AP European History Review 1517- Martin Luther nails the 95 Theses to the church door of Wittenberg on October 31;

Wars of Religion begins Causes Johann Tetzel selling indulgences to people Church needed funding to rebuild St. Peter’s Basilica Weakening Church- corruption, inability to deal with the Black Plague, failure of the Crusades Effects Protestantism (Lutheranism) spread, helped by Gutenberg’s printing press. Lutheranism-salvation through faith Baptism, Communion and Consubstantiation; Church should be subordinate to the state Liberates lower class who could not pay for indulgences Formation of other sects- Calvinism- life was serious, work ethic, theocracy; Anglican and Gallican Church Anglican Church- Henry VIII split to divorce Catherine of Aragon- The Act of Supremacy (1534) Elizabeth I- Golden Age of England Diet of Worms, Papal Bull- Leo X and Charles V (1516 – 1556) tell Martin Luther to recant 95 Theses (he does not) Schmalkaldic League protects Luther (Protestantism enhances their own power) Peasant Wars- (Luther aghast) 1520 – 1555 1555- Peace of Augsburg to end Peasant Wars, cuius regio, eius religio Effects Fragmentation of Holy Roman Empire Catholic Church threatened- Catholic Counter-Reformation Council of Trent (1545-1563) redefined sacraments; Jesuits formed (Loyala), Prohibited Books, Inquisition Protestantism spread Christianity but lessened Church’s power Contemporary Events Trade Triangle- Spain, Gold Coast (Africa), Southeast North America Mercantilism- policies by government for a favorable balance of trade Tariffs- encourage more exports than imports; Infrastructure for commerce- ships, clocks Putting-Out System- conveyor belt-like, specialization Expanding Population  need more food  need more land  higher prices  inflation  suppress idleness 1572- St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre Causes Huguenots gathered for wedding; organized by Catherine de Medici Many nobles were Huguenots Effects Religious wars, hired foreign mercenaries Henry of Navarre (Henry IV) becomes king- politique (religion after politics); “Paris is worth a mass” 1588- Spanish Armada sent by Phillip II to England to re-Catholicize England Causes Protestant England, Elizabeth I queen; Phillip (lived in El Escorial) married to Mary Tudor New World provided a lot of gold Spanish Netherlands threatened by England Effects Council of Blood- Duke of Alva Contemporary Events Treaty of Tordesillas- split the world between Portugal and Spain 1598- Edict of Nantes- Henry IV converts to Catholicism; allows religious freedom Effects Mollifies Catholics and Protestants Henry IV assassinated Marie de Medici (wife) controls France in name of Louis XIII; appoints Richelieu as Cardinal- centralizes France; intendant system; followed by Mazarin (1642 – 1661)

parliament must meet regularly.foreign shipping prohibited Thomas Hobbes wrote the Leviathan (1651) 1688. cannot hold offices Act of Settlement (1701) – Reaffirmed Test Act. suspicious of the king.No government official may be Catholic. gain Alsace and Lorraine Peace of Westphalia reaffirms Peace of Augsburg.to keep HRE split.royalists (cavaliers) vs. habeas corpus Toleration Act (1689) – Dissenters of Protestantism can practice religion.The Glorious Revolution. eius religio. France gained some territory. Switzerland and Netherlands gain independence.William of Orange invades England and takes power Causes Secret Treaty of Dover.Gustavus Adolphus.Execution of Charles I Causes Stuart lines begin with King James I. and then fled to Louis XIV Effects Bill of Rights (1689) – Limited monarchy. unification of Germany prevented Half of population left in Germany 1649.Charles II with France against Dutch Test Act of 1673. did not call parliament Bishops’ War.agreement with parliament.1648. Charles I tried for treason.lesser aristocrats.from Scotland. Lord Protector Stuart Restoration (1660) – Charles II became king Contemporary Events Navigation Act. Gunpowder Treason Plot. Catholics and French. Anglican.Peace of Westphalia. To what extent did Martin Luther contribute to the Peasant Revolts? .Petition of Rights. Tories.Rebellion in Scotland needed to raise army  Long Parliament (power of the purse) English Civil War.revolt Effects Protestants aided by Sweden. France. supported king and Church of England).no Catholic king Sample Essay Questions: Describe the differences between the Northern and Italian Renaissance.Prague became Catholic.directed at James II Both parties of parliament hated James (Whigs.William invited to invade James II tries to escape. parliamentarians (roundheads). executed Effects Oliver Cromwell established Commonwealth of England and Rump Parliament (Pride’s Purge). caught. bumpy relation with Parliamenttolerated because of the War of the Roses Charles I came to power.Catholic replaced Protestant Cuius regio.middle classed.end 30 Years’ War Causes Defenestration of Prague.