A MATLAB Simulink Model for Toyota Prius 2004 based on DOE reports

Hiva Nasiri Ahmad Radan Maziar Parizadeh Abbas Ghayebloo Power Electronics Laboratory K.N.Toosi University of Technology Seyed Khandan Bridge, 1431714191 Tehran, Iran Tel.: +98 21 84062408, Fax: +98 21 88462066 hiva.nasiri@gmail.com, Radan@kntu.ac.ir, parizade.maziar@gmail.com abbas.ghayebloo@gmail.com http://www.kntu.ac.ir/

Keywords
Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV), Modeling, Simulation, Energy Management System

Abstract
In this paper, a dynamic model for Toyota Prius 2004 hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is presented. The model is based on MATLAB Simulink HEV model which is modified in such a way that dynamic response of model can be verified by experimental results given in DOE reports for Toyota Prius 2004. The newly developed model can help the designers to enhance the performances of subsystems.

1. Introduction
Environmental pollution and energy crisis have been the most concern of automotive industry for the past four decades. Consequently, major automotive companies have developed the technology of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) to achieve better fuel economy and lower emissions through optimizing the vehicle performances and engine operation points[1], [2]. These improvements have been achieved by adding some electrical components such as electrical storage devices and electric motors to power and torque path of conventional automobiles with internal combustion engine (ICE) [3]. In order to design and test different components and strategies in HEVs to achieve better performances, several computer modeling and simulations have to be used to examine and compare the performance of these vehicles. Based on the goals of application, these models can be divided into two categories [4]: Models for designing stages and evaluating high level operating strategies that include long-term analysis such as SIMPLEV from the DOE’s Idaho National Laboratory[5], ADVISOR from the DOE’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory [6] and PSAT from Argonne National Research Laboratories [7] belong to the first category. But the second ones analyzing the interactions between subsystems and their design are those which model the subsystems in details and are used to address the dynamic behavior of HEV subsystem. V-Elph developed at Texas A&M University [8], PSIMbased model from Illinois Institute of Technology [9] are two dynamic simulators that use lower level of HEVs for studying detailed performance issues. In this paper, authors present a dynamic model for well-known hybrid vehicle whose precise test results reported by DOE can validate its model with an acceptable accuracy. For this purpose the second generation of Toyota hybrid system (THS II) of 2004 Prius considering the information given in U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) reports [10] was selected (Table I). This vehicle has one of famous HEV drive train and earns many awards for its design such as Best Engineered Vehicle for 2004 chosen by readers and editors of Automotive Engineering International (AEI) [11]. The model presented here is based on the MATLAB Simulink model for HEV [12] with several improvements in various subsystems and modifications in model specifications (Fig. 1). In the following section, at first, different parts of model like energy management, ICE, electric subsystem are described and the necessary modifications of original MATLAB Simulink model have been discussed. Then, in section 3, some simulation results using the newly developed model are presented and compared with the experimental results of DOE reports to validate the model. Finally, some conclusions have been made in section 4.

planet. Ts = 6e-005 s. 1). Battery ) [Wgen] Gen Speed Car Throttle ICE ICE Throttle [Wgen] [Vmg] Car speed (km/h) [Wmot] Motor Speed [Batt] Batt DC Link Control Electrical Subsystem Speed Sensor2 v Speed Sensor1 [Wmot] speed1 Energy Management Subsystem Vehicle Dynamics Accel2 Internal Combustion Engine v [Wice] Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) Power Train Using Batte ry M odel pow ergui Discrete. Generator.6 (78/23/30) 50 kW 6000 rpm 400 Nm (0–1200 rpm) 30 kW 10000 rpm 160 Nm 28 1.6 V Electrical motor Electrical generator battery 2.3 kWh 201. The major changes are in energy management subsystem and ICE. sun) Max power Maximum speed Maximum torque Max power Maximum speed Maximum torque NiMh module number Nominal energy Nominal voltage Value 1360kg 60 km/h 160 km/h 57kw@5000rpm 2. We will describe each subsystem individually. [Wice] 1+2. Developed Simulink Model The model presented here is based on MATLAB Simulink model for HEV with several changes in various subsystems and modifying model specifications (Fig.6 Gain3 Accel3 [Wice] ICE Speed Gen torque [T gen] Generator peed ref (rpm) Accelerator [T mot] [Wmot] [Tgen] [Img] T orque Power Driv e torque (ref erence. The 'Ts' parameter used in this model is set to 6e-5 by the Model Properties Callbacks [Img] [Batt] [Vmg] Power Subsystem Fig. measured) Electrical Power (Motor.1: MATLAB Simulink model for Toyota Prius 2004 .Table I: Toyota Prius 2004 components Subassembly Vehicle Maximum vehicle speed Engine Planetary gear Specifications Description Weight Electric mode Hybrid mode Max power Ratio (ring.6 Gain2 [Wmot] Accelerator Accelerator Motor torque Motor torque ref (Nm) [Wgen] [T mot] 2.

Motor/Generators (MG)) should produce and is divided into three parts: battery management. hybrid management and ICE speed controller (Fig. At first.17]. ICE speed controller produces reference torque for ICE from its speed that achieved from efficiency map. Another improvement in Simulink model is about motor reference torque during the brake time when the brake power exceeds the power capacity limit of battery. vehicle speed. subsystems (engine. 3) the amount of required torque for engine. This has not been considered in MATLAB original model. Note that the efficiency map in MATLAB Simulink model doesn’t match with original map that this problem has been corrected in new model. any increase in speed more than 24 km/h should activate ICE [13. Fig. current and State of Charge (SOC)). but according to DOE report. In our model. 2). therefore speed condition is added to this function. This subsystem contains a main controller for defining the amount of torque that each torque provider (ICE. 2: Energy Management Subsystem In a hybrid management system (Fig. motor and generator) speed. . traction motor and generator are specified with the help of subsystem’s rotating speed and demand power as well as the torque defined by the amount of acceleration and brake pedal from drive cycle. In elementary model the instant of hybridization is not specified by vehicle speed. state of hybridization is determined by demanded power. and Battery’s variables (voltage. and battery’s SOC.Energy Management System: Energy management is mainly based on vehicle speed. input acceleration (Drive Cycle). In addition A DC link voltage controller has been added to the original model that provides the ability of dc link voltage controlling in different vehicle cycling modes. additional power is sent to a mechanical brake instead of motor and battery pack. Battery management system receives battery’s data values from energy storage subsystem to limit the range of SOC between 40% and 80% and to specify the amount of receiving or sending power for battery.

6 -2. ref erence] Generator Drive 30kW Fig.6 Gain T SIm/SDL3 Gen Enable 1 [Igen] i2 s + + i - This block is based on the AC6 drive block demux1 motor i_a speed Stator current (A) PMSM Generator Drive 3 Torque ref 4 Generator Speed Te Rotor speed (rpm) Electromagnetic Torque (Nm) Goto Ctrl Torque [measured. 3: Hybrid Management Subsystem Electrical Subsystem This subsystem contains motor and generator and planetary gear (Fig. 4: Electrical subsystem containing torque relationships model for planetary gear . 4). Motor has field weakening controller and its characteristics are like torque-speed data provided by DOE report [14]. This block is based on the AC6 IPMSM drive block Motor Enable 1 1 i1 s + + i - demux motor i_a speed Stator current (A) Rotor speed (rpm) Electromagnetic Torque (Nm) PMSM Motor Drive [Imot] Goto1 Torque Ref 2 Ctrl Torque [measured. ref erence] T SIm/SDL1 1 Ring Motor speed Te Motor Drive 50kW [Imot] 5 Vmg DC Voltage Link V motor [Igen] 1 Img Carrier 2 SIm/SDL2 T Gain2 1+2.Fig.

battery DC/DC Converter Imot Vdc m battery Igen . 2 DC Link Control DC Link Control +Vdc Bus 1 iout v out v ref iref + Img Img + motor . since it exists in real Prius 2004 model. Torque-speed characteristic of the ICE is based on [15]. 5.generator Subsystem 1 Batt Fig. In Fig. In energy management for controlling the ICE we need speed-power lookup table to estimate the amount of power needed to drive the vehicle so by modifying this table we have produced a speed-power lookup table. battery and DC-DC converter are placed in one block so that control strategy or its whole system could be changed and replaced with new systems. We have extracted the maximum torque limitation of ICE but we try to use ICE at its maximum efficiency. various DC voltage link strategies could be investigated. 6 the highest line indicates the maximum torque limitation and the line under it shows the most efficient working area. 6[16]. 5: Energy storage subsystem including DC-DC converter ICE We have used Toyota Prius 2004’s experimental characteristic for designing ICE. 6: ICE torque-speed lookup table .Power Subsystem In this model. An additional ability to control DC-DC link voltage has been added to optimize switching losses. as depicted in Fig. The lookup table is extracted from Fig. So the difference between Prius 2004 Simulink model and MATLAB model in this case is providing an additional ability to control DC Voltage link and also packing the whole blocks together so that new strategies could be preceded conveniently.motor + generator Vmg + m + battery -Vdc Bus Meas VI3 2 Vmg _ Battery . + i1 Electrical measurements i - Fig. With this ability in the future.

The road conditions should be extracted for every drive test. simulations have been performed using the same drive cycle and road conditions as in DOE reports. through a procedure.6 Gain2 [Wmot] 2.Planetary Gear Planetary gear block of original MATLAB HEV model is mechanical and a little confusing so based on [17] we have designed a new and simple model which satisfies both torque and speed requirements (Fig. 7). . Fig. The last figure in this series indicates the battery SOC. Fig (8-a) indicates the driver commands used for these simulations. The digitized one corresponding to the DOE results is completely consistent with the smooth one corresponding to the simulation results for the same driver command pattern.57 0. There is another model for torque connection between generator. The positive and negative amounts are considered as acceleration and brake signals respectively. the road and its conditions are rebuilt. In Fig (6-b) the experimental results of DOE report. indeed. Table II contains some of the parameters used as vehicle dynamics. Simulation Results For evaluating the model. the data of experimental results given in DOE report are extracted. the parameters used in this model are based on both Toyota company reports and MATLAB default HEV model. 8 and 9 elaborate the results. 7: Speed coupling model for planetary gear.6 Gain3 [Wgen] Fig. After finding road conditions. Since there is no detail of road condition. traction motor and vehicle differential which is not depicted here. namely the vehicle’s speed.26 0. Table II: Vehicle Dynamics Description Mass(kg) Frontal Area(m^2) Drag coefficient CG height from ground (m) Value 1360 2. first. Fig. 9 shows the results for another driver command pattern which just consists of only acceleration time and had no brake. Vehicle Dynamics Since in DOE report there is no information on vehicle conditions. are compared with the simulation results obtained using the developed model by Simulink. [Wice] 1+2.5 3.

Speed VS Time 80 Simulation output (smooth) 70 60 Speed(Km/h) 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 10 20 30 Time(s) Battery SOC VS Time 63.Vehicle Drive Cycle 0.4 Acceleration(per unit) 0.5 62 61.4 -0. a) Drive cycle.2 0 -0.5 60 59.2 Brake (negative amount) -0.5 0 10 20 30 Time(s) 40 50 60 b) DOE result (digitized) 40 50 60 c) Fig. 8: First evaluation result output compared with DOE report (Fig A3 in DOE report).8 0.8 a) 0 10 20 30 Time(s) 40 50 60 Vehicle speed diagram. b) vehicle speed and c) battery SOC .6 Acceleration(positive amount) 0.5 61 60.6 -0.5 63 State of Charge (%) 62.

4 -0.8 0 5 10 15 Time(s) Vehicle speed VS time 80 Simulink result(smooth graph) 70 Vehicle Speed(km/h) 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 5 10 15 Time(s) Battery SOC VS Time 63.4 0.5 63 Battery State of Charge 62.8 0.2 -0. 9: Second evaluation result compared with DOE report (Fig 3.5 60 59.5 0 5 10 15 Time(s) 20 25 30 35 a) 20 25 30 35 b) DOE report(digitized graph) 20 25 30 35 c) Fig.5 62 61.6 Acceleration(per unit) 0.6 -0.Vehicle's Drive Cycle 0. b) vehicle speed and c) battery SOC .5 61 60. a) Drive cycle.2 0 -0.7 in DOE report).

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