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DAGMAR - Defining Advertising Goals for Measured Advertising Results

Russell Colley (1961) developed a model for setting advertising objectives and measuring the results. This model was entitled ‘Defining Advertising Goals for Measured Advertising Results- DAGMAR.’ DAGMAR model suggests that the ultimate objective of advertising must carry a consumer through four levels of understanding: from unawareness to Awareness—the consumer must first be aware of a brand or company Comprehension—he or she must have a comprehension of what the product is and its benefits; Conviction—he or she must arrive at the mental disposition or conviction to buys the brand; Action—finally, he or she actually buy that product. Awareness Awareness of the existence of a product or organization is necessary before the purchase behavior can be expected. Once the awareness has been created in the target audience, it should not be neglected. If there is neglect, the audience may become distracted by competing messages and the level of awareness of focus product or organization will decline. Awareness needs to be created, developed, refined or sustained, according to the characteristics of the market and the particular situation facing an organization at any one point of time. Awareness grid

Involvement High Low

HIGH Awareness

Sustain current levelsRefine awareness of awareness

LOW

Build quickly.

awarenessCreate association of awareness of product with product class need

. Parle G as a brand already enjoys high levels of awareness and requires low involvement decision. Awareness level is low. Comprehension Awareness on its own may not be sufficient to stimulate a purchase. This can be achieved by providing specific information about key brand attributes. Parle G ad that talks about it being the largest seller “ Duniya ka sabse Zyada bikne waala biscuit”. When coils were popular in use and then the different repellants entered the market. persuading and provoking consumption of a new car once advertising has created the necessary levels of awareness. it may be necessary to compare the product with other mineral water products and provide an additional usage benefit. In attempting to persuade people to try a different brand of water. thus communication is mainly intended to refine awareness.In situations where: Buyer experiences high involvement: Is fully aware of a product’s existence. featuring Govinda. they will be quickly prompted into purchase with little assistance of the other elements of the mix. getting attention needs to be the prime objective in order that awareness can be developed among the target audience. sales promotion and personal selling are more effective at informing. such as environmental claims. attention and awareness levels need only be sustained and efforts need to be applied to other communication tasks. Buyer experiences low involvement: If buyers have sufficient level of awareness. Knowledge about the product or the organization is necessary. Sahara Homes ad that features Amitabh Bachhan saying “ jaha base Bharat”. Thus adequate attention is required and awareness levels are raised with use of well-known and trusted celebrities. the prime objective has to be to create awareness of the focus product in association with the product class. The requirement in such a situation would be to refine and strengthen the level of awareness so that it provokes interest and stimulates greater involvement during recall or recognition. The ad of Ganga mineral water. If buyers have low level of awareness. Where low levels of awareness are found. awareness had to be created about their benefits and use. Recognition and brand image may be felt by some to be sufficient triggers to stimulate a response. however it is a high involvement decision. The LG golden eye ads that are repeatedly shown inspite of high awareness to ensure top of mind awareness and retain the existing awareness levels.

Four requirements or characteristics of good objectives were noted Concrete and measurable—the communications task or objective should be a precise statement of what appeal or message the advertiser wants to communicate to the target audience. direct mail activities and reply cards and coupons. etc. For high involvement decisions. The objectives should also specify how much change or movement is being sought such as increase in awareness levels. the most effective tool in the communication mix at this stage in the hierarchy is personal selling. Furthermore the specification should include a description of the measurement procedure Target audience –a key tenet to DAGMAR is that the target audience be well defined. buyers are more likely to want to buy a product than if personal prompting is absent. creation of favorable attitudes or number of consumers intending to purchase the brand. Advertising can be directive and guide the buyers into certain behavioural outcomes. Through the use of interpersonal skills. By creating interest and preference. attitudes. Characteristics of Objectives A major contribution of DAGMAR was Colley’s specification of what constitutes a good objective. a benchmark is also a prerequisite . The benchmark measure cannot be developed without a specification of the target segment Benchmark and degree of change sought—another important part of setting objectives is having benchmark measures to determine where the target audience stands at the beginning of the campaign with respect to various communication response variables such as awareness. Aqua Guard. knowledge. audience’s beliefs about the product have to be moulded and this is often done through messages that demonstrate the product’s superiority over a rival or by talking about the rewards as a result of using the product. buyers are moved to a position where they are convinced that a particular product in the class should be tried at the next opportunity. Use of toll free numbers. Many ads like Thumbs Up featured the reward of social acceptance as ‘grown up’. Conviction The next step is to establish a sense of conviction. are famous in Indian cities as a result of its personal selling efforts. It almost hinted that those who preferred other drinks were kids. Tupperware. it is essential to know the target audience precisely. etc. They related the purity of the water with that of river Ganga. For example –if the goal was to increase awareness. To do this.which banked on the purity aspect. Action Communication must finally encourage buyers to engage in purchase activity. image.

One major point that differentiates a full service agency from other is that the personal work full time and the services provide are extensive. an essential part of any planning program and DAGMAR in particular. . creates. 6months. exhibits. invoice the client. placing the ads in approved media. produces and places advertisements for its clients. Written Goal . it might provide other marketing services such as sales promotion. A company that uses a creative boutique would have to employ another agency to perform the planning. creative development and production. With a time period specified a survey to generate a set if measures can be planned and anticipated. broadcasting.as the name implies.finally goals should be committed to paper. preparing and producing the ads. When the goals are clearly written. etc). boutiques create imaginative and interesting advertising themes and produce innovative and original advertisements. different types of advertising agencies are: • • • • • Full service agencies Creative boutiques In-house agencies Specialized agencies Media buying services Full-service agencies. Also. 2. advertising agencies range in size from one man shows to large firms that employ thousands of people.it is an organization that specializes in the actual creation of advertisements. Types of Advertising Agencies Advertising Agencies can be classified by the range of services that they offer. trade shows. account management. In general.to the ultimate measurement of results. Accordingly. Specified time period—a final characteristic of good objectives is the specification of the time period during which the objective is to be accomplished. In short a full service agency will provide four major functions: 1. Creative boutiques. 1 year etc. In addition. a full service agency is one that handles all phases of advertising process for its clients: it plan. proposing strategy. basic shortcomings and misunderstandings become exposed and it becomes easy to determine whether the goal contains the crucial aspects of the DAGMAR approach. buying and administrative functions connected with advertising.g. verifying the advertisements appearance (publication. newsletters and annual reports. 3. 4. collect the bills and pay the media and other suppliers. e. The services usually provided by a full service agency include collecting and analyzing market data. media planning and buying and research services.

Advertising Primer 6: Appeals and Executions The title of this article may sound more like a criminal law topic than one about advertising. social advertising. Also large companies use their specialized negotiating talents for buying media space and time. At the same time the agency studies the potential market. and when the time comes to actually create your advertisement. finance. require specialized knowledge. you will need to consider what kinds of creative strategies will underlie . How you will appeal to your audience? What methods will you employ (or execute) to deliver your message? In addition. Others depend both on their in-house agency and outside agencies.there are many agencies. Such agencies have a lot of contacts in the media and offer very low commission on media rates. not criminal ones. The organizational structure and functioning of in-house agencies are similar to full service agencies in most cases. Clients or agencies hire these from time to time.Full service ad agency studies the product or service and determines its marketable characteristic and how it relates to the competition. Freelancers are individuals who work on their own with out any formal attachment with any agency. In house agencies are organized according to the needs and requirements 9of the company and are staffed accordingly.such agencies are owned and supervised by advertisers or the client organizations. these are two of the most central concerns. The advertising director of the company usually heads an in-house agency. which take up only specialized advertising jobs. Creative boutiques are different from freelancers. Some other companies allow their agencies to take outside jobs. it’s finding about the product and its recommendation for an advertising strategy. possible distribution plans and likely advertising media. which concentrate only on areas and employ people with the required talents. Media buying agencies complement the creative boutiques. Media buying agencies-it is an organization that specializes in buying radio and television time and reselling it to advertisers and advertising agencies. Following this. The clients also hire creative boutiques. This trend for special media buying agencies started in the 1970s. orders the spots on the various stations involved and monitors the stations to see if the ads actually run. Some companies solely depend on their in-house agencies for their advertising needs. Specialized agencies. In-house agencies. outdoor advertising. The services sells time to the advertisers. These agencies are usually small in size. So there are agencies. the agency makes a formal presentation to the client deadlines. etc. But we're talking advertising appeals and executions here. Certain fields like medicine.

your approach. interest. Change Preferences or Stimulate Action? • • • Brand Transformation Strategy: With this approach. Behavior ads will usually have a clear call to action. advertisers seek to establish a brand identity or personality. Perception. but they will certainly be direct. claims and proofs. awareness. Behavior (or Conative) Strategy: The goal of this strategy is to stimulate action. The goal is to touch the viewer through emotions and feelings. Either method will make use of emotional appeals. One way this is achieved is through the use of associations (with a type of person. or Persuasion Strategies: Here. This is the "head" approach and it emphasizes features/attributes. a point in the ad that directly asks the audience to make a purchase. Cognitive strategies often come in the form of comparative ads. Reach the Head or the Heart? • • Cognitive Strategy: This approach to advertising seeks to convince the audience through rational argument. Persuasive ads often make use of unique selling propositions. Affective Strategy: An affective strategy usually seeks to reach audiences on an emotional level. Instead. visit a website. advertisers often mix rational elements with emotional ones. hyperbole ("the best on the planet!"). Brand personality exists when a relationship is formed between the consumer and the brand itself independent of the actual functions or benefits of the brand. CREATIVE STRATEGY So let's take a look at some of the basic types of creative (or "message") strategies. This is where the rubber hits the road. competitive strengths. We are concerned less with what our ads make people think. It's important to remember as you review these that rarely are most ads exclusively one type or another. Ads with a cognitive approach are typically considered a "hard sell". the goal is to change attitudes about a given subject (perhaps a brand. . they may or may not be forceful in their approach. recognition and recall. The advertiser is using logic and reason to convince the viewer. and unique selling propositions. These ads are considered "soft sells" because they are indirect and instead attempt to make a connection with the heart. differential advantages. This is the stage where you create the ad that will transform your message from concept to reality. and/or to create conviction and preferences. etc. call a phone number. perhaps not). or place promotional pitches inside brand-image advertisements. A resonance approach seeks to connect with people's experiences. A good brand transformation approach will create attention. or take some other action. but what it makes them do. a lifestyle or other characteristic).

this format is best . Emotional appeals create personal attachments with brands and these attachments can turn into long-term bonds. It's easy to feel that all ads these days target the emotional side of consumers. you can't advertise a feature that every one of your competitors also offers. Finally. an effective USP must be a feature or benefit that the audience finds believable. Even B2B advertising has increased the use of emotional appeals from as low as 5 percent to around 25 percent. These represent the foundational channels of all human communication. We are more likely to use our emotional response than our intellect to make everyday choices. Rational appeals attempt to provide all the information the audience needs to make up their minds. However. That is. but each kind of appeal is only appropriate (or effective) for certain kinds of messages. ads were all about convincing the consumer with long swaths of text copy. many products and services are much better served by rational appeals. print media are often selected for rational advertisements because they are condusive to lots of text. Today.Unique selling propositions A brand's Unique selling proposition (USP) is the simply-stated benefit that a brand promises to provide the consumer. For example. the obvious (though not stated) USP of the Wendy's "Where's the beef?" ads was. whereas a TV spot may be over in as little as fifteen seconds and have little time to convey much information. charts and diagrams. It also has to be something the consumer actually cares about. Let's take a look at the major types of appeals: Rationality: Here of course we're talking about "head" as opposed to "heart" appeals. The USP might be delivered directly in a purely information ad. but most often it's indirectly communicated. while it's true that most ads have shifted from information-heavy content to soft sells. A good USP must truly be unique to the brand. APPEALS Appeals are specific ways advertisers connect with their target audiences. Because video combines visual images and sound. for example. Among other benefits." Like the Wendy's ads. Emotions: In the golden era of advertising. Therefore. "Wendy's hamburgers have more meat. even when we think we are making decisions based on reason. Businesses-to-Business advertising. good ads leave no doubt as to the USP of the brand being advertised because they clearly connect the USP to the actual creative execution. advertisers realize that humans are emotional animals. Print ads also may involve the reader for several minutes. emotional appeals have been shown to grow brand loyalty. frequently involves selling complex or technical products or services that would not benefit from emotional (or only emotional) advertising appeals.

what may be funny to one group of people may be explicitly offensive to another. And while it's almost certainly overused as an advertising appeal these days. they actually increase the rate at which audiences remember other ad content because the human brain often stores memories of music in long-term recall areas of the brain. Fear: Usually this appeal is more memorable than upbeat or neutral ads. Humor must also be carefully targeted and delivered to the appropriate audiences. We all know that some people have a greater sense of humor than others. They also tend to remember the visual components of the ad and tend not to remember audio or text content. sexual suggestiveness may be more powerful than outright nudity since the viewer's mind is free to fill in the blanks or the situation presented in the ad. it would seem. Sex: For better or worse. Also.) Also. music in ads can make ad content more persuasive.viewers may turn away or tune out the ad altogether. but more commonly in other countries). However. Music: Musical appeals have been shown to capture the attention of viewers. Turns out. and we mammals have been using sexual appeal to communicate for millions of years. advertisers must be careful to tie the humorous elements directly to the message of the ad. Humor: A great attention getter. EXECUTIONS . it probably would not be appropriate for a business to frighten people into buying an air purifier by telling them their children will get cancer if they don't. Scarcity: This type of appeal is pretty self-evident. those bikini babes are not helping you sell more wrenches. Sex appeals range from merely romantic inclinations to outright nudity (rare in the USA. I shouldn't have to mention that using fear—like any kind of emotional appeal—carries ethical risks. ads often use sexual or suggestive appeals. Humor grabs attention and helps the audience remember the ad. but if too disturbing. but people tend not to remember the brands being advertised— they're too distracted by the sexually charged content. In addition. While it might be hard for a homeless shelter to overstate the plight of their clients. ads with sex appeal do grab attention. (So sorry car part catalogs.suited to emotional appeals. humor is used in about a third of all advertisements. Further. Scarcity appeals are meant to do one thing: create action because of the fear of limited time or availability. sex is literally a fact of life. About the only time suggestive appeals are effective is when the product being sold actually relates to sex.

Dramas sometimes use illustrative techniques like animation or computer graphics. Businesses use this ad format to great effect as well. These ads may also be called Problem Solution or Product as Hero ads. dramas. Not all spokespeople are celebrities. such as romantic or suggestive themes. Authoritative or Spokesperson: A celebrity spokesperson appears in about 20% of all ads today. comparison ads simply compare the product or service being offered with competing brands and show how the advertised brand is better. or experts in the field. celebrity endorsements are more convincing to younger audiences than older ones. These individuals may not be well known (though a long-running campaign may turn them into celebrities). In fact. Business advertising often employs this format. Just as movies may be animations. employing a more Hollywood feel to the presentation.").Executions are certain common types of ad formats. or indirect (merely alluding to the competition). Sometimes CEOs are used. Demonstration: Similar to a straightforward ad. In general. there are many ways to present creative strategies and appeals. or documentaries. a demonstration ad shows how to use a product or service. One type of straightforward ad is the news format. . Straightforward ads are best suited to products that require "high involvement. Related to dramas and fantasies is the concept of strategic alteration of reality. This is done in such a way as to point out a unique feature or selling point in the product being advertised. The corny and ever-popular "As Seen On TV" ads come to mind here ("Does your car have scratches? Are your closets disorganized? We have the product for you. Here are a few of the more common executions: Straightforward or Informative: This type of execution simply transmits information unfiltered and direct to the audience without gimmicks or drama. Dramatization or Fantasy: Dramatizations are usually just more sophisticated sliceof-life ads. and how it can benefit the user. Slice-of-Life: Slice-of-Life ads depict common situations that the target audience may find themselves in and shows how the product can help. in which a product is presented as new or original or in a newscast-type presentation. Comparison: Usually also straightforward. products that require lots of information and research before the customer buys. which is a fancy way of saying the ad twists a familiar situation or object(s) into something unusual or unexpected. Fantasy ads provide a framework for communicating difficult or risky messages. so many ads use celebrities front-and-center or as narrators that "regular people" are used with increasing frequency. The comparison may be direct (identifying the competitor by name)." that is.

Vary your ad's content and outlets. credible. Run your ad long enough to be seen more than once or twice. This type of technique carries obvious risks and should only be used when it can complement the product or service being advertised. Create variations to your ad so it's not identical every time the audience sees it. However. The idea behind testimonials is that they add credibility to brands because the sales pitch is coming from a happy customer instead of the advertiser. here are some general guidelines for creating powerful ads: • • • • • • Keep your ad simple. or controversial deliveries to arrest audience attention. So whenever possible. Again. Teasers: These ads do something dangerous: they don't actually give enough information to identify the product or brand being advertised. FINAL THOUGHTS ON CREATING EFFECTIVE ADS Visual elements are more easily remembered than text or dialogue. Repeat your tag line or primary selling point several times in the ad. this is a huge problem with national brand image ads today. Select and clearly identify a primary selling point. Don't lull your audience to sleep. Vampire creativity or borrowed interest occurs when an ad is so creative that people remember it. In my opinion. . outrageous. Testimonials are also a good choice when marketing services since the spokespeople can help flesh out an otherwise intangible product. Testimonials: This is another advertising execution that is particularly effective with B2B marketing. However. Shockvertising: This creative execution employs loud. They must be likable. I can't tell you how many ads I've seen and can remember in detail except for exactly what the ads was promoting (jeans? beer? a car?). they are great at generating lots of interest and curiosity about a new product and are usually followed by ads that reveal the product at or near the time of launch. viewing an image doesn't require as much brainpower as reading or listening to words and then creating an image in the mind's eye.Obviously. but don't remember or associate the brand being advertised. Make your ad visually consistent. And complement ads in one media with similar ads in other media. it's not enough to choose celebrity based on fame alone. Last. be careful to always connect the creative concept with the brand itself. try to coax the viewer into creating their own mental image of the scene—this will establish a more personal connection with your ad and your audience will remember it longer. trustworthy and somehow relatable to the product or service being promoted.