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Session 13

Model Making-I
Session Speaker Sukanta Majumdar

© M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies - Bangalore



• Session Objectives
– At the end of the session the delegates will be able to understand the use of card and paper model for model making and be able to convey the purpose of model making

© M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies - Bangalore



Session Topics
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Introduction to model making. Card and paper modeling. Appearance models Modeling in foam and thermocol Examples on cardboard/paper models

© M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies - Bangalore


PDN 511 Introduction to Model Making © M.PEMP.Bangalore 4 .S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies .

shape (but not function and appearance) Working principles prototype Specific functions (but not size and shape) Form and fit model Mock-up of Manufactured product (Size.PDN 511 Structural representation Physical size. shape and appearance (but not function) Structural and functional Functional representation Key functions (but not size and shape) Appearance model Physical size.shape and function) Test Prototype Pre-production prototype ‘As manufactured’ Materials and process Production prototype Types of MODELS used in the DESIGN PROCESS © M.PEMP.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies .Bangalore 5 .

Bangalore 6 . An appearance model is a full-scale. non-functional.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies .PEMP. medical equipment and computer input devices SLA.PDN 511 The terms prototype and model model to describe a non-functional representation and prototype to describe a functional item. as closely as possible. identical to the prospective new product. Form and Fit models are ideal for ergonomic analysis of handheld electronic devices.etc © M. representation that looks. CNC. SLS.

Bangalore 7 .S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies .PDN 511 Card and Paper Modeling Introduction • • • • Cardboard and paper have been used for many years in model making.PEMP. From the simple paper aeroplane to the most complex architectural models card and paper as modeling materials are extremely cost efficient simple to use and Require few tools with little experience needed to produce high quality models © M.

Always avoid inhaling any adhesive vapour as this is likely to be harmful.PDN 511 Tools • It should also be remembered that all knives and scissors are dangerous and should always be used with extreme care. Always wash well any spills in contact with the skin. • • • • © M.PEMP.Bangalore 8 . Adhesives should only be used in a well ventilated room.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies . Always follow the directions on the container.

When using any form of model/craft knife. Safety straight edges are an advantage as the 'holding' fingers are protected from the blade. Remember to always wear safety glasses when using sharp instruments.The best modeling knives are surgical scalpels.A simple but essential tool to ensure clean straight lines are cut in a controlled manner.PEMP. Dissection knives and other specific modeling knives are preferably used precise and blunt cutting. The most important fact is that the knife is comfortable to use and strong enough not to slip.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies .Bangalore 9 . and to cut away from you. always use a steel straight edge to prevent the blade cutting into the straight edge.PDN 511 Knife . All craft and surgical knives are extremely sharp! Straight Edge . © M. They are extremely strong and can be purchased in a variety of styles with various blade types. A variety of sizes are useful from 15cm to 100cm depending on the work.

S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies .Basically anything that holds the items in place whilst the adhesive sets. Masking tape or similar can be useful to hold the model while it sets or as a temporary fix when checking. For accurate intricate work use scissors with a small blade and long handles eg surgical scissors.Good quality straight and curve blade scissors are often overlooked by model makers but they can save time when cutting irregular shapes. available in a variety of types.PEMP. paper clips and paper weights. A pair of quality long blade straight scissors allows for neater straight cuts if a knife cannot be used Retaining Tools . Useful items include staplers.PDN 511 Scissors . Drawing pins can be invaluable © M.Bangalore 10 .

Bangalore 11 . Generally clear and relatively thick they are most suited to sticking thin surfaces together as a strong rapid bond is formed. They are however a little thick in consistency and expensive for use on large surface areas.PDN 511 Adhesives Adhesives should only be used in a well ventilated room. Always wash well any spills in contact with the skin.These adhesives include glue stick. © M. gums and fevicol All Purpose Clear. Some of the most popular types are listed as follows: 'All Purpose Adhesives' . They are designed for use on most materials but are quick setting when used on card and paper. Always avoid inhaling any adhesive vapour as this is likely to be harmful. Always follow the directions on the container.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies .PEMP. A wide variety of adhesives can be used on cardboard and glue depending upon the thickness/quality of material and the required finish.

PDN 511 Super Glue . •One of the most important tips is to remember that paper blunts blades rapidly! As soon as you feel the blade 'drag'.PEMP.Bangalore 12 .S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies . Techniques . The ‘fevi-quick. Do not purchase an expensive super glue as it is not necessary. •Reinforce card kits and structures using triangular corner pieces © M. Super glue has its uses with most modelling materials and therefore has a place in card and paper modelling. range is recommended for our requirement. It is also useful for adding detail to card and paper models.A recent essential addition to the modellers tool box. replace it as ragged cuts will spoil the appearance of a model. Super glue is ideal where holding the subject may be difficult and a rapid bond is required. painting the edges using acrylic or water based paints improves the appearance.Hints & Tips •Techniques/hints and tips are very simple with card and paper. •When making pre-coloured card kits.

PDN 511 Some basic tips for paper modeling © M.PEMP.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies .Bangalore 13 .

.-) Mountain folds Valley folds (fold the sides forward) are indicated with a dotted line (. . . © M. .S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies . Cut out individual pieces along the black line around their edges. . . . Some pieces may require cutting slots toward the center of the piece: look for a small scissors symbol or a fine white line indicating the length and width of the slot..Bangalore Valley folds 14 .. .PDN 511 Basic folds Mountain folds (fold the sides back) are indicated with a dashed line (.).. .PEMP..

© M. particularly on the smaller pieces. For valley folds. Flip the card over and connect the dots in order to score the fold line. score the paper along the fold lines with a hobby knife before cutting out the pieces entirely.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies .Bangalore 15 . First.PEMP. mark the ends of the dotted lines by carefully pushing a pin or the tip of your knife through the card.PDN 511 To get a crisp fold. score the reverse side of the paper.

© M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies . This technique is quite useful when pushing the roof pieces inside the small cylindrical sections of the Tower like structures so that they are level and correctly inset from the top of the cylinder.PDN 511 Have a chopstick or blunt toothpick ready to move small pieces into their correct positions while the glue is still tacky.Bangalore 16 .PEMP.

Bangalore 17 .S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies .PEMP.PDN 511 More advanced tips to improve your models © M.

Make sure you touch the glue to the back of the piece so that it does not leave an unsightly glossy blob on the front. © M. Just be careful not to touch the piece or get it dirty while the super-glue is drying.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies .PDN 511 You can strengthen the tiny. thin pieces by touching a drop of super glue to the back of the paper.PEMP.Bangalore 18 . Just a tiny drop will soak into the piece and stiffen the paper.

© M. you may want to modify the model to make a smoother. Then you can match the two sides of the cylinder to make a smooth seam.PEMP.PDN 511 When making round cylinders. rounder cylinder.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies .Bangalore 19 . Here is how most cylinders are made. with the tab glued under the end of the cylinder: You can make a smoother cylinder by cutting off the tab and gluing a scrap of paper behind the end in its place.

Before you have glued the piece onto the model.PEMP. Colored pencils work much better. fold it back to expose the inside of the paper. Do not use water color paints or markers on the models.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies . © M.Bangalore 20 . especially soft watercolor pencils. then carefully run the side of the pencil along the edge to color it. you may want to hide the white interior of the paper that shows through at each corner by coloring the edges of the folds and sides of the pieces.The matte paper our postcards are printed on will soak up the ink too quickly and ruin your model.PDN 511 If you are scoring each fold of your model.

Then. The lecture begins by briefly introducing some common materials used to make appearance models.PEMP. This lecture presents a variety of techniques that will be helpful when you make appearance models of your designs. and to communicate ideas. One can think of an appearance model as a 3-dimensional sketch. sometimes referred to as a sketch model.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies . The models are used just like concept sketches--to both explore and gain insight into preliminary ideas.PDN 511 Appearance models Appearance models are approximate 3 dimensional models.Bangalore 21 . Typically. techniques for working with the materials are outlined. such models are made in the process of developing a product. They can be made very quickly and are quite cheap. They can be used to demonstrate primary elements in a product and perform simple experiments. © M. they facilitate the exploration of aspects not accessible through 2dimensional paper sketches. Specifically.

© M.PEMP. foam core and honeycomb board. the higher level of finish comes with a price. It is in terms of time.PDN 511 This model uses all of the common modeling materials described in this lecture--foam. However. This example is a highly finished appearance model that could be used to get feedback from potential customer. The model was built to demonstrate modeling techniques.Bangalore 22 . cardboard.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies .

© M. This instrument panel is made of paper.PEMP.PDN 511 If you are going to bring models to potential users.Bangalore 23 . the realism of the model can be enhanced by carefully detailing the areas where the customers interact closely with the product.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies .

PDN 511 The displays and controls can be quickly modeled using everyday objects.Bangalore 24 . © M.. tablets etc.PEMP.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies . In this instance many of the buttons are from everyday seen objects.

Bangalore 25 .S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies . How to model it? © M.PEMP.PDN 511 This concept sketch presents a 'boom box' like image for the stereo LCD television.

Bangalore 26 .S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies ..PDN 511 The model for the concept is made of foam and foam core. © M. It allows the designers to explore and communicate the concept when stored ..PEMP.

© M.Bangalore 27 .S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies .PEMP.PDN 511 and demonstrate possible design features.

A model created demands for concentration and time …. Note: time is very important. the process begins with concept sketches.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies . This is a concept for a stereo LCD television.PDN 511 Again.Bangalore 28 .PEMP. The goal of sketching and modeling is to explore and obtain the necessary answers to questions as quickly as possible.else purpose is not solved. © M.

Bangalore 29 .S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies . It is made from foam core. © M. foam.PEMP.PDN 511 This is an early stage model based upon the 2D sketch that allowed the designer to explore size. form and kinematics aspects of the idea. and some copper and PVC tubing for the handle and pivot pins.

the slide gives an indication of what follows in the mockup and detailing phases of the development process.PEMP.Bangalore 30 . placing a relevant object in the vicinity of the model provides information about both scale and intended use. This is NOT a model. © M. When taking photographs. However.PDN 511 This picture shows a visual mockup/visual model of the TV concept.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies .

PDN 511 © M.PEMP.Bangalore 31 .S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies .

PDN 511 Another sketch for a TV concept using colour LCD technology.PEMP.Bangalore 32 . © M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies .

S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies .PDN 511 The first model.Bangalore 33 . made mostly of foam and foam core. illustrates the user features of the concept. © M.PEMP.

PEMP.Bangalore 34 . It took 3 days to make. the value to the model is added by efficient use of time. © M.PDN 511 This is a later and more carefully detailed model for the same idea.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies .

© M. These materials are foam.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies .Bangalore 35 .thermocol cardboard. mount board.PEMP.PDN 511 Materials: In this section we will introduce four common modeling materials and describe their properties. foam core and Honeycomb board.

Bangalore 36 . Depending on the manufacturer and requirements it varies in density. © M.PEMP. In most cases the higher density blue material is easier to work with but it may not always be available.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies .PDN 511 Foam is a lay term for the family of PU foams.

PEMP. The material is easy to cut and shape with hand tools and is fairly inexpensive © M.Bangalore 37 .PDN 511 Thermocol is a good material to use when you need to make sculptural forms or models that need to be solid.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies .

It is very good for creating strong structures through folding. Used boxes or clean sheets sold in art supply stores are good sources for the material.PDN 511 Corrugated board is a paper product comprising of a medium (the inner fluted part) sandwiched between linerboards (the outer paper faces). © M. It is also a very cost effective way to build large scale models.Bangalore 38 .PEMP.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies . It is available in a variety of thicknesses and numbers of plys.

Additionally. © M.Bangalore 39 .S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies . it can only be bent in two dimensions. Cardboard is not suitable for creating surfaces that are curved in 3 dimensions. so planning is required to correctly orient the grain to obtain desired structural characteristics in a model.PEMP.PDN 511 Cardboard is quite anisotropic.

PDN 511 © M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies .Bangalore 40 .PEMP.

like cardboard.PDN 511 Foam core is also a sheet material. It is available in thickness from 1/8" to 1".Bangalore 41 .PEMP. The inner medium is foam and the outer liner is a filled. It is usually reserved for applications which demand a higher degree of finish or refinement than corrugated cardboard can accommodate. © M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies . Foam core can be purchased at art supply stores and it is fairly expensive compared to cardboard. high quality paper board.

PDN 511 Foam core can be bent and worked much like cardboard.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies . © M. However. it is much less anisotropic than cardboard.PEMP.Bangalore 42 .

S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies . it has good structural characteristics. the bending and forming capabilities of the material are very limited. © M. However. If parts of a model are going to be heavily loaded (such as stood on by potential users) this may be the material to use.PDN 511 Honeycomb board is a sheet material in which the medium is made from a paperboard honeycomb. it is quite expensive.Bangalore 43 . Compared to both cardboard and foam core. The medium is sandwiched between paperboard liners. However. The material is available in thickness of 1/2" to 3".PEMP.

S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies . The cutting technique described in this section using a hot wire cutter is a safe way to cut thermocol and usually provides a higher quality cut. © M. Warning: cutting thermocol with a long knife can be quite dangerous. sometimes resulting in severe cuts. causing the material to tear out and the knife to slip.Bangalore 44 .PDN 511 Modeling in Foam and Thermocol Cutting This section described the basic cutting techniques when using thermocol. Friction between the blade and thermocol tempts one to force the knife.PEMP.

Hot wire cutters come in many forms. 12V battery charger is connected to a nickelchromium wire which warms when current passes through it. A 20 Amp. but they are a mild irritant. © M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies . It is very simple to construct. The vapors are not toxic.PDN 511 A hot element can be used to cut the Thermocol by melting through it. There is therefore a need of ventilation duct near the hot wire cutter. The main drawback of the hot wire cutter is that fumes are created.Bangalore 45 .PEMP. The wire is held in tension to create a vertical cutting blade.

S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies .PEMP.PDN 511 Guides: Obtaining really smooth cuts on the hot wire cutter requires some skill. cardboard has been constructed to help orient part of the dashboard © M. A fence is good for straight cuts. However. for more complex shapes it is often worth making simple jigs or templates. A jig is a figure that holds a part in a particular orientation and can also help control or restrict the motion of the work-piece. In the picture above.Bangalore 46 .

it would not be possible to cut the part with sufficient precision.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies . © M.Bangalore 47 .PDN 511 The jig takes about few minutes to build but without it.PEMP.

making sure that the wire follows the template edges. Once the templates are attached to the foam block. © M.PDN 511 Paper templates are useful for complex details such as grills.PEMP. Templates can be cut from heavy paper or any material that will not melt when in contact with the hot wire.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies .Bangalore 48 . the shape can be cut using the hot wire.

surprisingly strong and.The main disadvantage is that the double sided tape does not cut well on the hot wire.Bangalore 49 .PEMP. Clamping is not required.PDN 511 Fastening : One of the easiest ways to build thermocol appearance models is to decompose the object into easy. It is fast.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies . Double sided tape is a simple and reliable way to join shapes and then assemble them to form the complete artifact. removable (with care). © M.

PEMP- PDN 511 You can also attach thermocol using spray glue (we can use industrial grade chloroform ).Put a moderate coating of spray glue on the faces to be joined and then clamp them together for at least 15 minutes. This will form a permanent bond because the spray glue chemically dissolves the foam. This is not an intended use for spray glue. The advantage of this method is that it creates a very tight permanent joint that cuts very well on the hot wire. The disadvantages are that it requires clamping, time to dry and is suitable only for smaller objects.
© M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies - Bangalore


PEMP- PDN 511 Water-based bonding gums also can be used for joining foam.NEVER use organic solvent base glues because they will dissolve the foam. To join two pieces, spread a thin layer over both surfaces to be joined. Allow the glue to dry to a light tack. Then, press the pieces together firmly to ensure contact between the two faces. The pieces will now be permanently joined. The advantages of this adhesive is that it adheres on contact without clamping and that it is good for joining large surfaces. The disadvantages are that you have only one shot at positioning the pieces as they adhere immediately and that the glue layer cuts poorly on the hot wire.
© M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies - Bangalore


PEMP- PDN 511 This section describes techniques other than the hot wire that can be used to shape thermocol,foam The surform is a rasp-like tool. The cutting surface is expanded metal. It is very effective for sculpting and removing large quantities of materials. The tool leaves a rough finish that usually requires additional sanding. Care must be taken to avoid tearing out chunks of foam.
© M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies - Bangalore


PEMP.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies .PDN 511 Riflers are rasp or file-like tools that come in a variety of shapes and sizes.Bangalore 53 . © M. They are appropriate for making fine details such as parting lines or small concave areas.

Gross shaping or the removal of surform marks can be done in thermocol.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies .PDN 511 Sand paper comes in variety of grits and should be used in a sequence of increasingly finer grits. The 100 and 200 can be used subsequently if a very smoothly sanded foam model is desired. © M.PEMP.Bangalore 54 . foam with 80 grade paper. 150 grade is usually sufficient to remove hot wire marks.

Practice a bit first before tackling a piece you have invested your time in.PEMP. Always wear a dust mask when sanding.PDN 511 When sanding it is quite easy to tear out pieces of the foam.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies .Bangalore 55 . © M. Take care to avoid digging the edges of the paper into the foam.

only use a waterbased latex or acrylic paint. © M. Before painting.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies . If you do paint. think carefully about whether the paint will allow you to learn or evaluate anything that is not possible when unpainted.PDN 511 In many cases painting an sketch model is a waste of time and can make the models look worse. If you do . don't waste your time. DO NOT use oil or lacquer-based paints.. If there is not a good reason to paint.PEMP..Bangalore 56 .

PEMP.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies . © M. This section and figure outlines the key points for safely cutting cardboard. bending and making shapes in cardboard are described. The most important thing is to have a very sharp knife.Bangalore 57 .PDN 511 Examples on cardboard/paper models The techniques for cutting. The best knives are those having blades with tips that can be snapped off to give a new cutting point.

Use the blade at a slant angle to get sharp cut.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies .Bangalore 58 . If you find yourself gluing several pieces of flat cardboard together to make a shape you are probably not using the material effectively. Sharp corners can be made by compressing the flutes at the location you want to make a bend. Cutting without glass base will lead to quick decay of your blade. Cardboard is a material that works best when bending is used to make shapes. © M.PEMP.Leaving your blade exposed to moisture also blunts the edge.Select for the thickness of blade in relation to the thickness of board.PDN 511 As a rule of thumb. the cutting tip is too dull after cutting 10 feet of cardboard.

PDN 511 Dimensional tolerance is an issue when bending cardboard. For the best control of where a bend occurs. The following slides illustrate this point. © M. place it across the grain as shown in the picture.Bangalore 59 .PEMP.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies . The layout lines for the bends are 10cm apart A straight edge is then used to crush the flutes under the bend layout lines.

Bangalore 60 .PDN 511 Making gentle curves Once the flutes are crushed the cardboard will bend in very crisp and straight lines. This technique works best when bending along the grain. © M. but is OK across the grain. An example is shown above. Cardboard can also be bent in gradual curves by using relief cuts.PEMP.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies .

In the areas of the relief cut the cardboard may be bent like a sheet of paper. cutting only through the top piece of linerboard.PDN 511 To make the gentle curve.PEMP.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies .Bangalore 61 . © M. parallel layout lines are drawn between the flutes (when bending along the grain) or roughly 1 cm apart when bending across the grain. Then a series of scoring cuts along the layout lines are made.

A leather punch is the tool to use for such applications.e. © M.. They come in a wide variety of sizes (from about 1/8" to 2"). a knife).PDN 511 Trying to cut holes in cardboard for hinges or otherwise can be frustrating when using the wrong tool (i.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies .Bangalore 62 . Using the leather punch a hole is created by giving the punch a sharp tap with a mallet. Be sure the cardboard is supported by a firm surface.PEMP.

S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies .SR gum glue is a good solution for cardboard.Bangalore 63 .PEMP. © M. Place a small bead of glue along the joint and then hold the pieces together until the glue sets.It comes in varieties with different melting points and strengths.PDN 511 Fastening Any of the glue works well with cardboard.

strong and stiff structures can be created. © M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies . If the grain had been longitudinally oriented the sides would be prone to local buckling under load.PDN 511 Structures When cardboard is folded into sections.PEMP.Bangalore 64 . Note the grain orientation in this example.

It helps in understanding the necessity of model making in Product design cycle. It guides to Capably present.PDN 511 Summary • • • • • The session develops an ability to understand materials and their applications and apply them to communicate the design.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies . It gives insight to Fabricate and form models that show an understanding of technical skills and are highly resolved and finished. © M.PEMP. exhibit and record work.Bangalore 65 . It instructs to Demonstrate safe working practice for Model Making.