8) Vroom’s Valence x Expectancy theory

:
The most widely accepted explanations of motivation has been propounded by Victor Vroom. His theory is commonly known as expectancy theory. The theory argues that the strength of a tendency to act in a specific way depends on the strength of an expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual to make this simple, expectancy theory says that an employee can be motivated to perform better when their is a belief that the better performance will lead to good performance appraisal and that this shall result into realization of personal goal in form of some reward. Therefore an employee is : Motivation = Valence x Expectancy. The theory focuses on three things :

  

Efforts and performance relationship Performance and reward relationship Rewards and personal goal relationship

This leads us to a conclusion that :

9) The Porter and Lawler Model :
Lyman W. Porter and Edward E. Lawler developed a more complete version of motivation depending upon expectancy theory.

So performance is the responsible factor that leads to intrinsic as well as extrinsic rewards. along with the equity of individual leads to satisfaction. . satisfaction of the individual depends upon the fairness of the reward. Hence. But it is also affected by the person’s ability to do the job and also by individual’s perception of what the required task is.Actual performance in a job is primarily determined by the effort spent. These rewards.

expectancy Theory proposes that a person will decide to behave or act irreverently in a certain way because they are motivated to select a specific behavior over other behaviors due to what they expect the result of that selected behavior will be. # f I spend most of tonight studying will it improve my grade on tomorrow's math exam? # If I work harder than everyone else in the plant will I produce more? # If I practice my foul shot more will my foul shooting improve in the game? # If I make more sales calls will I make any more sales? .When layoffs hit. Overcome this panic and anxiety by developing a plan for what you'd do if you got laid off. We can take some Examples there as. too. and at other side if we see expectancy Theory so. the immediate reaction of those left behind is often panic.

Facet.Write down all possible factors that could lead to job satisfaction or dissatisfaction of employees in an organization. Organizational commitment is the collection of feelings and beliefs that people have about their organization as a whole. workers who are satisfied with their jobs are less likely to quit. active. discrepancy. . fearful. absenteeism. These moods can be categorized generally as positive or negative. Answer: There are main two types of work values. peppy. When workers are in negative moods. steady-state models of job satisfaction is useful for understanding and managing this important attitude. jittery. hostile. Workers also experience less intense moods at work. they feel exited. Job satisfaction is the collection of feelings and beliefs that people have about their organization as a whole. Job satisfaction has a weak negative relationship to absenteeism. and social influence. such as feeling calm. these values are related to the work itself. Job satisfaction is not strongly related to job performance because workers are often not free to vary their levels of job performance and because sometimes job satisfaction is not relevant to job performance. The first is intrinsic work values. Affective commitment exists when workers are happy to be members of an organization and believe in it. Affective commitment is more likely when organizations are socially responsible and demonstrate that they are committed to workers. Job satisfaction is one of the most important and well-researched attitudes in organizational behavior. 1. Work attitudes have three components: an affective component and cognitive component and third is behavioral component. strong. Satisfaction and productivity: Happy workers are not necessarily productive workers—the evidence suggests that Productivity is likely to lead to satisfaction. enthusiastic. and turnover. Two important work attitudes are job satisfaction and organizational commitment. they feel distressed. Much research has been done on the impact of job satisfaction on employee productivity. Affective commitment has more positive consequences for organizations and their members than continuance commitment. or nervous. Continuance commitment exists when workers are committed to the organization because it is too costly for them to leave. Job satisfaction influences turnover. People experience many different moods at work. values. Managers’ interest in job satisfaction tends to center on its effect on employee performance. When workers are in positive moods. Work moods are determined by both personality and situation and have the potential to influence organization bahaviour. scornful. Job satisfaction is determined by personality. such as having status in the community. such as doing something interesting and challenging or having a sense of accomplishment. or elated. the work situation. Second are the extrinsic work values these values related to the consequences of work.

Question # 02 What methods should be adopted by Mr. there is renewed support for the original satisfaction-performance relationship. It makes sense that dissatisfied employees are more likely to miss work. Evidence indicates that an important moderator of the satisfaction-turnover relationship is the employee’s level of performance. Satisfaction and absenteeism We find a consistent negative relationship between satisfaction and absenteeism the more satisfied you are. 2. 2-Voice: Actively and constructively attempting to improve conditions. but the correlation is stronger than what we found for absenteeism. There are a number of ways employees can express dissatisfaction 1-taking the resign 2-Voice 3-Loyalty 4-Neglect 1 taking the resign: Behavior directed toward leaving the organization. yet still take a “mental health day” to head for the beach now and again. including chronic absenteeism or lateness. For example. It seems organizations with more satisfied workers as a whole are more productive organizations. discussing problems with big boss.” 4 Neglect: allowing conditions to worsen. including suggesting. . and some forms of union activity. 3. the less likely you are to miss work. 3-Loyalty: Passively but optimistically waiting for conditions to improve. you might be a satisfied worker. and trusting the organization and its management to “do the right thing.At the organization level. such as those sometimes found among unionized workers. Usman to express his dissatisfaction and concerns to higher management? Answer: Voice and loyalty are constructive behaviors allow individuals to tolerate unpleasant situations or to revive satisfactory working conditions. including speaking up for the organization in the face of external criticism. including looking for a new position as well as resigning. Satisfaction and turnover Satisfaction is also negatively related to turnover. where job satisfaction low is coupled with low turnover. It helps us to understand situations. but other factors have an impact on the relationship and reduce the correlation coefficient.

proactive. If cheated or copied from other students. He always tries to let him down by finding and forwarding even small errors to the higher management. 2. internet.youtube. Deadline: . (Mid-Night) Due Date and Time October 29 . Schedule Opening Date and Time October 26 .com/vu .M. the other employees of the same department are praised and rewarded promptly. Usman has recently joined a car manufacturing company as a sales representative. This extra time should only be used to meet the emergencies and above mentioned due dates should always be treated as final to avoid any inconvenience. and increased error rate.1: What methods should be adopted by Mr.M. This Assignment can be best attempted from the knowledge acquired after watching video lecture no. punctual. Looking at the case of Mr. Bilal has personal grievances with him. he loses his interest in the job that result in excessive absenteeism and low efficiency. journals or blogs. He should also ask reason why he could not promote. This situation affected Mr. 1 to lecture no. 3. 24 Hrs extra / grace period after the above mentioned due date is usually available to overcome uploading difficulties which may be faced by the students on last date. “Job Satisfaction” Job satisfaction is a positive feeling about a job. will be straight away marked ZERO. As a result. This is a subjective phenomenon. hardworking and always able to meets the sales targets. 2010 At 12:01 A. On contrary. Unfortunately his supervisor Mr. He should also discuss the main problems these are facing in company with his higher manager. absenteeism. Usman: Q. Video lectures can be downloaded for free from www. and turnover. Mr. books. He is talented. 2010 At 11:59 P. Usman deeply when few subordinates got the promotions. still there are some discrete factors that play an important role in job satisfaction. Exit and neglect behaviors encompass our performance variables—productivity. Important Instructions : Please read the following instructions carefully before attempting the assignment solution.reduced effort. 9 and reading handouts as well as recommended text book.1: Write down all possible factors that could lead to job satisfaction or dissatisfaction of employees in an organization (10 Marks) Q. Usman to express his dissatisfaction and concerns to higher management? (10 Marks) Important Tips 1. (Mid-Night) Note: Only in the case of Assignment. Read the below mentioned situation and answer the questions accordingly.

.byu... No assignment will be accepted through e-mail once the solution has been uploaded by the instructor.. Word) · It is cheated or copied from other students. Factors in Job satisfaction1. If the remunerations are fair then the person will feel satisfied from the job otherwise not. ..· Make sure that you upload the solution file before the due date. 2. Solution guidelines: · Use APA style for referencing and citation....1: Write down all possible factors that could lead to job satisfaction or dissatisfaction of employees in an organization (10 Marks) Attitude of a person to his/her work is called job satisfaction. · It is advised to compose your document in MS-Word 2003. books. · Ideally your answer should be within 200 to 250 words. Rules for Marking Please note that your assignment will not be graded or graded as Zero (0) if: · It has been submitted after due date · The file you uploaded does not open or is corrupt · It is in any format other than . there will be negative marking for irrelevant material. APA01.. internet. · For acquiring the relevant knowledge don‟t rely only on handouts but watch the video lectures and use other reference books also. · Give the answer according to question. Q. journals etc… .html · Every student will work individually and has to write in the form of an analytical assignment. The work itself If the work is satisfactory to the person then he/she feel satisfied for example if the duty technical work taken from the nontechnical person then he will feel unsatisfied. The work should be challenging to the person and relevant to him/her. Formatting guidelines: · Use the font style “Times New Roman” and font size “12”.edu/faculty/henr .doc (MS. For guidance search “APA reference style” in Google and read various website containing information for better understanding or visit http://linguistics. · Use black and blue font colors only. Job satisfaction is the collection of feelings and beliefs people have about their current jobs. Remuneration It is the most important part of job satisfaction.

Job Security If there is a culture of eliminating employees without considerable reasons. electric shock etc. Promotion If there are chances of promotion then the person will feel job satisfaction and vice versa. 11.3. 5. 8. co-worker If the assistants and the staff working under the person. then the employees will feel dissatisfied from the job. . Job challenges:If the job is dull. Power If an employee does not have the authority and power that he deserve then he „ll feel dissatisfied from the job. Authority. then he/she „ll feel more satisfactory and vice versa. Attitude of higher Authority If the higher authority is not co-operative and supportive as in our case of question. Colleagues Attitude If the colleagues are not co-operative and the social relation does not exist at work environment then there will be job dissatisfaction. ruff and not challenging to the person. For example the work of data entry if taken from the programmer then the programmer will feel dissatisfaction from the job. the employee will feel more satisfied from the job otherwise not. Working Conditions If the work conditions are safe. 7. 9. Reward system Effective Reward system let there employees more satisfied from the job. the employee feel dissatisfied from the job. 6. Risk If there is risk fire. 4. then the person will feel dissatisfaction from the job. 10. 12. the person will loose interest.

employees can correct their own errors and improve their techniques.. 6-Employees don't feel too closely supervised. not merely a cog in the wheel... 8-The answer to the question..13. 9-Superiors offer feedback without causing embarrassment.. Question # 1 : (10 marks) Following are the factors that. that will cause Dis-satisfaction in your job and you might loose interest: 1.. if you don't find it in your job.. Retirement Benefits If there are reasonable retirement and „on job death‟ benefits then the employees will feel more satisfied otherwise not.. 4-Employees believe they have a reasonable degree of authority over how their work should be done... 2. 10..The job does not waste a person's time and effort. over-instructed or rigidly controlled..... 3-Employees are free to plan their work the way they can do it most effectively. "How am I doing?" comes from the job itself.There should be incouragement and rewards given from the management to an employee for his utmost efforts . Thus.. but allows employees to change pace with varying tasks. 5-Employees believe they have adequate opportunities for individual growth and recognition...The job isn't monotonous. .. It has been planned in such a way that it can be done without exerting energy uselessly. 7-Employees see their job as an integral part of the whole company and each employee is treated as an individual.

Question # 2: (10 marks) Methods to be adopted by Mr. such as those sometimes found among unionized workers. It helps us to understand situations.adn good work.. and some forms of union activity. absenteeism. including speaking up for the organization in the face of external criticism. discussing problems with superiors. 2-Voice: Actively and constructively attempting to improve conditions. hence all the above factors mentioned above will lead to job satisfaction. where low job satisfaction is coupled with low turnover. and turnover. including looking for a new position as well as resigning. including suggesting improvements. reduced effort. and trusting the organization and its management to “do the right thing.” 4-Neglect: Passively allowing conditions to worsen. Voice and loyalty are constructive behaviors allow individuals to tolerate unpleasant situations or to revive satisfactory working conditions. and increased error rate. Newer Post Older Post . including chronic absenteeism or lateness. 3-Loyalty: Passively but optimistically waiting for conditions to improve.Usman to express his dissatisfaction and concern to higher managemnt: How Employees Can Express Dissatisfaction There are a number of ways employees can express dissatisfaction 1-Exit 2-Voice 3-Loyalty 4-Neglect 1-Exit: Behavior directed toward leaving the organization. Exit and neglect behaviors encompass our performance variables—productivity.

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