIN INCLINATION The kingpin is set at an angle relative to the true vertical line. 4. This is because the straight ahead position is where the wheel is at its highest point relative to the suspended body of the vehicle .1. Camber stiffness of radial tire is generally lower than that of bias ply tires hence 10-15 degrees are required on a radial (springer) tire.WEARPATTERN Camber also works like steer. as when a tire is cambered it tends to pull the car in the same direction in which the top of the tire is leaning. SAI is non-adjustable.the weight of the vehicle tends to turn the kingpin to this position. the exact amount is decided considering the camber angle.

which normally acts laterally on the moment arm design when the wheel is steered.4.1.The tractive force produces moments in opposite direction on left and right wheels this imbalance may produce a steering moment which is dependent on the lateral offset dimension.1 EFFECT a. With a steer angle .2. Effect of Vertical Force: . 16 . Effect of Tractive Force: .The vertical force acting on KPI results in a sine angle force component. the moment on both the left and right wheels act together producing a centering moment (under steer) (gillispie) b.

2. Kingpin offset it is also known as scrub radius. Car racers sometimes adjust caster angle to optimize their car's handling characteristics in particular driving situations. It is positive when the centre of tyre contact is outboard of the steering axis intersection point on the ground. If the caster is out of adjustment.3 CASTER The caster angle is the angular displacement from the vertical axis of the suspension of a steered wheel in a car.1. If the top of the pivot is leaning toward the rear of the car.1. if it is leaning toward the front.2 KING PIN OFFSET Kingpin offset measured at the ground is the horizontal distance in front elevation between the point where the steering axis intersects the ground and the centre of tire contact. then the caster is positive. 4. measured in the longitudinal direction.The kingpin offset at the wheel centre is the horizontal distance in front elevation from the wheel centre to the steering axis. it can cause problems in straight line tracking. Kingpin offset is usually measured at static conditions (zero degree camber). bicycle or other vehicle.an imaginary line that runs through the center of the upper ball joint to the center of the lower ball joint) and vertical. It is the angle between the pivot line(in a car . it is negative. 17 .4.

18 . Effect of Lateral Force: .The caster angle results in a sine angle force component which normally acts forward on the moment arm.3.4. The moments on the left and right wheels are opposite in direction and to balance through the relay linkage. Imbalance due to load or geometric asymmetry may result in steering pull.1 EFFECT Effect of Vertical Force: .1. With positive caster produces a moment attempting to steer the vehicle out of turn (under steer).The lateral force acting at the tire print produces a moment through the longitudinal offset resulting from caster angle.

then there is too much toe-in. If the camber is negative. a toe in setting makes the steering function lazy. Included angle is not directly measurable. and toe-out increases the steering response. Excessive toe in causes accelerated wear at the outboard edges of the tires. If it is not the same. while too much toe out causes wear at the inboard edges. if the camber is positive. while a toe out makes the vehicle unstable. 19 . then the included angle will be less than the SAI. most likely the steering knuckle. you add the SAI to the camber. The included angle must be the same from side to side even if the camber is different. If they are pointed to the outside of the car then there is too much toe-out. is also adjustable for the rear wheels. It is measured in fractions of an inch in the US and is usually set close to zero which means that the wheels are parallel with each other.1. it will be greater. Toe-in increases the directional stability of the vehicle. Hence.4 INCLUDED ANGLE Included angle is the angle formed between the SAI and the camber. To determine the included angle.4 TOE IN OR TOE OUT The toe measurement is the difference in the distance between the front of the tires and the back of the tires. then something is bent.4. Toe-out is just opposite.1. Toe-in means that the fronts of the wear pattern of tires are closer to each other than the rears. If the sharp edges of the tread sections are pointing to the center of the car. This type of tire wear is called a saw-tooth wear pattern. Toe is always adjustable on the front wheels and on some cars. 4.

usually in inches. Riding height is not adjustable except on vehicles with torsion bar type springs.4. With alignment equipment that measures toe by using only the front instruments.1. If the riding height is good. The best way to fix this problem is to replace the springs (Note: springs should only be replaced in matched pairs). then the wheel alignment must be checked to avoid the possibility of tire wear. 4.6 RIDING HEIGHT Riding height is measured. Changes in riding height will affect camber and toe so if springs are replaced or torsion bars are adjusted. Any good 4-wheel aligner will reference the rear wheels when setting toe in order to eliminate 20 . then the springs are good.7 SET BACK Set back is when one front wheel is set further back than the other wheel. but the main thing is that the measurements should be within one inch from side to side and front to rear. Good wheel alignment charts provide specs. from the rocker panel to the ground. any setback will cause an un-centered steering wheel. It is important to note that the only symptom of weak coil springs is a sag in the riding height.1.

UNDERSTEER 2. 4. The best solution is to first adjust the rear toe to the center line and then adjust the front toe. A set back of less than 1/4 inch is considered normal tolerance by some manufacturers. More than that and there is a good chance that something is bent.1. if the rear axle exhibits more cornering compliance (over steer). 4. 21 .this problem. hence the vehicle turns away from the disturbance . When the front axle is more compliant than the rear (under steer).8 THRUST ANGLE Thrust angle is the direction that the rear wheels are pointing in relation to the center line of the vehicle. If the thrust angle is not zero. OVERSTEER 3. If the rear is not adjustable. Some good alignment equipment will measure set back and give you a reading in inches or millimeters.2 CORNERING BEHAVIOUR It includes: 1. and it turns into the disturbance. allowing the steering to be centered. This is normally done during a 4-wheel alignment as long as the rear toe is adjustable. a lateral disturbing force produces more sideslip at the front axle. then the front toe must be set to compensate for the thrust angle. the rear of the vehicle drifts out . NEUTRAL STEER When a lateral disturbing force is applied at the CG (centre of gravity) of vehicle then the path traced by the vehicle determines its cornering behavior. then the vehicle will "dog track" and the steering wheel will not be centered.

The relationship between front slip angle.(gillispie) The behavior of the vehicle during cornering can be understood with the help of a parameter called “under steer gradient”. rear slip angle and steering angle:- On substitution:- 22 .

The under steer due to this mechanism is less than . thus it is the source of an under steer effect.e. Static margin:-It is determined by the point on the vehicle where a side force will produce no steady-state yaw velocity (i.05 to .4. (springer) 23 .07 behind the CG. At the CG the margin is zero and the vehicle is neutral steer. Aligning torque is due to the fact that lateral forces are developed by a tire at a point behind the tire centre. 2.1 PARAMETERS AFFECTING CORNERING BEHAVIOUR 1.5(g/deg).The aligning torque experienced by the tire on a vehicle always resists the attempted turn. When ahead of the CG the vehicle is over steer.2. On typical vehicle the static margin falls in the range of . the neutral steer point)(gillispie) When the point is behind the CG the static margin is positive and the vehicle is under steer. Aligning Torque: . The distance is known as the “pneumatic trail”.

2. Critical speed is dependent on the wheelbase of the vehicle for a given level of oversteer longer wheelbase vehicle have a higher critical speed than short wheelbase vehicle.3.2. 4. Characteristic speed is simply the speed at which the steer angle required to negotiate any turn is twice the Ackermann angle. Tractive Force: .Front wheel drive vehicle have an over steer influence as it tries to pull the front of vehicle into the turn.2 CHARACTERISTIC SPEED The under steer level may be quantified by a parameter known as the characteristic speed. (gillispie) 24 .3 CRITICAL SPEED In the oversteer case a critical speed will exist above which the vehicle will be unstable. 4. Rear wheel drive vehicle have an under steer influence and on four wheel drive these mechanism suggest that the rear axle should “over drive” the front axle to ensure under steer behavior.

When the front wheels are turned back to a straight-ahead position. However. and steering input when making a movement other than straight-ahead driving. As with two-wheel steer vehicles. the driver is putting into motion a complex series of forces. the tires are subject to the forces of grip. the rear end is always trying to catch up to the directional changes of the front wheels. the driver learns to adjust to these forces without thinking about them. momentum. 5. In conventional front -steered vehicle. As a normal part of operating a vehicle. Steering input causes the front wheels to turn.2 FOUR WHEEL STEERING Four-wheel steering. vehicle steers by turning the front wheels in the desired directions.1 FRONT WHEEL STEERING In conventional steering systems. As the steering is turned.CHAPTER 5 FRONT AND FOUR WHEEL STEERING 5. Each of these must be balanced against the others. This is referred to as rear-end lag. These forces compete with each other during steering maneuvers. With a front steered vehicle. with rear wheels following. This causes the vehicle to sway. Grip holds the car's wheels to the road. also called rear-wheel steering or all-wheel steering. because there is a time delay between steering input and vehicle reaction. causing a tire slip angle to form. cornering forces are generated. Once the vehicle begins to respond to the steering input. and momentum moves the car straight ahead. When turning. The idea behind fourwheel steering is that a vehicle requires less driver input for any steering maneuver if all four wheels are steering the vehicle. provides a means to actively steer the rear wheels during turning maneuvers. when the driver turns the wheel slightly. 4WS. tire grip holds the four wheels on the road. The car momentarily resists the turning motion. The vehicle sways as the rear wheels attempt to keep up with the cornering forces already generated by the front tires. Primary function of steering system is to achieve angular motion of the front wheels to negotiate a turn. This is done through linkages and steering gear which convert the rotary motion of the steering wheel into angular motion of the front wheels. The tires are subjected to road grip and slip angle. all four wheels 25 . the vehicle body sways as the rear wheels again try to keep up with the cornering forces generated by the front wheels. the vehicle must again try to adjust by reversing the same forces developed by the turn.

The entire vehicle moves in one direction rather than the rear half attempting to catch up to the front. There is also less sway when the wheels are turned back to a straight-ahead position. the rear wheels are steered in opposite direction to that of front wheel thus decreasing the turning radius. Negative (anti phase) four wheel steering The primary advantage of four wheel steer is derived from the better control of transient behaviour in cornering. The vehicle responds more quickly to steering input because rear wheel lag is eliminated. Positive (In phase) four wheel steering 2. Proper implementation of four wheel steering can result in a vehicle which is more maneurable at low speed and more stable. 4WS system provides a quicker response with better damping of the yaw oscillation that occurs with initiation of a turn.react to the steering input. (gillispie) 5. It is of two types: 1.2.1 NEGATIVE FOUR WHEEL STEERING This type of steering is useful in low speed maneuvering of vehicle. 26 . responsive at high speed. The turning centre lie between the front and rear axle of vehicle. causing slip angles to form at all four wheels.

The vehicle is less likely to go into a spin even in situations in which the driver must make a sudden and relatively large change of direction. c) The vehicle's straight-line stability at high speeds is improved. d) Stability in lane changing at high speeds is improved. Kinematic condition of pure rolling for four wheel steering is:- 5. 27 . Negative effects of road irregularities and crosswinds on the vehicle's stability are minimized. the vehicle's turning circle is greatly reduced. The turning centre lies behind the rear axle. e) By steering the rear wheels in the direction opposite the front wheels at low speeds.2 POSITIVE FOUR WHEEL STEERING This type of steering system is useful in high speed turning of vehicle since out of phase rear steer would constitute an oversteer influence which might be very unstable at high speed. vehicle maneuvering on narrow roads and during parking becomes easier.2.3 ADVANTAGES OF FWS a) The vehicle's cornering behavior becomes more stable and controllable at high speeds as well as on wet or slippery road surface. Therefore rear wheel are steered in the same direction as that of front wheel.2. Therefore. b) The vehicle's response to steering input becomes quicker and more precise throughout the vehicle's entire speed range.5.

track width as 60’’and 50’’ respectively.1. -1 -2 -3 On using equation 1 28 a₂=distance of CG from rear axle Since our project model is symmetrical therefore taking a₂=l/2 .1 DESIGN OF FRONT WHEEL STEERING SYSTEM 6.CHAPTER 6 DESIGN OF FRONT AND FOUR WHEEL STEERING 6.1 KINEMATIC CONDITION FOR PURE ROLLING (ACKERMAN CONDITION):-  In the designing procedure turning radius is taken as our constraint We have assumed turning radius as 3m and taken wheel base.

834 From equation 5 & 6 δ₀=23.Cot δi =50”/60” Cot δ₀ .902 Cot δ₀ + Cot δi =3.33: δᵢ= 34:) .1.Cot δi =w/l Cot δ₀ .2 SPACE REQUIRED FOR TURNING = ΔR = R max – R min R max = l/sin δ₀ R max =151.Cot δi = .34: δi=34: -7 -6 -5 6.Cot δ= √(R²-a₂²)/l Cot δ= √(118”²-30”²)/60” Cot δ= 1.5” – 89” 29 (on neglecting overhang part) R min = l/tan δᵢ R min = 89” (using l=60” δ₀=23.5” ΔR = 151.804 On using equation 3 Cot δ₀ .

1.ΔR =62. w is:- d= 2w [ sin β – sin {(2β+δi-δ₀)/2}.5”(1587mm) 6. d.9”(149mm) 30 . cos {(δi+δ₀)/2} ] ÷ [ 2sin²β + cos(2β+δi-δ₀) -1 ] -7  steering ratio = sin¯1(c-factor/steering arm length) [c -factor = rack travel (in)/360: pinion rotation] (c-factor=1.3 DESIGN OF TRAPEZOIDAL MECHANISM β =steering arm angle d = steering arm length w = track width  Relationship between β.33”/steering arm length) ⇒ Steering arm length (d) = 5.33”)  since the steering ratio of passenger cars is 10-15 therefore assuming 13:1 13= sin-1(1.

9”) is compatible is 28: Therefore β=28: & d=6”(152mm) Result : Wheel base = 60”(1524mm) Track width = 50”(1270) Turning radius = 118”(3m) Steering ratio = 13:1 31 . 7 gives the following relation between d & β β 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 d 74” 59” 48” 39” 31. Eq.5” 25.3” 11.89” -2.2” 7.12”  The value of β for which steering arm length (d=5.25” 19.5” 15.5” 4” .

2 DESIGN OF FOUR WHEEL STEERING SYSTEM Kinematic equation for four wheel steering: 32 .Steering arm length = 6”(152mm) Steering arm angle = 28: Max. outer front wheel angle= 23: Min. inner front wheel angle=34: Max.5”(1587. space required for turning of vehicle =62.5mm) 6.

Cot 30: =2. hence taking max inner front wheel angle (δᵢ) =30:  In order to avoid complication we worked on symmetrical four wheel steering i. c2=-l/2 On using kinematic equation Cot δ₀ –Cot δᵢ =2w/l Cot δ₀ . the turning centre lie on a line that bisects the wheel base in two equal halves (c1=c2) For symmetric four wheel steering the above equation reduces to: Cot δ₀ –Cot δᵢ =w f/l + w r/l Cot δ₀ –Cot δi =2w/l (since w f = w r)  Turning radius R  Since CG is at the centre of wheel base therefore a1=a2 and c1=l/2. which includes CV (constant velocity) joint. Therefore constraining is to applied on the movement of CV joint which traverse 30: from mean position.e. In our project we are working along with four wheel drive system.50”/60” 33 .

δ₀=16.4: Turning radius R: R = √ [(a2+c2) 2+ c12.54 R=√ [(30²-30²) + 30².9m)  Space required for turning of a four wheel steering vehicle ΔR = R max-R min C is the CG of vehicle OA = R min OB = R max 20 In Δ OAF Sin δi= (l/2)/R min 34 .cot2 δ f] Cot δ f = (Cot δᵢ + Cot δ₀)/2 Cot δ f =2. (2.54)²] R =76” (1.

239 20.4: = 30/ R max R max =106.25” Therefore space required for turning of vehicle ΔR = R max-R min ΔR = 106.Sin 30:= 30”/ R min R min = 60” In Δ OBG Sin δ₀ = (l/2)/R max Sin 16.9” For different value of steering arm angle above equation gives different values of steering arm length: Β 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 D 23.575 18.51 9.617 11.25” (1174mm)  Designing of trapezoidal steering mechanism The relation between steering arm angle and steering arm length is as discussed above is : d= 2w [ sin β – sin {(2β+δᵢ-δ₀)/2}. cos {(δᵢ+δ₀)/2} ] ÷ [ 2sin²β + cos(2β+δᵢ-δ₀) -1 ]   On assuming steering ratio 13:1 steering arm length is found as 5.804 13.25” – 60” ΔR = 46.477 35 .111 15.

25”(1174. β=46: d=6” Results: Wheel base: 60” (1524mm) Track width: 50”(1270mm) Turning radius: 76” (1.467 5.46” steering arm angle 46: is compatible.75mm) 22 36 .44 46 7. outer wheel steer angle: 16.46 Therefore the steering for steering arm length 5.4: Space required for turning: 46.9m) Steering ratio: 13:1 Steering arm length: 6”(152mm) Steering arm angle: 46: Max. inner wheel steer angle: 30: Max.

A transfer rod is placed in between the front and rear steering gear box to transfer the motion to front and rear steering gear box. 37 .   Bevel gear is used to transmit the rotary motion.  As the steering is steered the rotary motion is transmitted to the transfer rod with the help of bevel gear to the front and rear steering gear box (rack). The arrangement is so made that the front and rear wheels are steer in the opposite direction.6. one bevel gear is introduced in the transfer rod and other is connected to the steering column.3 MANUFACTURING   Modification is made in the rear wheel assembly and addition of one more rack and pinion steering gear box for steering the rear wheels. Transfer rod is supported with the help of bearings. Rear steering gear box will be fixed to body by bolts and nuts and the ends of the steering box are connected to the rear wheel hub where the tires will mounted.

Milliken & Milliken 38 . CHAPTER 8 REFERENCES  Race car vehicle dynamics.CHAPTER 7 CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPE Four wheel steering is more effective than front wheel steering in following ways:     smaller turning radius Better straight line stability Improved cornering performance Improved steering response So it can be concluded from the analysis and design of four wheel steering that it is more effective and efficient than front wheel steering system.

Springer 39 .Gillespie  Vehicle dynamics. Fundamentals of vehicle dynamics.