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Work, Power and Energy

On screen: Heading: Learning Goals     Gravitational Potential Energy Elastic Potential Energy Conservative and nonconservative forces Relation between conservative force and potential energy

Voice Over: So, what are we going to cover in this module?     Gravitational Potential Energy Elastic Potential Energy Conservative and nonconservative forces Relation between conservative force and potential energy

Wherever possible, we will illustrate the concepts using problems, especially those from past IIT JEE papers.

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On screen: Heading: Prerequisites         Work done by varying force Work done by a constant force Vectors and their representation in the Cartesian coordinate system Scalar product of two vectors Free-body diagrams Basic knowledge of kinematics and laws of motion Differentiating simple polynomial and trigonometric functions Integration of simple polynomial and trigonometric functions

Voiceover: Before we start with the session, let’s take a look at the pre-requisites. To gain the maximum out of this session, you must have knowledge of    Work done by varying force Work done by a constant force Vectors and their representation in the Cartesian coordinate system
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    

Scalar product of two vectors Free-body diagrams Basic knowledge of kinematics and laws of motion Differentiating simple polynomial and trigonometric functions Integration of simple polynomial and trigonometric functions

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On screen: Heading: Gravitational Potential Energy

(Animate the above figure and highlight the labelling as per VO)

The work 𝑊 done by the gravitational force as the brick undergoes a downward displacement d is 𝑔 𝑊 = 𝑚𝒈 ∙ 𝒅 = −𝑚𝑔 𝐣 ∙ 𝑦𝑓 − 𝑦𝑖 𝐣 𝑔 Or, 𝑊 = 𝑚𝑔𝑦𝑖 − 𝑚𝑔𝑦𝑓 𝑔 ---- (1)

If an object undergoes both a horizontal and vertical displacement, so that𝒅 = 𝑥𝑓 − 𝑥𝑖 𝐢 + 𝑦𝑓 − 𝑦𝑖 𝐣 then the work done by the gravitational force is still 𝑚𝑔𝑦𝑖 − 𝑚𝑔𝑦𝑓 because −𝑚𝑔 𝐣 ∙ 𝑥𝑓 − 𝑥𝑖 𝐢 = 0. Thus, work done by the gravitational force depends only on the change in y and not on any change in the horizontal position 𝑥. Therefore, equation (1) can be re-written as𝑊 = 𝑈𝑖 − 𝑈𝑓 = − 𝑈𝑓 − 𝑈𝑖 𝑔 Or, 𝑊 = −∆𝑈𝑔 𝑔 --- (2)
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From this relation, we conclude that the work done on any object by the gravitational force is equal to

Voiceover: Let us consider a brick of mass at an initial height above the ground, as shown here. If we neglect air resistance, then the only force that does work on the brick as it falls is the gravitational force exerted on the brick . The work done by the gravitational force as the brick undergoes a downward displacement d is = Or, = ∙ − = − ∙ − ---- (1)

If an object undergoes both a horizontal and vertical displacement, so that= − + − then the work done by the gravitational force is still − ∙ − = 0. − because

Thus, work done by the gravitational force depends only on the change in y and not on any change in the horizontal position . We further know that gravitational potential energy is defined as: Therefore, equation (1) can be re-written as= Or, − =− − --- (2) =

= −∆

From this relation, we conclude that the work done on any object by the gravitational force is equal to the negative of the change in the gravitational potential energy.

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On screen: Heading: Elastic Potential Energy

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Figure (a)

Figure (b)

Figure (c)

An undeformed spring is lying on a horizontal surface. We have learned that the work done by the spring force on a block connected to the spring is given by: 𝑊 = 𝑠 1 2 1 2 𝑘𝑥 − 𝑘𝑥 2 𝑖 2 𝑓

This work done is stored in the system as elastic potential energy and is given as1 𝑈𝑠 ≡ 𝑘𝑥 2 2
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This elastic potential energy of the system can be thought of as the energy stored in the deformed spring (either compressed or stretched).

Voiceover:

Let us consider a system consisting of a block and a spring as shown in figure. An undeformed spring is lying on a horizontal surface. We have learned that the work done by the spring force on a block connected to the spring is given by: = 1 2
2

1 2

2

This work done is stored in the system as elastic potential energy and is given as≡ 1 2
2

This elastic potential energy of the system can be thought of as the energy stored in the deformed spring (either compressed or stretched).

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On screen:

Figure (a)

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Figure (b)

Figure (c)

When a block is pushed against the spring (see figure b) and the spring is compressed a distance 𝑥, then the elastic potential energy stored in the spring will be 2 𝑘𝑥 2 . When the block is released from rest, the spring returns back to its original length and the stored elastic potential energy is transformed into kinetic energy of the block (see figure c). The elastic potential energy is stored in the spring only when spring is either stretched or compressed. Elastic potential energy is maximum when compression or extension 𝑥 is maximum.

Voiceover:

When a block is pushed against the spring (see figure b) and the spring is compressed a distance , then the elastic potential energy stored in the spring will be 2
2

.

When the block is released from rest, the spring returns back to its original length and the stored elastic potential energy is transformed into kinetic energy of the block (see figure c). The elastic potential energy is stored in the spring only when spring is either stretched or compressed.

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Elastic potential energy is maximum when compression or extension Scene 7
On screen: Heading: Conservative and Non-conservative Forces

is maximum.

Conservative forces have two important properties:   A force is conservative if the work done on a particle moving between any two points is independent of the path taken by the particle. The work done by a conservative force on a particle moving through any closed path is zero.

Work done on an object by a conservative force is equal to the change in potential energy of the system i.e. 𝑊 = 𝑈𝑖 − 𝑈𝑓 = −∆𝑈 It is important to note that in the case of one dimensional displacement, a force is always conservative if it is a function of position only. Therefore, ∆𝑈 = − 𝑥𝑓
𝐹 𝑥𝑖 𝑥 𝑑𝑥

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Voiceover:

We know that the work done by the gravitational force does not depend on whether an object falls vertically or slides down an incline. But, work done depends on path when we consider the frictional forces. Therefore, gravitational force is conservative and the frictional force is nonconservative. Conservative forces have two important properties:   A force is conservative if the work done on a particle moving between any two points is independent of the path taken by the particle. The work done by a conservative force on a particle moving through any closed path is zero.

Work done on an object by a conservative force is equal to the change in potential energy of the system i.e. = − = −∆ It is important to note that in the case of one dimensional displacement, a force is always conservative if it is a function of position only. Therefore, ∆ =−

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On screen:

Heading: Spring Force is a Conservative Force

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The force 𝐹𝑆 exerted by the spring on the block is related to 𝑈𝑆 as: 𝐹𝑆 = − 𝑑𝑈𝑆 = −𝑘𝑥 𝑑𝑥

It is clear that force is equal to the negative of the slope of the 𝑈 𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑠𝑢𝑠 𝑥 curve.

When the block is placed at rest at the equilibrium position of the spring 𝑥 = 0 , where 𝐹𝑆 = 0, it will remain there unless some external force acts on it. If this external force
stretches the spring from equilibrium, 𝑥 is positive and the slope 𝑑𝑥 is positive. Therefore, force 𝐹𝑆 exerted by the spring is negative and the block accelerates towards 𝑥 = 0 when released. If the external force compresses the spring, 𝑥 is negative and the slope 𝑑𝑥 is negative. Therefore, force 𝐹𝑆 exerted by the spring is positive and the block accelerates towards 𝑥 = 0 when released. So, we conclude thatPosition of stable equilibrium corresponds to a point for which 𝑈 𝑥 is a minimum. Position of unstable equilibrium corresponds to a point for which 𝑈 𝑥 is a maximum. 𝑑𝑈
𝑑𝑈

Voiceover:
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The force

exerted by the spring on the block is related to =− =−

as:

It is clear that force is equal to the negative of the slope of the

curve.

When the block is placed at rest at the equilibrium position of the spring = 0 , where = 0, it will remain there unless some external force acts on it. If this external force stretches the spring from equilibrium, is positive and the slope is positive. Therefore, = 0 when force exerted by the spring is negative and the block accelerates towards released. If the external force compresses the spring, is negative and the slope

is negative.

Therefore, force exerted by the spring is positive and the block accelerates towards = 0 when released. So, we conclude thatPosition of stable equilibrium corresponds to a point for which Position of unstable equilibrium corresponds to a point for which is a minimum. is a maximum.

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On screen: Heading: Non-conservative Forces

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(Replace book as a ball)

A force is nonconservative if it causes a change in mechanical energy E, which is defined as the sum of kinetic and potential energies. Let us see an example. A ball is sliding on a rough horizontal surface; the force of kinetic friction reduces the kinetic energy of the ball. The change in kinetic energy of the ball due to friction is:

∆𝐾𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 = −𝑓𝑘 𝑑
Where 𝑑 is the length of the path over which the friction acts. Now, the ball slides over the semicircular path from A to B. The change in kinetic energy in this case will be: ∆𝐾𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 = −𝑓𝑘 𝜋𝑑 2

Thus, for a nonconservative force, the change in kinetic energy depends on the path followed between the initial and final points.

The loss in mechanical energy is greater along the red path than along the blue path.

Voiceover:

A force is nonconservative if it causes a change in mechanical energy E, which is defined as the sum of kinetic and potential energies. Let us see an example. A ball is sliding on a rough horizontal surface; the force of kinetic friction reduces the kinetic energy of the ball. The change in kinetic energy of the ball due to friction is: ∆ Where =−

is the length of the path over which the friction acts.

Now, the ball slides over the semicircular path from A to B. The change in kinetic energy in this case will be:

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=−

2

Thus, for a nonconservative force, the change in kinetic energy depends on the path followed between the initial and final points. The loss in mechanical energy is greater along the red path than along the blue path.

Scene 10 On screen: Heading: Summary

Let’s summarize what we have learnt in this session.       The gravitational potential energy is defined as: 𝑈𝑔 = 𝑚𝑔𝑦. The elastic potential energy stored in a spring is 𝑈𝑆 = 2 𝑘𝑥 2 Conservative force is independent of the path followed by the particle between any two points. Gravitational force and spring force are examples of conservative force. A nonconservative depends on the path followed by the particle between any two points. Force of friction is a nonconservative force. Work done by a conservative force in a closed path is zero. Work done by a nonconservative force in a closed path is equal to loss of mechanical energy of the system.

Work done on an object by a conservative force is equal to the change in potential energy of the system i.e. 𝑊 = 𝑈𝑖 − 𝑈𝑓 = −∆𝑈

In case of one dimensional displacement, a force is always conservative if it is a function of position only. That is, ∆𝑈 = − 𝑥𝑓
𝑥𝑖 𝐹𝑥

𝑑𝑥

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Voiceover: Let’s summarize what we have learnt in this session.       The gravitational potential energy is defined as: The elastic potential energy stored in a spring is = =
2

.
2

Conservative force is independent of the path followed by the particle between any two points. Gravitational force and spring force are examples of conservative force. A nonconservative depends on the path followed by the particle between any two points. Force of friction is a nonconservative force. Work done by a conservative force in a closed path is zero. Work done by a nonconservative force in a closed path is equal to loss of mechanical energy of the system.

Work done on an object by a conservative force is equal to the change in potential energy of the system i.e. = − = −∆

In case of one dimensional displacement, a force is always conservative if it is a function of position only. That is, ∆ =−

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