V.V.P.

Engineering College, Rajkot
CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the Mr. / Ms. ____________________________________________________________ Roll No. _______________ Enrollment No.___________________________ Branch __________________________________Semester _______________  Has satisfactory Completed the course  in the  Subject ___________________________________within the four wall  of  V.V.P. Engineering College, Rajkot.    Date of Submission: ______________________________________________  

Staff in Charge

Head of the Department

V.V.P.ENGG.COLLEGE ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGG.DEPARTMENT

CONTROL THEORY LAB MANUAL
           
                 

Electronics & Communication Department 

  Sr.No.  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14     

 

LIST OF EXPERIMENT B.E .4th EC( CONTROL THEORY)              

LIST OF EXPERIMENT  To understand various types of testing signal.  To study the Operation of  type “0” Control system.  To study the Operation of  type “1” Control System.  To study the Operation of  type “2” Control System.  To study the Speed Torque Characteristics of the AC Servo.  To Perform the working of Stepper Motor.  DC Servo Motor.  To Plot the Characterstics of Potentiometer and study the  Effect Of Loading.  To study the Synchros Motor.  To study the Amplydyne Generator.  To study Impulse,Stap Ramp Response Using MATLAB.  Ploting the Bode Plot of a Transfer Function using MATLAB. Ploting the Root Locus of a Transfer Function using MATLAB.  Ploting the Nyquist Plot of a Transfer Function using MATLAB.                     

Lab I/C (EC)
VVP/EC/CT-1

HOD

INDEX
Sr. No. Title Page

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Date Of Start

Date Of Completion

Initials of Staff

Remarks

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

To understand various types of testing signal. To study the Operation of type “0” Control system. To study the Operation of type “1” Control System. To study the Operation of type “2” Control System. To study the Speed Torque Characteristics of the AC Servo. To Perform the working of Stepper Motor. DC Servo Motor. To Plot the Characterstics of Potentiometer and study the Effect Of Loading. To study the Synchros Motor.  To study the Amplydyne Generator. To study Impulse,Stap Ramp Response Using MATLAB. Ploting the Bode Plot of a Transfer Function using MATLAB. Ploting the Root Locus of a Transfer Function using MATLAB. Ploting the Nyquist Plot of a Transfer Function using MATLAB.

Various Signals such as. step signal. and parabolic can be selected and made variable ate output terminals. PI control system. which are required to test the working of various control engineering systems. Any of the three outputs viz. ramp.. The step signals can be started from minimum as and when desired by the Discharge/Restart toggle switch. step ramp and parabolic are generated and made available at the output terminals as desired.Test Signal generator and the LED indicates that supply i. PROCESS SELECT : The process select switch selects the output available at output terminals viz. step. Proportional (P) control system.TRAINER KIT . STEP LEVEL ADJ. DISCHARGE/RESTART : The discharge/ restart toggle switch is used for either ramp or parabolic signal. ramp signal of parabolic signal.EXPERIMENT NO – 1 TEST SIGNAL GENERATOR Aim:. PID control system etc. Type 1 control system.e ON. VVP/EC/CT‐2  . Type 0 System. Type 2 control system.DIGITAL MULTIMETR THEORY: As the name suggests the test signal generator. : The step level adjust is a fine control to vary the level of step signal. FUNCTIONS OF VARIOUS BLOCKS :POWER ON : It consists of the mains ON/OFF switch which energizes the . PD control system. APPARATUS:. This switch should be toggled to discharge momentarily and then back to restart mode for normal operation. generates various test signals.To understand various types of Testing Signal. namely.

(When step signal is selected ).O . The step level can be precisely adjusted using the step adjust control. 3. 4. 2. 1. ramp or parabolic) by using the process select switch. ramp or parabolic (as selected) is available at these terminals for use as signal input to trainers.R. The selected output is available at the output terminal marked simulated output and can be observed on C. See that the power on LED glows indicating that the test signal generator is energies.1 phase and switch ON the 'POWER ON' switch. 7.   PROCEDURE: Connect the mains cord to 230V AC. The selected output signal available at the simulated output terminals can be connected to the trainer. which requires test signal input. 5. The Discharge/Restart switch is used for ramp or parabolic to discharge and restart the signal (when selected).   VVP/EC/CT‐3  .SIMULATED OUTPUT : The simulated signal output either step. Select the required signal (Out of step. 6.

(A) STEP SIGNAL (B) (Fig-1) RAMP SIGNAL (Fig-2) (C) PARABOLIC SIGNAL (Fig-3) VVP/EC/CT‐4  .

NO Input R(S)mV Output C(S)mV ERROR R(S)-C(S) CONCLUSION:- VVP/EC/CT‐5  .OBSERVATION TABLE: • STEP SIGNAL SR.NO Input R(S)mV Output C(S)mV ERROR R(S)-C(S) • RAMP SIGNAL SR.NO Input R(S)mV Output C(S)mV ERROR R(S)-C(S) • PARABOLIC SIGNAL SR.

4.. I :. backlash and amplifier drift. will cause errors at steady state Type ‘o’ control system offers constant steady state error for step input and infinite error for ramp input. From the readings calculate steady state error per unit step input and plot input.. 6. 3V. observe and record the output voltage in the observation table-I. 3..2 Nos.EXPERIMENT NO – 2 TYPE “0” CONTROL SYSTEM AIM : To study the operation of a type 'o' control system APPARATUS :1. 1.TIME RESPONSE ANALYSIS:STEP SIGNAL ANALYSIS :Connect test signal generator output to the I/P terminals of the trainer. and for each reading. THEROY: System error is an important feature of control system. A. 2V. Imperfection in system components. Repeat the above procedure for different setting of T. ADTRON TRAINER KIT. VVP/EC/CT‐6  ... Output graphs.. 2. Errors in control system can be attributed to many factors.. Change in the reference input will cause unavoidable errors during transient periods and May also cause steady state errors. 5. as well as aging or distortion.. DIGITAL MULTIMETER . See that supply LED glows ON. 2. ADTRON TEST SIGNAL GENERATOR 3. PROCEDURE :1. such as static friction.. Adjust Step signal by 'Step ADJ' Potentiometer for 1V. Connect the required supply and switch on the unit. Switch ON the Test Signal Generator and select 'Step' signal of the Output. Connect Digital Multimeter each at the Input and Output terminals.

. Keep the toggle switch in discharge position. 3. analyze steady state error and plot input/output graphs. PARABOLIC SIGNAL ANALYSIS :1. Keep Digital multimeter at the i/p & o/p terminals for 0-300 mv range.. Put toggle switch in restart position and ramp signal will be available at the input terminals of the trainer.. 4. Selected Ramp signal from test signal generator.. RAMP SIGNAL ANALYSIS :1.. analyze the result and "Plot Input / Output graph". 20mv. 3. 5. Observe input and output meters simultaneously an record the output voltage for different input voltage for different input voltage at 10 mv. Keep toggle switch in discharge' Position. Input voltage will go on increasing at a predetermined rate... Now keep the toggle switch of Test Generator in to Restart the position the Parabolic Signal is available at the output.. 4.. 2. C. 2. 250mv. Record your Observation in table-III 6.B. Also connect the test signal generator output to the input of the trainer Kit.. From the readings.   5.. 30mv. Observe the input and Output meters simultaneously and record the Output Voltage for different input voltage. VVP/EC/CT‐7  . or 0-2v range. Select parabolic signal from the test signal generator. From the reading.. Record your observations in table-II. Connect digital multimeter (Voltage) at the input and output terminals of the trainer kit.

DIAGRAM: • STEP INPUT 1.4 0.2 TIME ERROR PER UNIT STEP R(t) C(t) • RAMP INPUT 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 TIME E1 E2 ERROR E3 R(S) C(S)   • PARABOLIC INPUT VVP/EC/CT‐8  .8 V O L T S 0.6 0.0 0.

NO Input R(S)mV Output C(S)mV ERROR R(S)-C(S) • RAMP SIGNAL SR.NO Input R(S)mV Output C(S)mV ERROR R(S)-C(S) • PARABOLIC SIGNAL SR.OBSERVATION TABLE: • STEP SIGNAL SR.NO Input R(S)mV Output C(S)mV ERROR R(S)-C(S) CONCLUSION: VVP/EC/CT‐9  .

TIME RESPONSE ANALYSIS A. and for each reading observe and record the output voltage in the observation table – I.. THEORY: The Control system is that by means of which any quality of interest in machine. 3V …. mechanism or other equipment is maintained or altered in accordance with a desire manner system. ramp or acceleration inputs. Connect the test signal generator output to i/p terminals of the trainer. 3. I.To Study the operation of a Type ‘1’ control system. Repeat the above procedure for different settings of T. Procedure :1. Connect the required supply and switch on the unit. 2)Adtron test Signal. 7. 3)Digital Multimeter – 02 Nos.EXPERIMENT NO . The steady state performance of control system is generally judged by the steady state error due to step. Connect Digital Multimeters each at the input and output terminals. which are considered to be the standard signal. Step Signal Analysis : 2. 4. 6. Type ‘1’control system offers Zero error for step input and Constant error for ramp input. 2V. See supply that LED glows. Apparatus :1)Adtron Trainer Kit. output graphs.3 TYPE ‘1’ CONTROL SYSTEM Aim :. VVP/EC/CT‐10  . From the readings calculate steady state error per unit step input and plot input. 5. Adjust step signal by ‘ STEP ADJ’ potentiometer for 1V. Switch on the test signal generator and select ‘STEP’ signal for the output.

11. 30mV………. 9. C. Select parabolic signal from test signal generator.From the readings. Record your observations in Table – II. Keep toggle switch in discharge position. analyse the result and plot input/output graphs. 10. 18.Input voltage will go on increasing at a predefined rate. 14.250mV. Keep the toggle switch in discharge position. 20mV. Keep Digital Multimeters at the i/p and o/p terminals for 0-300mV range. Parabolic Signals Analysis :13. 17. Ramp Signals Analysis :8. Or 0-2V range. The parabolic signal is available at the output. analyse the steady state error and plot input /output graphs.Now keep the toggle of test signal generator in the restart position. Record your observation in Table – III. Also connect the test signal generator output to the input terminals of the trainer kit. 12.TYPE ‘1’ CONTROL SYSTEM B. Connect digital Multimeter at the input and output terminals of the trainer kit.Make toggle switch in restart position and ramp signal will be available at the input terminals of the trainer.. VVP/EC/CT‐11  . Observe input and output meters simultaneously and record the output voltage for different input voltage at 10mV.From the readings. Select Ramp Signal from test signal generator. 16. 15.Observe the input and output meters simultaneously and record the output voltage for different input voltages.

0 V O L T A G E 0.6 C(S) ERROR=0 0.2 TIME • RAMP INPUT   • PARABOLIC INPUT VVP/EC/CT‐12  .4 0.8 0.  • STEP INPUT R(S) 1.

NO Input R(S)mV Output C(S)mV ERROR R(S)-C(S) CONCLUSION: VVP/EC/CT‐13  .OBSERVATION TABLE • STEP SIGNAL SR.NO Input R(S)mV Output C(S)mV ERROR R(S)-C(S) • PARABOLIC SIGNAL SR.NO Input R(S)mV Output C(S)mV ERROR R(S)-C(S) • RAMP SIGNAL SR.

6. Digital multimeter-2 nos.4 TYPE “2” CONTROL SYSTEM AIM:TO STUDY THE OPERATION OF A TYPE ‘2’ CONTROL SYSTEM. The magnitudes of the steady state error due to these individual inputs are indicative of the goodness of the system. Connect test signal generator o/p to the i/p terminals of the trainers. Connect the required supply and switch on the unit. 3. APPARATUS:1. See that supply LED glows on. Adtron test signal generator 3. THEORY:Control system may be classified according to their ability to follow step inputs. Where as type ‘2’ offers zero error for both step and ramp inputs PROCEDURE:1. Adtron trainer kit 2. VVP/EC/CT‐14  . Adjust step signal by ‘STEP ADJ’ potentiometer for 1V. .STEP SIGNAL ANALYSIS :1. Switch on the test signal generator and select ‘STEP’ signal for the o/p. 2V. . ramp inputs etc.TIME RESPONSE ANALYSIS A. 2. Connect the digital multi-meter each at the i/p and o/p terminals . . and for each reading observe and record the output voltage in the observation table – I.EXPERIMENT NO. From the reading calculate steady state error per unit step input and plot input. 4. 3V…. 5.This is a reasonable classification scheme because actual inputs may frequently be considered as combinations of such inputs. 1. Repeat the above procedures for different settings of Kit. output graphs.

Observer the input and output meters simultaneously and record the output voltage for different input voltages. Select Ramp signal from test signal generator. Also connect the test signal generator output to the input of the trainer kit. From the readings analyses the result and plot input/output graphs. 3.250mV. Connect digital multimeter (voltage) at the input and output terminals of the trainer kit. 5. Select parabolic signal from the test signal generator . RAMP SIGNAL ANALYSIS :1. analyze steady state error and plot input output graphs. in discharge position. Now keep the toggle switch of Test Signal Generator in the Restart position the parabolic signal is available at the output. 3. 7. Record your observations in table – II. Make toggle switch in restart position and ramp signal will be available at the 4. C.B. 30mV………. From the readings. Record your observations in table – III. 4. Input voltage will go on increasing at a prefined rate. Keep Digital Multimeter at the i/p & o/p terminals for 0-300mV range or 0-2V range. 5. VVP/EC/CT‐15  . 2. Observe input and output meters simultaneously and record the output voltage for different input voltage at 10mV. PARABOLIC SIGNAL ANALYSIS:1. 20mV. Keep toggle switch in discharge position. 6. Keep the toggle switch 2.

• STEP INPUT • 200 180 160 RAMP INPUT m 140 v 120 o 100 l 80 t 60 s 40 20 R(t) C(t) ERROR=0 TIME   • PARABOLIC INPUT VVP/EC/CT‐16  .

NO Input R(S)mV Output C(S)mV ERROR R(S)-C(S) • RAMP SIGNAL SR.NO Input R(S)mV Output C(S)mV ERROR R(S)-C(S) • PARABOLIC SIGNAL SR.OBSERVATION TABLE:  • STEP SIGNAL SR.NO Input R(S)mV Output C(S)mV ERROR R(S)-C(S) CONCLUSION: VVP/EC/CT‐17  .

As the field sweeps over the motor. servomotors. thus making their respective fields 90°.the positive slope represents negative damping in the control system. Digital voltmeter. servo motor.servomotors.servomotor is basically a two phase induction motor except for cetain special design features. The use of such all motor in control system is intolerable because of the positive slope that prevails over most of the operating speed range.they are rugged. . A convenient way to achieve this result is to design the motor with very high resistance.EXPERIMENT NO. The rotating magnetic field interacts with these currents producing a torque on the motor in the direction of the motor.C. the toque speed characteristic then assumes the shape shown by curve.apart in both time and space.1 shows the schematic diagram for balanced operation of the motor. voltages are induced in it producing current in the short circuit motor.C.e.C.i. therefore for control system applications the motor must be modified in a way that ensure positive damping over the full speed range. APPARATUS: Adtron trainer kit.5 A.and D.C. VVP/EC/CT‐18  . THEORY:The power devices commonly used in electrical control system are A. resulting in a magnetic field of constant magnitude rotating at synchronous speed the direction of rotation depends upon phase relationship of voltages V1 andV2. voltages of equal rms magnitude and 90 phase difference are applied to the two stator phases. An A.A.C. The general shape of the torque speed charac. SERVO MOTOR AIM: To study the speed torque characteristics of the A.C.of a two phase induction motor is shown by curve. servomotors are best suited for low power applications.A two phase induction motor consist of two stator windings oriented 90° electrical apart in space and excited by AC voltage which differ in time phase by 90°.light in weight and have no brush contacts as is the case with D. which in turn can lead to a condition of instability.Fig.C.

Now switch ‘ON’ S2 . Vary the speed of the A.C. Connect the supply and switch ‘ON’ the unit.F.clockwise position and increase P1 to get maximum speed. 7. servo motor. Switch off the switches S1.F. Connect D. P2 in fully anti-clockwise direction.C.PROCEDURE: 1.F. Keep potentiometer P1. 6. Switch on A. 4.and see that power lamp glows. Let S1 be also in the ‘ON’ position. 2. voltmeter TP3 and record this back E.C. Let S2 be in the ‘OFF’ position. then you may decrease the voltage for lower voltage.M. 8.M.P. 9. Slowly increase P1 so that A.You may have to give higher voltages to start the A. VVP/EC/CT‐19  .S2.Slowly increase potentiometer P2 steps and record speed and current meter reading in table II.M.sponding to the speed as indicated by R. 10. Keep P2 in the anti. readings in table –II from table –I. 3. servo motor starts rotating. in the OT1 corre.C. servo motor by putting ‘ON’ switch S1. 5. in table –I. meter. servo motor as indicated by the potentiometer P1 in step and record the corresponding back E.M.C.Complete the table II and plot the speed v/s torque characteristics Rewrite the back E.Observe and record the current meter rounding on the panel with respect to the corresponding speed.

DIAGRAM SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF A TWO.PHASE SERVO MOTOR SERVOMOTOR CHARACTERISTICS VVP/EC/CT‐20  .

Variable control voltage of A.servo motor. SPEED (RPM) Back EMF Eb(Volt) VVP/EC/CT‐21  .C.A.Load Control TP1----.ON-OFF SWITCH for Load P1----. 5.NO 1.Fixed 110V A. 3.C.voltage for A..Servomotor Speed control P2----. TP3----.C.Servomotor S2----.servo motor. OBSERVATION TABLE-1 SR.A. TP2----.SERVOMOTORS S1----.C.Load Voltage.C.ON-OFF SWITCH for A. 2. 4..C.

019 × 10 4 × 60 2 ∏ N cm cm Ia(mA) N(RPM) CONCLUSION: VVP/EC/CT‐22  . NO 1 2 3 4 5 Back EMF Eb(Volt) T(torque)= P=Ia Eb p × 1 .OBSERVATION TABLE-2 SR.

Single-phase type. The stepper motor model which has 4-poles is shown in the figure on the left.R.. It suits the use to make stop at some angle. In the PM type stepper motor.To perform the working of stepper motor. 6. because the rotor is fixed by the magnetism in the stationary condition as shown in the principle. step angle of the rotor is 90 degrees.6 STEPPER MOTOR AIM:. Multi-phase type. In case of this motor..Stepper motor 4. APPARATUS:1. Bipolar type.Power supply for stepper motor 3. a permanent magnet is used for rotor and coils are put on stator. The characteristic of stepper motor is the angle can be correctly controlled and to be stable rotates ( It is due to the reliability of the control signal ).EXPERIMENT NO :. the stationary power(Stationary torque) is large. Moreover. Unipolar type.O.Analog interface unit or V/F convert 5.Stepper motor demonstration unit 2. VVP/EC/CT‐23  .Digital Multimeter THEORY:There are many kind of stepper motors. Single-phase stepper motor is often used for quartz watch.C.

/ 5.PROCEDURE:1.Connect built in clock generator with the translator ckt by shorting terminals ‘clk out’ with in.Short the terminals marked 1-2.E.3-4. 2.5-6.O.Observe and record the sequence of glowing L. 7. Observe the advancing steps of motor.Plug in stepper motor to the i/p. direction selector and clock adjust potentiometer. 8. 6.R.D. 3.7-8 with Jumper links.s.Observe the clock frequency at the clock i/p terminals by C. VVP/EC/CT‐24  .Keep clock selector switch in the low mode direction switch in clockwise and clock adjust potentiometer in the minimum position. 4.Observe the control actions of clock selector switch.Connect power supply to the unit and switch on the power supply.

and tabulate it function of i/p voltage. remove the jumper link between ‘clk out’ and ‘in’ of the translator . sequence. • ANALOG INTERFACE :12.O. sequence. 10.To interface translator with the analogy voltages remove ‘in’ terminal connection from manual pulser and connect it with V/P converter unit (to be purchased separately) 13. Tabulate it in the observation table.D.8 11.• INTERFACE WITH MANUAL PULSES:9.To interface the translator with the manual pulser.connect manual pulser o/p to the ‘in’ terminals of the translator. Observe the effect of direction selector switch in the L. This corresponds to 1. VVP/EC/CT‐25    .D.Observe the o/p frequency of V/F converter on C. For each manual pulse.E.E.R. Give one pulse to the transistor by togging the pulser switch and observe one step advancement of the stepper motor. observe and record the L.Vary the i/p voltage by i/p adjust potentiometer and observe its effect on the speed of the stepper motor 14.

TRUTH TABLE: • CLOKWISE DIRECTION STEP 1 2 3 4 5 A1 1 0 0 1 1 B1 1 1 0 0 1 A2 0 1 1 0 0 B2 0 0 1 1 0 • ANTICLOKWISE DIRECTION STEP 1 2 3 4 5 A1 1 1 0 0 1 B1 1 0 0 1 1 A2 0 0 1 1 0 B2 0 1 1 0 0 CONCLUSION:- VVP/EC/CT‐26  .

In uses negative feedback principle.servo system can be described as a system in which output is linearty independent on output.servo system functions in the following way refer to the following diagram (1) Input is fed to the error amplifier (2) Difference between V1& VF(error votage)is amplified.C. (3) This voltage is power amplified.servo motor VVP/EC/CT‐27  .C.The output of this stage is say positive. Digital Multimeter 3.C. Mains 230V. APPARATUS :1. the D.EXPERIMENT NO :. The output of the power amplifier drives the D. ADTRON Trainer kit 2. 50 Hz AC supply THEORY:In general. servo motor.C. SERVO MOTOR AIM :To study and plot the Speed – Torque characteristics of D.7 D.

servo motor starts rotating and note the speed as shown by the RPM meter provided on the panel. i.C. Also its speed is very high(around 5000 rpm) PROCEDURE :1. 3. Note:-D. 6.Servo motor rotates in both the directions depending upon the voltage polarity applied to it. When the feedback voltage equals the input the difference between the two voltages become zero. Vary the speed of the DC servo motor and record the corresponding back EMF in the table. Slowly vary P1 in clockwise position. Calculate the torque as per the given formula and plot a graph of speed V/S torque characteristics.servo motor mechanically copied with the variable are of the rebalance(feedback pot) The motor drives the feedback pot in such a way that feedback voltage equal the input voltage. 9. Connect the required supply and switch on the unit. supply is given to the motor and let S2 be in the OFF position. 2. See that the supply neon glows. Now. Note the armature current Ia as shown by the current meter. Slowly vary the pot P2 in anticlockwise directon and for each speed (same as the speed in table 1) and each corresponding reading note the armature current Ia. Hence the output of power amplifier would be 0 volt which will make the motor stop. VVP/EC/CT‐28  . 4.This is null point of the system.S2 and keep potentionmeter P1 and P2 in fully anti-clockwise direction. Connect a D. 7. Switch ON S1. voltmeter (Multimeter) across TP3 and record the back EMF corresponding to the speed as indicated by the RPM meter. Switch OFF the switches S1. 5.C. with pot P1 in fully clockwise direction P2 in fully anticlockwiise direction switch on S2.e.C. so that A. 10.C. 8.(4) (5) (6) (7) The D.

OBSERVATION TABLE  No. 1 2 3 4 5 Master dial Potentiometer 0° 90° 135° 180° 270° Direction of the slave pointer in degrees CONCLUSION:- VVP/EC/CT‐29  .

Adtron trainer kit 2. 5. Connect the required supply and ON the unit.See that the supply LED glows.8  POTENTIO METER AIM:. VVPE/EC/CT‐30  . 6. 3. Connect the +9V DC supply to the two ends of potentiometer P1. Rotate the knob of potentiometer P1 so that it will display ‘0’.Note the o/p voltage in the observation table-1. Repeat the process till the display shows ‘10’ and for each turn. It is frequently used in automatic control system to convert a Mechanical signal in the form of shaft rotation to an electrical in the form of a voltage.EXPERIMENT NO :. Connect a multimeter (voltage) across the variable arm and ground. It consists of resistance element with a slider capable of being moved along its length. 4. Digital Multimeter 3. note the redian in the observation table. APPARATUS:1. the magnitude of which is directly proportional to the original mechanical signal PROCEDURE:1. 2. Patch cords THEORY:The Potentiometer is one of the most widely word electrical components found in control system.Note the o/p voltage in the observation table 1 Again rotate the potentiometer through P1 through another 36(720) so that the indicator will show ‘2’.To plot the characteristics of a potentiometer and study the effects of loading. Rotate the potentiometer P1 through 35 so that the indicator will display ‘1’.

Rotate the potentiometer P1 through 360 so that the indicator will display ‘1’. 15. 8. 10. Rotate the knob of potentiometer P1 so that it will display ‘0’. 19. θ m =360o RL= Load resistance RL1 or RL2 Rp= Potentiometer resistance 17. VVPE/EC/CT‐31  . 18. Note the reading in the observation table-2. Plot the graph of ‘θ’ v/s ‘S’ for load RL2. Repeat the same procedure and the plot graph of potentiometer P1 and 9V DC supply.7. 13. Now repeat the above procedure for both potentiometer P1 and P2 with +12V DC supply. 9. Connect load RL1 across the variable arm of potentiometer P1 and the ground terminal. Again rotate the potentiometer P1 through another 360(720) so that the indicator will show ‘2’. Plot the graph of 0 V/S o/p voltage. Connect the Multimeter across the load. 14. Calculate from the readings the loading error ‘S’ using the formula S= X2(1-X) X(1-X)2 + RL/Rp where X=θ/θ m . Note the o/p voltage in the observation table-2. Plot the same graph of ‘θ’ v/s ‘S’ for load RL2 Also plot the graph of ‘θ’ v/s ‘S’ o/p voltage with RL1 as load and then with RL2 as load. Connect +9V DC supply to the two ends of the potentiometer. 11. Repeat the procedure till the display show’10’ and for each turn note the reading in the observation table- 16. Note the o/p voltage in the observation table-2. 12.

Repeat the above procedure and plot the graph for potentiometer P2. 21. • Potentiometer and effect of loading VVPE/EC/CT‐32  . Compare your results.20. load RL1 and load RL2. 22.

of turns Indicated on Rotation in Digrees the Display 0º 1 360 º 2 720 º 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 3600 º Without Load No.OBSERVATION TABLE With Load No.of turns Indicated on Rotation in Digrees the Display 0º 1 360 º 2 720 º 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 3600 º Output Voltage V0 Output Voltage V0 CONCLUSION VVPE/EC/CT‐33  .

As the air gap flux is sinusoidally distributed. The rotor is of dumbbell construction & is wound with a concentric coil an AC voltage is applied to the rotor winding through slip rings. VVP/EC/CT‐34  . Vr(t) = Vr Sinw e t Be applied to the rotor of the synchro transmitter. This voltage causes a flow of magnetizing current in the rotor coil which produces a sinusoidally in the air gap along the stator periphery. Its construction is similar to that of three phase alternator.9 STUDY OF SYNCHROS. Thus. we see that the synchro transmitter acts like a single phase transformer in which the rotor coil is the primary & the starter coil form the secondary. The constructional features & schematic diagram of a synchro transmitter are shown in fig. the flux linking any starter coil is proportional to the cos of the angle between the rotor & stator coil axis & so is the voltage induced in each stator coil. AIM:To study of Synchros motor THEORY:INTRODUCTION :A synchro is an electromagnetic transducer. Let an AC voltage. commonly used to convert an angular position of shaft into an electric signal.1 & fig. voltage is induced in each of the starter coil. 2 respectively. The starter is of laminated silicon steel and is slotted to accommodate a balanced three phase winding which is usually of concentric coil type & is Y connected. Now.EXPERIMENT NO :. The basic synchro unit is usually called a synchro transmitter. It is commercially known a selsyn or an autosyn.

Vs 3 = √3KVr Sin(θ+120) Sinw e t Vs 3 Vs 1 = Vs 3 . The synchro transmitter control transformer pairs acts as an error detector giving a voltage signal at the rotor terminals of the control transformer proportional to the angular difference between the transmitter & the control transformer shaft positions the voltage at the rotor terminals of the control transformer is. The result is the establishment of an identical flux pattern in the air gape of the control system transformer. By making combination of transmitter – control transformer. e(t) = K1Vr(θ-α) sinw e t This equation derived for constant (θ . Sinw e t cos(θ+120)                        Vs 2 = KVr. The two rotors are at the right angles then the voltage induced in the control transformer rotor is zero. e(t) = KVr CosǾ Sinw e t.Vs 2 = √3KVr Sin(θ+240) Sinw e t Vs 2 Vs 3 = Vs 2 .Vs 1 = √3KVr Sinθ. Sinw e t cos(θ+240) And the terminal voltages are :Vs 1 Vs 2 = Vs 1 . Vs 1 . Sinw e t cosθ Vs 3 = KVr. than for the rotor position of the synchro transmitter.Sinw e t Thus it is seen that the input to the synchro transmitter is the angular postion of its rotor shaft & the output is given by terminal voltage equations. Vs 1 = KVr.α ) is valid for verifying conditions as well so long as the rate of angle change small enough for the speed voltages induced in the device to be negligible. Circulating currents of the same phase but of different magnitudes flow through the two sets of stator coils. The control transformer flux axis thus being in the same position as that of synchro transmitter rotor. ie. When Ǿ = 90o . where the rotor axis makes an angle a with the axis of the starter coil S 2 . The system acts as an error detector. Vs 2 & Vs 3 be the voltages induced in the stator coil. Where. This position is known as electrical zero position of the control transformer. The output of the synchro transmitter is applied to the stator winding of a synchro control transformer. Ǿ is the angular displacement between two rotors. So that the air gape is practically uniform. VVP/EC/CT‐35  . the voltage induced in the control transformer rotor is proportional to the cosine angle between the two rotors & Rs is given by. The magnitude of these voltages are functions of the shaft postion.Let. The control transformer is similar in construction to a synchro transformer except for the fact that the rotor of the control transformer is made cylindrical in shape.

This equation is represented graphically in ifig.α ). This type of modulation is known as suppressed carrier modulation. the modulating signal wave has the information reading the lack of correspondence between the two rotor positions & the carrier wave is the ac. We see from this diagram that the output of synchro error detection is a modulated signal. CONCLUSION: VVP/EC/CT‐36  . Input to the rotor of the synchro transmitter.4 for an arbitrary time variation of (θ .

The resistance of the armature coil is very small. a large current is made to flow due to the voltage. which in turn generates a very high flux. The amplydyne is akind of motor which runs on a constant speed of a suitable motor which serves as a source of energy to the unit. The flux generated & rotation of amplydyne armature produces a high voltage E 2 (t) at the brushes BB1.e.c.A small change in the field current causes a very high voltage generation at the output of the amplydyne. The current is the control voltage i. VVP/EC/CT‐37    .10 AMPLYDYNE GENERATOR AIM : To study the Amplydyne Generator. which are placed perpendicular to brushes AA1. This large current causes the strong armature reaction. Thus. Ic produces a fine θ. The outout voltage of the amplydyne is controlled by the field current. It is used to drive a D. motor & connected load. which is 90o to θ o. is generated across brushes AA1.EXPERIMENT NO :.C. motor load is shown in fig. because of the full speed rotation of armature. The voltage e.C. THEORY: • INTRODUCTION :The amplydyne is basically a power amplifying device which can generate output in the high range from 1 to 50 Kw. motor. The schematic diagram of the amplydyne generator with D. This voltage is supplied tp power the d.

MOTOR AS THE LOAD CONCLUSION :- VVP/EC/CT‐38  .C.AN AMPYDYNE GENERATOR WITH D.          FIG.