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CORNELL
UNIVERSITY LIBRARY

MATHEMATICS

Cornell University Library

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original of

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book

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Cornell University Library.

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the United States on the use of the

http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924068267602

A NEW ERA OF THOUGHT.

SCIENTIFIC ROMANCES.
By
Crown
I.

C.

Howard Hinton, M.A.
gilt,

8vo, cloth

6s.

;

or separately,

is.

each.
is.

What

is

the Fourth Dimension? GHOSTS EXPLAINED.
. . .

Mr. Hinton brings u.s, *' A short treatise of admirable clearness. panting but delighted, to at least a momentary faith in the Fourth Dimension, and upon the eye of this faith there opens a vista of interesting His pamphlet exhibits a boldness of speculation, and a problems. power of conceiving and expressing even the inconceivable, which rouses one's faculties like a tonic." Pali Mall.
.
.

.

2.

The Persian King; or. The Law of the Valley, is. THE MYSTERY OF PLEASURE AND PAIN. "A very suggestive and well-written speculation, by the inheritor of an
at once."

honoured name." Mind, " Will arrest the attention of the reader
3.
4.

Knowledge,

A

Plane World,

i.f.

A
5.

Picture of our Universe,

is.

Casting out the

Self,

is.

SECOND SERIES.
I.

On

the Education of the Imagination.
2.

Many Dimensions,

is.

LONDON: SWAN SONNENSCHEIN &

CO.

CHARLES HOWARD HINTON.'' atid other Scientific 3f ffnlron SWAN SONNENSCHEIN & PATERNOSTER SQUARE.A. ^^ OxoN. Attthor of '^ M. Rojuances' What is the Fourth Dime7isimi. CO... .: A New Era of Thought.

FEOME.THE SELWOOD PRINTING WORKS. . and LONDON.

although if it would probably have received much rearrangement he could have watched Part 1 1. and with that intention he asked us to make any changes or additions we thought desirable. Appendix H. I. This feeling has induced us to print Part exactly as it almost came from his hands. been written . this part has Chapter XI. construct upon his leaving It was his we should treatise them a much more complete than we have effected. and which we have consequently corrected and supplemented. has been written from a hurried sketch. But long alliance with him in this work has convinced us that his thought (especially that of a general philosophical character) loses much of its force if sub- jected to any extraneous touch. of us. on a distant foreign appointment. it through the press himself. in accordance with his wish. and the exercises have.PREFACE The MSS. also applies to Appendix E. which is an elaboration of all a theorem he suggested. for which formed the basis of this book were England wish that committed to us by the author. been entirely re-written by and has thus This remark not had the advantage of his supervision. which he considered very inadequate.

It is will little be apparent to the reader that Appendix and H more than a brief introduction to a very large subj. would communicate to others that spirit of learn- ing and generalization begotten in our consciousness by continuous contact with facts. being concerned with tessaracts solids. which. is really beyond treatment in writing and diagrams. H. — It is unquestionably a most important part of the process of learning space to construct these." and we would go back to that ancient and more fruitful method of the Greek geometers. JOHN FALK. they But. Models. Indeed. . that the matter of this book viust receive objective treatment it from the reader. or piling up pebbles in series. if Models are required as may be ordered from Messrs. and the reader should do hastily.. N. is as a method of spreading space-knowledge. so. and.vi Preface. Swan Sonnenschein & Co. ALICIA BOOLE. who hend all will find it quite useless even to attempt to appre- without actually building in squares and cubes the facts of space which we ask him we to impress on his consciousness. This difficulty recalls us to the one great fact. consider that printing.ect.B. however roughly and patterns. and only by continuous contact with facts vitally maintained. but a "pis aller. upon which we feel bound to insist. solely by us. while describing figures on the sand.

and will be vii supplied as for in soon as possible. us to have a large number made Much of the work can be done with plain cubes by using names without colours. if permanence be desired. Coloured models can easily be made by covering Kindergarten cubes with white paper and painting them with water-colour. . but further on the reader will find colours necessary to enable him to grasp and retain the complex series of observations. dip- ping them in size and copal varnish. and. the uncertainty as to demand same not allowing advance. Paternoster Square. London.Preface.

.

. I. . Study of Arrange14-20 CHAPTER The Elements of III. A Plane World Self. . 29-34 Function of Mind. PAGE -1-7 1. Limitation and its Test. . PART Introduction . 24-28 Knowledge: Self-Elements . Beginning of Knowledge . . 8-13 CHAPTER Apprehension of Nature. Knowledge . . II. V. VI. CHAPTER CHAPTER CHAPTER IV. . Intelligence... CHAPTER Scepticism and Science. 21-23 Theory and Practice .. ment or Shape . .. . Space against Metaphysics..TABLE OF CONTENTS. 35-4^ .

II. . its Genesis of a Tessaract in Three-space . III. . Theory of the IX. Appearances of a Cube 101-112 CHAPTER II. 1 13-117 CHAPTER Four-space. Perception and In- 67-84 CHAPTER Space the Scientific Basis of Altruism XI. Models of the 130-134 . 85-99 PART Three-space. 51-60 CHAPTER Another View of the ^ther. . PAGE CHAPTER Self Elements in our Consciousness VII. CHAPTER Genesis of a Cube..X Contents. spiration X. VIII. ... and Religion . Further Appearances of a Cube to a Plane-being . Representation 118-129 IV.^Ether 47-50 CHAPTER Relation of Lower to Higher Space. CHAPTER Sections Tessaract moving through Three-space. to a Plane-being I. Material and /Etherial Bodies 61-66 CHAPTER Higher Space and Higher Being.

Contents. and Symbols . • I77~i79 Cyclical Projections . . • 180-183 CHAPTER XI.. E. . . .198 . • A Tessaractic Figure and Projections 184-194 ' APPENDICES. Study of Tessaracts 167-1 76 CHAPTER Further Study of Tessaracts .. . .. . .. B. F. IX. its CHAPTER X. .• . a Plane 135-148 CHAPTER The Means by which ception of our Figures .. 197 List of Colours. 216 256 Names used for Plane Space Names used for Cubic Space Names used for Tessaractic Space Names. . . H.. A. Four-space : its Representation in Three-space . xi PAGE CHAPTER Representation of Three-space by V. a Plane-being would Acquire a Con. 200-201 202-203 204-205 Theorem in Four-space 205-207 Exercises on Shapes of Three Dimensions 207-209 Exercises on Shapes of Four Dimensions 209-217 Sections of the Tessaract Drawings of the Cubic Sides and Sections of the Tes219-241 saract (Models 1-12) with Colours and Names . in Names and VI. A . 149-155 CHAPTER Vn. . Representation of Four-space by Name. . K.. 156-166 CHAPTER VIII. ... . . 100 D. . . . G. C. .

.

" INTRODUCTORY NOTE TO PART I. set if Firstly. and what consider to value task when done. At the completion of a work. seems to me cannot think of space without matter. and the meaning and value It will of the work itself beaf a very different appearance. viz. as no necessity compels me to such a course. to call the task that of obtaining now prefer a familiarity with higher matter. or space of four dimensions." because this concrete matter. if I tell the reader briefly what the I work be its is to which these pages'are a guide. and . which. a somewhat hasty proceeding to feel. shall be as intuitive to the mind as that of ordinary matter is has become. into which we touch and It the abstractions that I of extension and impenetrability. but simply ask " What to a cube or block or shape of any kind as the cube In entering upon this inquiry a square we find the task is is twofold. to clearly before us the relative conditions which would obtain there were a matter physically higher than this matter of ours. The expression it is " higher matter " preferable to split " higher space. I I do not : split is up the concrete object that which is to is ? into subtleties. and therefore. or at the completion of the first part of a work. in the same way as that by which we I reach a sense of our ordinary three-dimensional space. was ^ The to obtain a sense of the properties of higher space. the feelings are necessarily very different from those with which the work was begun . which easy. there is the theoretical part. therefore be the simplest and shortest plan.

in this progress from ordinary to higher matter. we need apply the intuition of higher matter to this the world around us. vague and indefinite. In pursuing it the mind passes from one clear that there kind of intuition to a higher one. And seems to me the great inducement Let us form our intuition of higher space. To to realize with that which we vaguely discern. we make the we become aware that there fol- are . Firstly. in the most elementary and simple domain. It is an attempt. and of a continual dwelling on them. Thus. to this study. until the higher matter becomes familiar. and consists of a constant presentation to the senses of those ap- pearances which portions of higher matter would present. is The reader must undertake this task. " material " would simply mean " grasped by the intellect.xiv to Introductory Note to Part I. but not away from matter towards the discovery of conceptions of higher matter. for every branch of work has general bearings. if he accepts it at all. as an Those of us who have done it.'' Our ap- prehension of anything which is is not expressed in terms of matter. become known and and live familiar. choose the best means of liberating our minds from the limita- tions imposed on it are placed. It becomes is a . experiment. lowing observations. those material existences whose definite relations to us are apprehended as spiritual intuitions. are satisfied that there that in the results of the experiment which make it well worthy trial. The second by the particular conditions under which we part of the task is somewhat laborious. of a And in a few words I may state the general bearings of this its work. and with that transition the horizon of thought is altered. physical existence transcending the ordinary physical existence and one becomes inclined is. and then look out upon the world. to think that the right direction to look to spiritual existences. and thereby of. as a general type of progress from lower to higher. Secondly. to pass from the lower to the higher.

1 Introductory Note to Part certain limitations affecting our regard. xv discover by Secondly. unlike What could our relation to we cannot relation to tell. we know. and for living in the higher mode as we had lived in the previous one. our relation to anything is. in other questions. it. And in using the little it is cubes we can go through the process ourselves. but there is — in the suggestion of that which is higher end-all. for that is. ventional examination gives us doubtless. it is. an absolute and unconthe indication of a higher. are not the limit and a higher being than ours. I. — and more than the suggestion. But. so. And the method of discovery is full knowledge of In as each other. is Biology has shown us that there a universal order of forms or organisms. this progress We may is remark that from the ordinary to the 1 higher kind of matter demands an absolute attention to details. in this question of matter. supposition. than ourselves. much . But of all the ways in which the confidence gained from this it lesson can be applied. Thereby is the higher being to be known. if we but come to facts without pre- we begin to cover indications of the lies in know that there is a higher and to disway whereby we can approach. and then force ourselves to go through the experience which would be ours did not affect us. We. all that happens to us we but grasp our At any all rate. as individuals. and learn what a little instance. only in the retention of details that such progress becomes pos- sible. And as. That way the fulness of detail rather than in the generalization. the discovery of it is the great object beside which is else is as secondary as the routine of mere existence to companionship. passing from lower to higher. we our reason what those limitations are. the nearest to us lies in the suggestion gives. if incMnation to think be counted for anything. indication that Therein we find an we in ourselves take part in this progress. if the limitations Thirdly. perhaps it. we become aware of a capacity within us for transcending those limitations.

by absolute fulness of knowledge of the facts of each other's personality. in so is much does or three he know the higher. is /.xvi Introductory Note to Part knows and Thus. as the least of us known by another. scientific prayer when two meet together. H. and. mutually comprehend that vision of the higher. in the belief of one higher than themselvesi is. . H. strive to attain a their personalities as knowledge of that which is is to each of a higher figure to its solid sides. which each one and. C.

In certain respects we find ourselves brought on by the general current of ideas we feel that matter is permanent and cannot be annihilated. one of education. but with the difference that should be found between the work of a master and that of a follower. Kant's stateof .A NEW ERA OF THOUGHT. Now of Kant's enormous work only a small part is treated here. other directions in which there is need of definite training if we are to enter into the thoughts of the time. And it seems to me that a return to Kant. and it is almost an axiom in our minds that energy is persistent. but it consists of an effort to impress upon and bring home to the mind some of the more modern developments of thought. There are no new truths in this book. and all its transBut there are formations remains the same in amount. A few sentences of is Kant. . PART I. It may be thought to be unduly long but it must be remembered that in these times there is a twofold process going on one of discovery about external nature. a few leading ideas of Gauss and Lobatschewski form the material out of which it built up. INTRODUCTION. is the first condition. by which our minds are brought into harmony with that which we know. the creator — — modern philosophy.

And in this way the space conditions are as it were considered somewhat in the light of hindrances. that it is by means of space that we apprehend what is. generally said that the mind cannot perceive things in themselves.2 A New Era of Thought. But there is no need to adopt this feeling. Space is the instrument of the mind. There is in so many books in which the subject is treated a certain air of despondency as if this space apprehension were a kind of veil which shut us off from nature. and ments are taken as leading ideas. The first postulate of this book is a full recognition of the fact. as the condition of our mental work. whereby we are prevented from seeing what the objects in themselves truly are. this We But Kant says that not so property of being in space is much a quality is of any definable objects. obtain the properties of space. means by which we obtain an apprehension of definable objects — it the Now side is as Kant's doctrine is is usually commented on. but can only apprehend them subject to space conditions. and there are things in it. But if we take the statement simply as it is that we apprehend by means of space then it is equally allowable to consider our space sense as a positive means by which the mind grasps its experience. the positive It is neglected. work. With Kant the perception of things as being in space is not treated as it seems so should naturally say that there is From a comparison space. Very often a statement — — — . And here for the purposes of our work we can avoid all metaphysical discussion. Of Kant's work it is only his doctrine of space which is here experimented upon. the negative side brought into prominence. common to all things we of those properties which are obvious to do. suggesting a field of it is in detail and manipulation merely that there is an opportunity for workmanship.

it is left to be organized by accident and is called. which seems to be very deep and abstruse and hard is simply the form into which deep thinkers have thrown a very simple and practical observation. And for the present let us look on Kant's great doctrine of space from a practical point of view. 3 to grasp. It was considered by Fichte that the whole external world was simply a projection from the ego. and the manifold of nature was a recognition by the spirit of itself What this comes to as a — practical rule is. that also affords us a simple and practical rule of work. that we can only understand . Now according to Kant the space sense. but every act of is and an activity of our own. according to my own . But I do not find anywhere a systematic and thoroughgoing education of the space sense. but the great reason of failure in education is that.upon to act without having been According to Kant and according to common formed. or the intuition of space. It will seem obvious to him that any real pursuit or real observation trains the space sense. I must ask the indulgence of the reader. instead of a systematic training of the space sense. way to undertake this I To and that it is going out of the any special discipline. would answer that. There is a doctrine which found much favour with the first followers of Kant. regard to the education of the space sense.Introduction. and it comes to this it is important to develop the space sense. In every in some it is developed. — In geometry it is used in whom With the space sense has been well developed. for it is the means by which we think about real things. is the most fundamental power of the mind. experience it will be found that a trained thinker is one thought practical pursuit it is needed . nature in sight virtue of our own activity that there is no such thing as mere passive observation.

and got a true view of space facts a whole series of conceptions. which before I had known merely by repute and grasped by an effort. after it — — much is the pure act of the mind. . Hegel have developed certain tendencies and have written remarkable books. instance : in studying the for if the always a we always have to do with coloured . • For if our intuition of space is the means by which we apprehend. Kant had laid down his doctrine of space. Who can tell what the absolute space intuition is ? This intuition of space must be coloured. became perfectly simple and clear to me. I was perfectly ignorant of space relations myself before that directly I actually worked at the subject. Fichte. there direction of up and down —which implies the sense of weight. was important to investigate how much in our space intuition is due to experience is a matter of the physical circumstances of the thinking being and how Now. But the true successors of Kant are Gauss and Lobathe will the book which relates to it. But perhaps the best point of view to take have no difficulty in is this — if the reader has the space sense well developed going through the part of and the phraseology will serve him for the considerations which come next. Amongst the followers of Kant. Schelling. we always have the sense of weight is things themselves have no weight. to take one relations of space objects. experience. chewski. those who pursued one of the lines of thought in his works have attracted the most attention and have been considered as his successors.4 A New I Era of Thought. so to speak. and to get rid of these elements requires careful sifting. by the conditions of the being which uses it. then it follows that there may be different kinds of intuitions of space. Moreover.

but that we are quite capable of conceiving different kinds of space.Introduction. And this . But why should space be limited directions \ to three independent Geometers have found that there bodies should be thus limited. 5 is The only way to investigate this the practical way. length and breadth. the bodies which is no reason why all As a matter of fact we can measure are thus limited. So we come to this conclusion. Our space limited as we ordinarily think of it is conceived as — not in extent. this new measurement will be found to be compounded of the old measurements. and by a remarkable analysis the great geometers above mentioned have shown that space is not limited as ordinary experience would seem to inform us. that it is not demanded by our experience. but it has no more than these dimensions. If any other measurement be taken in it. that the space which we use is for conceiving ordinary objects in the world limited might be possible for there to be beings living in a world such that they would conAll that we can say ceive a space of four dimensions. about such a supposition is. It is impossible to find a point in the body which could not be arrived at by travelling in combinations of the three directions already taken. but in a certain way which can only be realized when we think of our ways of measuring space objects. it But — in a four I dimensional world. It may be that in the very large or the very minute a fourth dimension of space will have but with regard to be postulated to account for parts to objects of ordinary magnitudes we are certainly not to three dimensions. It is found that there are only three independent directions in which a body can be measured — it must have height. was the point at which about ten years ago took up the inquiry.

6 A New It is possible to Era of Thought. The mind acquires a development of power. say a great deal about space of higher dimensions than our own. and in this use of ampler space as a mode of thought. a path is opened by using — . when we go about it the right way. at length. than in conceiving the idea of solid shapes. the whole subject of four-dimensional existence became perfectly clear and easy to impart. nor is there any mystery at all about is it. but to put the question fairly would surely demand every resource of the prac. And I commenced a series of experiments to arrive at a conclusion one way or the other. tical art of education. And just as in experimental researches the skilful manipulator will demonstrate a law of nature. everything deskilled manipulator will fail pended on the manipulation. I was not sure that this power lay hidden in the mind. as every other with which I am acquainted. by a certain change of plan. and to work out analytically many problems which suggest themselves. But can we conceive four-dimensional space in the same way in which we can conceive our own space ? Can we think of a in the body in four dimensions as a unit having properties same way as we think of a body having a definite shape in the spate with which we are familiar ? Now this question. during which the conception of four-dimensional bodies lay absolutely dark. There is really no more difficulty in conceiving four- dimensional shapes. . for it exists in every one in imperfect form a new horizon opens. And so it proved to be for after many years of work. the less so here. can only be answered by experiment. but It is obvious that this is not a scientific inquiry — one for the practical teacher. When the faculty acquired —or rather when it is brought into consciousness.

is to investigate nature and see what phenomena are sional relations. and of investigating what can be found out by this new means of appre- hension. In fact. and by that means has classified many phenomena and has obtained rules for The dealing with matters of great practical utility. path which opens immediately before us in the future is that of applying the conception of four-dimensional space to the phenomena of nature. The work of building up the power is the work of the practical educator. Here the method is given of training the mind it will be an exhilarating moment when an investigator comes upon phenomena which show that external nature cannot be explained except by the assumption of a four-dimen. the work of applying it to nature is the work of the scientific man. Consequently the crown is still to be won. to be explained by four-dimen- But this part of the subject is hardly one for the same worker as the one who investigates how to think in fourdimensional space. what has been passed through may be . sion space. seemed mind within such fast limits. And it is not possible to accomplish both tasks at the same time. . to close the tion is •/ when first stated by Kant. The next step after having formed this power of conception in ampler space. The thought of the past ages has used the conception of a three-dimensional space. not limited as we at first think. that very truth which.Introdtiction. called Gauss and Lobatchewski the three-dimensional era have inaugurated the four-dimensional era. Our percepBut space is subject to the condition of being in space.

— — are not generally associated with the scientific appre- hension of the world. and many of the conceptions to which he is driven. therefore. and.a CHAPTER SCEPTICISM I. and then of Higher Space . but which are not for that reason any the less valuable. but as the result of a series of works undertaken purely with the desire to know desire which did not lift itself to the height of expecting or looking for the beautiful or the good. in the first place of Space. not in the way of feeling or direct apprehension. AND SCIENCE. I have a great advantage in this inasmuch as many of the thoughts which spring up in the mind of one who studies higher space. The following pages have for their object to induce the reader to apply himself to the study. turn out to be nothing more nor less than old truths the property of every mind that thinks and feels truths which feel And that I project. I have tried by indirect means to show forth those thoughts and conceptions to which the practical work leads. BEGINNING OF KNOWLEDGE. For I have come upon them. but which simply asked for something to know. And for my own part I cannot do more than put them forward in a very feeble and halting manner. All around me were the evidences — — — . For I found myself and many others I find do so also I found myself in respect to knowledge like a man who is in the midst of plenty and yet who cannot find anything to eat.

and thence proceed in a certain manner. such as logic or mathematics. amidst activity. the varied appearances of nature. ciation attached to who has a certain unpleasant assoit has been used by so many are absolutely certain in a particular line. Scientific achievement is reserved for those who are content to absorb into their consciousness. and. imitating the utterance of my fellows. if we wish to start with something which we do know. the sciences. say a few words. interesting talk. the whole result was an artificiality. whence and in which by reflection they find floating as it were on the sea of the unknown. 9 knowledge— the inventions all . useful — and I arts. The word people " sceptical " it. inner meaning I was hidden. certain similarities. and every expression touches or rather grazes fact by so very minute a point. by means of which they collect together a body of possible .Scepticism of and Science. much less to put before it those complex ideas which have so large a part in true human life. the effort was forced. would. if successful. certain resemblances and analogies. which. yet I myself was profited all this nothing at for somehow. it is hardly possible to enunciate complete sentences. For to a mind that inquires into what it really does know. that. But to be sceptical in the real sense is a far more unpleasant state of mind to the sceptic than to any one of his companions. Every word we use has so wide and fugitive a meaning. would be but a plausible imposture. for and attack other people's convictions. I could get nothing which The dialect was foreign to me If — its could know. I was left alone. we are forced away from the study of reality and driven to an artificial system. starting from postulates and axioms. by any means and by whatever way they come. develops a body of ideal truth which rather comes into contact with nature than is nature.

although the conceptions in the mind cannot be said to have any real correspondence in ndture. image very soon diverges from the for instance. we examine our idea of the plant. — Of plant which course by observation and study the image of a we bear in our minds may be made to re- . science exists. we cut the plant in half. It is a mental drawing meeting the real plant in external appearance but the two things. But the conceptions themselves are essentially artificial.lO A Nczo Era of Thought. If we find cells and tissues of various kinds. of it. . knowledge of we think of a plant. and to describe it to a certain extent. observation. We suppose a force varying but no one inversely as the square of the distance supposes such a mysterious thing to really be in nature. of a more or This green shape enables us to recognise the plant we think of. We have a conception of atoms but no one supposes atoms actually exist. and the relations between these conceptions give us relations which we find actually vibrating in the world around us. come as it were from different sides they just touch each other as far as the colour and shape are concerned. . If. And when we come to the when we come to simple nature. the plant and our thought of it. we do not find ourselves any better provided with a real for instance. If. predictions and inferences and in nature they find Hence correspondences which are actually verified. we picture less to ourselves a certain definite green shape. . but as structures and as living organisms they are as wide apart as possible. form a set of conceptions in the mind. region of descriptive science. But if we inquire into our imagination character. it has merely an external and superficial resemblance to the plant itself. We that . we find that our mental fact.

1

Beginning of Knowledge.

1

semble a plant as found in the fields more and more. But the agreement with nature lies in the multitude of points superadded on to the notion of greenness which we have at first there is no natural starting-point where the mind meets nature, and whence they can travel hand

in hand.
It

almost seems

as

if,

by sympathy and

feeling,

a

human being was easier to know than the simplest object. To know any object, however simple, by the reason
and observation requires an endless process of thought and looking, building up the first vague impression into something like in more and more respects. While, on
the other hand, in dealing with

human

beings there

is

an inward sympathy and capacity for knowing which is independent of, though called into play by, the observation of the actions and outward appearance of the

human
But
these

being.
for the

purpose of knowing we must leave out They are an affair of inThe mind stinct and inherited unconscious experience.

human

relationships.

may some day

rise to the level of these inherited appre-

but at present an account of the it is far more than overtasked to give simplest portions of matter, and is quite inadequate to
hensions, and be able to explain
;

them

give an account of the nature of a human being. Asking, then, what there was which I could know, found no point of beginning. There were plenty of I

ways of accumulating observations, but none one could go hand in hand with nature.

in

which

child is provided in the early part of its life with a provision of food adapted for it. But it seemed that our minds are left without a natural subsistence, for on the one hand there are arid mathematics, and on the other

A

there is observation, and in observation there is, out of the great mass of constructed, mental images, but little

12

A New

Era of

Thought.

which the mind can assimilate. To the worker at science this crude and omnivorous observation is everything'; but if we ask for something which we can
of course

know, it is like a vast mass of indigestible material with every here and there a fibre or thread which we
can assimilate. In this perplexity I was reduced to the last condition of mental despair and in default of finding anything which I could understand in nature, I was sufificiently humbled to learn anything which seemed to afford a
;

capacity of being known.

And the objects which came before me for this endeavour were the simple ones which will be plentifully used in the practical part of this book. For I found that the only assertion I could make about external
objects,

without

bringing

in
I

ligible relations,

was

this

:

could say

unknown and unintelhow things were

between two others, that was and seemed primary. As a stone itself, it was an unknown somewhat which one could get more and more information about the more one studied the various sciences. But granting that there were some things there which we call stones, the way they were arranged was a simple and obvious fact which could be easily expressed and easily remembered. And so in despair of being able to obtain any other kind of mental possession in the way of knowledge, I commenced to learn arrangements, and I took as the objects to be arranged certain artificial objects of a simple shape. I built up a block of cubes, and giving each a name I learnt a mass of them. Now I do not recommend this as a thing to be done. All I can say is that genuinely then and now it seemed and seems to be the only kind of mental possession which one can call knowledge. It is perfectly definite and
arranged.
If a stone lay

a definite and intelligible

fact,

Beginning of Knowledge.
certain.
it

13

was

related to each of the others.

self, I

where each cube came and how As to the cube itwas profoundly ignorant of that but assuming
I could tell
;

that as a necessary starting-point, taking that as granted,

had a definite mass of knowledge. But I do not wish to say that this is better than any kind of knowledge which other people may find come home to them. All I want to do is to take this humble beginning of knowledge and show how inevitably, by devotion to it, it leads to marvellous and far-distant truths, and how, by a strange path, it leads directly into the presence of some of the highest conceptions which great minds have given us. I do not think it ought to be any objection to an inquiry, that it begins with obvious and common details. In fact I do not think that it is possible to get anything simpler, with less of hypothesis about it, and more obI

viously a simple taking in of facts than the study of the arrangement of a block of cubes.

assumed a starting point want the reader to accept a very humble one and see what comes of it. If this leads us to anything, no doubt greater results will come from more
philosophers have
I

Many

for their thought.

ambitious beginnings.

And now

I feel

that I have candidly exposed myself

to the criticism of

the reader.

patience to go on,
foundations.

we

will

If he will have the begin and build up on our

CHAPTER

II.

APPREHENSION OF NATURE. INTELLIGENCE. OF ARRANGEMENT OR SHAPE.

STUDY
by no

Nature

is

that which

is

around

us.

But

it

is

is certainly unapprehensive has needed the greatness of a Wordsworth and of generations of poets and painters to open our eyes even in a slight measure to the wonder of nature. Thus it is clear that it is not by mere passivity that we can comprehend nature it is the goal of an activity, not a free gift.

means easy to get to nature. say in the bosom of nature,
it,

The savage

living

we may

of

in fact

it

;

And there are many ways of apprehending nature. There are the sounds and sights of nature which delight the senses, and the involved harmonies and the secret affinities which poetry makes us feel then, moreover, there is the definite knowledge of natural facts in which the memory and reason are employed, Thus we may divide our means of coming into contact with nature into three main channels the senses, the imagination, and the mind. The imagination is
;
:

perhaps the highest faculty, but we leave it out of consideration here, and ask How can we bring our minds into contact with nature ? Now when we see two people of diverse characters we sometimes say that they cannot understand one another there is nothing in the one by which he can understand the other he is shut out by a limitation of
:

his

own

faculties.

Apprehension of Nature.

Intelligence.

15

And thus our power of understanding nature depends on our own possession it is in virtue of some mental activity of our own that we can apprehend that outside activity which we call nature. And thus the training to enable us to approach nature with our minds will be some active process on our own part. In the course of my experience as a teacher I have often been struck by the want of the power of reason displayed by pupils they are not able to put two and two together, as the saying goes, and I have been at
;
;

some pains
lies,

to investigate wherein this curious deficiency
it

that there

can be supplied. And I have found no direct cure for it the discipline which supplies it is not one which comes into school methods, it is a something which most children obtain in the natural and unsupervised education of their first contact with the world, and lies before any recogThey can only understand nised mode of distinction. in virtue of an activity of their own, and they have not

and how
is

in the curriculum

had

sufficient exercise in this activity.
it

In the present state of education diverge from the ordinary routine.
possible to experiment on children

is

impossible to
it

But

is

always

who

are out of the

And I believe I am amply line of education. by the result of my experiments. I have seen that the same activity which I have found makes that habit of mind which we call inteUigence in a child, is the source of our common and everyday rational intellectual work, and that just as the faculties of a child can be called forth by it, so also the powers of a man are best prepared by the same means, but on an ampler scale. A more detailed development of the practical work of Part II., would be the best training for the mind oi a child. An extension of the work of that Part would
common
justified

6

1

A New

Era of

Thought.

be the training which, hand in hand with observation and recapitulation, would best develop a man's thought power.
tell what the activity is by the prosecution which we can obtain mental contact with nature of we should observe what it is which we say we " understand " in any phenomenon of nature which has become

In order to

clear to us.

When we

look at a bright object

it

seems very

dif-

ferent from a dull one.

A

piece of bright steel hardly
as a piece of dull steel.

looks like the

same substance

But the

difference of appearance in the

two

is

easily

accounted for by the different nature of the surface in
in the one all the irregularities are done and the rays of light which fall on it are sent off again without being dispersed and broken up. In the case of the dull iron the rays of light are broken up and divided, so that they are not transmitted with intensity in any one direction, but flung off in all sorts

the two cases

;

away

with,

of directions.
dull object lies in the

between the bright object and the arrangement of the particles on its surface and their influence on the rays of light. Again, with light itself the differences of colour are explained as being the effect on us of rays of different rates of vibration. Now a vibration is essentially this, a series of arrangements of matter which follow each other in a closed order, so that when the set has been run through, the first arrangement follows again. The whole theory of light is an account of arrangements of the particles In the transmitting medium, only the arrangements alter are not permanent in any one characteristic, but go through a complete cycle of
difference

Here the

varieties.

are deduced from

Again, when the movements of the heavenly bodies the theory of universal gravitation,

Again. upon these different organs of a as modifications of one and the plant same organ — it enables us to think about the different varieties of the flower head as modifications of one single plant form. and their parts due to different arrangement of the leaf structure. and are led to possible explanations of their growth. what we primarily do for the 1 is to take account of arrangement law of gravity connects the movements which the attracted bodies tend to make with their distances. We have reduced these diverse objects to a common element. C . the suppositions which have been put forward resolve it into the effect of the movements of small bodies that is to say. in chemistry. if explained at all. as also to take another instance. and looking on them as leaves. We can trace correspondences between them. And if gravity as — like a leaf in form and function. gravity. a force is to be explained itself. Now it the essential value in this conception that enables us to look. so un. it shows how their movements depend on their arrangement. Study of Arrangement or Shape. is.7 . we have found the unit by whose arrangements the whole is produced. to understand is practically this : we find units (leaves or atoms) combinations of which account for the results which we see. Thus we is see that that which the mind essentially apprehends arrangement. that is. And in this department of thought. to take the idea which proceeding from Goethe casts such an influence on botanical observation. is explained as the result of the arrangement and altering arrangements of small particles. this is And all done by getting rid of pistil and stamen as separate entities. Goethe (and also Wolf) laid down that the parts of a flower were modified leaves and traced the stages and intermediate states between the ordinary green leaf and the most gorgeous petal or stamen or carpel.

. we must compose each of them by many strokes and dots of the bjr ush. we must have something to arrange and the things we work with may be either all alike. are in themselves meaningless it is in their arrangement that the likeness of the representation consists. all our contact with nature lies in this. we must treat each of the dots as in themselves arrangements. Or we may say. we must " arrange. The essential act of perceiving lies in the apprehension of a shape. Hence to prepare ourselves for the understanding of nature. and these sense impressions are definitely grouped in what we call the shape of the object. The ultimate element." In virtue of our activity in making arrangements we prepare ourselves to do what is called understand nature.8 1 New Era of Thought. And this holds over the whole range of mental work. But even in this case we have not got anything else besides arrangement. Now if we study arrangement in the active way. the small items of light and shade or of colour. When the eye takes in the form of an external object there is something more than a sense impression. Thus. . or each of them varying from every other. something more than a sensation of greenness and light and dark. and a shape is an arrangement of parts. that which we call understanding nature is to discern something similar in nature to that which we do when we arrange elements into compounded groups. The mind works as well as the sense. It does not matter what these parts are if we take meaningless dots of colour and arrange them we obtain a shape which represents the appearance of a stone or a leaf to a certain degree. . from a drawing to our notion of the planetary system. If we want to make our representation still more like. . from the simplest observation to the most complex theory. in an appreciation of arrangement.

not something which no one has ever touched or seen. I take the cube and I have found that whenever I took any other With the unit I got wrong. . processes ought to be something which can be touched and seen. unless the mind has already acquired a knowledge of arrangement. and which is even incapable of definition. and builds up into a whole of which every part is evident. puzzled and lost my way. but everything is perfectly obvious and simple. we have what we call units. 19 If the elements aire not alike then we are not studying pure arrangement. Hence the of nature is discipline preparatory for the understanding the active arrangement of like units. it is puzzled and hampered. and never gets a clear apprehension of what And this . the pupil is launched matics as it is the whole use and into a vast system of symbols meaning of symbols (namely. And I must ask the reader to absolutely erase from his mind all desire or wish to be able to predict or assert anything about nature. If the elements are all alike. and he must please look . like a " number. — . and unfortunately. what shall we choose for our units would do but it ought to be a real thing its Now ? Any it unit — : . and those which use Mathematics exercises it. is very much the case with all educational only the things chosen to arrange are in general words. cube one does not get along very fast.Study of Arrangement or Shape. but our knowledge is affected by the compound nature of that with which we deal. in mathenot think it creates it now often taught." those which I would divide studies into two classes create the faculty of arrangement. but I do it and exercise it. Of the possible units which will serve. which are so complicated and carry such a train of association that. work is. as means to acquire a clear grasp of facts) is lost to him.

cubes. Our work learning will cubes. a study. patent and evident. a simple repetition of obvious fact.20 New Era of Thought. . of the facts of arrangement. Let him take nothing which is not perfectly clear. by means of And the process of be an active one of actually putting up the will then be this : In this way we do for the worth does for the imagination —we mind what Wordsbring it into con- tact with nature. with horror on any mental process by which he gets at a truth in an ingenious but obscure and inexplicable way. demonstrable to his senses.

we take the sun. the brightness and the movement. THE ELEMENTS OF KNOWLEDGE. and it is bright. conditions under which oneself placed in observing those facts about it which are the self elements independent of the observer's particular relationship we Thus the sun's motion will call the residual element. we notice that it is a bright. moving body and of these two qualities. The motion of the sun in its diurnal course round the earth is only apparent but it is really a bright. will call those qualities or appearances which to the particular notice in a body which are due is . and ask ourselves what we observe. Now of these two assertions which the mind naturally makes about the sun. each seems equally predicable of the sun.CHAPTER There III. one that it is moving depends on the relation of the beholder to the sun. is a self element in our thought of the sun. for instance. . hot body. its brightness is a residual element. If. are two elements which enter into our knowledge with respect to any phenomenon. while the brightness is really a quality of further difference between these . . study discloses to us that there is a two affirmations. It does move. the other is true about the sun itself The observed motion depends on a fact affecting oneself and having nothing to do with the sun. Now — — the sun itself Now we we it.

so that the residual elements may be kept for our closer attention.22 New Era of Thought. but that it depends on the capacity of the being for receiving sensations and for brightness they would substitute the assertion that the sun is giving forth a great deal of energy in the form of heat . possible to between the self elements and the residual elements. and light. But the fact is that directly a subject has been cleared of the self elements. there do not seem to be any self elements present. will Now one of our serious pieces of work be to get . and extraneous considerations. But there further. but because directly they become . It would hardly be worth while to dwell on this consideration were it not of importance in our study of arrangement. that its presence is never dreamed of till it is got rid of to know that it is there is to have done away with it. not because there are no substances in solution. For instance. By getting rid of the notion of circular motion round as it the earth really is. draw a line distinctly It is not. is no object in pursuing the discussion is The main is distinction sufficiently obvious. some people have denied that brightness is a quality of things. of course. we prepare our way to study the sun We get the subject clear of complications . With regard to the knowledge we have at the present day about scientific matters. By getting rid of the self elements we put ourselves in it a position in which we can propound its sensible questions. And important to separate the self elements involved in our knowledge as far as possible. evident they fall down as precipitates. But the worst about a self element is. And thus our body of knowledge is like a fluid which keeps clear. it seems so absurd to have had them introduced at all that the great difficulty there was in getting rid of them is forgotten.

The Elements of Knowledge. habit to remember their relative positions with regard to one another at many intervals. and their positions It is not our at any one time committed to memory. Thus. And the kind of knowledge which we shall try to obtain will be somewhat different from the kind of knowledge which we have about events or natural phenomena. the subject is so simple that we may justly demand of ourselves that we will know every detail. it is said to be known if the law of movement of each of the planets is recognized. The principles of the whole are realized. rid of the self 23 elements in the knowledge of arrange- ment. In the large subjects which generally occupy the mind the things thought of are so complicated that every detail cannot possibly be considered. It was Kant who first pointed out how much of. and it is . thought any required time the there was embodied in the sense impressions this embodied thought which we wish to form. And the knowledge we shall acquire will be much more one of the sense and feeling than of the reason. so as to have an exhaustive catalogue of them in our minds. But with regard to the elements of knowledge with which we shall work. with regard to a knowledge of the planetary system. We do not want to have a rule in our minds by which we can recall the positions of the different cubes. and then at principles can be worked out. but we want to have an immediate apprehension of them. .

knowledge of chemistry does not consist in the intellectual appreciation of different theories and principles. It requires to be enlarged to the scientific meaning. should Now the use of the word restricted to include practice in actual manipulation. Somethem unpleasantly. and in morals there is an important be drawn between theory and practice. And so in morals the theoretic acquaintance with the principles of human action may consist with a marked degree of ignorance of how to act amongst other human of chemical combination. In order to see what justice affects demands they have side. so that pliances of — beings. to put their personal feeling on one They have to get rid of those conditions under which they apprehended the effects of the action at first. They retahate. Let us take an instance.CHAPTER Both in science IV. But it is a is. " learn " has been much merely theoretic studies. And to know. THEORY AND PRACTICE. but in being able' to act in accordance with the facts distinction to A by means of the apchemistry practical results are produced. Then they have to act in accordance with this view. different thing to teach thing feel is done which an impulse to them to act with justice. . We all know what justice and any child can be taught to tell the difference between acting justly and acting unjustly. and they have to look on it from another point of view.

by reward and punishment. by various means. We know but little of a human being. We could not We should have to say that this agency was bad. and this habit can be" inculcated by precept. And in all there is this sense of justice a kind of indwelling verdict of the universal mind. — Neither is a moral step. but that of many. There are some words which are often used in contrast . But as human nature is constituted. if we may use such an expression. There is an emotional response. How little adequate is our physical knowledge of a human being as a bodily frame to explain the fact of human life. the human race. one a practical one of carrying out the view. 25 Now there are two steps one an intellectual one of understanding. Now and again we see one of these isolated beings bound up in another. There may be justice which is very good justice from the point of view of a party. if the habit of justice is inculcated it touches a part of the being. in virtue of which a man feels not as a single individual but as all men.Theory and Practice. as if there was an undiscovered physical bond between them. to which justice is natural. the other the formation of a habit. With respect to justice. gifted with suppose an agency outside — intelligence. and affecting the race. it is not only necessary to take the view of one other person than oneself. in order to judge it with justice we should have to take a standpoint outside the race of'men altogether. but very bad And if we justice from the point of view of a nation. but we can safely say that there are depths in it. judge it with reference to its effect on other sentient beings. One demands intelli- gence. in the way for instance of causing storms or disturbances of the ground. beyond the feelings of momentary resentment and the stimulus of pleasurable or painful sensation.

and he has found a greater one. Which of these is the true thought about himself. the unpleasantness is of a double kind. and makes him set up some stumps and begin to learn to play cricket with another boy. his self as he knew it at first was thwarted. He has given up.? Neither. the pleasure he knew. boy making a he likes cricket and it is quite possible for him to eat his cakes first and learn to play cricket afterwards the cricket will not come to him as a thwarting in any sense of what he likes better. come in — . probably. but at any rate it is more near the truth to say that he likes the cricket. — is this ease in entering in to the pursuit the boy's nature only shows that already developed to the level of The distinct moral advance would such a case when something which at first was hard to him to do was presented to him and the hardness. . Let us take an instance. or been forced to give up. voluntarily or involuntarily. enjoying the game.. But In general there find out that not much difficulty in . was given up. and is going to enjoy them by himself. A boy has a bag of cakes. And again with the cricket he . 26 New Era of Thought. He enters into the life of the game. and through that he discovered his true self. and it is difficult to see what other meaning it can have. What he thought about himself before was that — he liked cakes. The enjoyment of the cakes is lost he has given that up but after a little while he has a pleasure which is greater than that of cakes in solitude. will make the sacrifice of giving that up. and will find is a truer self still. with each other to — egoism and altruism and each seems me unmeaning except as terms in a contrast. now what he thinks about himself is that he likes cricket. the giving up of a pursuit or indulgence to which he is accustomed. His -parent stops him. If now we use the word self to mean that which a person knows of himself.

and then he must act in accordance with that view of things. Now both in science and in conduct there are self elements. 27 and the exertion of forming the habits demanded by the new pursuit. apprehension of what he is. . The process is limited by the responsibilities which a man finds come upon him. wherein. so far as he can observe them. as in the sense of justice and duty. getting rid of the self elements means a truer apprehension of the facts about one in . In science. externally are the same as before but he has obtained an inner and unintellectual. it Now is unimportant whether the renunciation is But as a general rule it may be laid down. Thus altruism. to the needs and advantage of those around him. His body and the needs of his body. untold depths in the nature of man are revealed entirely unexpressed by the intellectual apprehension which we have of him as an animal frame of a very high degree of development. or the sacrifice of egoism to others. . and forced or willingly taken. this process flashed across by the transcendent lights of religion. is the normal one by which from childhood a human being develops into the full responsibilities of a man. or to the objects which he finds before him demanding accomplishment. but none the less real.Theory and Practice. is followed by a truer egoism. he discovers a response in himself. and that his former limited life was not really himself. The method of moral advance is to acquire a practical knowledge he must first see what the advantage of some one other than himself would be. or assertion of self. a human being passes to the discovery of his true self on and on. He finds that he really cares. . that by giving up his own desires as he feels them at the moment. Then having acted and formed a habit.

we can assign a certain amount of meaning to the expression getting rid of self elements. manipulation is everything we must be certain of all our conditions. But happily science is provided wherein the desire to put theories into practice can be safely satisfied and good results sometimes follow. And all that we can do is to take the rough idea of in — this process. suredly and have not even the satisfaction of knowing that our failure is due to the wrongness of our conjectures. otherwise we fail as. and then taking our special subject matter. In experiment. Thus without pretending to any scientific accuracy the use of terms.28 New Era of Thought. In affairs of life experiments lead to disaster. Were it not for this the human race might before now have been utopiad from — off the face of the earth. apply it. And for our purposes we use a subject matter so simple that the manipulation is easy. means obtainin the conduct. getting rid of the self elements ing a truer knowledge of what feeling we are — way of more strongly and deeply and being bound and linked in a larger scale. .

By knowing in the mean is that the mind ready to come out attention vividly into consciousness when the . he would see mentally how each muscle and fold of the skin lay with regard to the surrounding We want to obtain a knowledge as good as parts. us take a block of cubes any number will do." rule.CHAPTER KNOWLEDGE : V. but for convenience sake let us take a set of twenty-seven 29 And . not in our way of knowing. facts of a subject all He on them. But here I want to put the subject in as general a light as possible. so that there the judgment of the reader. I MUST now go with somewhat of detail into the special subject in which these general truths will be exhibited. may be no hindrance to I assume someby which it can And when I use the word " know. directed Michael Angelo knew the human frame. Everything I have to say would be conceived much more clearly by a very little practical manipulation. human body. There is a great difference between Michael Angelo and us but let that difference be expressed. but in the difference between the things he knew and the things we know. I thing else than the possession of a be said how facts are. he could tell every little fact about it if he chose to call up the image. let .. Michael Angelo's. SELF-ELEMENTS. We take a very simple structure and know it as absolutely as he knew the complicated structure of the .

and obtain a view differing very little from what we see when in an upright posi- stands in front of self any tion. its position in the block is known and its relation to the other blocks. And let us suppose that -we have learnt this block of cubes so that each one is known that is to say.— 30 New Era of Thought. It is by being above or below that we chiefly remember where It will it be found that every But above and below is a relation which depends simply on gravity. And there is obviously this self element present. We put the lowest ones first. If it were not for gravity above and below would be interchangeable terms. stead of expressing a difference of marked importance . whereby gravity is an all important factor in our experience. let us ask ourselves if there is element present in our knowledge of it. and the others on the top of them. involved in fact about the cubes has a reference to up and down. In fact our sight has got so accustomed to take gravity into consideration in its view of things. And let each of these cubes be marked so as to be recognized. We have learnt the cubes as they stand in accordance with our own convenience in putting them up. it depends on the conditions under which we come to apprehend the block of cubes. but we superinduce on the direct sense impressions our knowledge of the action of gravity. it depends on our position on the surface of the earth. and let each have a name so that it can be referred to. Now this fact of support has nothing to do with the block of cubes itself. that when we look at a landscape or object with our head upside down we do not see it inverted. cubes put together so as to form a large cube of twentyseven parts. Now having it obtained this knowledge of the block as us. and we distinctly conceive the lower ones as supporting the upper ones. inthe cubes are.

which comes from the action of And the true nature of the arrange- ment to which we added something in virtue of our . now. We have learnt the cubes. see what we have done already. Now this can only be made to sink out of the primary place in our thoughts by reversing the relation. we have to take as central cubes in our mind different sets again and again. as being on the right or left. 3 to us under our conditions of existence. and however they are learnt. If we turned the block upside down. let us suppose that we cannot move the block of cubes which we have put up. or in a freely falling shell. until there are none which are primary to us. reversed. so we must choose another way. it will be found that there is a certain set of them round which the others are mentally grouped. " being Now we put above " or " being below " into the cubes themselves and feel it a quality in them it defines their position. Then there remains only the distinction of some being above others. and learnt it in this new position. and as such. Now to get our knowledge as perfect as we can before getting rid of the self element up and down. for instance. It is a self element. that element in them. Let us keep it And fixed. then we should learn the position of the cubes with regard to each other with gravity. But this above or below really comes from the conditions in which we are. to obtain a true knowledge of the cubes we — must get rid of it. it is way would be to go to a place independent of gravity the where gravity has virtually ceased to act at the centre of the earth. In order to learn best how . But this is impossible. then.1 Knowledge : Self-elements. since we cannot get rid of gravity. Let us. above or below. for the sake of a process which will be explained afterwards.

It is not enough to put up the model blocks in the It is found that this up and down reverse position. We can tell where each cube would come. To block. actual The the theory practically. is a very obstinate element indeed. and by consideration we can put them in such positions as to be an exact model of what the block of cubes would be if turned upside down. I have found a very great difference in different minds in this respect. models of the original cubes. some it is easy. And being to use our old instance. the faculty is formed of appreciating shape independently of the particular parts which are above or below on first examination. It is a . the discovery of this is capacity like the discovery of a love of justice in the who has forced himself to act justly. But when it is got rid of in one set of cubes. and a good deal of work is requisite to get rid of it completely. supposed that the cubes are fixed. We discover in our own minds the faculty of appreciating the facts of position independent of gravity and its influence on us. however. We then take a set of cubes. become purer and more sensation of up and down. " to tell where Telling where it would it would be." and to " know. I draw a distinction between the two acts.32 New Era of Thought. to some it is hard. but we do not know the block in this new position. The power of assigning the positions may be called the theory of the knowledge is got by carrying out by putting up the blocks and becoming able to realize without effort where each one is. in order to learn them." be is the preparation for knowing. And here is the whole point on which the process depends. Then. would isolated in our minds. We have. we must put up another block showing what they would be like in the supposed new position.

It springs up with a repetition of the mechanical acts. 5rd. they would reply You have told us something about the sun. Yet in the apprehension and knowledge of the block of cubes with the up and down relation in them. and to find there intelligent beings. the cubes is And in the practical putting up of this the way which ist. D . And after this. and in turn appreciating the relation of the other cubes to these. independent of any particular prerid Thus the self element of up and down can be got is of out of a block of cubes. no means of arriving immediately at this impartial appreciation of shape. And when even a little block known like this. what the block sentation. An apprehension of what the position of the cubes would be. saying that also told us something about yourselves. but you have describe the sun to them. The springing up in the mind of a direct feeling of is. 33 capacity for being able to take a view independent of the conditions under which he is placed. and appreciating then the relation of the other cubes to those. Thus there are three processes. the mind has gained a great deal. It can only be done by. There is. there For is more than in the absolute apprehension of them. and to hold conversation with them. as it were. so far as I know. 2nd. hot body which moved round us. If Imagine ourselves be we told them that we came from a world. there is the apprehension of their position and also of the effect of gravity on them to in their position. power is gained. An actual putting of them up in accordance with that apprehension. by identifying ourselves with other cubes. and to feel in accordance with that view. and were to it was a bright. translated -suddenly to another part of the universe. extending our own body so as to include certain cubes.: Knowledge: Self-elements.

that it comes to is looking at a real thing as it actually is turning it round and over and learning it from every point of — view. for we really in this case apprehend two things the sun . And there can be no possible mental harm in going through this bit of training. become simple and clear when this discipline has been gone through. And in our block of cubes.34 Thus A New in the Era of TJionght. it will be found that feelings about arrangement. for all.and our own conditions. and knowledge of space. But for — it is most importaiit more abstract knowledge should be acquired. . which are quite unattainable with our ordinary view of position. The self element introduced by the motion of the earth must be got rid of before the true relations of the solar the purpose of further knowledge that the system can be made out. round us there apprehension of thfe sun as a body moving is more than in the apprehension of it as not moving round.

in reality. on to the question : We now pass self Are there any other elements present in our knowledge of the block of ? cubes When we It have learnt to if. . in the relations of the cubes as we thus apprehend them there is present a self element to which the up and down is a mere trifle.— CHAPTER FUNCTION OF MIND. If we think we have got absolute knowledge we are indeed walking on a thin crust in unconsciousness of the depths below. because inwardly —that reve. SELF-LIMITATION AND ITS TEST. But. SPACE AGAINST METAPHYSICS. which we are habituated to. is made up of the mechanical forces and principles which we familiarly deal with. do we suppose that the facts of distance and size and shape are the ultimate facts of the world is it in truth made up like a machine out of mechanical If so.'' is there anything else to be got rid of seems as when the cubes were thus learnt. we had got as abstract and impersonal a bit of knowledge as possible. VI. A PLANE WORLD. where is there room for that other which parts ? certain of that We are so we are so sure that the world we know — more certainly. free it from up and down. And after all. worth having ? No these mechanical relations are our means of knowin rence and love which make life . that it is more of a shock than a welcome surprise to us to find how mistaken we were.

so. It is the faculty of thought that puts us in a position to recognize a soul. thought about about the universe it is only by correct it that we can perceive its true moral — ascribe to the external world be found that the deadness which we is not really there. To the mind it is only the body that appears. an animal and we perceive outside us. too. When our limitations fall. But I do not for a moment wish to go in thought beyond physical nature I do not suppose that in thought we can. leaving the real knowledge to be supplied by — A other faculties. all merely portions of matter a machine are to the mind arranged in certain ways. Our thought means are sufficient at present to show . dead matter. and all that I hope to do is to show material relations. And nature. while the human being it only defines externally. account fairly well for the animal. arrangements. for But we must not under-estimate the work of the mind. But much depends on what kind of material relations human being. but is put in by us because of our own limitations. about the world they are not reality itself. it is only by the observation of and thought about the bodies with which we come into contact that we know human beings. It is really the self elements in our knowledge which make us talk of mechanical necessity. Era of Thought. and their primary place in our imaginations is due to the familiarity which we have with them. and to the peculiar limitations under which we are. mechanism. But the mind can give an exhaustive account of the machine.36 A New . we behold the spirit of the world like we behold the spirit of a friend something which is discerned in and through the material presentation of a body to it And will — us.

The one thing necessary is. On the mind the only conceivable demand is to seek for facts. and this will be changed. Our only duty is to accept what we find.— space against Metaphysics. but all except as science concerned. and ourselves to the lofty specOn the other hand. that in matters of thinking we will not admit anything that is not perfectly clear. we use our means and find realities linked together. if we tators of an arid solitude. and in the physical interplay of forces and connexion of structure we behold the relations between him. selves which make us perceive things not as they then it is but falsely. on it. inanimate. Man is no more the centre of the moral world than he world. analogy. directly. If we suspect there be some condition affecting ourare. in fact our language hardly But it is possible to approach inaffords us the means. human beings is. spirits —those dwelling in man and those above explain this next self element that has be removed from the block of. cubes it requires a to little careful preparation. as far One self element must be got rid of from our perception. The rock on which so many systems of philosophy have come to grief is the attempt to put moral principles into nature. but which reduce the world to a phantom. possible to test the matter by mak- ing the supposition of other beings subject to certain . us 37 human souls is . We follow Kant's advice. palpable and evident. In metaphysics we find lofty ideals principles enthroned high in our souls. and to detect the self-element by means of an It is difficult to . is of the physical right position Then relegate the intellect to its of dealing with facts of arrangement it can appreciate structure and let it simply look on the world and report — — have to choose between metaphysics and space thought.

38 A New Era of Thought. Our next step to so familiarize ourselves with the real aspect of things. others impossible. We find out is that we are under limitations. and then examining what the effect on their experience would be of these conditions. then it will show to us that we in our turn are under analogous limitations. which springs into — activity when we take the trouble to present to it a view . — apprehension. And if we find that in our experience of the outward world there are analogous properties and qualities of matter. we find that inward subject to soul which itself not these limitations. find and the boundary line. moreover. is awakened to its own natural action. Now the problem we take up here is this to separate the self elements from the true fact. law of his outward world. analogous possibilities and impossibilities. when the verdicts conveyed to it through the senses are purged of the self elements introduced by the senses. And the task before us will be to separate the two. or as properties and qualities He will. Everything depends on this Is there a native and spontaneous power of apprehension. conditions. presents itself as a general condition. between the possible and impossible will depend quite as much on the conditions under which he is as on the nature of the operations. but to separate them in the consciousness itself. Thus if we make up the appearances which would present themselves to a being subject to a limitation or we shall find that this limitation or condition. that our limitations. when unrecognized by him. and that what we perceive as the external world is both -the external world and our own conditions. To separate them not merely as an outward theory and intelligent certain operations possible. of the objects external to him. so that our power of perception is raised to a higher level. we perceive like beings not under Or more truly.

. it will be of some use in answering the question Are we then What are we bodies only This question has been answered in the negative by our instincts. And let us suppose all sorts of attractions and repulsions : . Not the tree of knowledge. but of the inner and vital sap which builds up the tree of knowledge.Self-limitatioii and its Test. A And if this point is settled. But let us suppose them to move freely over the surface. And just as a human being in relationships finds placed in natural human himself a spontaneous motive towards the fulfilment of them. to lie on this surface. Let them never in their movements rise one over the other let them all singly and . a vision whereby the seeing mind as it were identifies itself with the thing seen. I mean an inner view. discovers in himself a being whose motives transcend the limits of bodily selfregard.-" . I do not mean a theoretical power. And let us imagine small particles. theory is always about it. But the process whereby this inner vision is called on is a de- finite one. so that our surface is more like the surface of a thin sheet of metal than the top of a table.'' — . so we should expect to find in our minds a power which is ready to apprehend a more absolute order of fact than that which comes through the senses. 39 from which the self elements are eliminated ? About this every one must judge for himself. and to be attracted downwards so that they keep on the surface. The supposition which we must make is the following. . like particles of dust. Let us imagine a smooth surface like the surface of a table but let the solid body at which we are looking be very thin. and about it only.collectively be close to the surface. Why should we despair of a rational answer ? Let us adopt our space thought and develop it.

compact and cohering closely together. between these atoms. The peculiarity about this world and these beings would be. it. that neither the inanimate nor the animate members of it would move away from the surface. as we are attracted to the centre of the earth. Thus. suppose to be animate beings. As to the mode in which he walks. Then there may be conceived a whole world. the beings on this disk would be attracted to its centre.40 . and to lie like a great round disk on the surface. And if we suppose a vast mass to be formed out of these atoms. proceeds along the rim of his world. but walk on its rim. A New Era of Thought. They would tend to the centre of the disk. then this great disk would afford a support for the smaller shapes. with no thickness except that of the atoms of his world. we must imagine that he proceeds by springs or hops. and the surface is quite smooth. The other force of attraction. in the . and various kinds of beings as formed out of this matter. acting all perpendicularly to the plane which keeps them and the matter of their world to the surface. and let them have all kinds of movements like the atoms of our matter have. because there would be no room for his limbs to pass each other. The force of attraction which they would feel would be the attrac- which we may tion of the disk. but would be arrested at its rim. Their movements would all lie in one plane. The smaller shapes would be attracted to the great disk. they would know nothing about. but walk on its surface. so that they feel no friction in their movement over Now him us realize clearly one of these beings as he Let us imagine form of an outline of a human being. but be unable to get nearer to the centre than its rim. For they cannot move either towards this force or away from let it . a plane parallel to and very near the surface on which they are.

would be exhausted when he had thought of the directions along the rim and at right angles to it. such as the one described. Let there be small movable particles surrounding him. we must suppose the surface on which he is to be very compact. What he would call solid bodies. Self-limitation and its Test." In order for his world to be permanent." Thus a solid would be a two-dimensional body. Then up and down would evidently be the direction away from the disk's centre and towards it. " There are only two dimensions in real things. Such a mass of atoms would. And he would have no other liberty of movement except these. All the directions in which he could move. Forwards and backwards would be to such a being the direction in which he was proceeding and its reverse.be very compared to the particles of his matter direction along the rim — — . 41 Imagine a large disk on the table before you. up and down.. . Thus one of the results of the limitations under which he exists would be. He would say. the thickness of a single atom. have a slight thickness namely. would be groups of the atoms of his world cohering together. and a being. Lines would be all that he could see of a solid body. and let him for respiration let them constitute an atmosphere. proceeding round it. Thus the words right and left would have no meaning to him. both 'in the plane. would both lie in the plane in which he was. Thus backwards and forwards. that he would say. " A solid body has two dimensions height (by how much it goes away from the rim) and thickness (by how much it lies along the rim). . or could conceive movement possible. to. which move out of these serve his way as he goes along. we know. and a solid would be bounded by lines. But of this he would know nothing.

ABC . A New and. . if Era of Thought. If. the vibrations of the surface must have the effect of disturbing the portions of his matter. he is not to observe it by the friction of matter moving on it. we first of all turn one of them over. instead of putting down these triangles into the surface on which the supposed being lives. as shown in Fig. . which are all that he can see or touch. come to the conclusion that they are equal and similar in every respect and he can conceive the one occupying the same space as the other occupies. i. however. compound bodies up this Another consequence of the limitation under which If we cut out being lies. would be the following : — from the corners of a piece of paper two triangles.42 rigid . to be very smooth. being like other bodies known to him he will. and suppose them to be reduced to such a thinness that they are capable of being put on to the imaginary surface. and A' B' C. and of being observed by the flat. And if it is very compact with regard to his matter. without its being altered in any way. after studying the bounding lines. and of separating into simpler ones.

moved about One will not lie on the same the other has marked out by the triangles be Hence the plane-being by no means could make the one triangle in this case coincide with the space occupied by the other. But he cannot make the one occupy the same space as the other one if . is an assertion. It corresponds to a certain condition affecting him.A And Plane World. in size he studies these. owing to his limitations. His saying that it is impossible to make the two triangles coincide. not that the one cannot be made to coincide. but that before having been put down on his plane it has been turned round. there are only two independent we say there are only three. this will become evident if on the surface of a table. directions Thus. It has been turned. not about the triangles. 2. But this line does not correspond to what is actually possible and impossible. to return to our own world. . 43 and then put them down. And we have a set of statements which are precisely similar to those which the plane-being would make about his surroundings. Thus. then the plane-being has presented to him two triangles. no doubt there are many assertions which we make about the external world which are really assertions about ourselves. nor would he be able to conceive the one as coincident with the other. as shown in Fig. portion of the table that lying on it. and which therefore he cannot use in his mental work any more than in his practical endeavours. using a direction of motion which the plane-being has never had any experience of. there is a certain line of possibility which he cannot overstep. but about himself Now. not affecting the triangle. he would say. . The reason of this impossibility is. he finds that they are equal and similar in every respect.

if it were possible. then. Now. pulled through itself. in a plane. If the hand were inside the glove all the time the glove was being turned inside out. would. 2. Such an operation is impossible. so to speak. to suppose the same thing done with the solid hand as is done with the glove when it is turned inside out. we should have finally a triangle ABC. Look at the triangle in Fig. if such an operation were possible. But curiously enough there is a precisely similar operation which. Thus we know the operation which produces the A A A C . turn the one triangle in Fig. at our two hands we see this clearly. either practically or If we look by imagination. Now. New Era of Thought. they will not fit any more than the right hand will coincide with the left hand. ABC. carrying after it the parts of the lines B and C to which it is attached. and imagine the point to move into the interior of the triangle and to pass through it. 2. there is one way in which the right hand and the left hand may practically be brought into likeness. He would say that solids are bounded by lines we say that solids are bounded by planes. But if we turn one glove inside out. though the two hands are a complicated case of a very common fact of shape. . 2. then it will fit. the right hand would be turned into an exact model of the left hand. which are exactly similar. which was quite like the other of the two triangles A' B' in Fig. If we take the right-hand glove and the left-hand glove. We know certain shapes which are equal the one to the other. 2 into the exact copy of the other. we must suppose it. and yet which we cannot make fit into the same portion of space. Moreover. there are figures about which we assert exactly the same kind of impossibility as his plane-being did about the triangles in Fig.44 A.

such as a dog . or we may limited . as far as our outward experience goes. be. it may be a useful bit in. if We know that we take an animal. so really be four-dimensional beings is but we may whose consciousness by certain undetermined con- ditions limited to a section of the real space. Then may it not be that there is a way in which the results of the impossible operation of pulling a hand through could be performed ? The question is an open one. may be because it really is impossible. above. are so limited. Our feeling of it being impossible to produce this result in any way. not ourselves. through " is 45 not an impossible one when the plane-being is concerned. and we are limited to a space or three-dimensional view. Thus we may really be like the plane-beings mentioned we may be in such a condition that our percepThe question is one tions. or which calls for experiment.^ then either we are all absolutely three-dimensional with no experience at or capacity of apprehending four-dimensional facts.A result of the " pulling Plane World. or of information about ourselves. Now at this point my special work comes If there be really a four-dimensional world.

in accordance with justice we can produce the mechanical action. in certain defined . I can now lay it down as a verifiable fact. careful training. four-dimensional. And after a number of years of experiment which were entirely nugatory. in an arbitrary and forced manner. if so trained. that the human being somehow. and seeing others so acting. and by using rewards . by. and punishment. if Now. but essentially with the mind. by going through those acts which correspond to a four-dimensional experience (so far as we can). and in some way. in a certain way. A New we can Era of TJiought. that by taking the proper steps we can feel fourdimensional existence. and show how in our minds we have faculties by which we recognise it.46 or cat. gets a feeling of justice. All that I shall do here is. we are really — — . But the feeling of justice will not be aroused it will be but a mere outward conformity. make them act cases. we shall obtain an apprehension of four-dimensional existence not with the outward eye. But a human being. give an outline of the relation of our body to four-dimensional existence. to put forward certain suppositions which. is not simply a three-dimensional being in what way it is the province of science to discover.

which have a certain degree of interest. It is found that the processes of thought and feeling If the brain is disturbed. and sounds come into the consciousness which have no objective cause in the external world. . It is supposed to afford a testimony which does not require to be sifted like our consciousness of external events. To a certain degree we can divide sift it our experience of into the external world. are connected with the brain. But with regard to our own nature and emotions. springing from our observation of our own bodies. the discovery which makes a science possible has yet to be made. sights. SELF ELEMENTS IN OUR CONSCIOUSNESS. however. is often taken for granted that our consciousness of ourselves and of our own feelings has a sort of direct and absolute value. Hence we may conclusively say that the human and through the brain with the body. But in reality it needs far more criticism to be applied to it than any other mode of apprehension. thoughts. There are certain indications. We can determine the self elements and the realities.CHAPTER It VII. whatever he is. and two portions. is in contact with the brain. and through the body with the external world. It is the structures and movements in the brain which being.

These models and representations are made on a very minute scale the particles of brain matter which form images and representations are beyond the power of the to be laid — Hence the consciousmovements of matter of a degree of smallness which is beyond the power of observation in any other way. Hence.48 the A New human being that Era of Thotight. not immediately. perceives. clearly. our world. Now. it is the movements and structure of the minute portions of matter forming the brain which the consciousness perceives. brains are well furnished with models and representations of the facts and events of the external But a most important fact still requires its due weight upon it. It is by a structure in the he apprehends nature. Let us call those portions of the brain matter which are directly instrumental in making representations of the external world — let us call them brain molecules. Hence we have a means of observing the movements microscope in their minuteness. And it is only by models and representations made in the stuff of the brain that the mind knows external changes. of these brain molecules are very minute portions generally they are made to go matter indeed through movements and form structures in such a way . The most beautiful sights and sounds have no effect on a human being unless there is the faculty in the brain of taking them in and handing them on to the brain consciousness. as to represent the movements and us. Now. structures of the external world of masses around But it does not follow that the structures and movements which they perform of their own nature are . ness primarily apprehends the of the minute portions of matter.

imaginations. and that they can go through four-dimensional movements and form fourdimensional structures. there is a practical way of learning the movements of the very small particles of matter by observing. that the brain molecules have to be limited E . If so. but in accordance with their own activity. it is probably part of the difficulty of forming three-dimensional brain models. In fact. And these movements and structures would be apprehended by the consciousness along with the other movements and structures. suppose these small molecules of the brain were to build up structures and go through movements not in accordance with the rule of representing what goes on in the external world. not what we can see. But in the practical part of this book it will be found that by proper stimulus the molecules will arrange themselves in structures It only four-dimensional existence. not ob- Now. It may be that these brain molecules have the power of four-dimensional movement.Self Elements in our Consciousness. and would seem as real as the others but would have no correspondence in the — — external world. identical with the 49 movements of the portions of matter which we see around us in the world of matter. For. then they might go through four-dimensional movements and form four-dimensional structures. is one which requires worked At present it is only those structures and movements of the brain molecules which correspond to the realities of our three-dimensional space which are in general worked at consistently. but what we can think. requires a certain amount of care to build up mental brain representing a models of higher space existences. They would be thoughts and servations of external facts. to be this field of investigation at.

if the brain molecules moved only three-dimensional- the in science " explaining " means movements and tendencies to movement of the masses about us to the movements and tendencies to movement of the minute portions of It is remarkable of how reference the matter. For my own part I should say that all those confusions in remembering which come from an image taking the place of the original mental model as. 5° in their A New Era of Thought own freedom of motion to the requirements of the limited space in which our practical daily life is carried on. Thus. — . for instance. the laws of their cooling and intermixture are explained by tracing the movements of the very minute particles of which they are composed. Noie. four-dimensionalwise. and the numerous cases of images in thought transference may be due to a toppling over in the brain. of the structures formed which structures would be absolutely safe from being turned into image — — — — structures wise. the difficulty in remembering which way to turn a screw. the behaviour of gaseous bodies the pressure which they exert..

hension. We supposed that the block was fixed and to get the sense of what it would be when gravity acted in a different way with regard to it. THEORY our inquiries the best plan is to turn and try if the faculty of thinking in higher space can be awakened in the mind. We cannot put them up actually. or we may call it our space. it is necessary make definite assumptions with regard to our world. thought out the this point of At to the practical work. but as models succeeding one another contemplation and active arrangement of these different views we call upon our inward power to manifest itself. not altoand by gether. And so with higher-space arrangements. And we can put up the actual appearances of them. The real relationship will require a great . . is altogether un- determined. but we can say how they would look and be to the touch from various sides. What our relation to it may be. The general outline of the nnethod is the same as that which has been described for getting rid of the liriiitation of up and down from a block of cubes. our universe. . OF THE ^THER.CHAPTER VIII. in relation to the wider universe of four-dimensional space. to In preparing our general plan of work. RELATION OF LOWER TO HIGHER SPACE. We relations which would exist and by practising this new arrangement we gradually formed the direct appre. we made a model of it as it would be under the new circumstances.

is one which nothing more nor And we this relationship of a surface to a solid or of a solid. and just as sensation of touch is limited to the surface of the body. which are of great importance in physics. to a higher solid. and by which the behaviour of the surfaces of liquids is governed. deal of study to apprehend. often find in nature. The surface is the relationship of one to the other. . Thus our solid existence may be the contact of two four-dimensional existences with each other. we are practically in exactly the same relationship to it as the creature we have supposed living on the surface of a smooth sheet is to the world of threefold space. as we conjecture. But we have not got order to to wait commence our work of higher-space thought. for we know definitely that whatever our real physical relationship to this wider universe may be. There are a whole series of facts which are grouped together under the name of surface tensions. of details and because more definite (in the absence drawn from experience).52 A New Era of Thovght. we see the surface of water. touch each other. afford us the surface tensions of a higher universe. We no practimust assume something more definite. A surface is Two bodies less than the relation between two things. it is cal basis for investigation. And it may well be that the laws of our universe are evident. But these expressions. so sensation on a larger scale may be limited to this solid surface. and seem as natural to us as the position of the earth when apprehended will among for this exploration in the other planets does to us now. And it is a fact worthy of notice. Again. that in the surface of a fluid different laws obtain from those which hold throughout the mass. more arbitrary.

The other mode of study is this. life is . . But if this higher-space thought becomes real to him. The conclusions would be abstract possibilities. we imagine one Now. All this would be formal work. then indeed he knows that somehow he is not limited to his apparent world. and can make up in his plane world those different appearances which one and the same solid body would present to him. then anything -more than such existence will always be a mere abstract and formal consideration to him. Assuming as we must that our outer experience is is somehow. that which a plane-being would do with regard to our space in order to enable himself to realize what . He can take some of these facts of his higher space and he can ponder over them in his mind. And a precisely similar piece of work is before us.Relation of Lower to Higher Space. with regard to higher space. exactly resemble those under which the plane-beings are placed. part it was. it is evident that if the creature is absolutely confined to a two-dimensional existence. say what would take place in an ampler kind of space than his own. if he finds in his mind a possibility of rising to it. 53 And we will assume that the conditions under which we human beings are. He can assume another direction in addition to those which he knows and he can. Everything he sees and comes into contact with may be two-dimensional but essentially. not two-dimensional merely. himself he . we find that he can do it in two ways. This forms the basis of our work and the practical of it consists in doing. If of these limited creatures whose cramped and confined studying the facts of space existence. and then he may try to realize inwardly what his higher existence is. by means of abstract reasoning. which have been described.

is he essentially somehow not limited. causes. that. In fact. And thus we shall discover. It means the power of dealing with a greater number of details. And when this faculty of higher-space thought has been formed. then the faculty of apprehending that higher existence in which men have part. each for himself. this faculty of apprehending intuitively four-dimensional relationships will be taken up because of its practical use. We shall discover in ourselves a faculty of apprehension of higher space similar to that which we have of space. Individuals will be practically employed to do it by society because of the larger faculty of thought which it gives. So with regard to higher space. The individuals enter into the service from various motives. but each and all have to go through those movements and actions which correspond to the unity of a whole formed out of different members. is the same in which the spirit of an army is formed. It is necessary to guard here against there being ascribed to this higher-space thought any other than . we shall make up the appearances which the very simplest higher bodies would present to us. will come into being. The inner each man of a participation jn a life wider than that of his individual body. limited as his senses arc. and we shall gradually arrive at a more than merely formal and abstract appreciation of them. this higher-space thought means as an affair of mental training simply the power of apprehending the results arising from four independent apprehension which lies in . is awakened and responds and the active spirit of the army is formed.54 A New Era of Thought. limited to three-dimensional space. will The mode and method in which this consciousness be made general.

feeling. except as a matter . the present day. And being. there must be some element in our experience corresponding to each element in the planebeing's experience. By its vibrating . it is allowed to remain a matter of theory. and either This process is one of may be independent At present. Thus up and down was discovered to be a self element more than a thousand years ago but. 55 an intellectual value. if we are situated analogously with regard to an ampler space. we are perfect barbarians in this respect up to in a plane world. But when a self element has been got rid of intellectually. in the case of the plane- what his opinion would be with respect to the surface on which he was. and we live it into our organization. Now. the new apprehension is put into practice. There is a gradual process going on which may be described as the getting rid of self elements. : and is very much this When a self element has been got rid of in respect of feeling. it is interesting to ask. movements were transmitted along it. It has no moral value whatever. Its only connexion with moral or ethical considerations is the possibility it will afford of recognizing more of the facts of the universe than we do now. We that is. of theory. have supposed a being living a being of a very small thickness in a direction perpendicular to the surface on which he is. He would not recognize it as a surface with which he was in contact he would have no idea of a motion away from it or towards it. knowledge and of the other. But he would discover its existence by the fact that . in respect of feeling. we are much further on than in respect to understanding. not vitally entering into the mental structure of the reason individuals.Relation of Lower to Higher Space.

shake them into their component parts. inasmuch as he could never get rid of However perfect a vacuum be rnade. and it is everywhere. Then he would also notice the fact that vibrations of this medium would tear asunder portions of matter. And this would seem to him as if matter went freely through the medium. The plane surface. still by its shaking it could tear matter in pieces. this surface would not hinder the movement of the particles of matter over it. and quivering. Then it is weightless. being very compact.56 A New it Era of Thoiight. compared to the masses of matter on it. Now. it would be unlike any other substance with which he was acquainted. Hence he would have a series of observations which tended to show that this medium was unlike any ordinary matter with which he was acquainted. is there anything in our experience which corresponds to this medium which the plane-being gets It sition of there . Although matter passed freely through it. but to be a powerful means of transmitting vibrations. he would consider this surface to be a medium It would lying between bodies. appear to him to have no weight. and penetrating them. there would it. matter would slide freely over it. by its vibrations. These would be very difficult properties to reconcile in one and the same substance. of matter lying on Hence. be in this vacuum just as much of this unknown me- dium as there was before. would. Being smooth. Moreover. on which he was. ticles would impart movement to the parit. might well be that he would regard the 'suppobeing a plane surface. to observe ? . as a preferable one to the hypothesis of this curious medium and thus he might obtain a proof of his limitations from his observations. Moreover.

a cube. The aether is a smooth body. So all that we could see or touch of a higher solid would be that part by which it stood on the aether and this part would be to us exactly like any ordinary The base of a cube would be to the solid body. Theory of the ^ther. and yet can never be laid hold of ? These are precisely observations which have been made. plane-being like a square which is to him an ordinary solid. we are not in. 57 Do we suppose the existence of any medium through which matter freely moves. is the square on which it rests. but on the any known direction. We only not on it in . however perfect. is a basis for work and however arbitrary. All that the plane-being 'sees or touches of a cube. which penetrates all bodies. which yet by its vibrations destroys the combinations of matter — some medium which is present in every vacuum. . then. along which we slide. as we want. being distant from it by half the thickness of an atom measured in this will suppose. if we take our mean distance.. but that the new direction is that which comes in. can stand on the surface of a table. so on the aether can stand a higher solid. The substance which possesses all these qualities is called the £Ether. And the properties of the aether are a perpetual object of investigation in science. for instance. being distant from it at every point about the thickness of an atom or. may be. it will serve if it enables us to investigate the properties of higher space. Then. that aether. new direction. it is not the place here to go into details. or on the surface over which the plane-being moves. all it Now. just as in space objects.

becoming. would be by the successive appearances to him of it as it passed through his plane and also by the different views of one and the same solid body which he got by turning the body over. and hot. plane. these disks being worlds of various orders of magniin fact. . velocity over the surface which bears them the movements of the atoms of these worlds be the course of events in such worlds. so that different parts of its surface come into contact with his Now. . If we imagine a plane world in which there are objects which correspond to our sun. As the atoms weave together. and yet which are in parts entirely different. is Often. the two ways. we come mind across objects which have a certain similarity. we must suppose a enormous extent on which great disks slide. in the course of investigation in nature. to the planets. and of which they are simple presentations. and ceasing. our visible universe. apprehend a . work of learning to think in fourto go through the appearances which one and the same higher solid has. our sun round them would circulate other disks. The work whole in of the consists in forming an idea of that which they cohere. in which a plane-being would body. and form bodies altering. so will bodies be formed and will And disappear. to all surface of tude. like These disks would some of them be central.58 A New solid Era of Thought. like our planets. the practical And dimensional space. The work of forming an idea of a higher solid is the most simple and most definite of all such mental operations. And the systems of sun and planets must be con- ceived as moving with great all. and.

If a being living on such a plane were to investigate the properties. 59 And the plane which bears them all on its smooth surface will simply be a support to all these movements. he must be able to go right up to the cube without hindrance. making a clean cut all round it. If the cube passes through the surface. and that we only see that thin three-dimensional section of it which is just about to pass from one side to the other of the aether. when we study a higher solid. Hence consciousness is a concomitant of change. that is. we must suppose that it passes through the aether. be conscious of being conscious of being hot. and objectivation of a state of mind which every one would say in the first state was very different from the simple con- and influence them Is to sciousness. we should not be conscious of a sound always present ceases to be heard. The cut which there is in his plane must be supposed not to be noticed. the same thing as to be conscious of being hot ? It is not the same. in no way. which he apprehends by the boundary lines. feeling which we always have. so that the plane-being can come up to it and investigate it.Theory of the ^ther. And so. But the consciousness must do as much in the is first case as in the second. Thus we may imagine a cube resting on A — a table to begin to penetrate through the table. he would have to suppose the solid to pass through his plane in order to see the whole of its surface. of the contact between one state and another. and to touch and see that thin slice of it which is just above the plane. Hence the feeling hot very different from the consciousness of feeling hot. then the different parts of the cube as it passes through the plane will be to him squares. There is a standing outside. When we look on a solid as a section of a higher .

course. .6o solid. only we must suppose that body which is penetrating no breach of continuity. not a two- dimensional surface. so that we are aware of The surface of the aether must then be supposed to have the properties of the surface of a fluid only. it runs up to the edge of the it. of . it is a solid three-dimensional surface. A New we have to Era of Thought. suppose the aether broken through.

We have supposed in the case of a plane world that the movements take place is inactive. thin sheet. Let us imagine that. For the sake of simplicity let us call this smooth surface on which the surface " the sether " in the case of a plane world. except by its vibrations. it is possible to take an entirely different view of the aether in the case of a plane world. That is to say. and move along those grooves. instead of the matter which slides in the aether having attractions and repulsions of its own. Then. Eether then we have imagined to be simply a smooth. the whole disk is sliding on the aether in virtue of a certain momentum which fit it has. but to be definite and permanent. that it is quite inert. but excited by real disturbances of the matter on it into vibrations. and has only the properties finitely of inertia.ETHER. instead of the aether being a smooth sheet serving simply as a support.CHAPTER IX. MATERIAL AND ^THERIAL BODIES. taking a disk or a plane world as a specimen. which carry the effect of these disturbances as light and heat to other portions of matter. it is de- The marked and grooved. Now. Let us imagine these grooves and channels to be very minute. It is simply a smooth support. not possessed of any definite structure. let us suppose that. and certain portions of its matter into the grooves in the aether. ANOTHER VIEW OF THE . The size of the portions is determined by the size of .

there will be a condensation of matter at that place when the disk passes over it and if the grooves separate. Thus. If we imagine five particles. us call those portions of matter which occupy the breadth of a groove. in cases of greater complication. Then it is evident that the disk sliding along over the aether. that the pentagon would disappear as an isolated body. lasting as long as the groves remained parallel.62 the grooves. and a body would exist like a pentagon. and not of the original the grooves separated. will maintain their positions with regard to one another. after some distance had been traversed by the disk. its atoms will move according to the arrangement of the grooves over which the disk slides. become some that if irregular figure. And it is easy to see came amongst them. along which other portions of matter were sliding. the shape of the pentagon would be destroyed. moving evenly on. not to any independent motion of the particles constituting it. atoms. it would . and other grooves in pentagon. that its constituent matter would be separated. . and decay being due. an elaborate may be supposed to be formed. to alter. structure . A New And let Era of Thought. and to pass away its origin. but to the movement of the disk whereby its portions of matter were brought to regions where there was a particular disposition of the grooves. and the grooves are parallel. If the grooves at any one particular place come close together. if the particles are arranged in the form of a regular pentagon. growth. then these five particles. But if. and these five particles were brought into a region where one of the grooves tended away from the others. each slipping along in its own groove. there will be a rarefaction of matter. and that its particles would enter into other shapes as constituents of them.

And by a grooves it may sufficiently . but they would subsist independently of the disk . and became involved with the grooves of other objects. the particles. but to be set in existence by the alterations in the along which our earth directions of the grooves of the sether along which they are proceeding. it would maintain its existence as the same body but when the grooves separated. . which any body goes through. But with an alteration in the direction of the grooves. exactly the same material structures would spring up as came into being before. would depend on the arrangement of the aethereal grooves along which it was passing. this body would cease to exist separately. we may conceive the movements of the particles of matter to be determined. instead of proceeding uniformly with the would begin to move amongst each complicated arrangement of be supposed that all the movements of the forms we see around us are due to interweaving and variously disposed grooves. not by attractions or repulsions exerted on one another. other. 63 Then the nature of the shape would really be determined by the grooves. Thus the separate existences of the earth might conceivably be due to the disposition of those parts of the mass of the earth. If the grooves were all parallel. and if another disk were to pass over the same grooves. not by the portions of matter which passed over them they would become manifest — when a disk passed over them. If as giving rise to a material form we make a similar supposition about our sether slides. As long as the grooves remain grouped together in approximately the same way.Another View of the ^ther. Thus the movements. the earth would proceed without any other motion than that of its path in the heavens.

any organism. is rather to be found in the emotional region than in the one of outBut different. momentum. and which is linked to other ethereal organisms by its very substance an organism between which and others there exists a unity incapable of being broken. which soon passes and becomes indistinguishable from any other material body. The aethereal body moreover remains permanently when the material body has passed away. Thus. and death. and the sethereal body which remains. all parts of it are equally one but part of this form corresponds to . isolated during his existence. part of it to his past. we see the phenomena of growth. find we find something an organism which is not so absolutely separated from the surrounding organisms an organism which is part of the aether. and a common life which is rather marked than revealed by the matter which passes over it. The correspondences between the aethereal body and the life of an organism such as we know. . decay. the material part and the sethereal part. care for the future and regard for the past would be the way in which the material being would exhibit the unity of the Ethereal body. the future of the material being. or modification which lasted. if we direct our attention to the material body. the particles other blind the material which.past. the coming and the passing away of a living being. Now.64 aether A New Era of Thought. were directed into such coming on with movements as in to produce the actual objects around us. one the aethereal form. we regard We — — ward observation. over which the earth passed. To the aethereal form. absolutely merged at his death into In this there would be way two parts the common if storehouse of matter. the aethereal body. which is both his. And thus any object would have to be separated into two parts. There would be the material body.

F . injury to the body at another injury coming to the man part. which is absolutely disunited' at every moment from its future and its past inasmuch as he apprehended his aethereal unity. The correspondence between emotion and physical fact would be. and any regard between the two would correspond to an apprehension of their — aethereal unity. and did not confine his attention to his material body. And inasmuch as the man felt the real unity of his aethereal body. and a life as full of vicissi- The tudes as that of the material body. motive of regarding his own future to the man. which in its total orbit expresses in the movements of matter one phase in the life of the aethereal body. would correspond to an — — injury to the aethereal man at the present moment .. that which the material body was traversing. so one and the same aethereal' body might appear as two distinct material b9dies. That is to body capable of receiving an . it is In the supposition of"an aethereal body. 65 asthereal in and his future. not necessary to keep to the idea of the rigidity and permanence of the grooves defining the motion of the matter which. And then also. aethereal body may have a life of its own. would correspond to future time. passing along. insomuch would he care for his future welfare. relations with other aethereal bodies. and consider it as equal in importance to his present comfort. suppose the an injury one part of it would correspond to an injury in a man's past an injury in another part. supposing it to have such a motive.Material and /^thereat Bodies. his present. injury. would seem to a plane-being to be two completely different bodies. not connected together. at some And the self-preservation of the sethereal body. would in the last case be the . exhibits the material body. just as the two tips of two fingers put down on a plane. say. that the emotion of regard corresponded to an undiscerned aethereal unity.

kicked into space without any means of communication with any other inhabitants of the will The conception which we universe. questions concern us here nothing at It is easy enough to make some supposition which gives us a standing ground to discipline our higher-space perception and when that is trained. But there are certain obvious considerations which prevenf any serious dwelling on these speculations they — are only introduced here in order to show how the con- ception of higher space lends itself to the representation such as that of the of certain indefinite apprehensions. emotional and the physical The whole to be settled. Indeed. question of our relation to the tether has That which we probably the surface of a liquid. . to — —and affords a possible clue call correspondences between the life. the aether is far more and the phenomena we Indeed. shall form of the universe undoubtedly be as different from our present one. as the Copernican view differs from the more pleasant view of a wide immovable earth beneath a vast vault. any conception of our place in the universe will be more agreeable than the thought of being on a spinning ball. look at the facts. we shall turn round and . the physical all.66 A New Era of Thotight. essential unity of the race. observe due to surface tensions.

We are conscious of somewhat higher than each look at men. I have shown that by using the conception of higher space it is easy enough to make a supposition which whole. which reflection afterwards brings into consciousness. shall other is show all mankind as physical parts of one Our apparent isolation as bodies from each by no means so necessary to assume as it would appear. If we came to examine into the matter closely. nite to The apprehension sufficiently defi- be certain. except as showing a possibility. The first thing to be done. HIGHER SPACE AND HIGHER BEING. But. individual man when we In some.CHAPTER X. But in none is otherwise than instinctive. INSPIRATION. external objects will blend together into the unity of a We higher being. this is it consciousness reaches an extreme pitch. But it is not expressible to us in terms of the reason. and becomes a religious apprehension. PERCEPTION AND In the instinctive and sense perception of man and nature there is all hidden. so will there grow before our 67 greater unities and greater surprises. of course. is to organize our highercannot tell what space perception. But just as the riddle of the two hands becomes clear to us from our first inspection of higher e\'es space. we should find a natural relationship which accounted for our consciousness being limited as at present it is. . Now. a supposition of that kind is of no value. and then look.

but dark. the knowledge of higher space there come into our ken it Now. — boundless possibilities. worked at the subject without the But by sHghtest success. itself. But all these thoughts are to those which spring up before us as the shadow on a bank of clouds of a great mountain is to the mountain itself On the piled-up — clouds less. and the task is hopeless. requires I For many years . to which even our real things . and all comes together in the grand but vague conception of Duty. but only treat them by symbols on the plane we are trying to get a peras in analytical geometry ception of higher space through symbols of symbols.— 68 A New Era of Thought. are to be sought that they are principles which it is well to And men have invented an abstract devotion serve. But a direct study of space And with leads us to the knowledge of higher space. colour- he beholds the mountain towering grandly with verdant pines. We have been subject to a limitation of the most absurd character. the whole flashed clear. the snowline. Space shapes can only be symbolical of four-dimensional shapes and if we do not deal with space shapes directly. what we of the universe. adopting the simplest means. that justice. we apprehend the great existences Instead of an abstraction. and by a more thorough knowledge of space. purity. and the awful peaks. All was mere formalism. falls the shadow — vast. truth. imposing. with vision confined. it has become clear to the human mind. So all these conceptions are the way in which now. Let us open our eyes and see the facts. some training to open the eyes. If the beholder but turns. whereof saints and philosophers have dreamed. Looking on the fact of life. All those things may be real. have to serve is a reality. to these.

dealing with the things of Now. should for ever be good-humoured babies a sensuous. there are mistakes in what sider to be our duty. And but just so now with reference to the high intelli- gences by whom we it are surrounded. The power of seeing with our bodily eye the three-dimensional section. as in everything else . utmost demands How can it righteousness the individual not be a struggle. when the claims of mean diminished life. We the world. we do not realize them. we might. But. know that there were other human beings around us in some subtle way in some mesmeric feeling but we should not have that organized human life which. that real being which is to him shadowed forth in the present existence of wife and child. that which he loves. — affectionate kind of jelly-fish. it is true. the whose service. are but shadows.' more rational view it will be seen that in his extinction and loss. we did not go through the sense process of observation. to who strives And yet to a clear and — — . For by the rational observance of other material bodies than our own. We feel them. be necessary to develop our is power of perception. we con- and this is an additional reason for pursuing the quest of this reality. we come to the conclusion that there are other beings around us like ourselves. even death. will To realize them. and with whose of duty are satisfied. in love. if — .Higher Space and Higher Being. 69 We are parts of a great being. and in its — — life those he loves are his for ever. whom we apprehend in virtue of two processes the one simply a sense one of observation and reflection ^the other a — — process of direct apprehension. limited to . of course. grows into such complicated forms. that being lives more truly.

We demand our own perpetuation. We with reference to the and puzzled children. so a certain amount of mechanical education is necessary for the perception of higher beings in higher space. let us train our sense of higher space and build up conceptions of greater realities. Just as some mechanical means are necessary for the apprehension of our fellows in space. But fuller knowledge of other human beings does not take away our love for them what reason is there then to suppose that a knowledge of the higher existences would deaden our feelings And then. more absolute existences. . limbs of one vine but we cannot discern. . higher being — Here let is the grammar it. lating as to whither will lead us. It is really a waste of time to write or read more generalities. again. what the vine is. higher things of life. If to know it would take away our feeling. then it were well never to know it. of the knowledge of us learn it not spend time in specuare. instead of seeking after abstractions. is capable of sacrificing his life to any abstract idea in all cases it is the like blind . consciousness of contact with some being that enables . and that we can form conceptions of realities in this higher space. have shown that the inner eye is not thus we can organize our power of seeing in higher space. We know that we are members of one body. just as we can in our ordinary space. Let us turn the current of our thought right round observations . except by instinct and feeling. Yet one thing more. we each of us have a feeling that we ourselves have a right to exist. No man. A New that Era of Thought. and connecting our by ideas.' . what that body is.JO But I . I believe. limited And this affords the groundwork for the perception and study of these other beings than man.

none to beings whom we love. Then. . after having abandoned it for the purely materialistic views which seem forced upon us by the facts of science. than simply to ask what is true to take that mand that our which great minds have given. unrelated to what we know. we must know them. And what we can do by this study of higher space. which. to believe that which appeals to us as noble. then I was forced And — into that simple quest for fact. so the life of the human race is empty and meaningless without a knowledge of those that surround it. And to love them. All that he said seemed to me unsupported by fact. it seems to me. It is indeed a far safer course.. this search. and to which I return again. perpetual struggle between individual interests The and the common good can only be solved by merging both impulses in a love towards one being whose life lies in the fulfilment of each.the property of all. than to depuny ones should be satisfied. But I . But when I found that my knowledge was merely an empty pretence. opens out to the thoughts like a flower to the life-giving sun. is to make this consciousness. it remains to be demonstrated to the many. Do we not all feel that there is a limit to our devotion to abstractions. just as our own individual life is empty and meaningless without those we love. him to 71 make the last human sacrifice. that it was the vanity of being able to predict and foretell that stood to me in the place of an when all my intellectual absolute apprehension of fact possessions turned to nothingness. And although to some an inner knowledge of the oneness of all men is vouchsafed. Higher Space and Higher Being. when persisted in and lived in. affords the needful supplement to the inquiries of one with whose thought I have been very familiar. which has been reserved for a few.

is some good to some one in the scepand struggle of those who cannot follow in the The thoughts of the inquirer to whom I allude may roughly be stated thus He saw in human life the working out of a great process. And this. seems to me. or to be bound up in the cease- . just as a note of music flings itself into the march of the melody. and that defect : is made good It is in the course of history. he said. mind in any way. Let it be granted that we should have no self-rights. so that I serve. he put forward a definite statement with regard to this defect. in the toil and strain of our human history he saw the becoming of man. owing to that defect that we perceive evil lies . the history of the redemption of man. it . good or evil. and. in the self-centredness of our emotions. for it lay. is used for it and lost as a separate being. so we should throw these lives of ours my body and my And this. He looked for a time when. is the true aspiration for. And.'' Here comes the difficulty. after trying every other. There is a defect whereby we fall short of the true measure of our being. Let me be anyhow. this lack of true being. we shall be forced into that path at last. we should say.— 72 A New Era of Thought. use for . suppose there ticism safer course. in the limitation of them to our bodily selves. losing itself in it. as freely into the service of — whom . further. What shall we serve } It is far happier to have some concrete object to which we are devoted. still the question comes. and in the perception of evil and suffering our healing. limit our service in no way. driven from all thoughts of our own pain or pleasure. in view of the miseries of our fellow-creatures. is what he saw in all the scenes of life each most trivial occurrence was great and significant in relation to this. which is the true one.

'' cannot be each individual. but on the thinnest conceivable section of it } it be granted that our right attitude is. and a disappointment and feeling of valuelessness. if be. Moreover. less 73 round of active necessities that life. We cannot make objects to We can make machines and works of art. The question is. If we . to surround us with objects regards in ourselves we bury our and will not see ? And does it not seem as if with lowered eyelids. but we are perfectly obedient servants. which is the only conflicting. comes a cessation of all personal interest in life. there comes to some the question. And in all these cases some answer is needed. wherein each day presents so for choice. human duty ceases. but To give us nothing which directly excites our love. the aspect of our fellows does not always excite love. we gazed persistently. possible inducer of the right attitude of service. And . yet in one respect it we have a duty — we must What gqod would of loving interest. till only the 'thinnest slit was open. many we have no room But besides and apart from all these. with the love of those they love. for their claims are and as often as not there is more need of a master than of a servant. is that which rouses our love. so to devote ourselves that there is no question as to what we will do or what we will not do. here love. the duty of one higher than ourselves. And look. not on what is. an unlovable and gloomy aspect is presented.Higher Space and Higher Being. wherein their life seems to be but used as a material worthless in itself and ungifted with any dignity or honour while to others again. Whom are we to Let serve It . "What does it all mean?" To others.

without looking at them. Then. It is by the practical work of satisfying his needs that we get to Get somehow what your perceptions would be if to know is this : know him. we have done our part if there is nothing. We must not take this view of education that we are — . we cannot supply it. we : He will find that unless he goes through a series of actions corresponding to his knowledge. The way a means of telling you knew. — our lives. and must learn. to our minds There is an idea in that home of our inspiration the fact that there are certain mechanical processes by which men can acquire merit. Thus. To know. This is our duty— to know to know. . 74 do not it is A New love. we can only serve for a self motive. — . . with regard to a fellow-creature. — horribly pressed for time. our to this which it is given us to love. somehow. we must say that we have a long time all which we will press facts closer and closer and we begin by learning the simplest. and act in accordance with those perceptions. may-be. because some way good for ourselves. Thus it seems to me that we are reduced is only duty to look for that But this looking is must act. not mere gazing. he gets merely a theoretic and outside view of any facts. It is by mechanical processes that we become different But rather. and act as if we had them. when we know. This is perfectly true. a knack of saying how things must be. Let us then learn his feelings. but practically and then. in .. Let any one try it. not merely theoretically. we love him or perchance it is said we may find that through him we have been brought into contact with one greater than him. if we knew him we should feel what his feelings are. All we have to do is to look for realities. in Era of Thought.

and discontent with them. always directed towards a particular individual but by love man tends towards the preservation and improvement of his race thus in the commonest and most universal impulses lie his relations to higher beings than Now. 75 sys- and the science of education consists largely in tematizing these processes. Then. And any striving against such verdicts. just as space perceptions are necessary for the knowledge of our fellow-men. many of our impulses diately conscious. every other pre-rational department of life. is only in things into relationship with the beings about us higher than us. it At come the same time. with these impulses are many instincts of a modifying tendency and. them is in all the organized variety of civilized necessary to develop our perceptions of higher space. to take the . so that we can apprehend with our minds the relationship which we have to beings higher than ourselves. and bring our instinctive so it knowledge into It clearer consciousness. in any physical action. and enable us to enter into human relationships with life. in the whole importance of our lives. are directly signs of a relationship in us to a being of which we are not immeis The feeling of love. appears to me self-evident. it is difficult to say in what the service of the higher beings The only way is. there can be neither right nor wrong . should be turned into energy towards finding . Consequently.Perception and Inspiration. for instance. . as in consists. verdict of those with the most insight and inspiration. done that we and the things we do lies Now. that in the particular disposition of any portion of matter. . being altogether in the dark as to the nature of the higher beings to whom we are related. the thing done is perfectly indifferent. along the individuals by whom he is surrounded. in what it does not. that is.

is as follows and it bears a striking analogy to the mode by which the . block of cubes. and then lose the restraints that now are necessary to us in . . we first of all learn it. near or far. We cannot even say whether there is more than humanity before the highest and any conception which we form now must use the human drama as its only possible part of these higher beings . study a block of cubes. But our perceptions are coarser and it is only by labour and toil that we shall be brought also to see. by starting from a particular cube. as it were. is a sufficient explanation of why they have not been scientifically apprehended. Exactly what relationship there is towards us on the we cannot say in the least. out exactly what relation we have towards these higher beings by the study of Space. with regard to self is cut out of a When we And the line of cubes starting from this first one. is. and learning how all the others come with regard to that. in which our perceptions have been limited. in which an apprehension of these higher beings or being is at present secured. . so that we can mentally conceive the disposition of every cube as it comes regarded from that particular cube. an axis about which the rest of the cubes are grouped. All the others are right or left. Human life at present is an art constructed in its regulations and rules on the inspirations of those who are a their love the undiscerned higher beings. We learn the block with regard to this axis. of which part. up or down. the fulness of love.76 A New Era of Thought. The mode. mode of presentation. we and know service. They love these higher beings. But that there is such a relation seems clear and the ludicrous manner. which we take as the direction in which we look.

with a block of cubes from many points of view. is the means by which we impress on the feeling the different views of the block so. Now. and so on. looking from this axis. . And as. In the one way it is by the exercise of a sympathetic and active life in the other. we learn the aspects of all the cubes. Each individual is an axis as it were. it is by acting with regard to the view of each different axes. one by which the instinctive feeling is called out and developed. Those who feel superficially with a great many people. muscular action. are like those who know them Thus two points of view. 77 one point of view. Those who have some deep attachments. to get a knowledge of humanity. space. and of more. the other by which we gain the faculty of rationally apprehending well from one or there are two definite paths — and learning the higher beings. Thus there springs up a feeling of humanity. For we at more any . Next we suppose ourselves to be in another cube at the extremity of another axis and. sympathizing with each individual. . but the latter way is who are not good. by the study of higher . individual that a that. with regard to humanity. besides knowledge is obtained. Both should be followed accessible to those . we must feel with many individuals. we must act with regard to his view and acting so. Thus we impress on the feeling what the block of cubes is like from every axis. are like those learners who have a slight acquaintance . and thus get to know humanity from more than one axis.Perception and Inspiration. In this way we get a knowledge of the block of cubes. That is to say. we shall feel his view. in learning the block of cubes. as used in putting up the block of cubes. and we must regard human beings from many .

it is only by becoming demonstrable fact that the errors which have been necessarily introduced into it by human weakness will fall away from it. have the industry to go through mechanical operaand know that we need something. to where. our consciousness. Surely. to fellows — — . when known. And after all. then there is a chance that in the depths of our nature they will awaken feelings towards them like the natural response of one human being to another. revolve the slow moving and the stars of the night. then we can imagine somewhat of the glories that await our coming. There is no reason. when we these are think that the beauty of fruit and flower. lies rather in the former being aware. where they almost sing to us ness. quiet and stately. the budding trees and hedgerows on a spring day in their near- they stand up delicately distant and distinct in the amethyst ocean of the air And . the difference between the good and the rest of us. these are the fragmentary views which we have of great beings to whom we are related. so the higher existences need to be known and. And when we reflect on what surrounds us. which they see while we do not. The rational knowledge will not replace feeling. Just as we learn to know our by watching their deeds. but will form the vehicle by which the facts will be presented tions. How set out in exquisite loveliness — are all — from here. perhaps. in the distance.sun there. why this knowledge should not become demonstrable fact. did we but realize . the blue depths of the sky. however.! 78 rate A New Era of Thought. There is something outside them which draws them to it. but it is something beyond the mere power of observing them that makes us regard them. All. — all but the chance and arbitrary view which we have of true being. the majesty of rock and ocean. to whom we are linked.

It is not that we need to be made different we have but to look and gaze. and Inspiration. plain and mountain. for we know one common purpose. But not with effortless wonder will our days be filled. our service is bound up with things which we do so then we find no rest from labour. all our hearts would be carried in a perfect and willing service. so that all cannot but love who look so. task is a simple one to lift from our mind that which somehow has fallen on us. 79 by a bond of love and service in close connexions of mutual helpfulness. when We too often as we can be are her humble learners. to take that curious limitation from our perception. and letting our pride of being able to foretell vanish into dust. There is a curious passage in the works of Immanuel Kant. but the sense of solitude and isolation is gone. —by any all And the means to do it is by throwing aside our reason sit we think or are has judges of nature. did we but know with one accord in one stream. is a being of such loveliness that. The bonds of brotherhood with our fellow-men grow strong. presenting itself to us in all this mingled scene of air and ocean. We have but giving up the idea that what value. it to drink in of the inexhaustible fulness of being. press- ing close into our minds. which at present is only veil Our — transcended by inspiration. and see that centre whereunto with joyful love all created beings move.i in which he shows that space must be in the ' The idea of space can "nicht aus den Verhaltnissen der . — the exquisite face of nature shines the spiritual light that gives us a great and never-failing comrade.Perception it. but in toil and strong exertion for. just as now we all labour and strive for an object. . Just as here and there on the face of a woman sits the divine spirit of beauty. And through — .

why we have the feelings which we explain through. within the domain of conscious reason. in space. and. were but our own part done 1 Think how much has come into human life through exercising the power of the three-dimensional space perception. Without going into this argument to abstract regions. which before has been a matter of feeling. For. There is a certain reluctance in us in bringing anything." Hence he says that space belongs to the perceiving soul itself. We do not like to why the grass is green. there is nothing which comes before our minds from which the idea of space can be derived . howis things in space we cannot ever limited or isolated. flowers bright. above all. And so. pass But this objection and instinctive reluctance is chiefly ausseren Erscheinung durch Erfahrung erborgt sein. and we can form some measure. it is well to have prepared beforehand a strong apprehension of space and space relations. then." everything we conceive is conceived as being in space.' That mode of perception which belongs to us to exercise is wanting. sondern diese aussere Erfahrung ist nur durch gedachte Vorstellung allererst moglich.8o A New " since Era of Thought. in a faint it way. . that we cannot see the objects which are ready. All our perceptions are of think of any detail. What wonder. of what is in store for us. equally present in the most rudimentary perception and the most complete. we should find it im- Hence. as we pass on. our perceptive powers. in order to exercise possible to perceive higher existences . with our power of higher space perception so rudimentary and so unorganized. is it not easily conceivable that. it has a great it is amount of practical truth. which not in space. " mind before we can observe things he says." .

The new conception satisfies more facts than the old ones. it is of observation under one common But that the conceptions we formed at first are inadequate. and the night iVas He did not see that the fire-points were ever . Nature consists of many entities towards the apprehension of which we strive. that. its power of accounting for many facts. light. And the real history of advance lies in the growth of the new conceptions which every now and then come to ones. a conception must be formed in the mind. the weather-wise savage looked at the sky at he saw many specks of yellow light. . When G . it must be replaced by greater is . fact. it is introducing into the mind the new conception which is indicated by the phenomenon already present. is truer phenomenally and the arguments for it are its simplicity. If for a time we break down fields the bounds which we have set up. to understand nature. This process of growth in the mental history is hidden but it is the really important one. the fire-spots went. 8i derived from the fact that explaining has got to mean explaining away. But the conception has to be formed first. and always the case.Perception and Inspiration. but by feeling dimly. and unify vast law. . like' fireand sometimes flies. the clouds different. sprinkled amidst whitish fleece the fleece remained. But explanation proper is not of this kind . And. he knew enough for his purpose. when it can be shown simply to be another form of something which we know already. so often think that a thing is explained. . and rain came sometimes the fire-spots remained.the fine. But when the thinking mind turned itself on these night. in We the wearied mind often does long to have a phenomenon shown to be merely a deduction from certain known laws. same.

We may have a long and laborious process to go through. which they now In this book the task is taken up of forming the most simple and elementary of the great conceptions In the works of the poets. when we learn to understand the meaning of these mysterious the distant heavens. : . more in the pages of religious thinkers. to . . . And this is universally true it is not that we must rise to the higher by a long and laborious process. But none is capable of such simple demonstration and absolute presentation as this of higher space. gradually. are well worth the delighted sensuous apprehension of the savage as he gazed. : In this case. it is this we discover our true selves. and still that are about us. and changes. when we find the higher. Perhaps something is lost. And so. — not at once. We ask ourselves what we have gained and we answer Nothing we have simply removed an obvious limitation. in which lies a wealth of embodied poetry. all appearances. lies an untold wealth of conception. amongst which we move a fair the instinctive reverence.82 A New Era of Thought. for when the new conception is formed. it is found to be quite simple and natural. it is very instructive as a different place. but —the knowledge of the sublime existences of all the lore of the marvellous forms of water. there is compensation. our essential being. and the movements of the earth. indeed. there sprang up. we shall find in the greater realities exchange awaken in for us. the organization of which in our every-day intellectual life is the work of the practical educator. this course of natural events. we pass from the ridiculous limitation. of air. Surely these realities. but. but in the realities. of which we know. and none so immediately opens our eyes to see the world And. . the fact of our lives.

and by looking at what is. by laying aside our intellectual powers. as a subject of thought. it can be thought about. not with the question. means of intellectual work. Thus we can never. the call partially known physics which constitute what we the external world. For. How do we pass to this truer intellectual life ? Simply by observing. since it is the thinker. about which we can speak. The absolute soul. late writers turned and tested every phenomenon. instead great to be a practical . Kant made the great and fundamental statement in philosophy when he exploded all previous systems. to the fuller knowledge and feeling of space as it is. The dynamic form of his absolute insight had to be found and it is in other works that the practical instances of the Kantian method are to be found. of acting in a mere section of space.Jr'erceptxon ana inspiration. and use it as our touchstone whereby to explore nature. . What is this ? but with " the question. can never be the subject of to the details of experience. which winds between two domains of physics the unknown conditions which — affect the perceiver. and all physics were reft from off the perceiving soul. . We take that which is easiest to observe. not that which is easiest to define we take that which is the most definitely limited real thing. But what he did once and for afl. as physically conditioned. without committing a ludicrous error. thought but. was too . . the ultimate principles of experience. covery lies in investigating what the devious line of his' thought history is due to. As it seems to me. as so put. " What makes me perceive thus ? And surely the question. 83 which our eyes and hands seem to be subject. is more capable of an answer for it is only the percipient. think of the mind of man except as a material organ of some kind and the path of dis. of looking at the large foundations of knowledge.

84 It is A New Era of Thought. . to the realities we know.. all our material limitations turn into graciousness. a pity to spend time over these reflections they do not seem tame and poor compared to the practical apprehension which comes of working with the models. then there is nothing in the whole subject. awakening light of this new apprehension. then these suggestions will be felt to be but mean and * insufficient apprehensions. there is true work to be done with them. but false. on the other hand. For. rigid solids flow and mingle. If. as spirit is to matter . the flimsy world quivers and shakes. If in the little real objects which the reader has to handle and observe does not lie to him a poetry of a higher kind than any expressed thought. and yet to this new vision all our solid facts and material conditions are In the but as a shadow is to that which casts it. in the simplest apprehension of a higher space lies a knowledge of a reality which is. then all these if words are not only useless. and the new field of possibility waits for us to look and behold.

The reader will doubtless ask for some definite result corresponding to these words something not of the nature of an hypothesis or a might-be. mind to acquire a conception of higher space as adequate as that of our three-dimensional space. I of the higher life. still are willing to manipulate matter. There are two distinct ways of studying space our One is that of the familiar space at present in use. has been completely solved. OF ALTRUISM AND RELIGION. in space directly. the more eagerly do I urge him to take up the practical work. The other that of the observer or mechanician. it will assuredly dawn upon him that here is the beginning of an answer — . and to use it in the same manner. possible for the — analyst. for the true good comes to us through those who. It is to his request. aspiring greatly.CHAPTER SPACE XI. still submit their aspirations to fact. and who. And the more eager he is for personal and spiritual truth. And in that I can only satisfy him after my own powers. desiring to apprehend spirit. The particular problem at which I have worked for more than ten years. only study the blocks and stones But here they are definite enough. THE SCIENTIFIC BASIS. who treats space relations by his algebra. is and discovers marvellous relations. who studies the shapes 8s of things . My only strength is in detail and patience and if he will go through the practical part of the book.

The necessary condition is. it now does three- And there is portant. And hitherto the study of four-dimensional space has been conducted by analysis." No. as the designer and draughtsman have of three-dimen- A sional space. and art. . whether it was possible to get the same power of conception of four-dimensional space. by C. just as a And draughtsman or artist does. of the human body Published by Swan Sonnenschein & " Science Romance. and an artist or draughtsman still less so. or in appreciating the detail of either a work of art or a mechanical conAnalytical skill is trivance. science. and to conceive objects in this space. with this power it is possible for us to design machines in higher space. we could think I. for instance. four-di- mensional pictures with our bodily eyes. Now. It is possible. my inquiry was.. and the means of educating it are given. ' for instance. of which ^ is the first instalment. The condition is. not of much use in designing a statue or inventing a machine. for the first time. Hinton. Here. We another condition which is no less imcan never see. forward a complete system of fourdimensional thought mechanics. that the mind acquire the power the volume on four space shall bring — of using four-dimensional space as dimensional. but we can with our mental and inner eye. And I I propose a complete system of work. the fact of the power of conception of four-dimensional space is demonstrated. that we should acquire the power of mentally carrying a great If. Co. number of details.86 A New Era of Thought. practical designer of machines would not find the knowledge of geometrical analysis of immediate help to him . H.

alter. We throw ourselves on an enterprise in which we have . four-di- down to every minute part in its and conceive aspect. Now. The artist is not conscious of the thought process he goes through. In any picture. The means by which this can be done will be given in a future volume. and view complicated arrangements of colour existing in thought with the same ease with which we can paint on canvas. All that I mean is this that in the course of our campaign it is necessary to take up the task of learning pictures by heart. Much fault may be found with the system of organization which I have adopted. we should have a mensional picture which is a solid structure. of putting definite colours in definite positions. This is simply an affair of industry and the mental power latent in us in this direction is simply marvellous. 87 right position. must acquire a sense-perception and memory of so keen and accurate a kind that we can build up mental pictures of greater complexity than any which we can see. so that we can recall. at whatever sacrifice of immediate beauty. to do this. For our purpose it is necessary that the manipulation of colour and form which the artist goes through unconsciously. should become a conscious power. The power really exists and shows itself when it is looked for. that is. just as an artist thinks over the outlines of a figure he wants to draw. a stroke of the brush put on without thought is valueless.space the Basis of Altruism right and its Religion. We have a vast work of organization. — to leave altogether the direct presentation to the senses. so we think over each stroke in our pictures. so that. not with our hands on paper. but it is the survivor oj" We . we must form the habit of mental painting. but it is merely organization. the art of mental painting should exist beside our more unconscious art. and that. but with our minds in thought.

before it can be used. And I would speak to some minds who. we must appreciate and how far we are from appreciating with science the fundamental religious doctrines I leave to any one to judge. as to our beings higher than ourselves. and can correct the religious doctrines in many important respects. — . it will be the lifework of is men of science to reorganize the methods. it does not exist unless it comes into the mind. . on the laws of health. the apprehension of which simply demands a patient cultivation of our powers and then. I many attempts still I and although it could better the full it in parts. importance of the subject being' realized. A whole world swims before us. unfixedness of our present knowledge. But on the other part of the subject matter. on the former of these subjects. like myself. that we should begin . Religion has suffered in some respects from the inaccuracy of its statements and it is not always seen that it consists of two parts one a set of rules as to the management of our relations to the physical world about us. to acquire the faculties for judging. and to our own bodies another. . when the faculty is formed. New Era best to use of Thought. It must be clearly realized. The proposition relationship to which underlies this book first is. We shall learn about ourselves and pass into a new domain. Now. science has not yet the materials for judging. a set of rules as to our relationship to beings higher than ourselves.88 A . To judge. and in detail as it is. science has a fair standing ground of criticism. To know that a thing must be is no use at all. we shall recognize what the universe in which we are is like. think it is until. share to a large extent the feeling of unsettledness and . The one thing on which I must insist this —that knowledge is of no value. on physical facts.

the striking unanimity with which The question may be put is.space the Basis of Altruism and Religion. in the family. : In what way do we come . we tend towards our greater life. in voluntary associations. We have no scientific knowledge of any least. perhaps. from all inorganic beings tend to move towards the earth's centre. is not one through which we should hope to grow into direct contact with our higher destinies. The coherence of a military empire or of a subjugated population. we know. . and above all. the most fundamental and importIn fact. presenting no natural nucleus of growth. Science does not give us any information which is not equally acceptable to the most selfish and most generous man it simply . than are those of men. the line of advance had better be left to the feeling of women. as they organize the home and the tend to form organic unions in —unions social life spreading out therefrom. But in friendship. — at not recognized But we have abundant knowledge of the actions of beings less developed than ourselves. to the almost equally uniform modes of response in elementary organized matter to different stimuli. attain his own The but it is prosecution of science is an ennobling pursuit . It is difficult. exist- ences higher than ourselves as higher. tells him of means by which he may ends. of scientific knowledge that I am now speaking in itself. And it seems that the instincts of women are much more relative to this. using morality in the higher sense of other than a code of rules to promote the greatest physical and mental health and growth of a human being. 89 There is absolutely no scientific basis for morality. it does not show him ends. until ant side of life.' into contact with these higher beings at present And we evidently the answer In those ways in which which the activities of individuals coalesce in a living way.

provided the regard is for another. is this it is clearly demonstrated that self-regard is to be put on one side and self-regard in every respect not only should things painful and arduous be done. many respects men have us. were. and use big words. the preferable way of putting our efforts is this let us look first at the simplest facts of higher existence. on the part of woman. but. as it comes to me. : : — I am to sign any list of any number of deeds which the most foul imagination can suggest.— 90 for a A man to be New Era still of Thought. when thwarted. the first beginnings of a new life the shadowy filaments. and. as it — by which an organism begins to coagulate together from the medium in which it makes its appearance. . in fact. when allowed to grow freely and unchecked. light will be thrown on the constituent organisms of our own bodies. The problem. and perceive but if he is so. when we see in the thorough development of our social life a relation between ourselves and a larger organism similar to that which exists between us and the minute constituents of oUr frame. but things degrading and vile. so that they serve. as things which I would do did the occasion come when I could benefit another by doing them characteristic in . And then. And is . How ? the higher beings about when we can we see cannot even talk conceive the simplest higher shapes We may about space. are meaningless caprices and empty emotionalities. after all. when we have learnt to realize these. he finds that what. We shall be able to see what the world presents. and then. done for another's sake. there I any action v/hich did the occasion come when it is to be no would shrink from presented itself to be I believe that the soul absolutely unstained by the action. are. In very tions. also. to make the condi- and then learn to recognize.

we entrust it with a different load from that of a human body. commandments. appeals with a great invitation to us. and the wisdom of individual men is hardly enough to . it does seem that. to the most absolute unfixedness of theory. the absolute absence of self-regard is to be aimed at. and demands that society should frame severe and insuperable regulations for otherwise. if this of altruism is the right one. Still. endless varieties of conduct would spring forth. And it if this law of altruism will is the true one. to the greatest errors in life. let us try the ruin of where failure not mean human beings. for the rules of life. all about things. if it we need not therefore try it with less precaution than we should use in other affairs of infinitely less importance. as an ideal. When we want to know if a plank will bear. and leaves the justify their irresponsible action. in truth. and. And thus it seems to me that altruism thoroughgoing altruism hands over those who regard it as an ideal. And For here we come rule to the point where the study of space becomes so important. these rules as — — sibly.space the Basis of Altruism and Religion. But there are many who do not accept any absolute indication of the will of God. but only as the regulations of good men. with the motives of the individual thus liberated from absolute law. . which have a claim to respect and nothing more. a dangerous doctrine absolute . With a strong religious basis. It is a kind of rule of life which requires most absolute openness. as laid down by religions. very poswould suffice. 91 But Sweep this it is. at one puts away all absolute verdicts of right agent to his own judgment. and who are also of a sceptical turn of mind. this would work no harm.

^2

A

New Era

of Thought.

Now, in knowledge, pure altruism means so to bury the mind in the thing known that all particular relations of one's self pass away. The altruistic knowledge of the heavens would be, to feel that the stars were vast
bodies,

and that

I

am moving

rapidly.

It

would

be, to

know

this,

not as a matter of theory, but as a matter

of habitual feeling.

Whether this is possible, I do not know but a somewhat similar attempt can be made with much simpler
;

means.
In a different place
I

have described the process of
;

acquiring an altruistic knowledge of a block of cubes

and the results of the laborious processes involved are well worth the trouble. For as a clearly demonstrable fact this comes before one. To acquire an absolute knowledge of a block of cubes, so that all self relations are cast out, means that one has to take the view of a
higher being.

suddenly comes before one, that the particular rewhich are so fixed and important, and seem so absolutely sure when one begins the process of learning, are by no means absolute facts, but marks of a singular limitation, almost a degradation, on one's own part. In the determined attempt to know the most insignificant object perfectly and thoroughly, there flashes before one's eyes an existence infinitely higher than one's own. And with that vision there comes, I do not speak from my own experience only, a conviction that our existence also is not what we suppose that this bodily self of ours is but a limit too. And the question of altruism, as against self-regard, seems almost to
It

lations

vanish, for
are.

by altruism we come
truly are,"
I

to

know what we

truly

"

What we

do not mean apart from space
really are as beings having a

and matter, but what we

space the Basis of Altruism and Religion. 93
space existence for our way of thinking about existence is to conceive it as the relations of bodies in space. To think is to conceive realities in space.
;

Just as, to explore the distant stars of the heavens, a particular material arrangement is necessary which we

a telescope, so to explore the nature of the beings are higher than us, a mental arrangement is necessary. must prepare our power of thinking as we prepare a more extended power of looking. We want a structure developed inside the skull for the
call

who

We

one purpose, while an exterior telescope
other.

will

do

for the

And
To
own

thus

it

apprehended
us,

fall

seems that the away.

difficulties

which we

first

looking with half-blinded eyes at merely our
of existence, our filmy
all,
it

little slice

seemed

that altruism
find that

meant

disorder, vagary, danger.

But when we put it into practice in knowledge, we it means the direct revelation of a higher being and a call to us to participate ourselves too in a higher life nay, a consciousness comes that we are higher than we know.

life.

life as with our intellectual not the case that those, who truly accept the rule of altruism, learn life in new dangerous ways ? It is true that we must give up the precepts of religion as being the will of God ; but then we shall learn that the will of God shows itself partly in the religious pre-

And

so with our moral
it

Is

cepts,

known

and comes to be more as an inward spirit.

fully

and more plainly

And

that difficulty, too, about
not, vanishes also.

what we may
cubes,

what we may do and For, if it is the same

about our fellow-creatures as it is about the block of when we have thrown out the self-regard from our relationship to them, we shall feel towards them as

94

A

New Era
man

of Thought.

towards them, we shall feel towards them as they are in their true selves, not in their outward forms, but as eternal loving spirits. And then those instincts which humanity feels with a secret impulse to be sacred and higher than any temporary good will be justified or fulfilled. There are two tendencies one towards the direct
a higher being than
feels

— —

cultivation of the religious perceptions, the other to re-

ducing everything to reason. It will be but just for the exponents of the latter tendency to look at the whole universe, not the mere section of it which we know, before they deal authoritatively with the higher parts of
religion.

And

those

who

feel the

immanence of a higher

life

in

us will be needed in this outlook on the wider field of reality, so that they, being fitted to recognize, may tell
us what
lies

ready for us to know.

The

true path of

wisdom

consists in seeing that our

our conclusions are absurd on the world as a form of thought projected from the thinking principle within us rather to be amazed that our thought has so limited the world and hidden from us its real existences. To think of ourselves as any other than things in space and subject to material conditions, is absurd, it is absurd on either of two hypotheses. If we are really things in space, then of course it is absurd to think of ourselves On the other hand, if we are not as if we were not so. things in space, then conceiving in space is the mode
intellect is foolishness

— that

and mistaken, not

in speculating

in

Its

which that unknown which we are exists as a mind. mental action is space-conception, and then to give
as in space,
is

up the idea of ourselves
selves

not to get a truer

idea, but to lose the only

power of apprehension of ourin

which we possess.
yet there
is, it

And

must be confessed, one way

space the
which
it

Bans of Altruism and

Religion.

95

may be

possible for us to think without think-

ing of things in space.

That way is, not to abandon the use of space-thought, but to pass through it. When we think of space, we have to think of it as infinity extended, and we have to think of it as of infinite dimensions. Now, as I have shown in " The Law of the
^ when we come upon infinity in any mode of our thought, it is a sign that that mode of thought is dealing with a higher reality than it is adapted for, and in struggling to represent it, can only do so by an in-

Valley,"

finite number of terms. number of positions and

Now, space has an
turns,

infinite

and

this

may

be due to

the attempt forced upon us to think of things higher than space as in space. If so, then the way to get rid of space from our thoughts, is, not to go away from it, but to pass through it to think about larger and larger systems of space, and space of more and more dimen-

sions,

till at last we get to such a representation in space of what is higher than space, that we can pass from the space-thought to the more absolute thought without that leap which would be necessary if we were

beyond space with our present very inadequate representation in it of what really is. Again and again has human nature aspired and fallen. The vision has presented itself of a law which was love, a duty which carried away the enthusiasm, and in which the conflict of the higher and lower natures ceased because all was enlisted in one loving service. But again and again have such attempts failed. The
to try to pass

common-sense
law, remains
pitiate

view, that

man

is

subject to law, external

—that
1

there are fates

whom

he must pro-

and obey.

And

there

is

a strong sharp curb,
II.

" Science

Romances," No.

96
which,
if it

A New

Era of

Thought.

pulled tight

be not brought to bear by the will, is soon by the world, and one more tragedy is enacted, and the over-confident soul is brought low. And the rock on which such attempts always split,
in the indulgence of
fills

is

some
its

limited passion.

Some
all

one object

the soul with

image, and in devotion

to that, other things are sacrificed, until at last

comes to ruin. But what does
It is

this

mean

>

Surely

it

is

simply
is

this,

that where there should be knowledge there
passion,

ignorance.

not that there is too much devotion, too much but that we are ignorant and blind, and wander in error. We do not know what it is we care for, and waste our effort on the appearance. There is no such thing as wrong love ; there is good love and bad knowledge, and men who err, clasp phantoms to
themselves.
best aid.
for any one object let his regard be as concentrated and exclusive as you will, there will be no danger if he truly apprehends that which he cares for. Its true being is bound up with
for
it

Religion

is

but the search for
its

realities
is

;

and thought, conscious of
Let a man care

own

limitations,

its

all

the rest of existence, and,
if

if his

regard

is

true to
is

one, then,

that one

is

really

known,

his regard

true to

all.

There is a question sometimes asked, which shows the mere formalism into which we have fallen.

We ask What is the end of existence mere play on words For to conceive existence is to feel ends. The knowledge of existence is the caring for objects, the fear of dangers, the anxieties of love. Immersed in these, the triviality of the question, what is the end of existence ? becomes obvious. If, however, letting reality
:
.'

A

!

fade away,

we play with

words,

some questions of

this

space the Basis of Altruism and Religion.
;

97

kind are possible but they are mere questions of words, and all content and meaning has passed out of them.

The

task before us

of, and which their true -unity lies. The existence of this one body we know from the utterances of those whom we cannot but feel to be inspired we feel certain tendencies in ourselves which cannot be explained except by a supposition of this kind. And, now, we set to work deliberately to form in our minds the means of investigation, the faculty of

physical unity, that
in the life of

is this we strive to body which men are
:

find out that

parts

;

higher-space
thought,

conception.

To

our

ordinary

space-

men

are isolated, distinct, in great measure

But with the first use of the weapon of antagonistic. higher thought, it is easily seen that all men may really be members of one body, their isolation may be but an

There is, of course, no affair of limited consciousness. value as science in such a supposition. But it suggests to us many possibilities ; it reveals to us the confined
to undertake the

nature of our present physical views, and stimulates us work necessary to enable us to deal

adequately with the subject.

The work

is

entirely practical

and detailed

;

it is

the

elaboration, beginning from the simplest objects of an

experience in thought, of a higher-space world. To begin it, we take up those details of position and relation which are generally relegated to symbolism or unconscious apprehension, and bring these waste products of thought into the central position of the laboraturn all our attention on the tory of the mind. most simple and obvious details of our every-day experience, and thence we build up a conception of the fundamental facts of position and arrangement in a next study more complicated higher higher world. get our space perception drilled and disshapes, and

We

We

H

that if there has ever been is inspiration. now. is a segment bounded by two . it marks out on the line a segment bounded by two points that is. supposing the paper and the line to be in the same plane. which. to put a content into our Then we proceed framework. The means and inspiration. and — a square lying on the paper to be pushed so that its corner passes over the line.98 ciplined. It has existed in absolutely marvellous degree in some of the teachers of the ancient world . points. does the following '. investigator who shall distinctly trace in the physical world. which they possessed. we suppose a line drawn on a piece of paper. and. to take a particular instance. the section of a square by a line is a . of the square. all that is observable in the line. As to the other means. but that. stone for the observation and knowledge of the higher beings to whom we are related. surely. Then. first. and experimentally de- monstrate the existence of the higher-space facts which He will lay the first are so curiously hidden from us. The section will be a plane figure. would propose to define inspiration as the faculty.-^ If a square penetrates a line cornerwise. and it will be a triangle. of doing this are twofold is — observation As to observation. the line is interrupted by the square and. it is obvious. New Era of Thought. Inspiration if we could isolate I And it. Next. it hardly possible to describe the feelings of that. be a demonstrable fact. and let the plane make a section of the cube. there is inspiration not a unique phenomenon. whatever it was. must be present now. suppose a cube to be pushed cornerwise through a plane. Now.

We must carefully investigate existence in a plane world. But whatever name we give to this peculiar and inwe do possess it is certain . . Hence. will be a tetrahedron a figure bounded by four — planes. and then. This is found to be true . call this reasoning from analogy but using phrase does not explain the process. We must be really fourdiniensional creatures. 99 segment bounded by two points second. by three-dimensional space. that sense. It seems to me just as rational to say that the facts of the line and plane remind us of facts which we know already about four-dimensional figures that they tend to bring these facts out into consciousness. looking We may this — dimensions. with a little familiarity with four-dimensional movements this is seen to be obvious.space the Basis of Altruism and Religion. every step higher world. there comes into the mind a conclusion about something beyond the range of actual experience. Somehow. . or we could not think about four . How it is we come to this conclusion at am mere formal considerations. as Plato shows with the boy's knowledge of the cube. and in our investigations it will be of service to us. But I would define inspiration as the faculty actual by which without is experience this I conclusion perfectly formed. and impressing on our inward explicable faculty. making sure. as we go. we shall we take with regard to a be reminded continually of fresh possibilities of our higher existence. unable to say. the section of a cube by a plane is a triangle bounded by three lines. we infer that the section of a figure in four dimensions analogous to a cube.

.

The figure in this case consists of a length bounded by two points. GENESIS OF A CUBE. The in simplest figure in one-dimensional space. Let a point move and trace out a line. The Orange extends to some distance on two faces of the Cube but for our present purpose we suppose it to be simply a . is is. and let it. This line we conceive to be generated in the following way. which coloured Orange. trace out the Orange line and terminate in the Fawn point. thin line. to which they belong. we notice a straight line in contact with is the table. APPEARANCES OF A CUBE TO A PLANE-BEING. to .PART IL I. and the portion between. Looking at Cube i.SPACE. We may suppose the point to start as a Gold point. and placing is it so that the figure i uppermost. that line. moving. Let the point be the Gold point. They are marked with different colours. It begins in a Gold point and ends in a Fawn point. so as show the properties of the figure in Higher Space. the point at which it ends. CHAPTER The to THREE. Thus the figure consists of the point at which it begins. a straight a straight line bounded at the two extremities. models consist of a set of eight and a set of four cubes.

The . and end in a Red square. Let the Orange line moving upwards trace a Dark Blue square and end in a Reddish line. point. The Green-grey line' traces a Light-yellow square and ends in a Leaden line the Terracotta point traces a Dark-slate line and ends in a Deep-blue point The Crimson line traces a Blue-green square and ends in a Bright-blue line. let the whole Black square traced out by the Orange line move upwards at right angles. The motion we suppose and its direction we call X. this Orange line move away from us at right Let this be the Black angles. a Cube. Bounding the cube. the colour of . Also. which is invisible. The points. away from the a Green-grey line. square. Now. observer. now. It will And the edges of the trace out a new figure. If. which is seen underneath Model i. and opposite to the Black square. the Black square traces a Cube. which bound the line. Let the Blue line trace a Vermilion square and end in a Deep-yellow line. The Orange line. ends in This direction. and to these lines there will be terminal points. We suppose the colour of the cube to be a Light-buff. Finally. and these lines end in a Lightblue and a Dull-purple point. The Gold point traces a Brown line the Fawn point traces a French-grey line. Let the Buff point trace a Green line. and ends in a white square. while . a Terracotta point. will be another square. and become Fawn. point a Crimson line ending in moving upwards. having traced a Black square. . it will trace out a square. colour to Orange during the motion. will traCe out squares. will during this motion trace out lines.I02 change its New Era it of Thought. we call Y. trace out a Blue line and end in a Buff point the Fawn when from stops to left to right. the Square will be terminated by a line on the Let the Gold point in moving away opposite side.

The matter. like the beings. very thin. if Let us suppose a being moving on the surface of the and unable to rise from it. . X Y Thus we began with a figure of one dimension. I let it "On what am supported. i. At the Gold point. because. like matter in the solid world. Z and X. we passed on to a figure of two dimensions. the line Orange. : The Gold in moved Z. it will. The square represents a figure in two dimensions but we want to realize what it is to a being in two dimensions. if there be any matter in the plane-world. a cube. and ended with a figure of three dimensions. tion for : Moreover.e. the Z line Brown. Let it not know that it is upon anything. upward direction we point Genesis of a Cube. a square. traces a Brown and ends a Light- blue point. must be supposed. that . We can now clearly realize and refer to each region of the cube by a colour. and only by breaking through one of those lines could the planebeing discover the colour of the square. Thus we say line. we must not look down on it. lines from three directions meet. exert attractions and repulsions. along which it moves. the line Blue. Such a being could not tell the colour of the square traced by the Orange line. 103 call Z.'" Let not ask the quesit see no reason any such question. Such a view could not be taken by a plane-being.. but simply call the smooth surface. a line.Thre&Space. The square would be bounded by the lines which surround it. but let it believe that the two directions and compounds of those two directions are all table possible directions. Space. In trying to realize the experience of a plane-being it is best to suppose that its two dimensions are upwards and sideways.

it To let obtain a more us suppose the piece of paper extended." at whatever part of the globe may be." and they Away from it " is " Up. if we move slantwise for comsome distance. that surface of the paper. if we want to realize a plane- we must keep the sense of up and down^ Therefore we must use the Z direction. We miss the right . the point reached by going a certain distance X. we shall have means of representing their consistent view of their existence. experience. between these is said to be pounded of the two for.104 is. Hence. thus cutting the earth in two. This represents what the world would be to a plane-being. both hemispheres vanishing. and only a very thin layer of matter left upon the paper on that side which touches the Dark-blue square. arid it is more convenient to take Z and than Z and Y. Then suppose all the earth removed away." just as Down. so that cuts through our earth and comes out at the antipodes. as great difficulty arises from our notions of up and down. and suppose the plane-beings to move to and on. if of Thought. and a plane-being be free move about it. which touches the square." and "Away from it " would be " Towards the earth " is to solid beings " " " Up. and line. traced the Dark-blue square ending in the Reddish we now fro place a piece of stiff paper against the Dark- blue square. or vice versd. being's feelings. It is of some importance to get the notion of the directions in a plane-world. he will be attracted to it in every direction. it is of so slight thickness that quite unnoticed by the being. might have been also reached and then a certain line has distance Z. there be a very large mass of such to matter lying on the table. Let us suppose the Orange If moved Z. "Towards this huge mass" would be "Down. X Any direction lying . New Era Now.

making down its incline. If we hold the cube so that its Dark-blue side touches a sheet of paper held upwards to the eye. and of such a nature that by virtue of it any large mass of plane-matter produces on small particles around it the same effects as the large (2) as and particles tend to slip We matter called our earth produces on small it. just as we only see a square of the cube. and a Dull-purple point. a stiff card A or book cover. The line where the paper rests on the table may be taken as representative of the surface of the planebeing's earth. We see a Light-blue point. . good plan is. a force of gravity along the plane. and creates the sensations of up and down. It would be merely a line to him. 105 analogy if we conceive of a plane-world without the conception of up and down. to use a slanting surface. he would find more matter beyond it. may suppose that in a plane-world there are two such forces. Let us now leave out of consideration the question of solid mass of objects like our bodies situated around . a Reddish line.Three. we see the same view of the cube as a plane-being would get. Then gravity acts as two forces. but it would have the same property in relation to the planeworld. In both cases the larger draws the smaller to itself. and if we then look straight down along the paper. one keeping the beings thereon to the plane. so placed that it slopes upwards to the eye. The plane-being only sees a line.space. the other acting between bodies in it. If the plane-being broke through the line bounding his earth. as a square has in relation to a solid world in neither case can the notion of what in the latter is termed solidity be quite excluded. It acts (i) as a force pressing all particles upon the slanting surface into it. confining our view to that which is in actual contact with the paper. Genesis of a Cube.

Fawn point. for of its motion he could not be aware. But in this body there would be a dimension. and let the cube fit the opening so exactly that no trace of the cutting of the table be visible to the plane-being. "up and down" consider a plane-world. Lastly let us premise there is no attraction in their world. a Bright-blue line. face he could easily study. surface of the table. If the cube began to pass through. Orange line. These would surround a White square. or ZX. as he would not know the direction in which it moved. and so on.e. The plane-being would then perceive a Light-blue point. Let us no longer position. let us Placing Cube i plane-being could apprehend such a cube. a Dull-purple point. now ask how a The Black He would find it bounded by Gold point. which was not in the square. (This operation would be equivalent to the mining of a solid being). but simply take the surface (XY) of the table as that which supLet us represent its inhabitants ports a plane-world. which are free to move over the in the vertical. Crimson line.io6 New Era in it of Thought. Let it pass down till the White square be just on a level with the surface of the table. and so on. which belonged to the same body as that to which the Black square belonged. And he would discover it was Black by cutting through any of these lines and entering it. so that the cube could pass through. a Reddish line.. by thin pieces of paper. that they have not any up and down. it would seem to him simply to change. so (i. but cannot rise from it. let the thickness height above the surface) of these beings be so small that they cannot discern it. Also. Let us now suppose a square hole to be made in the table. Our upward directio^i would not be appre- . But of what came above the Black square he would be completely ignorant. in front of us.

But if the plane-being had a model of the upper square. The conception of a new direction thus obtained. Motion from above downwards would only be apprehended as a change in the figure before him. it traces out the Black square. had the experience of a cube being pushed through his plane. it traces out a square. given that he rather than ascertained facts. the Deep-yellow line would come next to the Crimson line of the Black There would be a discontinuity about it. which was bounded by his square on one side. he could only do so when the Black square had gone an inch below his plane. He would not say that he had before but only a changing he wanted to look at the upper square. and by a White square on another side. To study the upper square simultaneously with the lower. Genesis of a Cube. and the Blue line moving so would do the same. square. he would have to make a model of it. and the Deepyellow to the Blue line. he would understand that the Orange line moving so would trace out a square. To him they would be matters of verbal definition However. and placed it on the righthand side of the Black square. Obviously too there lies something between the Black square and the White.Three-Space. The plane-being would notice that when a line moves in a direction not its own. . To us these squares are visible as wholes. When the Orange line is moved away. that he could do would be to observe which part in the one square corresponded to which part in the other. whereof his square was part. we see that the Reddish line corresponds precisely to the Orange line. and then he could place it beside the lower one. If him different sections of a cube. All square. 107 hended by him directly. Looking at the cube. the Dark-blue. and the Vermilion. he would know there was some figure.

The Black square. and it be then passed through. and could describe all that would come in as it turned about in any way. Let us consider two of them the Black and the White squares. He would become able to give some consistent account of the properties of this new kind he could say what came into his plane of existence space. he could form some rational idea of the Higher Solid which produced them. the Light-yellow square will Now. stance. We can obEvery colour on the one is serve them on the cube. the Brown line comes in. different sides of it can first By combining the two be shown to a plane-being. which is his solid matter. if the cube be turned so that the Dark-blue square be on the plane. But we can suppose the cube to be presented to him otherwise than by passing through his plane. different from every colour on the other. by turning the cube about the ran. made a set of models of these different appearances and studied them. after a time. is only one boundary daries. if one be moved upwards till it is at right angles to the surface of the table. if the other space penetrated the plane edge-wise or corner-wise. He would have six models. If we now . all For inthe sides can be shown to the plane-being. the other comes on to the surthe but runs in a direction opposite to that in which Thus. It must be noticed that the Brown line comes into a direction opposite to that in which the Blue line ran. processes of turning and pushing through the plane. face. if the plane-being come in. supposed him to make models of these bouna Black square and a White square. These two lines are at right angles to each other. It can be turned round the Orange Hne. We have of a figure in Higher Space. — . line and. and. in which case the Blue goes out. Orange line and the Blue line.io8 New Era of Thought.

from the . This total difference exists in all the pairs of opposite sur- faces on the cube. suppose the plane-being asked himself what would appear the cube turned round the Blue to pass through his space. And. in order to apprehend what would take place when this twisting round the Blue line began. Let him. would be of the same Light-buff It is assumed that the plane closes up round the passing cube. He would search among the six models lying beside each other on his plane. The French-grey line and the Dark-slate line would be cut in points. . till he found the Dark-blue square. For it is entirely separate. as the surface of a liquid does round any object immersed. he could easily select that which showed what he wanted. But. for the Orange line moving in any direction gives a square. lies Genesis of a Cube. Thus the figure in the plane world would be an oblong instead of a square. then. instead and the interior of it colour as the interior of the cube. The cube would begin Crimson line The would disappear beneath the plane and the Blue-green square would cut it. Buff point to the Dark-slate point. ask what line.Three-Space. if the six models were before the plane-being. but he knows what a plane does. He has no conception of what a solid would do in twisting.. if Now. The others meet it in one of their lines. It is evident that only one other square differs fn all its colours from the Black square. the White square. the planebeing would have to set to work by parts. line 109 between the Orange it is and the Reddish we know a square. so that opposite to the Blue line in the plane there would be a Blue-green line. and from the Gold point to the French-grey point would be a Dark-blue line and opposite to it would be a Light-yellow line. line. For that which lies between Orange line and Reddish line must be bounded by Orange and Reddish lines. viz.

and the Dark-blue square passes through it. the dotted line. Here. square lying in his plane.no New Era of Thought. and the plane cut by the French- grey line. after the turning. line. Let him keep his attention fixed on the line where the two planes meet. Gr. The French-grey line is cut by the dotted line in a point. square is concerned. But in this case the Black square and only the Orange line Diagram (3) shows the Dark-blue in it. and Diagram (4) shows it turning round the Gold point. G is the Gold. The Dark-blue square stands on it.. To find out what would come in at other parts. as The Diagrams it show how the cube appears is before and point. let the Dark-blue square turn round the line Gold The Orange once dips below the line of his plane. that which is at first marked by far as this is As Blue line the Orange line. in his plane he will see a Dark-blue point. And in place of the Fawn point. he need only treat a off his plane. of thinking of the whole Black square. only further off from the Gold be a French -grey point. he has only to think how the square turning round the Gold point will cut the line. for all that he knows of his at own plane is this Now. (2) line in place of the Orange one. Let him imagine himself in that plane at right angles to his plane-world. which contains the Dark-blue square. viz. is F the Fawn In (2) G is unmoved.. instead of thinking about his plane and also that at right angles to it. Therefore. would be out would remain number of the plane sections of the cube perpendicular . twisting round the the same as twisting round the Gold point. We will call this line the line of his plane. point. viz. think only of the Orange line. which runs left to right from G. Instead of imagining a direction he did not know. will (i). the plane -being could think of the Dark-blue square as lying in his plane.

no.LB LB a a \To face p. .

.

It would appear as a Black square exactly similar to the first but the Orange line.1 Three-Space. Light-yellow. and he would turn each of these round a corner of the same colour as the Blue line. The square would be the same. and the oblong would diminish in length. If the cube then turned still further. as the whole cube turned round the Blue line. the problem of the turning of the cube could be settled by the consideration of the turnings of a number of squares. with Dark-blue. the Bright-blue line would become White. and only the Blue line would remain. Every such section would turn round a point. and then the bounding line opposite to the Blue line would change from Blue-green to Bright-blue. a number of different appearances would be presented to the plane . It would then pass wholly below the plane. It would in time become a Vermilion square. If the turning were continued till half a revolution had been accomplished. The Black square would change into a Light-buff oblong. he would discover what came into his plane as the cube turned round the Blue line. It . and would gradually elongate itself until it be- came as long as the diagonal of the square side of the cube. run right to left. Combining these series of appearances. with a Deep-yellow line opposite to the Blue line. the other lines remaining the same colour. But now it would come up into the plane from underneath. 1 1 to the Black square in the same manner as he had treated the Dark-blue square. only differently disposed with regard to the Blue line. Thus. the Black square would come in again. and Blue sides. Blue-green. instead of running left to right from Gold point. Thus he would treat the cube as a number of squares by taking parallel sections from the Darkblue to the Light-yellow square. As the cube turned. would .being. Genesis of a Cube.

lay above others. if he were really a plane-being. But. in the first case.112 New Era of Thought. and he would Only the one would be find them both quite identical. he would have no idea of thickness in his squares. to the other as if it had been pulled through itself. to him. There would be a difference in respect of the lie of the If the plane-being particles of which it was composed. In this phenomenon of symmetry he would apprehend the difference of the lie of the line. which went in the. unknown direction of up-and-down. . could examine its thickness. he would find that particles which. would be the looking-glass image of the first square. now lay below them.

let the cube rest on the table. while the other bounNext. as all that he can apprehend of the cube. when we look over the edge of the paper. be seen that a section half-way between the Black and White . in whose world there was such a fact as attraction. and away the unknown direction. represent the surface of his earth. and when the cube is fitted into it. the paper. the Orange line will pass to the near side of will . FURTHER APPEARANCES OF A CUBE TO A PLANE. there is to him. To do this. it can it is bounded by a Brown line and a Blue-green line opposite thereto. Let up and sideways be the two dimensions of the plane-being. it it is well to look at would appear to a plane. and the section paper cut out made by the cube in the Such an oblong can be be an oblong.BEING. for a moment as it Dark-blue face is perpendicular in front of a sheet of paper be placed in contact with the Dark-blue square. Let the line where the paper meets Then. the Brown so that us. line. if we take daries are Black and White lines. we see what the plane-being would see. the table. If the cube be turned round the up line.being. its Now. a Dark-blue square standing upright and. Before leaving the observation of the cube. let .CHAPTER II. and regard merely the part in contact with the paper.

114
squares,

New Era

of Thought.

we shall have a square cutting the plane of the aforesaid paper in a single line. With regard to this section, all we have to inquire is, What will take the place of this line as the cube turns ? Obviously, the
line will elongate.

From

a Dark-blue line

it

will

change

to a Light-buff line, the colour of the inside of the
section, and will terminate in a Blue-green point instead of a French-grey. Again, it is obvious that, if the cube

turns round the

Orange

line, it will

give rise to a series

of oblongs, stretching upwards.

continued

till

the cube

is

This turning can be wholly on the near side of the
line remains.

paper, and only the

Orange

And, when

the cube has

made

half a revolution, the Dark-blue
;

square will return into the plane but it will run downwards instead of upwards as at first. Thereafter, if the cube turn further, a series of oblongs will appear, all running downwards from the Orange line. Hence, if all the appearances produced by the revolution of the cube have to be shown, it must be supposed to be raised some distance above the plane-being's earth, so that those appearances may be shown which occur when it is turned round the Orange line downwards, as well
as when it is turned upwards. The unknown direction comes into the plane either upwards or downwards, but there is no special connection between it and either

of these directions.
line

If

it

come

in

upwards, the Brown

; if it come in downwards, goes nearwards or — — Z, the Brown line goes away, or Y. or Let us consider more closely the directions which the

Y

he would have up-andand towards it on the plane of the paper, the surface of his earth being the line where the paper meets the table. Then, if he moved along the surface of his earth, there would only be a line for him to move in, the line running right and
plane-being would have.
Firstly,

down, that

is,

away from

his earth

5

Appearances of a Cube

to

a Plane-Being.

1

1

left. But, being the direction of his movement, he would say it ran forwards and backwards. Thus he would simply have the words up and down, forwards and backwards, and the expressions right and left would have no meaning for him. If he were to frame a notion of a world in higher dimensions, he must invent new words for distinctions not within his experience. To repeat the observations already made, let the cube be held in front of the observer, and suppose the Darkblue square extended on every side so as to form a

plane.

Then

let this

of the Dark-blue square.

plane be considered as independent Now, holding the Brown line

between finger and thumb, and touching its extremities, the Gold and Light-blue points, turn the cube round the Brown line. The Dark-blue square will leave the plane, the Orange line will tend towards the — Y direction, and
the Blue line will finally
in the line

+X

direction.

If

come into the plane we move the cube so

pointing
that the

which leaves the plane runs -l-Y, then the line which befoje ran -t-Y will come into the plane in the direction opposite to that of the line which has left the The Blue line, which runs in the unknown direcplane. tion can come into either of the two known directions of It can take the place of the Orange line the plane. by turning the cube round the Brown line, or the place of the Brown line by turning it round the Orange line. If the plane-being made models to represent these two appearances of the cube, he would have identically the same line, the Blue line, running in one of his known directions in the first model, and in the other of his known directions in the second. In studying the cube
he would find
it

best to turn

it

so that the line of un-

known
sense.

direction ran

in that direction in the positive

In that case, it would come into the plane in the negative sense of the known directions.
.

6
1 1

New Era

of Thought.

Starting with the cube in front of the observer, there

two ways in which the Vermilion square can be brought into the imaginary plane, that is the extension If the cube turn round the of the Dark-blue square. Brown line so that the Orange line goes away, {i.e. +Y), the Vermilion square comes in on the left of the Brown line. If it turn in the opposite direction, the Vermilion square comes in on the right of the Brown line. Thus, if we identify the plane-being with the Brown line, the Vermilion square would appear either behind or before him. These two appearances of the Vermilion square would seem identical, but they could not be made to coincide by any movement in the plane. The diagram (Fig. 5.) shows the difference in them. It is obvious that no turn in the plane could put one in the place of the other, part for part. Thus the plane-being apprehends
are

the reversal of the of his figures.

unknown

direction

by the

disposition

which lay on one side of a line, changed into an identical figure on the other side of it, he could be sure that a line of the figure, which at first
If a figure,

ran in the positive

unknown

direction,

now

ran in the

negative

unknown

direction.

We have dwelt at great length on the appearances, which a cube would present to a plancbeing, and it will be found that all the points which would be likely to cause difficulty hereafter, have been explained in this
obvious case.

There is, however, one other way, open to a planebeing of studying a cube, to which we must attend. This is, by steady motion. Let the cube come into the imaginary plane, which is the extension of the Darkblue square, i.e. let it touch the piece of paper which
is

through

standing vertical on the table. this plane at right angles to

Then
it

let

it

travel

at the rate of an
first

inch a minute.

The

plane-being would

perceive

Appearances of a Cube
a Dark-blue square, that
lines

to

a Plane-Being. 117

is, he would see the coloured bounding that square, and enclosed therein would be what he would call a Dark-blue solid. In the movement of the cube, however, this Dark-blue square would not last for more than a flash of time. (The edges and points on the models are made very large in reality they must be supposed very minute.) This Dark-blue square would be succeeded by one of the colour of the cube's interior, i.e. by a Light-buff square. But this colour of the interior would not be visible to the planebeing. He would go round the square on his plane, and would see the bounding lines, viz. Vermilion, White, Blue-green, Black. And at the corners he would see Deep-yellow, Bright-blue, Crimson, and Blue points. These lines and points- would really be those parts of the faces and lines of the cube, which were on the point of passing through his plane. Now, there would be one difference between the Dark-blue square and the Light;

buff with their
lasted for a flash
all

respective
;

boundaries.

The

first

only

the second would last for a minute or

but a minute. Consider the Vermilion square. It appears to the plane-being as a line. The Brown line But there is a difference also appears to him as a line. between them. The Brown line only lasts for a flash,

whereas the Vermilion line
in this

lasts for a minute.

Hence,

mode

of presentation,

plane-being a lasting line is a plane, and a lasting plane (which
solid) is the

we may say that for a the mode of apprehending
is

mode

of apprehending our solids.
line,

a plane-being's In the

as it passes through his plane, This point lasts for a minute, whereas the Gold point only lasted for a flash.

same way, the Blue

gives rise to a point.

CHAPTER
FOUR-SPACE,

III.

genesis' OF A TESSARACT. ITS REPRESENTATION IN THREE-SPACE.

Hitherto we have only looked at Model r. This, with the next seven, represent what we can observe of the simplest body in Higher Space. few words will explain their construction. point by its motion traces

A

A

a

line.

A line by
;

its

motion traces either a longer
at right angles to its

line

or an area

if it

moves

own

direc-

tion, it traces

we

will

a rectangle. For the sake of simplicity, suppose all movements to be an inch in length

and

traces a line an inch long ; a line
;

Thus, a point moving moving traces a square inch a square moving traces a cubic inch. In these cases each of these movements produces something intrinsically different from what we had before. square is not a longer line, nor a cube a larger square. When the cube moves, we are unable to see any new direction
at right angles to each other.

A

in

can move, and are compelled to make it which has previously been used. Let us suppose there is an unknown direction at right angles to all our known directions, just as a third direction would be unknown to a being confined to the

which

it

move

in a direction

surface of the table.

And

let

the cube

move

in this
it

unknown
traces

direction for an inch.

We

call the figure

a Tessaract.

The models

are representations

shown
of

of the appearances a Tessaract would present to us if in various ways. Consider for a moment what

happens to a square when moved to form a cube.
its lines,

Each
;

moved

in the

new

direction, traces

a square


Four-Space.
the square
in another
itself traces

9

Genesis of a Tessaract.

1 1

square.

a new figure, a cube, which ends Now, our cube, moved in a new

direction, will trace a tessaract,
is

whereof the cube itself the beginning, and another cube the end. These two

cubes are to the tessaract as the Black square and White square are to the cube. plane-being could not see both those squares at once, but he could make models of them and let them both rest in his plane at once. So also we can make models of the beginning and end of the tessaract. Model i is the cube, which is its begining Model 2 is the cube which is its end. It will be noticed that there are no two colours alike in the two models. The Silver point corresponds to the Gold point,

A

;

that

is,

the Silver point

is

the termination of the line

traced by the Gold point moving in the

The

sides correspond in the following

new manner

direction:

I20 New Era Model of Thought. Lines. . I.

and be out of our sight. All the marks of the two squares are identical. if portions of the tessaract. So also with our cube. the tessaract. Take Model 5. the whole figure. then line will us the side. and. as such. But if the tessaract were turned so that the line which runs from the Gold point in the unknown direction lay in our space. let them lie alongside of each other. is the one traced by the Vermilion square moving in the unknown direction. it runs from the X Vermilion square out of our space. runs opposite to the old direction of the Orange line. This Cube 5. at once. There is on it a Vermilion square. of which Cube Cube i will run in the unknown or fourth direction. we could then see the cube which is formed by the movement of the Vermilion square in the new direction. no longer be The Orange Orange line. . and that the line which went in the unknown direction. when the Gold point moves along the visible. we see that there is a Stone line running to the left from the Gold point. in the if unknown 5 is direction. 121 Orange line going upwards then the Brown line comes into the plane of the table in the direction. In Model 5. This line is that which the Gold point traces It is when moving obvious that.Four-Space. Genesis of a Tessaract. the Tessaract turns so as to show a model. But we may we may consider them simply as models. is supposed to be so turned that the Orange line passes into the unknown direction. Place this so that it touches the Vermilion square on Model r. produced by the movement of the cube in the unknown direction. one before us we consider these models as real we must not have more thap When we look at one. In this . As treated above. the others sight must necessarily be beyond our and touch. Hence. and the Orange line lay in the unknown direction. Looking at this new cube. together with the whole cube which the Vermilion square generates.

The square Vermilion traces a Pale-green cube. as it is entirely surrounded by squares and lines of colour. and ends in an Indian-red square.122 case.. so that. any colour may be recognised not those in which by name. when we refer to it. Green „ g .) Each Line traces a Square and ends in a Line. New Era of Thought. we must remember that their real relationships are we see them. (The colour Pale-green of this cube is not seen. We now enumerate the sides of the new Cube 5. The Blue Brown „ „ line\ „ » „ Deep-yellow.

Four-Space.

Genesis of a Tessaract,

123

colour on the left-hand side of Model 2. In fact, Model 5 shows us what lies between the Vermilion face of i,

and the Indian-red face of 2. From the Gold point we suppose four perfectly independent lines to spring forth, each of them at right
angles to
all

room

for three lines

be found, if to each of three, that we fail hence, of these four lines one must go out of the space we know. The colours of these four lines are Brown, Orange, Blue, Stone. In Model i are shown the Brown, Orange, and Blue. In Model S are shown the Brown, Blue, and Stone. These lines might have had any directions at first, but we chose to begin with the Brown line going up, or Z, the Orange going X, the Blue going Y, and the Stone line going in the unknown direction, which we
;

In our space there is onlymutually at right angles. It will we try to introduce a fourth at right angles
the others.

will call

W.

Consider for a moment the Stone and the Orange' They can be seen together on Model 7 by looklines. ing at the lower face of it. They are at right angles to

each other, and

if

the Orange line be turned to take
line,

the place of the Stone

the latter will run into the

negative part of the direction previously occupied

by

This is the reason that the Models 3, 5, and 7 are made with the Stone line always running in the reverse direction of that line of Model i, which is wanting in each respectively. It will now be easy to All that has to be done is, to find out Models 3 and 7. discover what faces they have in common with i and 2, and these faces will show from which planes of i they are generated by motion in the unknown direction.
the former.

Take Model

7.

On
is
i.

one side of
identical
it

it

there

blue square, which

with the
it

square of Model

Placing

so that

a DarkDark-blue coincides with
is

124
I

New Era
this

of Thought.
line,

by

square line for
us
is
2.

we

see that the square

nearest to

Burnt-sienna, the

same

as the near

square on Model

cube is a model of what the Dark-blue square traces on moving in the
this

Hence

unknown

direction.

incides with the negative

Here the unknown direction coaway direction. In fact, to

see this cube,

line turned into the

we havelbeen obliged to suppose the Blue unknown direction, for we cannot

look at more than three of these rectangular lines at

once in our space, and in this Model 7 we have the Brown, Orange, and Stone lines. The faces, lines, and points of Cube 7 can be identified by the following list. The Dark-blue square traces a Dark-stone cube (whose interior is rendered invisible by the bounding squares), and ends in a Burnt-sienna square. Each Line traces a Square and ends in a Line.

The Orange „ Brown

,,

line'\

Azure Yellow
l,Ochre

square
„ „ „
,

Leaf-green
Dull-blue

line

French-grey

,

Yellow-green

Reddish

Dark-pink „ Brown-green „

Each Point
The Gold

traces a Line
Stone
f

and ends
line

in a Point.
Silver

poinfj „
I

point

Fawn
Light-blue

g

I

Smoke
Rich-red


„ „


j

|

1 I

Dull-purple „

j

Green-blue

Turquoise Quaker-green Peacock-blue


If we now take Model 3, we see that it has a Black square uppermost, and has Blue and Orange lines. Hence, it evidently proceeds from the Black square in Model I and it has in it Blue and Orange lines, which proceed from the Gold point. But besides these, it has
;

running downwards a Stone
the

line.

The

line

wanting

is

Brown

line,

and, as in the other cases,
i

the three lines of Model
direction, the

turns out into

when one of the unknown

Stone line turns into the direction opposite to that from which the line has turned. Take

Four-Space.

Genesis of a Tessarad.

125

this Model 3 and place it underneath Model i, raising the latter so that the Black squares on the two coincide line for line. Then we see what would come into our

view

direction,

Bfown line were to turn into the unknown and the Stone line come into our space downwards. Looking at this cubcj we see that the following parts of the tessaract have been generated. The Black square traces a Brick-red cube (invisible because covered by its own sides and edges), and ends
if

the

in a Bright-green square.

Each Line
The Orange

traces a
line'\
,

Square and ends
square\
,.

in a Line.

Azure

Leaf-green Dull-green

line

Crimson
Green-grey Blue

Rose
Seai-blue


,,

,

,,

,

Light-brown

,,

Dark-purple i Purple-brown
in a Point.
^
(

Each Point
The Gold


traces a
point'

Line and ends
Stone
line'\

Silver

point

Fawn
Terra-cotta

Smoke
Magenta
I Light-green

1^1
S
|

Tut'quoise

„ „

1

Earthen

Buff

j

|

(.Blue^tint

This completes the enumeration of the regions of Cube 3. It may seem a little unnatural that it should come in downwards but it must be remembered that the new fourth direction has no more relation to up-anddown than to right-and-left or to near-and-far. And if, instead of thinking of a plane-being as living on the surface of a table, we suppose his world to be the surface of the sheet of paper touching the Dark-blue square of Cube i, then we see that a turn round the Orange line, which makes the Brown line go into the plane-being's unknown direction, brings the Blue line
;

into his

downwards
still

direction.
4, 6, and 8. Model 3 what when 3 is In our

There
It

remain to be described Models
is

will

be shown that Model 4
2
is

to

Model

to

Model

i.

That

is, if,

126

New Era

of Thought.

space, it be moved so as to trace a tessaract, 4 will be the opposite cube in which the tessaract ends. There Similarly, 6 is the is no colour common to 3 and 4.

opposite boundary of the tessaract generated by
8 of that

S,

and

by
at

7.

A
line

little

closer consideration will reveal several points.

Looking
is

Cube
;

S,

we

see proceeding from the Gold
line.

point a Brown, a Blue,

and a Stone
it

wanting
If

therefore,

goes

in

the

The Orange unknown

direction.

we want

to discover

what

exists in the

Orange line lies in the unknown direction from Cube 5, the Gold point will, if moved along the Orange line, pass in the unknown direction. So also, the Vermilion square, if moved along in the direction of the Orange line, will proceed in the unLooking at Cube i we see that known direction.
For, since the

unknown Cube I.

direction from

Cube

5,

we can

get help from

moved ends in a Blue-green Then, looking at Model 6, on it, corresponding to the VermiHon square on Cube S, is a Blue-green
the Vermilion square thus
square.

square.

beyond S Between the right-hand face on 5 and the right-hand face on 6 lies a cube, the one which is shown in Model i. Model i is traced by the Vermilion square moving a;n inch along the direcIn Model S, the Orange line tion of the Orange line. goes in the unknown direction and looking at Model 6 we see what w-e should get at the end of a jhovement of one inch in that direction. We have still to enumerate the colours of Cubes 4, 6, and 8, and we do so in the In the first column is designated the following list. part of the cube in the columns under 4, 6, 8, come the colours which 4, 6, 8, respectively have in the parts
exists an inch
in
; ;

Cube 6 thus shows what the unknown direction.

designated in the corresponding line in the

first

column.

— —— — — —
Four-Space.


Genesis of a Tessaract.


127

Cube

itself:
:

Chocolate

Oak-yellow

Salmon
Sea-blue

Squares
Lower Upper
face

Light-grey

White
Light-red

Rose Deep-brown
Yellow-ochre Blue-green Yellow-green

Left-hand

Right-hand

Near Far
:

Deep-brown Ochre
Deep-green

Deep-green Deep-crimson Dark-grey

Dun
Light-yellow

Dark-grey

Lines On ground, going round the square from
right
1.
:

left

to

2. 3.

4 Brown-green Dark-green
Pale-yellow

6

Smoke
Crimson Magenta
Dull-green

Dark-purple

Magenta
Green-grey
Light-green
left

4.

Dark

Vertical, going
1.

round the sides from
Dark-pink French-grey
Dark-slate Pale-pink

to right

:

2.

3. 4.

Rich-red Green-blue Sea-green

Indigo Pale-pink Dark-slate

Emerald

Green
:

Round upper
1.

Reddish
Bright-blue

face in same order Green-blue
Bright-blue

2.

Pale-yellow Sea-green

3. 4.

Leaden
Deep-yellow
:

Sea-green Dark-green

Leaden Emerald

Points

On
1.

lower face, going from

left to right

2.
3.

4.

Quaker-green Peacock-blue Orange-vermilion Purple

Turquoise

Blue-tint

Fawn
Terra-cotta

Earthen
Terra-cotta

Earthen

Buff

On
1.

upper face

:

Light-blue

Peacock-blue
Dull-purple

Purple
Orange-vermilion Deep-blue

2. 3.

Dull-purple

Deep-blue

4.

Red

Deep-blue Orange-vermilion

Red

128

New Era

of Thought.

If any one of these cubes be taken at random, it is easy enough to find out to what part of the Tessaract it belongs. In all of them, except 2, there will be one this face is, in face, which is a copy of a face on i fact, identical with the face on i which it resembles. And the model shows what lies in the unknown This unknown direction is direction from that face. turned into our space, so that we can see and touch the result of moving a square in it. And we have sacrificed one of the three original directions in order to do this. It will be found that the line, which in i goes in the 4th direction, in the other models always runs in a negative direction. Let us take Model 8, for instance. Searching it for a face we know, we come to a Light-yellow face away from us. We place this face parallel with the Lightyellow face on Cube i, and we see that it has a Green line going up, and a Green-grey line going to the right from the Buff point. In these respects it is identical with the Light-yellow face on Cube i. But instead of a Blue line coming towards us from the Buff point, there is a Light-green line. This Light-green line, then, is that which proceeds in the unknown direction from the Buff point. The line is turned towards us in this
;

Model

8 in the negative

Y

direction

;

and looking

at

the model, we see exactly what is formed when in the motion of the whole cube in the unknown direction,
the Light-yellow face
It traces
is

moved an inch
{v.

in that direction.

Table on p. 127), and it has Sea-blue and Deep-green sides below and above, and Deep-crimson and Dark-grey sides left and right, and Dun and Light-yellow sides near and far. If we want to verify the correctness of any of these details, we must turn to Models i and 2. What lies an inch from
the Light-yellow

out a Salmon cube

square in the

unknown

direction

.'

Four-Space. and we can see what lies between it and the Light-yellow see that towards us lies a square. Genesis of a Tessaract. 1 29 Model 2 tells us. Dun . a Dun square. looking square. Now. we This is what lies an inch in the unknown direction from the Lightyellow square. at 8. It is here turned to face us.

10. We can see what they the plane sections of the cube. simply the boundaries of the tessaract in our space . is. Take the case of a plane-being on the table. — —that . If i be moved an inch in the unknown direction. it traces a new kind of figure. sees the Black square. it traces out the But. 11. these are all like Model 9.CHAPTER IV. obviously. He he sees the lines round and he knows that. MODELS OF THE SECTIONS. But the best way of obtaining a systematic knowledge is shown hereWhat these models enable us to do. a certain amount of familiarity with the facts shown in these models is necessary. 2 there must be an infinite number of exactly similar solid sections . TESSARACT MOVING THROUGH THREE-SPACE. But between these squares are any number of others. then. In all of them we see general review of the subject. mysterious direction. the If. opposite boundary whereof is the White square. Model 9 represents what lies between i and 2. we can no more see or touch the tessaract's solidity than a plane-being can touch the cube's solidity. is to take a after. he has before him the end and beginning of our cube. There remain the four models 9. 12. he has models of the White and Black squares. between i and tessaract and ends in 2. In order to obtain a clear conception of the higher solid. if it moves an inch in some it.

Green points. the Gold point a Stone one. the Vermilion square forms in its course a series of . Vermilion lines. Dark-blue. the Light-blue point a Rich-red one. until. 122). We will look at Cube 5 to see what the Vermilion face becomes we know the interior of that cube is Pale-green {^. French-grey. be a cube at any point of its motion. Moving in Three-Space. Light-yellow. Now. as it moves The left side is an exact in the unknown direction. Thus. copy of a section of Cube 5. p. the sides are of the colours of the vertical faces of the cube. Looking at Cube 5. and Brown. The Brown line gives its rise Yellow square . it face. and the points of the colours of the vertical lines of the cube. on taking becomes a Dull-blue line. the square. parallel to the Vermilion the fourth direction. traces out a succession of squares. viz. and the Buff point a Light-green one. Pale-green squares. Its colour between i and 2 we can easily determine by finding what colours its different parts assume. as they move in the unknown direction. So also the cube. take the Model 9. Table. . its final position. The Gold point immediately begins to trace a Stone-line. moving in the in unknown still direction. Dark-slate. we see exactly that into which the Vermilion square is transformed. Hence. will . and the assemblage of cubes thus placed constitutes the tessaract in layers. we see that the Deep yellow line becomes a Light-red line. as it moves in the unknown direction. the Red point an Emerald one. at every point of to a course in it is a Yellow line. We suppose the cube to change its colour directly it begins to move. moving in the unknown direction.Tessaract are.. 131 The interior of each is a Light-buff (the colour of the substance of the cube). the Green line a Deep Crimson one. the assemblage of which makes the cube in layers. Blue-green. hence. Looking at the left side of it.

then. and Light-brown lines. is the line in the It is unknown direction. it Therefore. But we have only accounted for one side of our Model 9. Now. Smoke in the unknown direction from it. or. Green-blue. Table. so far as the Vermilion and Dark-blue sides are concerned. the lower square of Model 9 shows what the Black square becomes. 124). moving in the unknown direction. it traces a Darkstone cube. in other words. and the Greengrey line a Sea-blue square. and Dark-blue square begins to move. Smoke.. Magenta. that is to the tessaract what . This. it appears that Model 9 it is a model of a section of the tessaract. Azure lines and Stone. the section of Model 3 between the Black and Bright-green squares exactly corresponds to the lower face of Model 9. a Brick-red square. has these colours the squares being seen as lines. the Crimson line a Rose. which faces us. Rich-red. which downwards. Sea-blue. and with Stone. Hence. is what the Black square should change into. and the lines as points. with Azure. Rose. When the Dark-blue square moves. and has Yellow. will now look at the lower square of our model. There are five other sides. and Light-green points. we see that. when. p. as it moves in the unknown direction. Let us look at Model 3. 132 A New Era of Thought. the Blue line a Light-brown. sides. of which we have a copy in Cube 7. The colour of this cube Brick-red the Orange line has traced an Azure. runs turned into the downwards direction. Yellow-green. Take the near side corresponding to the Dark. as traces the tessaract . Ochre. it running traces the tessaract. Hence Model 9 is a copy of what the cube becomes. as soon as the it becomes of a Darkstone colour. the side of Model 9. Looking at 7 {v. Here the Stone We is It line.blue square on Cube i. so that the cube traced in by the Black square may be is our space.

Magenta. If we take a parallel section below the White square.' To and by Rich-red. Sea-green. and therefore its section is Chocolate. instead of the whole cube. and a section parallel to its Blue-green side is surrounded by Yellow-green. Smoke. Magenta. that which becomes of right side of Model 9. What the Blue-green square becomes midway between Cubes i and 2 can be seen on Model 6. and Sea-green points. we have to see what Blue-green. The colour of the last-named is Oak-yellow. the changes through which any side of the first model passes. There still remain two sides. as the cube moves in the unknown direction. to prove the other sides correct. we have a square bounded by Ochre. The section of the cube is a Salmon square bounded by Deepcrimson. Deep-green. Deep-green. From the Light-blue corner of its White square runs downwards the Rich-red line in the unknown direction. 133 is a square between the Black and White squares the cube. the Light-yellow side can be seen on Model 8. The colour of the cube is Chocolate. and the relation of the whole lines . Green-blue. and Light-green points. a plane. and Emerald points. This can be effected by means of the Models Each cube can be used as an index for showing 4. those corresponding to the Light-yellow and Blue-green of Cube i. This description is exactly true of the upper surface of Model 9. This is exactly similar to the Lastly. Thus the models can be used to answer any question about sections. Deep-brown. Dark-grey and Sea-blue lines and by Emerald.Tessaract Moving in Three-Space. Thus. . and Light-red . Sea-green. 6. 8. the White. and Light-yellow squares of Cube I become. For we have simply to take. Deep-brown. Darkgrey and Rose lines and by Green-blue. what becomes of the White square Look at Cube 4. as it moves in the unknown direction till it becomes Cube 2.

We have not as yet settled the colour of the interior of Model 9. Cubes 5 and 6. viz.134 A New Era of Thought. Thus the section between i and 2 can be found by its wanting the colours of the Cubes i and 2. 3. by looking at the model. 11. The sides of the They are the and 8. changes to a Wood-colour directly it begins to trace direction starts equally the tessaract Then 2 will the internal part of the section be- tween I and be a Wood-colour. Light-buff and Sage-green. Let us suppose that the cube. starting with that plane. It is that part of the tessaract which is tessaract to that plane can be told traced out by the interior of Cube i. The colours and 2 are wanting. just as the up direction starts equally and simultaneously from every point of a square. . which is Lightbuff. Model 9 are of the of I greatest importance. the reader will find they represent the sections between Cubes 3 and 4. 6. The unknown and simultaneously from every point of every part of Cube i. 7. Looking at Models 10. 5. 4. and 12 in a similar manner. which. colour of the six cubes. stretches from it in the unknown direction. and Cubes 7 and 8 re- spectively.

O. The cubes are which form Set i of the 81 cubes. coloured. vicious about it —we have been The trusting to our sense of this subject. plan adopted. 6) represents a block of 27 cubes. In the diagram. or if the subject is to be taught to young minds. They . Brown. AND IN A PLANE. and to learn what it is from the following chapters. which will serve as a key to the block. Fawn. Indeed. is to learn what must be. and it will be seen that the colours are arranged after the pattern of Model i of previous chapters. we have been trusting hitherto to a method which has something . F. The diagram (Fig. Naming a Piece of Space.CHAPTER V. G. We will give names to the cubes of this block. a If any reader feel a diffi- culty in the foregoing chapters. Br. it is far better to abandon all attempt to see what higher space must be. Orange. as the serious effort towards the comprehension of small portion of higher space. and so on. REPRESENTATION OF THREE-SPACE BY NAMES. We may now ask ourselves the best way of passing on to a clear comprehension of the facts of higher space. Something can be effected by looking at these models but it is improbable that more than a slight sense of analogy will be obtained thus. denotes Gold.

but kept for reference. We will write these names in three sets. and the central one below. and the third of those at the top.'36 A New Era of Thought. the Orange. the lowest consisting of the cubes which touch the table. the Fawn. should not be learnt. Syce. The corresponding colours of the following set can easily be traced. Thus the Gold cube is called Corvus. Cuspis. Olus . the next of those immediately above them. Nugae.

.

.

Three-Space by Names. i 137 . and in a Plane.

Next. the interior of the cube. Proes. It must be remembered that these faces have a thickness. but it is extremely minute compared with the cube. which compose the faces. Finally. will consist of 98 times 98 times 98 inch cubes. and the corner cubes and line cubes would be scarcely discernible. and points. Thus. in comparison to the whole block. the Gold point is intended to be a Corvus. be a similar square layer of cubes on the ground. to denote the cornerpoints of the cube. with which we began. Mala would denote all the cubes of the interior except those. Alvus. For instance. and places. Alvus. the words Mcena. Murex. and faces of a cube. Murex in their respective Mala. as shown in the diagram (Fig. but magnified for the same reason. the cubes of which it consists must each of them become extremely minute. be a minute point of a cubic shape. 9). and Cuspis would be a mere line of minute cubes. They would form a layer of extreme thinness. come to be the names of the points. to denote the faces. if we suppose this much sub-divided block to be reduced in size till it be- comes one measuring an inch each way. but very small depth or height. With .138 will A New Era of Thought. the 27 names of cubes. if we continued in this manner till we had a very large block of thousands of cubes in each side Corvus would. etc. Syce. Thus we may use the words Corvus and Nugae. only it is made large to be visible so too the Orange line is meant for Cuspis. lines. the cubes composing Moena would stretch out on the face of the cube so as to fill it up. And it is in this sense that these words will be used. Now. Proes. but would cover the face of the cube (all of it except the minute lines and points). which would have length.. Mel. In the models. Mala would practically mean the whole cube except the colouring on it. so also Mel. edges. But the cubes on the faces would be just as visible as before. .

. 13S.[Tofacep.

.

Sors. and we suppose Moena to be of that degree of thickness. If the latter set be used. to denote the front. in which case each cube has its regions coloured. and Ilex. that is. only of the thickness of his matter. be built of 27 cubes. To him they would bound it. Thus a plane-being can only perceive the Mcena or Syce or some one other face of a cube . Far. Or it may be built of 27 differently coloured cubes like Set i. Now. and build them from i to 27. Callis. while all that is beyond them in the direction he does not know. We suppose his matter to be composed of particles. Cuspis. and that is so slight as to be indiscernible to him. Far. they will be like bits of his matter. 139 easy to express what a plane-being Let us suppose that McEna is. these names it and in a Plane. each similar to Model i. he would not see. Alvus. It may clearly that two kinds of blocks can be built. Callis. Corvus. and are so thin that he cannot by any means any thickness in them. will be hidden from him. discern Arctos will just come into his apprehension.. we can still use the names Mcena. let us take the first set of 8 1 cubes We must realize again. The points Corvus. . Arctos. If the cube be placed so that Mcena is in his plane. Nugse. for they are only as long as the thickness of his matter. but are supposed to be as thin as a planebeing's matter. side.Three-Space by Names. but all the cubes are alike. Sors. he would take the Moena of a cube to be a solid in his plane-space. Nugae. which slip about on is would see of any cube. But we know that his matter must have some thickness. etc. in which case each cube is coloured wholly with one colour in all its regions. Ilex and his plane. and he would see the lines Cuspis. So he has no idea of thickness. etc. We must now go with great care through the exact processes by which a plane-being would study a cube. For this purpose we use square slabs which have a certain thickness. of any one of the cubes.

Uncus behind it. and Ala behind Uncus. In previous chapters we have supposed Moena to be a Blue square. Frenuni Mala in the is behind or farther away than Urna Mala second layer. whatever be its colour. is Gold. < ( Mala Frenum Mala Urna Mala Hama Mala Plebs Mala Remus Mala Saltus Moles Mala Sypho Mala Mala These names should be learnt so that the different cubes in the block can be referred to quite easily and .140 A New Era of Thought. Ostrum is in front. But we can apply the name to the front of a cube of any colour. to the cubes of Block i of each one Mala. to denote that it is a cube. in the first layer. Top Floor. or ( < (. To represent this. Third. First. When they are built up. or another sheet of cardboard. place a piece of card against the front to represent the plane on which the plane-being lives. and so on. Thus. We call . Let us say the Moena of each front cube is in the plane the Mcena of the Gold cube . The front of each of the cubes in the front of the block touches the plane. will We now give names the 81 Set. which stands of the same colours as the cubes. or ( < ' Ala Mala Uncus Mala Ostrum Mala Sector Mala Mala Bidens Mala Cortis Aer Mala Pallor Tergum Mala Scena Mala ( Bottom Floor.Middle Floor. or . and put the slabs on it. take nine slabs stiff piece of cardboard (or a book-cover) slanting from you. They can be supported on the incline so as to prevent their slipping down away from you by a thin book. and are supposed to run backwards or away from the reader. Spicula Mars Mala Mala Comes Mala Merces Mala Mora Mala Tibicen Mala Tyro Mala Oliva Mala Vestis Mala Second. They are written in the following list in floors or layers. Place a for the surface of the plane-being's earth.

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141. . \_Toface p.-z -XUrna MoUi Ostrunt FglO.

nearer the eye. Urna Comes and the same reversed. us turn the Block of cubes with its front . so that the plane of the diagram slopes upwards to the reader. Only by so learning them can the mind identify any one individually without even a . viz. in Space the same limitations. Urna Mala is supposed . and in a Plane. Urna to Saltus. and therefore more convenient if the cardboard be so inclined that they will not slip off. and so on. 141 immediately by name. it is well to accustom our minds to For. let us be identified with Z. of Plebs Mala Black. a rule not to proceed from one cube to a distant one without naming the intermediate cubes.. e. taking the slabs. But the upward direction must Now. . In this diagram the top of the page is supposed to rest on the table. And. we cannot pass from one part to another without going through the intermediate portions. Urna to Sector. so that Urna fits upon the square marked Urna. to be solid Gold an inch each way so too all the cubes are supposed to be entirely of the colour which they section of Moles show on their faces. in each of the three directions backwards to and forwards. etc. Let Z denote the upward Let upon this slope i. Comes to Urna. and X the direction from left to right. Let us now draw a pair of lines on a piece of paper or cardboard like those in the diagram (Fig. It is difficult to fix the cubes in this position on the plane. in thinking of Space. that is. We might leave the block as it stands and put the piece of cardboard against it in this case our plane-world would be vertical. Moles will be to the right and Ostrum above Urna. i. and the bottom of the page to be raised and brought near the eye. Thus any Mala will be Orange. •direction.e. momentary to make it It is well reference to the others around it. They must be learnt in every order.g.e. 10). Sector to Urna.Three-Space by Names.

He would perceive just the front faces of the cubes of the Block. Thus. that is. whose names we write in the order in which we should see them through a piece of glass standing upright in front of the Block plane-being as a : Spicula Mala Uncus Mala Frenum Mala Mora Mala Mala Plebs Mala Pallor Oliva Mala Tergum Mala Sypho Mala We pick out nine slabs to represent the these cubes. In other words. and he would If the Block see the edges of the eight outer squares. of its corresponding cube. seen by the are all Urna Gold like the front face the appearance of Urna at line. Let each of the . Bidens Moena. so that any point in its passage will be a Gold square exactly like Urna Moena. Remove the front layer of cubes. a different set of cubes appears. We thus build a square of nine slabs to represent the appearance to a plane-being of the front face of the Block. to cut through the piece of paper at right angles to it. it will not for some time appear any different. When the Block has passed one inch. if the speed of the Block's passage be one inch a minute. For the sections of Moena. this set of slabs lasting one minute will represent what he sees. The middle one. the plane-being will see no change for a minute. the Gold slab of the Gold cube and so on. They are thicker than they should be but we must overlook this and suppose we simply see the thickness as a line. slabs represent the Moena .142 A New Era of Thought. as it comes into his plane these front faces we may call the Moenas of the cubes. There will now be in contact with the paper nine new cubes. would be completely hidden from him by the others on all its sides. and placed in order they Moenas of show what the . compose what a plane-being would see of the Block. now begin to move through the plane.

the fourth set representing the Murex of the third wall for the three sets only show the front faces We . be the three sets of slabs. a second point at the same corner of the Light-buff slab. have the points mapped at which the line entered should the fronts of the walls of cubes. In that case.Three-Space by Names. the first set of slabs. we write their names Mars Mala Ala Mala Sector Mala Merces Mala Cortis Hama Mala Mala Tyro Mala Aer Mala Remus Mala Now. can imagine them to stand for the Moena of each cube as it passes through. The line in question. and a third Thus. the reader must set the top of the page on the table. To see the diagrams properly. For some purposes it would be better to have four sets of slabs. represents the Moenas of the front wall of cubes the next set. For instance. the Moenas of the second wall. we at the same corner of the Deep-blue slab. and look along the page from the bottom of it. and therefore would not indicate anything about the back faces of the Block. and looking at them similarly. Thus. but not the point in Lama at which it would leave the Block. if a line passed through the Block diagonally from the point Corvus (Gold) to the point Lama (Deep-blue). it would be represented on the slabs by a point at the bottom left-hand corner of the Gold slab. 11). 143 plane-being sees of the second set of cubes as they pass through. of the cubes. we have a representation of the sections of the cube. 3 (Fig. Let the Diagrams i. it is evident that these slabs stand at different times for different parts of the cubes. and in a Plane. as it were through an upright piece of : glass. Similarly the third wall of the Block will come into the plane. 2. if all the three sets of slabs be together on the table. . which . which we put up.

because all that he learns are Moenas. he can represent the Block more nearly. He ought not Urna Mala. if we had another Block of 27 cubes behind the first Block and represented its front or Moenas by a set of slabs. 7 those of the third. But to get the planebeing's view we must look over the edge of the glass down the Z axis. and now they come in on the Alvus A . If we suppose a sheet of glass to be the plane-world.144 A New Ei'a of Thought. therefore. 3 (Fig. By introducing the course of time. could get an idea of the Block of cubes by learning these slabs. and so on.. /3.he may give the name Urna Mala to the Gold slab enduring for a minute. merely the to call the Gold slab thin faces of the cubes. Set 2 of slabs represent the Moenas of Wall 2. jS those of the second. set of object might be attained. as Model i turns round the Brown line. 2. if he supposes it to be passing an inch a minute. slabs for the Murex of the third wall we need a fourth the same . the Diagrams i. at which the line leaves the first Block is identical with that at which it enters the second Block. But. These Moenas are in contact with the Murex of Wall i. but Urna Moena. For. he has only a very partial view of the Block. when he has learnt the slabs in this position and sequence. Here a represents the Moenas of the first wall. 12). B. runs from the bottom left-hand near corner to the top right-hand far corner of the Block will be represented in To comthe three sets of slabs by the points A. For the point. Thus Set 2 will show where the line issues from Wall i as well as where it enters Wall 2. 7 (Fig. different set of cubes comes into his plane. may be drawn more naturally to us as Diagrams a. 11). plete the diagram of its course. C. Let the Block turn round the Z axis. The plane-being.

Ar >X 0) Z .

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.g. (I) (2) (3) [To face f.O Sfcfcr TTcnum Urna -X M#rc« Mot* TibtctK Tyro 01i« Vlttil (I) (z) ^3) 13 F. -Z -z -z Urn-a MoUs &iltvs Oltrun Bi(l«ns 5c(na Co77I« Vnlis. 145.

This corresponds to turning Model i round the Orange line. 145 (AlvLis is here used to denote the left-hand faces . the plane-being should employ a fresh set of slabs. Tyro. we now see that the of the cubes. On referring to the diagram (Fig. for there is nothing common to the Moena and Alvus faces except an edge. 13). which ran Y. faces. it is clear that they will be on the side of the Z axis opposite to that on which were the Moena slabs. axis. 13). Oliva. since each cube is of the same colour throughout. there will come into view the two sets of slabs represented in the Diagrams (Fig. OZ must run up to the eye.) To represent this. as before. the book is supposed to be tilted up towards the reader. Each of these slabs we will name Alvus. and . the lower face comes into the vertical plane. and in a Plane. Now. There is another view of the Block possible to a planeIf the Block be turned round the being. the cardboard on which they are arranged must slant upwards to the eye. Mora. now runs —X. if the Block be passed at right angles through the plane. so that the Z axis runs from O to his eye..Three-Space by Names. and is not identical with the same slab used for Moena. the upper edges of Tibicen. I4). when the Block of cubes has turned round the Brown line into the plane. the same slab may be used for its different faces. In copying this arrangement with the slabs. Only it must never be forgotten that it is meant to be a new slab. 13). Merces in Diagram 3. But. and the sides of the slabs seen are in Diagram 2 (Fig.e. Thus the Alvus of Urna Mala can be represented by a Gold slab. Then. The line. In this view. as shown in the diagram (Fig. i. the upper edges of Vestis. Thus the slabs will occupy the second quadrant marked by the axes. is not supposed to be Vermihon it is simply the thinnest slice on the left hand of the cube and of the same colour as the cube. X L .

But the plane-being could only arrive at this fact by comparing different views. this same Pallor Mala can appear to him as an Alvus. cubic Block. In this case. represent different parts of the cube. which he sees run from — Z direction. takes the place of Uncus Alvus. . and Cortis Alvus by lines. Mala Moena Mora Moena. and Tergum Moena by lines. there are three distinct ways of regarding the and if the plane-being is to have a correct idea of the Block. Mora Alvus. if the Block moves.) the Block be passed shown in Next. Bidens Alvus. if through the plane. Similarly he can observe the Syce of the Block be in his plane. of the of the faces of the cubes coming into the plane Here the plane-being looks from the extremity axis and the squares. Hence. he can see that Pallor touches Plebs Moena. it him in the its brings is evident that the turn is only possible if the Moena be originally at a height of at least three inches above the plane-being's earth line in the vertical plane. By means of the slabs each aspect can be represented but we must remember in each of the three cases. it touches Plebs Alvus. And it takes the place of Bidens Moena. each of them equally primary Thus.146 A New Z Era of Thought. Uncus Moena. that the slabs . this unknown body Pallor Mala appears to . is name Syce. and is itself displaced by Cortis Moena as the Block passes through the plane. Next. the sections the Diagrams 2 and 3 (Fig. and is itself displaced by Tergum Alvus as the relations. we touches six other cubes by its six faces. 14) are brought into view. (As this turn of the Block Syce into the vertical plane so that it extends three inches below the base line of its Moena. he must be equally familiar with each view. look at the cube Pallor Mala in space. Taking the three Moena secsee that it When we tions of the Block.

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-X Urna Ma1<« Mol«« Utnt Moms BiJeu Mocnt Mo«M BtdeiU Mo/ti4 Mociu TllcMK Fi«f5 '5- %'& z [To /ace ^. . 147.

Tibicen Moena (Fig. its disposition with regard to the Z axis. Bidens Mala. . the same Moena sides come in again. 16) shows what he will see. 147 him now as one plane-figure now as another. Now let the Block be turned round the Z axis. Moles Mala. Urna Moena. 15) in every respect except . which he does not know in his world. The way for him to form this mental conception. afford him by its various movements and In our world these various relations are found by the most simple observations but a plane-being could only acquire them by considerable labour. Bidens : Moena. and comes before him in different connections. Tibicen Mala. The mass of the Block will now have cut through the plane and be on the near side of it towards us but the Moena faces only will be on the plane-being's side of it. is to go through all the practical possibilities which Pallor . Pallor Mala is that which satisfies all these relations. so that it goes past the position. And if he determined to obtain a knowledge of the physical existence of a higher world than his own. in which the Alvus sides enter the vertical plane. Let us build up this shape with the cubes of the Blocji Urna Mala. The diagram (Fig. To the plane-being this shape would be the slabs. opposite to that of the first figure. 15). It lies in the direction —X. he must pass through such discipline. Let it move until. if at all. How- ever much he turn these two figures about in the plane. Moles Moena. passing through the plane. We will see what change could be introduced into the shapes he builds by the movements. and it will seem to him similar to the first shape (Fig. in turn present to sense Pallor Mala itself Mala would turns.Three-Space by Names. . grow up in his mind. and in a Plane. Each of them he can but the total conception of can only.

Turning round a line is a process unknown to him.148 A New Era of Thought. will be the conception of a kind of turning which will change his solid bodies into for part. part Hence it appears that. if we turn the planebeing's figure about a line. A their own images. . Therefore one of the elements in a plane-being's knowledge of a space higher than his own. it undergoes an operation which is to him quite mysterious. he cannot make one occupy the place of the other. He cannot by any turn in his plane produce the change in the figure prolittle observation will show that a duced by us. plane-being can only turn round a point.

Mora Alvus. the in Syce side would order :— and the cubes appear Syce. THE MEANS BY WHICH A PLANE-BEING WOULD ACQUIRE A CONCEPTION OF OUR FIGURES. Plebs Syce the Urna Syce. . and the figure built up as would be in that disposition of the cubes.. the plane-being would perceive during its passage through the plane (i) Urna Alvus (2) Moles Alvus. Again. Pallor Alvus. the plane-being would perceive : (i) (2) The The squares Urna Moena and Moles Moena. Pallor Mala:. three squares Plebs figure Mora Moena. axis. If this shape. passed through the vertical plane. following (i) (2) if the Block were turned round the enter. Take the Block of twenty-seven Mala cubes. Plebs Mala. Moles Mala. and then the whole his plane. — CHAPTER VI. and build up the following shape (Fig. i8) Urna Mala. X axis. which would all enter on the left side of the Z : . If the would have passed through till it whole Block were turned round the Z axis the Alvus sides entered. Moena. Pallor Moena. Moles Pallor Syce (3) Mora Syce. Plebs Alvus. : Mora Mala. — — .

On this plate let the axes A X and tive parts. to receive the faces of the cubes instance. negative negative positive axis (which axis.: — — 15° A New Era of Thoiight. The Block appears in these different quarters or quad- turned round the different axes. Let us now suppose a glass plate placed in front of the Block in its first position. In each quadrant are drawn nine squares. They divide the surface into four which we give the following names (Fig. in Z X we have the when they Moenas of : enter. in Z the Alvus faces. ZX = that X X X be drawn. For Z Comes Ostrum Tibicen Bidens Vestis Scena Saltus Urna Moles of X And in Z X we have the Alvus Mars . called " Z negative X ZX = that ZX = that rants. comparison of these three sets of appearances would give the plane-being a full account of the figure. the Moenas appear. in In Z X X ZX the Syces. 17) = that quarter defined by the positive Z and posi: Z quarter defined by the positive is Z and "). It is that which can produce these various appearances. to ZX X axis. as it is quarter defined by the negative quarter defined Z and by the negative Z and axis.

r'so. .Al vus Moend -X Jyces Rgy -Z [ To face ^.

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19 \Tiifocep.^.r~L fl/ -X (1) %'8 f^) f 2 2 -X r/) r^) (3) r. 151. .

The projections (Fig. This view. conclude that the shape was Urna Mala. he should be able to construct the figure from which they are derived. This is what is the When same shape is so as to be projected on the — X X but we have set it in a which it is usually drawn. is that there is a cube somewhere in the Y. All that a square in the room of Bidens Moena denotes. 151 Now. . 19) are drawn below the perspective pictures of the shape From the front. from that in . Moles Moena. Plebs Syce. if the shape taken at the beginning of this chapter be looked at through the glass. Bidens Mala.Plane-Being' s Conception of our Figures. just mentioned. Spicula Alvus. the square Bidens Moena might be filled by either Pallof or Cortis. Z quadrant. Uncus Alvus. direction from Bidens Moena. Tibicen Mala or instead of these. Urna Syce. and projected on Z X. Y turned round on the Z axis. Tibicen Moena. It is obvious that one projection does not give the shape. Moles Syce. To see it like a plane-being. Bidens Moena. we have the squares Urna Alvus. When it is turned round the axis. would be to practise the realization of them from their different proThus. For instance. we should have to look down on it along the Z axis. if they be treated as close up to the glass we get a plane outline. 18). or Moena view. we should call the front view in our space we are then looking at it along the negative axis. he would (Fig. Moles Mala. we have the squares. . squares Urna Moena. and the distance of the second and third walls of the shape behind the glass be considered of no account that is. or unknown. or also ordinarily called the ground plan different position . and no more. the best method for a plane-being of familiarizing himself with shapes in our space. Frenum Alvus. just taken. This outline is called a pro- — — jection of the figure. Now. given the three projections jections in his plane. which occupies the.

and he tarily in his space. Pallor. and build them up in cubes before us. we projections. any of the cubes running in the is. he would infer the possible of Urna. Mora. Pallor. Plebs. Uncus. from the Moena pro: jection he might infer the presence of all the following cubes (the word Mala is omitted for brevity) Urna. in addition to them. Frenum. Mora. which is usually there. Frenum. Bidens. in Urna. Spicula. Secondly. Tergum. we . Comes. Tibicen. Pallor. possibilities intersected that of the we should Moena possibilities . Moles. Hama. Sypho. Saltus. though invisible to him as wholes. when he had experience of the cubes (which. should think of the possibilities involved in the Moena view. Mora. the Alvus view or projection might be given by the cubes (the word Mala being again omitted) Urna. It can be determined. Tibicen. the shape in higher space. Moles. looking at the : ground plan or Syce view. we should proceed in this way. And by this process the planebeing could arrive at the enumeration of the cubes which belong to the shape of which he had the projections. Sector. Plebs. Bidens. Moles. Frenum. Y direction from the plane. Plebs. Cortis. taking the shape at the beginning of the chapter. might comprehend the shape they expressed fragmenTo practise the realization from First. Moles. After a time. Merces. Pallor. by rejecting those cubes which are not present in all three lists of cubes possible from the projections. or. Next. the projections would have more meaning to him. Mora words. Plebs. in other Thirdly. Oliva Lastly. therefore. these cubes are common to both. Now. Ostrum.152 A New Era of That Thought. is that which is common to all these three appearances. build up the cubes possible from the Alvus Again. he presence could see part by part in turn entering his space). we should find that the shape of the Alvus view.

Tibicen and the possibilities from them are Urna. Syce possibilities are present in the Moena Hence. This absence of Frenum and Sector in the Syce view proves that their presence in the Moena solution is superfluous. the Alvus projection we see that Ostrum. Mora. Cortis. Plebs. Bidens. and Sector. Hama. Tibicen. Moles. Saltus. which in it would produce Frenum. The absence of and Mars has no effect on our Moena-Syce solution as it does not contain any of their Alvus possibilities. 153 should build up the Syce possibilities. Moles. what cubes are to be cut as before. Pallor. we should find Urna. Comes. Pallor. Now. since their presence in the original shape . we have in the Moena projection Urna. Ala. may be in aptly called the Moena-Syce solution. But the absence of Ostrum and Comes proves in the Moena-Syce solution Bidens and Tibicen are that Sector. and. This any of their solution. The projections. as neither they nor Mora. Mora. Tibicen. Sector.: Plane. projection as an indication of Taking the same shape . Plebs. are not in the shape. Hama. Plebs. The absence of Remus. Mars are absent. This may aptly be called the Moena solution. determination of the figure denoted by the three may be more easily effected by treating each away. Pallor. and not present in the Syce view. makes no difference. from the Syce projection. Saltus. superfluous. Sypho. Merces. Ala. Sector. of the Syce view coinciding with the same cubes of the other views. Remus. Bidens. Moles.Beings Conception of our Figures. Cortis. Sypho. we learn at once that those cubes. Bidens. Frenum. . Merces. The absence of Hama removes the possibility of Hama. comparing their shape with those of the Moena and Alvus projections. Moles. Now. being Frenum. the only cube present in the intersection of the Moena and Alvus possibilities. the result of comparison of the Moena and Syce projections and possibilities is the shape Urna.

correall the details of solution written above. Thus we arrive at the Moena-Alvus-Syce solution. but as the sum of all possible shapes. The projections studied in this chapter are . some information about the Block implied in that position but it is so mixed with information about ourselves as to be ineffectual knowledge of the Block. Plebs. It is of the highest importance to enter minutely into For. to be familiar with the Block. Every cube of the Block ought to be thoroughly known in all its relations. It will be obvious on trial that a shape can be instantly recognised from its three projections. Pallor. but only one particular relation of the Block to us. would give Ostrum and Comes in the Alvus projection. there is an operation. In fact. we ought to make an exhaustive study of it. Moles. Any shapes comes from the arbitrary habit of associating the cubes with some one direction in which they happen to go with regard to us. There is. if the Block be : thoroughly well known in all three positions. if in our turn we would enter into some comprehension of a world higher than our own. And the Block must be regarded. not as a formless mass out of which shapes can be made. and in various kinds of prodifficulty in the realization of the . we are not remembering the Block. That position of Ostrum is a fact as much related to ourselves as to the Block. in other words. In the Appendix is given a set of exercises in the use of these names (which form a language of shape). If we remember Ostrum as above Urna. from which any one we may choose is a selection.154 A New Era of Thought. Mora. jections. we ought to know every shape that could be made by any selection of its cubes or. which gives us the shape Urna. sponding to every operation necessary to a plane-being for the comprehension of our world. . with which we have to become familiar. of course.

Plane. Hence. projections by which a plane-being would study higher space. we only have to rearrange the slabs. and form others for himself. There are three sets o? them. they represent the views of the three To walls of the Block. If the reader will go through the exercises in the Appendix. Similarly. sets. it appears that the plane-being would study our space by taking all the possible combinations of the corresponding rows and columns. 155 not the only. column of each of the set is formed by taking middle cojumns of the three Moena sets. But they suffice as an illustration of our present purpose. form the Alvus view. . can be regarded as forming rows and If we take columns.Being s Conception of our Figures. by means of slabs. The first new set is formed by taking or left-hand.into other sets. He would break up the first three sets. as they pass through the plane. nor the most natural. The cubes of the Block. the second or The third will consist of the remaining or right-hand columns of the Moenas. Moena The second Alvus these various arrangements. There is one point of view in the study of the Block. he will find every bit of manipulation done will be of service to him in the comprehension of higher space. and therefore also the representative slabs of their faces. and the study of the Block would practically become to him the study of sets. which is of some interest. the Moena view. and form new the first. the three Syce sets may be formed from the three horizontal rows or floors of the Moena sets.

We to now come to the essential difficulty of our is task All that has gone before preliminary. Now. we are in an analogous position. Next. We cannot grasp the element of which they are composed. if the cube be turned round the Z axis and passed through. he sees the Alvus and Proes squares and the intermediate section. cube appears to him as a square. in arriving at a notion of a three-dimensional figure so also must we . He is limited at the outset. But the plane-being was obliged to use two-dimensional figures. Then there is the square section parallel to there is the given by a Moena. . Mbena square. he has to use squares. First. which he recognises by the variation of the bounding lines as soon as the cube begins to pass through his plane. When a plane-being studies our shapes of cubes. CHAPTER FOUR-SPACE : VII. We can conceive a cube but that which corresponds to a cube in higher space is beyond our grasp. We have now frame the method by which we shall introduce through our space-figures the figures of a higher space. squares. On Model i we see the various squares as which the cube can appear to him. Then comes the Murex square.. So too with the Syce and Mel squares and the section between them. ITS REPRESENTATION IN THREESPACE. We suppose the plane-being to look from the extremity A of the Z axis down a vertical plane. dealing with figures in higher space.

omitting the solidity of these first nine cubes.Space. The generating cube may then be aptly called Urna Mala. Let us assume a tessaract generated from it. Y in that direction by setting the three sets of slabs alongside in his plane. Let us again examine the mode in which a planebeing represents a Block of cubes with slabs. in the Z and X directions but in the he is powerless. Starting . in our study. we come Brown cube. a a cube. He has to use The Block Starting from is built up arbitrarily in this manner to a Urna Mala and going up. he evidently represents the extension of the Block upwards and sidedirection ways. extends three inches in the 3 sets of slabs. and then to a Light-blue cube. Y direction. but we must always remember that they are to us. note that the Block extends three inches in each of the three directions. The plane-being represents this by nine slabs. and a cube in our space. which represent the Moena face of the block. Let us call the tessaract Urna. and is compelled to represent extension . third wall by a third set.. omitting the solidity of both second and third walls. Take Block I of the 81 Set of cubes. The plane-being can represent two of these dimensions on his plane but the unknown direction he has to represent by a repetition of his plane figures. In this manner. Representation of Four. may use cubes to represent parts of four-space. he takes another set of nine slabs to repreLastly. Now. The cube . only what squares are to a plane-being with rein a plane is Model i We spect to a cube. Then. 157 use three-dimensional figures to arrive at the notion of a four-dimensional. he represents the sent the next wall of cubes. but not their depth or thickness. The second and third sets de- note the height and breadth of the respective walls. Let us call the figure which corre- sponds to a square tessaract.

we see that we can show only three dimensions by cubic blocks. so there Hence. the plane-being represents the Brown and Orange cubes by squares lying next to the square which repreThe Blue cube is as close as the sents Urna Mala. if I started from Urna Mala and I should arrive moved away. Starting from Urna Mala and going away from us. we come to a Blue and a Buff cube. fourth can only be represented by repetitions of such blocks. we come to an Orange and a Fawn cube. there will be as many different It will easily be seen colours of squares as of cubes. but also the Orange and every other square in the first set of slabs must have two other squares set somewhere beyond it on the plane to represent the extension of the Block away. Coming now to the representation of a four-dimensional block. Now. and that the. but he can find no place in the plane where he can place a Blue square so as to show this co-equal proximity of both cubes to the first. to show that the Block extends as far away as it does upwards and sideways.158 A New Era of Thought. what we can see in our space of a Gold tessaract the first colours. just as there are three cubes going up. We are familiar vi^ith its and they can be found at any time by reference Now. Brown cube to Urna Mala. . that is in the Y or unknown direction. The colours have been chosen as now stated. or in the : unknown Y direction. (Each cube being a different colour. placed anywhere on the plane. suppose the Gold cube to represent to Model I. he must also place a Buff square beyond it. . So he is forced to put a Blue square anywhere in his plane and say of it " This Blue square represents what at.) that not only the Gold square." Now. There must be a certain amount of arbitrary naming and colouring. Take the Block of the 81 Set. besides the Bl^e square are three going away. from Urna Mala and going right.

the Stone. Between the Gold and Stone cubes there is an inch in the unknown direction. but it represents as much of them as we can see at once in our space and they tessaracts proceeding . Take Block 3 of the 81 'Set. In it there is a Silver cube where the Gold cube lies in Block i. we find in it a Stone cube. and so also is the Stone. we must suppose that there are three from the Gold cube in the unknown direction.) plane-being just as as successive squares lasting visible. This Block can be arranged on the pattern of Model 2. Y. The Block of 27 cubes is not a Block of 27 tessaracts. just as there are three tessaracts in the X. and the Silver to move through our space at the rate of an We should first see the Gold cube inch a minute. We may imagine it in this way. so also must there be three tessaracts in the unknown direction. But. then the Stone cube for a minute. and Z directions. a cube in all these cases represents a tessaract. and lastly the Silver cube a minute. (This is precisely analogous to the appearance of passing cubes _ to the minute. . Y. and Z from the Gold one. a After that. Now. The Gold tessaract is supposed to be Gold throughout in all four directions. which would last a minute. the tessaract which comes next to the Stone one in the unknown direction from the Gold. Taking out Block 2 of the 81 Set and arranging it on the pattern of Model 9. But what is the colour of the tessaract which lies next to the Gold in the unknown direction. Suppose the set of three tessaracts. 159 other cubes of Block i give the colours of the tessaracts which lie in the three directions X. so there must be three tessaracts extending in the unknown direction from every one of the 27 cubes of the first Block. the Gold. as shown by the cubes in Block i. nothing would be Now.Representation of Four-Space. we may say. W. Hence. W? Let us suppose it to be Stone in colour. is of a Silver colour.

to represent the whole Block of tessaracts there are 8 1 cubes. and Z directions. or three Blocks of 27 each. Now. X. And. Let the tessaract in its normal position have the cube Mala determined by parts of a cube came names to them. W. W. similarly with our four axes. extending to equal distances in all four directions. it is obvious that. form the first portion or layer (like the first wall of cubes to the plane-being) of a set of eighty-one tessaracts. any three will determine a cube. stretches one inch in the unknown direction. W : Mala has Lar „ Vesper „ Pluvium „ Margo Velum Idus Tela' Another way of looking at the matter is this. When . just as a cube has various plane boundaries. the cube which. X. X . that is. just as the plane-being regarded the Moena faces containing the as the tessaract is X and Z unchanged directions. so a tessaract has various cube boundThe cubes of the tessaract. we gave distinct Thus. Y. . the squares containing the Z and directions were called Moena and Murex those containing the Z and Y. is in the we can never see any portion of it which unknown direction. as long in its position with regard to our space. have opposite cubes of the following names the axes Z. Z. Now. Let Vesper be the cube determined by or And let these cubes. regarding. Y. Alvus and Proes and those the and Y. Syce and Mel. Similarly. have been those containing the X. In order to make it quite clear what into the plane. and Pluvium by Z. until the cube was turned round one of its edges. we saw that a plane-being could not see the parts of a cube which went in the third direction. starting from the X Y plane. which we have been aries. Y. X Let the cube Lar be that which is determined by X. Y.i6o A New Era of Thought. W. Thus.

Similarly. and cube. Pluvium from Moena. and use the The whole of the 8i cubes to represent tessaracts. each of the lines bounding the square becomes a square. And may just as a plane-being can only see the squares of a we can only see the cubes of a tessaract. it will be found that. i6i a cube is generated from a square. let us take the 8i Set. Similarly. each of its planes traces a cube and it generates a tessaract. Thus there are eight cubes bounding the tessaract. so that the plane-being sees a section between Moena and Murex. Vesper from Alvus. The cubes from the six sides are Lar from Syce. and the square itself becomes a cube. six of them from the six plane sides and two from the cube itself These latter two are Mala and Margo. so then supposing that their number increases. certain sets names come to denote points. For this purpose.Space. We have seen how by writing down the names of the cubes of a block. Corvus is a tessaract which has the tessaracts Cuspis and Nugse to M . It be said that the cube can be pushed partly through the plane. giving in its initial and final positions two cubes. lines. certain sets of the names come to denote the various parts of a tessaract. giving two squares in its initial and final positions. which settles all difficulties. Tela from Murex.: Repyesenlation of Four. When a cube moves in the new and unknown direction. Velum from Mel. when their of the number is increased. Idus from Proes. and provides us with a nomenclature for every part of the tessaract. There is a method of approaching the matter. the tessaract can be pushed through our space so that we can see a section between Mala and Margo. The names must be remembered to denote tessaracts. Thus. and solid. planes. if we write down a set of names of tessaracts in a block. single tessaractic set extending three cubes make one inches in each of the four directions.

the fourth. we obtain the following nomenclature. Spira in the Third Block. Arctos and Ilex above from . but a tessaract. Dos and Cista away and Ops and Spira in the fourth or unknown direction from it. The X direction (from left to right) and the Y (from the bottom towards the top of the page) will be assumed to be truly represented. not a cube. as Corvus occupies in the First Block. Thus. there will be three in Blocks W. or W. preceding the lower. It will be evident at once. the name which stands in any one place in any block being next in the signified the block before or after of the four directions. Ops is written in the same place in the Second Block. enlarged. The Z direction will be symbolized by writing the names in floors.: i62 A it. Using the same and more names for a tessaractic Set. it. that to write these names in any representative order we must adopt an arbitrary system. the order in which the names are written being that stated above . and remembering that each name now represents. direction (which has to be symbolized in three-dimensional space by setting the solids in an arbitrary position) will be which occupies the same position in it. is W number of On pp. there will be three floors Z when there are three X arid Y. Lastly. the upper floors always the right. If there be four tessaracts direction to the there will be four floors Z. the tessaracts when the number in each number of blocks is equal in each known direction. 136. W. We require them running in four directions we have only two on paper. 137 were given the names as used for a cubic block of 27 or 64. Since there are an equal number of tessaracts in each to that W direction by writing the names in blocks. New Era of Thoug^ht. Thus. Also. and four blocks each direction.

Semita UPP^"Fl""--- Lama Iter Via (. 163 r Solia Livor' PP f I Lensa Lares ^'°°''- Uelis Lixa Tholus Talus Calor Passer Middle Floor. Camoena Vesper Pagina Orca Idus :1 Pluvium Lorica Pactum Offex Lower J ^ Lar Lotus 011a ^'""""•lops Limus First Block. . ( Panax \ (. Third Block. Portica Vena Sal Crux Pagus Margo Silex Onager Mugil Lower Floor. Upper Floor. Opex Spira Mensura Lappa Luca Mappa Ancilla Second Block.Ilex Mel Callis Sors Middle ( . Orsa Creta Mango Velum Limbus Tela Tessaract Libera Meatus Pator Lucta Middle Floor. ( Bucina AIvus Arctos Murex Mala Daps Proes Far Crus Bolus Moena Cadus Syce CuSpis Lower ^^°°''- f Cista U„^ (Corvus Nuga? .Representation of Four-Space.

which was a single tessaract in the 81 Set became two tessaracts in the 256 Set. a tessaract. Dos would become the name of an edge.164 It is A New to Era of Thought. they increase only in two directions therefore. In the 256 Set there are eight such cubes in the Second. and in the Second and Third Blocks of the 256 Set four Lars each. Syce may be taken to signify a square. and may therefore be used as the name of an edge of . but in the unknown direction also. But there is one part which contains four. But. Similarly. Moena is a plane. it also tends to elongate and not extend in any other direction. And. it also is a cube. X. two. . 136. which proceeds from it. but Pluvium. It is that named Tessaract. looking at what comes from Syce in the direction. we W . they find that. Comparing such an 81 Set and 256 Set. which is found in the Middle Block of the 81 Set. W. . tessar- though they increase in number. and becomes a cube. We have now considered such parts of the Sets as contain one. Thus. Hence. It occurs in both Middle Blocks of the 256 Set. Ops. occurs both in the Second and Third Blocks of the 256 Set that is. Hence. Looking at the cubes which represent the Syce acts. Cuspis would become the name of an edge. extends not only sideways and upwards like Moena. set evident that this the of tessaracts could be four in increased number of each direction. and in that case the Second Block would be duplicated to make the four blocks required in the unknown direction. we find in the Middle Block of the 81 Set one Lar. 137. and three dimensions. it would simply become longer. and also Arctos. the names being used as before for the cubic blocks on pp. Y. and eight in the Third Block that is. we should find that Cuspis. Lar extends in three directions. Similarly. if we introduced a larger number. and not increase in any other dimension.

he will have Alvus squares in his space. considered to represent that tessaractic Set. 9. and Ops W. it is advantageous. 9. but that cube which. be part of a tessaract or which is analogous to the interior of a cube. Urna Mala would be a Gold cube. supposed to be of the same colour throughout. begin to study a block of cubes Syce squares but if the block be turned round Dos. Y. Model and Model 9 to the intermediate block. then we do not see Mala. So. we see Mala in our space. and also W. the other two remaining as they were. the Vesper cube. But seen on Model 2 to Margo. whichever of its edges coincide with our known axes. Thus. and 2. Y. the tessaract is when . in the original position of the tessaract. whichever way it be turned. when the tessaractic Set is turned round. W.X. In this case. for the sake of distinct- . a whole Set of 4x4x4x4 tessaracts would in colours resemble a set composed of four cubes like Models i. Dos Y. it appears to us as a cube of one uniform colour. that is. for the most part. Cuspis X. X. 165 They may. if Urna be the tessaract. turned so that the Ops line goes W. directions. while Cuspis is turned A plane-being by their may . and in which Arctos goes Z. therefore. But. Each tessaract of one inch every way can be I. contains the Z. When we take the view of the tessaract with which we commenced. Mala cubes leave our space.Representation of Four-Space. extend Z. There are two ways which can be followed in studying the Set of tessaracts. and Vespers enter. The arrangement names is of colours corresponding to these i corresponding to Mala. adopted in the following pages. when any question about a particular tessaract has to be settled. and so on. so that. and he must then use them to represent the cubic Block. This method is. Urna Vesper a Gold cube.

to start with the cubic sides of the inch tessaract. let each tessaract be so coloured as to its show different cubic sides it by their different colours. we shall see different cubes. tessaract or set of tessaracts duplicate. suppose it coloured the whole set is coloured. each cube in the several blocks in that block. . if shown at all. 1-8 are called sides of the tessaract. only the faces would be seen. when we have turned to us in different aspects. it is which we pose that any exactly similar in shape and examine. for the real way of acquiring a sense of higher space is to obtain those experiences of the senses exactly. In this case. to in its diiferent regions as II. and when we try to trace shall in the contacts of the tessaracts with each other. should be very thin. If the reader is make such exactly like the others a set to work with for a time. but different in their colouring. These Models best to sup- To make the matter perfectly clear. will be of one and the same colour. so that all its cubes. In the first. in fact. ness. each coloured according to the scheme of the Models i to 8. For. he will gain greatly. If such completely coloured cubes be used. its we be helped by realizing each part of every tessaract own colour. has a duplicate arrangement of parts. The other plan is. which is indistinguishable to the senses. which the observation of a four-dimensional body would give.1 66 A New Era of Thought. less error is likely to creep in but it is a disadvantage that . apprehended in turn in our In the space. the lines. let each tessaract have one colour throughout. Then. as the width of the lines would only be equal to the thickness of our matter in the fourth dimension.

— CHAPTER VIII. — Urna. X. which intersect at the given point. positions will then be Urna Moles in the Octant ZXY „ . will : be at that point. as in two dimensions it consisted of four squares or quadrants round a point. Y. We require a scaffold or framework for this purpose. of Z and Y and between the positive parts and the negative of X.. contained by the positive porthe octant Z. that which tions of all three axes is to the left of Z. is We Thus the octant that which is . Pallor. Plebs Ilex. Uncus. Moles. STUDY OF TESSARACTS. which in three dimensions will consist of eight cubic spaces or octants assembled round one point. and can study the masses of tessaracts without obscurity. X. Z. — Their Corvus. and can be named according to their positions between the positive and negative directions of those axes. REPRESENTATION OF FOUR-SPACE BY NAME. let Frenum. X. X. etc. have now surveyed all the preliminary ground. Plebs. Y. These eight octants lie between the three axes Z. Bidens. Ostrum and Let them be placed place them in the eight octants. Y. To illustrate this us take the eight cubes quite clearly. Pallor round the point of intersection of the axes . Y.

— i68 A New : Era of Thought. Third Floor. I Mala Frenum Mala Urna Mala S^'^'o"' Hama Mala Mala Moles Mala Plebs Remus Mala Sypho Mala Saltus Mala . ^^°°''' . \ f Agnien Mala C^^'e^ M''^^^ (. f Nepos Mala Penates Mala Securis Floor \ \ Mala Angusta Mala Vulcan Mala Vinculum Mala Second Block. r Ara \ ^^°°''. ) (P""™ Mala °"^^ M^l^ Cardo Mala <. ) (Ala Mala Uncus Mala I Ostrum Mala Mala Mala Bidens Mala Cortis Pallor Aer Mala Tergum Mala Scena Mala First f ) Floor. Third _. .I Mala Praeda Mala Cortex Mala Vomer Mala Sacerdos Mala Mica Mala Glans Mala Tessera Mala Pluma Mala Hydra Mala Flagellum Mala Colus Mala Domitor Mala Second Floor. as they are before us. Third ^. ^'"' S 1 V- ^'""'^ Mala Comes Mala Spicula Merces Mala Mora Mala Tibicen Mala Tyro Mala Oliva Mala Vestis Mala Second Floor. Arcus Mala Laurus Mala Ovis Mala Portio Mala Uxis Mala i Mala Troja Mala Tigris Segmen Mala Aries Mala Tabula Mala Testudo Mala Anguis Mala „ _. Postis Mala < Orcus Mala °°^' \ Verbum Mala Telutn Mala ^°'"^ "^^^^ Cervix Mala Clipeus Mala Lacerta Mala Luctus Mala _. Cudo Mala Lacus Mala Cura Mala Vitta Mala Malleus Mala First Floor. Third Block. The names used are as follows for the cubes.Thyrsus Mala Arvus Mala Limen Mala Sceptrum Mala First Block.

and Lacerta Mala. and lastly the lasting Third. which are equivalent to the interiors of the Model cubes. Fawn Thyrsus. -t-W) and the unknown direction Kata (— W).—— Representation of Four-Space by Their colours 9. Silver. and the other space. then the Second. Orange Saltus. d. . . Name. Tessera Mala. axes in us. The cubes whose colours are not shown in the Models. Ops in W.e. and Sage-green. Then. unknown direction Ana {i. First Now.. d c for where a stands for Arctos. when the Block stands in from the Corvus corner of Urna Mala. These 81 cubes are the cubic sides and sections of the tessaracts of an 8 1 tessaractic Set. c. Thus. and Third Blocks. Dos in Y. Wooden. Let us call Models I. 169 can be found by reference to the which correspond respectively to the First. and can take up different directions in space with regard to Let us now take a smaller four-dimensional the 81 Set let set. Cervix. we denote this position by the following symbol : : position. are Pallor Mala. Cuspis in X. d for letters for the four Dos. and for Ops. each the normal one minute. and are respectively Light-buff. as the whole tessaract moves Kata at the rate of an inch a minute. 2. Urna Mala is Gold Moles. Stone . Of us take the following : Z a X Y c W d . we see first the First Block of 27 cubes for one the positive negative minute. are Arctos in Z. the edges of the tessaract that run Z a X Y c W Cuspis. are the axes of the tessaract. Hence. . a. We suppose it to pass through our space. which measures three inches in every direction. Second.

-^ Uncus Mala strum Mala Pallor Mala Bidens Mala Plebs Mala .^^ \Thyrsus Mala ^T'^^f^ Vitta Mala First Block. rFrenum Mala LUrna .u c•^ First Floor. . Moles i.t Mala . shall go —X. which now means Urna Vesper. c. the tessaractic Set in our space. let us suppose the tessaracts to turn so that Ops. Thyrsus Vesper.. (the . will now lie just beyond it in the —X direction. Second Floor. minus sign over the meaning . which now goes W. Dos. in the octant Z Y. instead of this. (Urna Corvus is at the junction of our axes Z X Y). Take the Gold cube..170 A New Era of Thought.. . Then we can see in our space that cubic side of each tessaract which is contained by the lines Arctos. and Ops. the Second will enter in one minute. that is. 1 Let the First Block be put up before us in Z X Y. the cube Vesper and we shall no longer have the Mala sides but the Vesper sides of . it. and place it on the left hand of its in its up former position as Urna Mala.j^^^^^ Mala Second Tri« ^^^^ Tessera Mala ^^^^ ^^^^ " First Floor.. if we suppose the tessaractic Set to move through our space at the rate of one inch a minute. The Second Block is now one inch distant in the un- known direction and. and replace the first.. is ^... i . j^f " ^. which previously lay just X beyond Urna Vesper in the unknown direction. now in the ZXYW. to the left of position . that is. But. Second Block. The tessaractic Set . f Ocrea Co-„ J Floor. it We will now build Vesper view (as we built up the cubic Block in its Alvus view). Mala .

.

lyi' .'Ocrra /Uncw Unaiil Pillor' VesbCTS C^rio Oshi Ofitivm M&la« Bidina TTiyTS Urnj Urni MoUi %-20. [To/ace p.

(This is analogous to the changes in the •slabs from the Moena to Alvus view of the cubic Block. its 171 Ops runs in the negative direction). „ \Ca (. Fig. Frenum . no more real than a plane-being's symbolization of the Moena . but should be used in studying the positions. three walls of a cubic Block to a plane- But if the tessaractic Set be supposed to move through space in the unknown direction at the rate of an inch a minute. Plebs . any more than are the Moenas of being. Second _. Second T. the Vespers of all these tessaracts are not visible at once all in our space. IVitta Moles . it will be seen that the cubes presented in the Vesper view are new sides of the tessaract. ^ T-i Floor. and that the arrangement of them is different from that in the Mala view.-. But it must be distinctly remembered that this arrangement is quite conventional.Cardo . „ ICudo . . fTessara Pallor „. Representation of Four-Space by Name. the Second Block will present its Vespers after the First Block has lasted a minute. First Block. : and Vespers lie in the following order Second Block.— that .. Floor. . Urna The name Vesper is left out in the above list for the sake of brevity. )crea roc Uncus ^ ^ Ostrum _.. First Floor.-. The relative position of the Mala Block and the Vesper Block may be represented in our space as in the diagram. ( -^ LThyrsus Crates „. rCura \^^. 20. On comparing the two lists of the Mala view and Vesper view.) Of course. Bidens First Floor.

we see the following parts of the tessaract Urna (and. and work every thought out with the cubes themselves. And it must always be remembered that the cubes. The Vespers of the First and Second Blocks cannot be in our space simultaneously.: 172 A New Era of Thought. that the reader should surrender all hope of learning space from this book or the drawings alone. Endless fallacies creep in as soon as it is forgotten that the cubes are merely representative as the slabs were. therefore. any more than the Moenas of all three walls in plane space. with the solidity omitted. To render their simultaneous presence possible. which is Model 5. mean as great a difference as the Moena and Alvus faces of the cube. also the same parts of the other tessaracts) (i) Urna Vesper. the cubic or Block or Set must be broken up. though used to represent both Mala and Vesper faces of the tessaract. tessaractic And these fallacies are so much fostered by again sym- bolizing the cubic symbols and their symbolical positions in perspective drawings or diagrams. we have only to consider each of the Malas simi-' lar in its parts to Model i. If the tessaractic Set move Kata through our space. and each of the Vespers to Model 5. and the positions in our space merely conventional and symbolical. along one of his known directions. . and its parts no longer retain their relations. like those of the slabs along the plane. This fact is of supreme importance in considering higher space. Wall and the Alvus Wall of the cubic Block by the arrangement of their Moena and Alvus faces. (2) A parallel section between Urna Vesper and Urna slabs used for the Idus. If we want to see what each individual cube of the tessaractic faces presented to us in the last example is like. when the Vesper faces are presented to us. which is Model 11.

Second Floor. and then Moles Idus. One of them is the Pluvium aspect. Uncus j / Pallor Ocrea Tessera Plebs Frenum I Crates Cura First Block. together so too Moles Pluvium W whose corner is at point of intersection of the axes.: Representation of Four-Space by (3) Name.. Urna Pluvium coincides in our space with Moles Mala. and the name Pluvium must be understood to follow each of the names) Z a XY c W d Second Block. though they cannot be . Build up the Set in Z X Y. Second Floor. letting Arctos run Z.^ r*Urna \ I „. starting on its Vesper side. . And lying towards us... and Ops Y.jO^''?'" I Cardo T. Ostrum Pluvium with Ostrum Mala. Thyrsus Vitta .. Bidens Cudo Moles .. is now that tessaract which before lay in the direction from Urna. which is Model 6. Thyrsus. viz. The order will therefore be the following (a star denotes the cube -with Urna Mala. Idus has passed Kata our space. 173 Urna Idus. we have seen the parts which would be generated . other arrangements of the tessaracts have to be — learnt besides those from the Mala and Vesper aspect. In the common plane Moena. When Urna by Vesper moving along Cuspis Two that is Ana. Cuspis X. -c^ First Floor. or Y. Moles Vesper enters it then a section between Moles Vesper and Moles Idus. Here we have evidently observed the tessaract more minutely as it passes Kata through our space. First Floor.

A space. and lastly Frenum Tela. as it has only the minutest magnitude in the unknown or Ana direction. is a wall composed of the Pluviums of Urna. The Second Block is one inch out of our Space. Cudo. when it passes through. but that which contains the lines Dos. which in the Ana. and Bidens Malas. Cuspis. from Urna Mala. There is still one more arrangement to be learnt. or W. . and Bidens. If the tessaractic Set moved Kata. Pluviums. Moles. and the Tela of each tessaract would be seen. Frenum Pluvium takes the place of Urna Tela and. Thus the wall of cubes in contact with that wall of the Mala position which contains the Urna. when the Set of tessaracts moves through our this. Model 8 is Tela. . Ostrum. is of Thyrsus. Cardo. and is called Lar. . Mala position goes the Z or downwards direc- . Moles Lar under the place of Frenum Mala. Tela only lasts for a flash. Underneath the place which was occupied by Urna Mala. we see a similar section between Frenum Pluvium and Frenum Tela. and Ops. Ostrum. the tessaract will then appear in our space below the Mala position and the side presented to us will not be Mala. Model 7 shows the Pluvium cube and each of the cubes of the tessaracts seen in the Pluvium position is a Pluvium. Then the tessaractic Set passes out. or Kata. This side is Model 3. our space. and only enters it if the Block moves Kata.174 -^ New Era of Thought. . or W. be changed into tion. The tessaract. Moles. will now . If the line of the tessaract. Vitta. The wall next to and nearer to us. we would see the Section between Pluvium and Tela for all but a minute and then Tela would enter our space. similar process takes place with every other tessaract. Model 12 shows the Section from Pluvium to Tela. which in the Mala position was an inch out of our space Ana. . Then. Frenum Lar. will come Urna Lar under the place of Moles Mala.

. below Urna Lar presented to us that is.. for now they stretch downwards instead of upwards. which consists of the cubes opposite to the four treated above. The rest of the tessaracts. first the section between Urna Lar and Urna Velum (Model — — . when the act be moved through our space Lars are present in it we see. which in the Mala position goes up. i ^ tOstrum . taking Urna alone. f Uncus „. is turned into the Ana. Frenum. an inch downwards. In the whole arrangeit its . First Floor. Second Floor. Moles. If the tessarfor instance. Lars being presented in our space instead of Malas. Z XY c W a Pallor d Second Block. Second Floor. Plebs.. or W. \ fOcrea n a LCardo Tessera /- j Cudo First Block. and the Ops line comes in downwards. 175 come into Mala. or Z. with Lar will ment of them written below. Bidens _. Frenum Crates Plebs ^U^^^ •In \ Moles Cura Vitta Thyrsus Here it is evident that what was the lower floor of Malas. the highest floors are written first. Thyrsus be below Urna Lar. The name Lar is understood after each. direction. and of the tessaractic space between them. Urna. _.Representation of Four -Space by Name. This Block of Lars is what we see of the tessaract Set when the Arctos line. ^. now appears as if carried downwards instead of upwards. First Floor. is all Ana our space.

as the tessaractic Set moves on Kata. Then. When we have learnt all these aspects and passages. When the First Block has passed Kata our space.176 10). the sections between Velums and Lars of the Second Block of tessaracts enter our space. Then the whole tessaractic Set disappears from our space. and finally their Velums. and similarly the and Velums of each tessaract in the Set. Ostrum Lar enters and the Lars of the Second Block of tessaracts occupy the places just vacated by the Velums of the First Block. this small Set of tessaracts. . and then Urna Velum (Model 4). we have experienced some of the principal features of sections . A New Era of Thought.

which is denoted by " ^ ' a c a 0' briefly by a cdo. and Cuspis {c) W.CHAPTER When IX. X. those which found lie in the W direction lie while those that in the in the Z. if we write addc. or Y directions can be Therefore. and the unknown direction will be stated last. to Second and next to these again. so that they just touch their former position. thus Z X Y W. Next to them. left side of the First Block of the eighty-one tes- and putting them into the Z XY octant. It is now clear to us that. we can form any other arrangement. Hence. an arrangement can be made by shifting the nine cubes ' : on the saracts. from the arrange. appear in different blocks. or more ment given. Dos (d) Y. FURTHER STUDY OF TESSARACTS. in the list of the names of the eighty-one tessaracts given above. Ops And such (5) negative X. the nine of the left side of the Third Block. To confirm the meaning of the symbol a cdo for position. the different views of the whole 8i Set should be learnt. let us remember that the order of the axes known in our space will invariably be Z X Y. we left side of the Block of the 8i Set 177 N . which have only one square identical with the Mala set the nine of the . their left. the arrangement of a small set has been mastered. we know that the position or aspect intended is that in which Arctos {a) goes Z. same block. This Block of twenty-seven now represents Vesper Cubes. on their left.

is The Lar position more difficult to construct. The next Block of Lars will be made by . can be made by taking the right sides of nine cubes each from each of the three original Blocks. and that of the Third below that of the Second. Saltus lie in the original Set. and setting each an inch nearer to us. The far sides of these cubes are Moenas of Pluviums. can be taking the nine cubes which come vertically in the middle of each of the Blocks in the first position. and those in the Third to their left. To put the Lars of the Blocks in their natural position in our space. Moles.1 78 A New Era of Thought. and arranging them so that those in the Second original Block go to the left of those in the First. By continuing this treatment of the other walls of the three original Blocks parallel to the front wall. the made by Block which lies two inches Ana. Similarly the Block which is one inch Ana. and arranging them in a similar manner. cubes of the previous blocks. that is — Y. acod. Lastly. The First Lar Block is made by taking the lowest floors of the three Mala Blocks. we must start with the original Mala Blocks. will be at the bottom. In this manner we should obtain three new Blocks. at least three inches above the table. . The floor of cubes whose diagonal runs from Urna Lar to Remus Lar. which represent what we can see of the tessaracts. The three together are the tessaractic position in all of them Ops lies jn the —Y direction. we obtain two other Blocks of tessaracts. and placing them so that that of the Second is below that of the First. is turned W. The Pluvium Block we can make by taking the front wall of each original Block. will be at the top of the Block of Lars and that whose diagonal goes from Cervix Lar to Angusta Lar. when the direction in which Urna. for and Dos has been turned W. from which they were taken.

of Comes Lar to Tyro Lar. and Verbum Lar to Tabula Lar at the bottom. and placing floor them in a similar succession —the from Ostrum Lar to Aer Lar being at the top. that from Cardo Lar to Colus Lar in the middle. and Axis Lar to Portio — Lar at the bottom. of Cortex Lar to Pluma Lar in the middle.Ftirther Study of Tessaracts. . 179 taking the middle horizontal floors of the three original Blocks. The Third Lar Block is composed of the top floor of the First Block on the top that is.

Moreover. by the expression. if. XY or simply da . Z where -^ means that Dos runs in the d of the Z axis from the point where 7 We might write ^ but If it is preferable to write -. ZX Y c d a (2) and by means of tive double turn we have put c and d in the places of a and c. and Dos Y. it If from get we ' turn This position we call simply c d a. which runs round Arctos. we have no negathis directions. If the cube be turned Z XY c d a negative direction the axes intersect. c we turn it round Dos we get another position in Z . that wherein Arctos goes Z. Y. Z we next is. Cuspis remains unchanged. that turn the cube round the line. This 180 last is . the cube round a. ZX Y a c d (") _ round Cuspis. Let us denote the original position of the cube. CYCLICAL PROJECTIONS. and Arctos goes Y. which runs Y. we obtain the position. Dos goes Z. and we have the position. Cuspis X.CHAPTER X. we Z XY - and then.

Cyclical Projections. The arrangement '\x\ of cubes in acd v^z know. Urna Uncus Frenum It will be found that learning the cubes gives a great advantage. That c d a\s: Third Floor. Tibicen ( Mora Pallor Kl f"^ Moles (. . i8l which all the lines are positive. instead of lying in different quadrants. and the projections. for thereby the axes of the cube become dissociated with particular directions in space. • Plebs Spicula Hama Mars Ala Sector in this position Comes Ostrum First Floor. will be contained in one. i Vestis Oliva < (. c position gives the following The d a arrangement: Remus . Scena Saltus Tergum Sypho Tyro Aer Remus Merces Cortis Second Floor.

) The same shape in the position c d a is. Vestis Moena. (If Saltus Moena.1 82 A New Era of Thought. The front face consists of the Syces of Saltus . different positions of the the cube are not well known. it is best to have a list of the names before one. but in every case the block should also be built. of course. expressed in the same words. as well as the names used. Scena Moena. but it has a different appearance.

Here we see that the whole c d a face is filled up in the projection. This is the result of a comparison of the Moena projection with the Syce projection. Uncus. have as the solution Urna. Uncus. Frenum. in the d ac projection as given above. Scena and Vestis. Vestis. Ostrum. Sypho. Frenum. writing these last named as they come in the d ac projection. Pallor. Sector. Uncus. Oliva. Uncus and Pallor and Tergum. Frenum. Sector and Ala.Cyclical Projections. Tergum. we have Urna. in the : Cortis. Frenum. as far as this solution is concerned. Aer. Oliva. Frenum. Tergum. Uncus. Bidens. go away from the plane of projection. Sypho. Pallor. Ala. Ostrum. : Oliva. Ostrum.be final wanting in the final shape. Tergum. Looking at the a c d solution we write down (keeping those together which go away from the plane of projection) Urna and Ostrum. Ostrum. But in the c d a solution we have only Syces of Urna. These Syces only indicate the presence of a certain number of the cubes stated above as possible from the Moena projection. Tergum. Hence Ostrum will . And of these Ostrum Alvus is wanting . Mora. Plebs. Pallor. Frenum and Uncus. Frenum. i8 p have Urna. Tergum and Oliva. and those are Urna. Cortis. In order to see how these will modify each other. Aer and Tyro. Here. Comes. Pallor. Bidens. Now. Plebs. Pallor. and we. Spicula. From c d a we have Urna. let us consider the a c d solution as if it were a set of cubes in the c go d a arrangement. Scena. Tyro. those that Arctos direction. . and must be represented by the Syce of the cube in contact with the plane. Oliva. Oliva.

how the in be determined when the projections each of those views are given. Tessera. Pallor. Lar cubes. Vesper. Pluvium or Lar sides. i68. Firstly.. will We number of the r Cura. and the manner obtain a conception of it. whose names we have given on p. and can only do so symbolically. Orcus. It is only a little more difficult in that we have to deal with one dimension or direction more. Cudo. Plebs.CHAPTER XI. . which we can is The operation precisely analogous to that described in chapter VI. {c) Pluvium cubes. X will at . They can only be printed by symbolizing two of the directions. Let it consist of the thirteen tessaracts Urna. Vitta. Polus. or {d) Mala cubes. We will now consider a fourth-dimensional shape comin posed of tessaracts.shape can we will treat the converse question. Secondly. Moles. Frenum. In the following tabulations the directions Y. we will consider what appearances or projec- tions these tessaracts will present to us according as the tessaractic set touches our space with its {a) (b) Vesper cubes. Penates. by which a plane being could obtain a conception of solid shapes. Lacerta. Let us build up in cubes the four different arrangements of the tessaracts according as they enter our space on their Mala. assume the shape to consist of a certain 8i tessaracts. A TESSARACTIC FIGURE AND ITS PROJECTIONS.

which is exactly in the middle of the eighty-one tessaracts has Domitor on its right side or . The direction is indicated by the dotted line. as Malas (Table A) the tessaract Tessara. to the right or For instance.A wavy Tessaractic Figure and its Projections. in the arrangement of the tessaracts. W the left or right are in the W direction (Ana) or the . which shows that the floors of nine lying to line) indicates that the floors of nine. The direction Z (expressed by the each printed nearer the top of the page. lie above those printed nearer the bottom of it. 185 once be understood.W lie direction (Kata) from those which left.

X .

ca w J m < .

X .

I X o .

Thyrsus. Frenum.g. we always suppose ourselves to be situated Ana or towards the tessaracts. For it is the apparent change of the relative positions of the tessaracts in each presentation. Sector). but well to have it very clear for our present purpose. {e. now run W. and any movement to be Kata or through our space. W X „ Y now run „ X. „ . Saltus).g. In the Lar presentation The tessaracts {e. which ran X still run Y Frenum. Comes). Sector). in the Mala presentation we have first in our space the Malas of that block of tessaracts. the Mala it is W -W W projection of any given tessaract of the set is that Mala . Saltus). „ „ „ : Moles.g. „ W W. Ostrum. which enables us to determine any body of them. In considering the projections. Thyrsus. Thus. Comes). Cervix). Urna.Y. Urna. Comes). Y.g. tessaracts from the Mala presen- In the Vesper presentation : The tessaracts {e.g.. „ This relation was already treated in chapter IX. In the Pluvium presentation The tessaracts {e.g. which ran Z still run Z. which ran Urna. Sector). Urna. Cervix).X.Z. {e. {e. which is the last in the direction.g. {e. . „ : Z still run Z. Urna. Moles. For instance. A New by turning the Era of Thought. Urna. „ Urna.g. Z now run „ X. Moles. Urna.g.g. {e. Urna. W. „ Urna. {e. Cervix). . {e. {e. Ostrum. Thyrsus. Frenum.g. Urna. {e. Saltus). W Y X „ Y.g.— iQO effected tation. Urna. „ „ Ostrum.

Uncus Vesper of Pallor. Cervix Lastly. Vitta Pluvium of Vitta and Cura. Luctus Pluvium of Lacerta. Orcus Vesper is the projection of the tessaracts Orcus and Lacerta. in other words. Pallor Mala of Pallor and Tessera and Tacerta. Cudo Pluvium of Cudo and Tessera. Bidens Mala of Cudo. Thus the cube Uncus Mala is the projection of the tessaract Orcus. Urna Pluvium of Urna and Frenum. Urna Vesper of Urna and Moles. 191 block. Similarly. whose place its (the given Mala would occupy. Ocrea Vesper of Tessera.A in the Tessaractic Figure and its Projections. in the Lar presentation Pluvium of Polus. The latter are printed in italics in Table A. Thyrsus Vesper of Vitta. and their projections are marked J. saractic set if the tes- moved Kata. Let us look at the set of 81 tessaracts we have built up in the Mala arrangements. Frenum Vesper of Frenum and Plebs. Moles Pluvium of Moles and Plebs. and if a light shone through Four-space from the Ana ( W) side to the Kata ( . Frenum Mala of Frenum and Polus. Next in the Pluvium presentation (Table C) we find that Bidens Pluvium is the projection of the tessafact Pallor. if all the tessaracts were transparent except those which constitute the body under consideration. and trace the projections in the extreme block of the thirteen of our shape. Polus Vesper of Polus and Penates. Moles Mala of Moles and Vitta. which would be occupied by the Mala of any opaque tessaract. Cardo Vesper of Cudo. Crates Vesper of Cura. if the tessaractic set moved Kata until the given tessaract reached our space. there would be darkness in each of those Malas. Urna Mala of Urna.W) side. Plebs Mala of Plebs and Cura and Penates. (Table D) we observe that Frenum Lar is the projection W . tessaract's) extreme - W Or. Verbum Pluvium of Orcus. we can trace the Vesper projections (Table B). Securis Pluvium of Penates.

Verbum. Cura. (Urna. Penates) . Lar projections Frenum. Let us suppose them all to be present in our shape. (Uncus. Vitta. how to determine the shape when the projections in each presentation are given. Cura. 192 A New Era of Thought. Moles. Vesper projections Orcus. Cervix. Frenum. Pluvium projections Bidens. problem infer assumed that the reader is building the From the Mala projections we might the presence of all or any of the tessaracts written It is in cubes. Thyrsus. Cudo. Polus. . Ocrea. Cudo. Penates. Urna. Now let us determine the shape indicated by these In projections. Securis) . let us write down in each presentation the projections only. of Frenum. . (Frenum. Cardo. (Pallor. Crates. Luctus) (Plebs.: : : : . Urna Lar of Urna. . Vitta Lar of Vitta and Cudo. Orcus) (Bidens. Lacerta) . Moles. Cura Lar of Cura and Tessara. Moles Lar of Moles. Plebs. Thyrsus. Uncus. Tessera. Bidens. Polur Lar of Polus and Orcus. Mala projections Pallor. Penates Lar of Penates and Lacerta. Vitta. Ocrea. Urna. Frenum. Urna. Cervix). Uncus. Vitta. Plebs Lar of Plebs and Pallor. we will treat the converse problem. Luctus. Polus. as the shape we must not supposed to be un- known. Urna. in the brackets in the following list of the Mala presen- tation. Looking back at the list just given above. Plebs. Polus) (Moles. Securis. now using the same tables is notice the italics. Moles. Secondly. Crates.

Ostrum. Luctus. 193 and observe what their appearance would be in the Vesper presentation.Vesper solution. Thyrsus. and find three are absent. Crates. Tessera. Uncus. Cura. We mark them all with an asterisk in Table B. Cudo. Cudo. Urna.A TessaracHc Figure and its Projections. Cardo. : by O . and of the Mala possibilities may exclude the tessaracts Bidens. Next let us take the Pluvium presentation. Cudo. Frenum. Uncus. In addition to those already marked we must mark (f) Verbum. Ocrea. which would be implied as possible by their presence. Cervix. twelve Pluvium projections altogether. Ostrum. Cervix. Frenum. Cardo. Ostrum. Securis. Vitta. Penates. Securis. We see at once that Verbum. Pallor. Luctus. Cardo. Uncus. viz. and Cervix are absent. There are ditional projections are again marked (t). Orcus. are absent. implied by Ostrum and Cardo and Thyrsus cannot be in our shape. we may conclude that all the tessaracts. Therefore. Orcus. with the given Vesper projections. there remain only 17 possible. and take the The adprojections those possibilities would produce. Polus. Ostrum. which would be formed all the tessaracts possible from the Mala projections. Lacerta. Urna. Pallor. Thyrsus. Crates. Polus. Crates. and Cervix itself Thus. Verbum. Moles. and then we see all the Vesper projections. Tessera. Again we compare these with the given Pluvium projections. viz. Cardo. Ostrum. Thyrsus. Vitta. viz. nor Thyrsus Excluding these four from the seventeen possiitself bilities of the Mala-Vesper solution we have left the thirteen tessaracts Orcus. Ocrea. This we call the Mala. Lacerta. both in the Mala and Vesper views. Let us compare these Vesper projections. Moles. Bidens. Hence the tessaracts viz. Plebs. Thyrsus. of the 21 tessaracts possible in the Mala view. Verbum. viz. Ocrea. Urna. We again mark with an asterisk in Table C the possibilities inferred from the Mala-Vesper solution.

Lastly. but to realize those results piece by piece through realized processes. Frenum. and we find that the projections are exactly those given. not to arrive at results by symbolical operations. Therefore. and then cancel all those possibilities which are not common to all. viz. . any shape in space consists of the possibilities common to the projections of its parts upon the boundaries of that space. Urna. Penates. In fine. Moles. Vitta. Curd. which produces the four different given views or projections. Plebs. But the process adopted above is much preferable. Moles. Urna. Polus. For once more we must remind ourselves that our great object is. we have not to exclude any of the thirteen. we have to consider whether these thirteen tessaracts are consistent with the given Lar projections. Vitta. Hence the simple rule for the determination of the shape would be to write down all the possibilities of the sets of projections. Penates. This we call the Mala-Vesper-Pluvium solution.194 -^ New Era of Thought. Plebs. Polus. We mark them again on Table D with an asterisk. as through it we may realize the gradual delimitation of the shape view by view. Frenum. and can infer that they constitute the shape. Cura. whatever be the number of its dimensions.

.APPENDICES.

.

O o a JQJ o Ph O o o 3 vh lo 3 W s 'S u Id J3 J3 Ph a. Q O O c . o PL. ^ J3 m o 13 Oi g Pi Pj W a. 3 S 3 Pi ft w w < o J3 CQ 'hi) iS ffi W 4-1 I rt PQ S K ^ J JS < S J Z .2 M ^ "o K 3 ni Q o Z O M W 3 ho a. 3 iJ w .| 3 00 k.o O 3 u X o aa W K a. o < .(U CL.™ .

.igS A New Era of Thought.

.

1-1 3 fe o s .— U f^ Pi js •2 a' « c o bo _ S 3 ^ W 3 n« W*^ t'J USOh <J cfl Q « 5 S « ^« C ii _.

<.-. 3 1?^ -Easo -5 ' hh 3 P!^ H °o^5-o K f^ S <! 3 "H 2 3 e tn . Oh <U 3 > IS S H . • •S. _j o o S o S -c !C ffi <<o jS WHO> s 3 tn cti i. rt < ^5o^ O ^ hu Us Ph . CL.O 'u tn 4j -B « r'l^Sa-^ W 12. P«i CI h s E 3 s . f^ £ S S^ .

They have already been* used Colour. D. and retaining the quantities of formulae requisite in scientific training and work. APPENDIX The them. handling. and the different individual cubes or Tessaracts in a block. Region of Tessaract in Black White Vermilion Orange Light-yellow Bright-green Bright-blue Light-grey Indian-red Yellow-ochre Buff Wood Brown-green Sage-green Reddish Chocolate French-grey Brown Dark-slate Dun Orange-vermilion Stone Quaker-green Leaden Dull-green Indigo Dull-blue Dark-purple Pale-pink Dark-blue Earthen Blue Terracotta Oak Yellow . but it is believed that it may afford great aid to the mind in amassing. gives the colours. and the various uses for in the foregoing pages to distinguish the various regions of the Tessaract.202 A New following list Era of Thought. The other use suggested in the last column of the list has not been discussed .

203 Symbol. 81 Set. Region of Tessaract in Tessaract.Appendix. Green . Colour.

by drawing lines from a and b at right angles to the base. These three points. will meet in o. meet in a point. A four-dimensional pyramid may be defined as a figure bounded by a polyhedron of any number of sides. B C. A C. and let Let B C D be a pyramid on a triangular base a b c be a section such that A B. . produced. and A C and a' c' produced. the plane of intersection of the space of the base and the space of the AC and a c. on A D. a c. namely. ABC . produced. o. If the lines 1) c and a c be projected in the same way on to the then B C and b' c' produced. are respectively not It must be understood that a is a point parallel to a b. will. meet in n and produced line. n. If a four-dimensional pyramid on a tetrahedral base be cut by a space which passes through the four sides of the pyramid in such a way that the sides of the sectional figure be not parallel to the sides of the base then the sides of these two tetrahedra. and the same number of pyramids whose bases are the sides of the polyhedron. if produced in pairs. will meet in lines which all lie in one plane. if produced in pairs. the line a' b'. . APPENDIX A Theorem E. namely. will meet in three points which are in a straight namely. and c a point on C D. and C to c'. will meet A B produced in m. and meeting it in a' b' . are in the line of intersection of the two planes Now. If a pyramid on a triangular base be cut by a plane which passes through the three sides of the pyramid in such manner that the sides of the sectional triangle are not parallel to the corresponding sides of the triangle of the base . B to b'. then the sides of these two triangles. to the points b' c' and a' c' The will meet in n. and whose apices meet in a point not in the space of the base. b is a point on B D. Let. meet in m. . section. two triangles and a' b' c' are such. A B and a b. that the lines joining A to a'. be. which is the projection of D. if produced. meet in o. ABC ABC . A ABC.204 A New Era of Thought. and a b c. let the line a b be projected on to the plane of the base. produced. B C and b c. the line of intersection of the sectional plane and the plane of the base. produced. will meet (if they are not parallel) in three points which lie in one straight line. the point on the base Any two triangles which fulfil this condition are the possible base and projection of the section of a pyramid therefore the sides of such triangles. il in pairs. m. base. in Four-space.

Civis. Ventus. Fulmen. Dexter. Any two tetrahedra which fulfil this condition. Exercises on Shapes of Three Dimensions. where the sides of the one a:re not parallel to the sides of the other. Nemus. meet in a point. Alvus Sagittk. Lignum. the sides. are those given in Appendix B. Finis. Tellus. : Find the shapes from the following projections Syce projections Ratis. Oculus. Equus. in any two such tetrahedra. Littus. angles to APPENDIX The names used 1. Vertex. if produced in pairs (one side of the one with one side of the other). Ventus. Pruinus. Aper. Haedus. Syce Amphora. Fulmen. Navis. Trabs. Moena Dexter. Alvus Lignum. : : projections : Miles. Humerus. Miles. : : : : 4. Cerva. Caput. Sidus. Gens. Aes. Frons. if produced. Urbs. : Moena : . Robur. Vertex. Tellus. : Fulmen. Princeps. Pullis. Syce Nemus. F. Oculus. Nix. Caput. Gens. Palma. will meet in four straight lines which are all in one plane. Cursus. Moena : Pharetra. : Ratis. Dexter. If 205 now drawing that the lines the sectional tetrahedron be projected on to the base (by from each point of the section to the base at right it). Venator. Finis.Appendix. Caterva. Monstrum. Lituus. Cursus. Vultus. Pruinus. Monstrum. Gens. Plagua. which point is the projection of the apex of the four-dimensional pyramid. Nix. are the possible base and projection of a section of a four-dimensional pyramid. Urbs. Myrtus. Fulmen. Dux. Dux. Therefore. Plagua. Miles. Regnum. Haedus. Castrum. Alvus:. Princeps. . Meta. Cerva. Humerus. . Equus. Navis. Civis. Rota. Tunica. 3.. Alvus projections Merum. Tuba. Alvus Triumphus. Syce Dies. Merum. : : Moena 2. Moena Tibia. Pruinus. there will be two tetrahedra fulfilling the condition hne joining the angles of the one to the angles of the other will. Syce Castrum. Vultus. Mon- strum. Moena. Castrum. Navis.

Uncus. 7. Navis. Plebs. Bidens. Frenum. Further Exercises The Names used dimensions. Os. Moena Urna. Tibicen. Moena 5. Uncus. Ostrum. Plebs. Urna. Omus. Focus. Scena. Pontus. Custos. Hama. Comes. Sector. 6. Figura. Res. Hostis. Bidens. Carina. Chorus. Spicula. Carina. : : : : Moena 3. : : : : : . 2. Humerus. Alvus Urna. Mars. Ales. Notus. Hama. Moena Moles. Remus. The shapes are Umbra. Arma. Alvus Urna. Jaculum. Plebs. Remus. Ostrum. Frenum. . Mars. Syce Uma. Plebs. Cohors. Moles. 3. Tibicen. Ostrum. Ala. Sypho. Finis. Vestis. : : : Uma. Mars. Uncus. : : : . Sypho. Tibicen. Syce Urna. Spicula. Answers. Tabema. Figura. : : : Moena 4. Pratum. Moles. Frenum. Alvus Ostrum. Sylva. Saltus. : : : Uma. Ludus. 2. Tibicen. Templum. Bidens. Sector. Flos. Moles. Comes. Tempus. Alvus Urna. 5. Sypho. Augur. Sector. Bidens. Saltus. Gens. Carina. Plebs. Ostrum. Comes. . Saltus. Sector. Saltus. Comes. Arator. Uncus. Remus. Portus. Bidens. Syce Sypho. Comes. Saltus. Ventus. Syce Moles. Moles. Omus. Facies. Moles. Spicula. Saltus. Augur. Res. Frenum. Lucrum. Hama. Mars. Vultus. Plebs. Saltus. Alvus Urna. Moena Moles. Spicula. Sector. Moles.1. Frenum. Monstrum. Sector. 8. Moles. Hama.2o6 A New : Era of Thought. Moles. Haedus. Vestis. Hama. Ala. Clamor. Moena Urna. Saltus. Syce Frenum. Comes. Syce Moles. Ala. Spicula. Sector. 4. Mars. Remus. Spicula. Ales. Campus. Pugna. Sector. Onus. Tibicen. are those given in Appendix C and this set of exercises forms a preparation for their use in space of four All are in the 27 Block (Uma to Syrma). Aether. Frenum. Moena Saltus. Spicula. Moles. Urna. Hama. Aether. Sector. Uncus. Nox. Alvus Uma. Tibicen. Syce Urna. Scena. Uncus. Ver. Ostrum. Alvus :~ Comes. Moles. Comes. Rex. 1. Moles. Frenum. Syce Moles. Alvus Urna. Pelagus. Flos. AgnaT. : in Shapes of Three Dimensions. Frenum. Frenum. Sidus.

Frenum. : : Arcus. Bidens. Urna. Pallor. Penates. Mora. Scena. Moles. Remus. Exercises on Shapes of Four Dimensions. 4. Scena. Mora. Oliva. Tyro. Ala. Urna. Remus. Spicula. Spicula. Plebs. Bidens. Bidens. Ala. Sypho. 8. . Syce Moles. Pallor. Comes. Alvus Ostrum. Tibicen. Scena. Comes. Frenum. : : : : : : : : Answers. Pluvium projection Urna. Cortis. Oliva. Tergum. Syce Frenum. Sypho. Merces. Sypho. Merces. Moles. Plebs. Cortis. Urna. Vestis. Tibicen. Saltus. Saltus. Alvus Frenum. Troja. Mora. first six Mala projection : : Urna. Frenum. Tergum. Plebs. Vitta. Saltus. Hama. 9. Postis. Moles. Ala. are 2. Plebs. The shapes 1. Spicula. Plebs. Comes. Pallor. Tibicen. Moena Urna. G. Moles. Plebs. Plebs. Moles. Aer. are those given in Appendix C. Moena Ostrum. Spicula. Sector. Saltus. Merces. Moena Urna. Plebs. Frenum. Bidens. Spicula. Cura. Nepos. Plebs. Tibicen. 7. Frenum. 6. Mars. exercises are in the 81 Set. Remus. APPENDIX The Names used I. Vestis. 11. Syce Urna. Ostrum. Crates. Plebs. Hama. Hama. Cortis. Comes. Pallor. Moles. Mars. Aer. Mora. Tibicen. Oliva. Spicula. Sypho. Comes. Luctus. Saltus. Tibicen. : 207 10. Sector. Sector. Bidens. Remus. Mars. Scena. Hama. Comes. Merces.: Appendix. Tibicen. Vesper projection Urna. Vestis. Mars. Moles. Sector. Orcus. Comes. Vestis. Ala. Remus. Scena. Ala. Alvus Urna. Moles. Sector. Merces. 9. Ocrea. 5. Merces. Ala. Sector. Mars. Ostrum. Moles. Mora. Mora. Sypho. Oliva. Spicula. Mars. Mars. Frenum. Sypho. Urna. Uncus. Plebs. Ostrum. Moles. Ostrum. Hama. Sypho. Cudo. Moles. Sector. Tibicen. Saltus. Mars. 10. Cortis. Hama. 3. Vestis. The and the rest in the 256 Set. Tibicen. Tyro. Hama. Ala. Remus. 11. Lar projection Urna.

: A New : : Era of Thought. Ara. . Tibicen. Ocrea. Naxos. Cortis. Arcus. Pax. Tribus. Crates. Malleus. Mala Pallor. Arcus. : : Papaver. Vesper Uncus. Cardo. Mica. Plebs. Sypho. Tyro. Pilum. Tyro. Axis. Malleus. Postis. Lar Plebs. Pallor. Pluvium Bidens. Cussis. Cera. 4. Anguis. Pilum. Arcus. Lar Sector. Pluvium Comes. Vulcan. Arvus. Limen. Spicula. Vesper Urna. Postis. Mars. Penates. Acus. Comes. Lacus. Penates. Fortuna. Orcus. Flagellum. Dolium. Vesper Comes. Ardor. Angusta. Polus. Tergum. : Mala Lar : : Pallor. Luctus. Troja. Penates. Aer. Cera. Acies. : : : : Lapis. Lar Urna. Merces. Ursa. Pallor. Vjtta. Orcus. Oliva. Hama. Alpis. Erisma. Rumor. Cudo. Telum. Vesper 6. Polus. Laurus. . Cera. Frenum. 8. Rostrum. Tibicen. Vita. Aries. Angusta. : : : : : Securis. Tyro. Axis. Cortex. Orcus. Mica. Vinculum. Aer. Vulcan. Pignus. Angusta. Tectum. Nepos. Cura. Tyro. Rheda. Ara. Vesper Uncus. Cudo. Anguis. Luctus. Oliva. Aestas. Nepos. Mala Urna. Septum. Lar Saltus. Frenutn. Ocrea. Nepos. Postis. Mala Mars. Lar Hospes. Lacus. Conjux. Mora. Tibicen. Vestis. Rapina. Plebs. Mala Comes. Securis. Mars. Fragor. Oliva. Angusta.' 2o8 2. Luctus. Pluvium: Comes. Orcus. Mala : : Vestis. Thorax. Tibicen. Messor. Luctus. Tergum. Pallor. Vulcan. Mala Hospes. 3. Uncus. Cortis. Pluvium Urna. Thyrsus. Pluvium : : Acus. Areas. Pluvium Vestis. Mars. Hircus. Angusta. Oliva. Torus. Aries. Remus. Api^. Sypho. Reus. Vesper Comes. Aestus. Torus. Troja. Fama. Penates. Aestus. 5. Angusta. Cura. Apis. Aer. Pluvium Bidens. Plebs. Praeda. Capella. Furor. Malleus. Mala: Fama. Cura. Myrrha. Anguis. Laurus. Tyro. Aries. Crates. Mora. Arcus. Ara. Frenum. Pignus. : : . Ocrea. Cudo. Arvus. 7. Aries. Troja. Lar Urna. Vesper Pardus. Mora. Vulcan. Capella. Merces. Cura. Aries. Flagellum. Cervix. Ira. Lar Missale. Moles. Syrma. 9. Arvus. Spicula. Aer. Mora. : : : Lapis. Pallor. Alexis.

Tessara. Vinculum. Scala. Plebs. Tabula. Glans. Ocrea. Lectrum. Clavis. Tabula. Python. Testudo. . Comes. Turtur. The shapes 1. Cordax. Tyro. Portio. Dolus. Arista. Ocrea. Hospes. 2. cutting the third. Sepes. Lacerta. Capella. Cardo. Since it does not cut Arctos or Cuspis. Answers. Tigris. 3. Ira. The sectional plane can be taken cutting all three lines. Aestas. S- Urna. Axis. Portio. Thorax. 9. Vomer. Laurus. There are three kinds of sections of a cube. The sectional plane. 6. Ovis. are : 2. Ovis. 8. Portio. Tessara. Turtur. Penates. Furor. Pallor. Diota. or one or both of them produced. which is in all cases supposed to be infinite. Plenum. Pax. Orcus. Sections of Cube and Tessaract. Urna. Cervix. Palus. 1. Iter. Frenum. Vestis. APPENDIX H. Verbum. Portio. or either of them produced. Lacerta. Nux. Tibicen. Mars. Crates. Pluvium : : 209 Torus. Pluma. Pax. Pellis. Oliva. 7. Tabula. Tribus. Tessara. Pallor. Troja. Penates. Corbis. Thorax. Mars. Fama. Septum. Conjux. Ari«s. parallel to two of the lines meeting in Corvus. The sectional plane can be taken parallel to one of the lines in Corvus and cutting the other two. Vulcan. it will cut Via. Furor. Colus.Appendix. Calathus. Mica. Lacerta. Gurges. Cura. Ovis. Spicula. Dolus. Fera. Testudo. Portio. 3. Dolium. Take the first case. Segmen. Tessara. and Bolus at the middle point of each and the figure. Polus. Porrum. Lapis. 4. Arcus. Sepes. Merces. Pluma. Securis. Corymbus. Cussis. Circaea. Reus. or any or all of them produced. Moles. Thyrsus. Domitor. and suppose the plane cuts Dos half-way between Corvus and Cista. Calathus. Drachma. Clipeus. and . Vesper Uncus. Spes. Tigris. Colus. Lacerta. Senex. can be taken parallel to two of the opposite faces of the cube that is. Clipeus. Sacerdos. determined by the interP meeting .

Take the third case. Dos being cut twice as far from Corvus as is Cuspis. showing that the Z and that the X lines from Corvus are not cut at a-unit from Corvus. and is parallel to Arctos. If the plane passes through Mala. is a Take rectangle which has two sides of one unit. the second case. and the other two the diagonal of one unit squared. the edge of the cube be taken as the unit. Thus ZXY from Corvus. These figures will also be rectangles. each at half-a-unit from Corvus.I ZXY ZXY O. each at one unit from Corvus. the figure will be a parallelogram like the one obtained by the section Z q X i Y jl This ZXY O. and that Cuspis and Dos are cut.lJ.I. and not cut Arctos or Arctos produced . each at one-and-a-half unit from Corvus. it will also cut through the middle points of Via and Callis. the line it being understood that where do not refer to the length of unit cut off any given but to the proportion between the lengths. A New Era of Thought. The figure produced. the figure will be a rectangle which has two sides of one unit in length . . \ It will be seen that these sections are parallel to each other and that in each figure Cuspis and Dos are cut set thus : at equal distances from Corvus. Let the plane cut Cuspis and Dos. cutting £)os produced and Cuspis produced.t means that Arctos is not cut at all. is a square. numbers ^ . If the length of section of the Plane and Mala. i ^°^^ ^^° be squares. Sections taken and Y o line is cut at half- ^ -^ I ^""^ o . We may express the whole ZXY O. \ .— 2IO . .I.lJ set of figures will be expressed O . and is parallel to Arctos.I Roman figures are used. this figure may be expressed thus : \ all. If the plane cuts Cuspis and Dos. and the other two are each the diagonal of a half-unit squared.

and then have drawn the cube through the plane at right angles to it until the' lines (Cuspis and Dos) were cut at the required distances fromCorvus. and figures of also. X jj Y jj Z J X JJ Y JJ- but we must learn them as a two-dimensional learn the three-dimensional being would. in a direction at right angles to the plane. as it would probably be easier for a two-dimensional . when we should have seen position. This an equilateral triangle. evident that the resulting figures are the same whether we the cube. 2 1 figure is Suppose Arctos. It is easy for us to see what these shapes are. The figure Z X X . We have already seen (p. If . lateral triangle. and Arctos equally Z X Y\ inclined to it (for any of the shapes in the set . with regard to the cube. what the or any other set would be. and the lines Cuspis and Dos equally inclined to it. Cuspis. in the first case we might hav« fixed the plane. At If the cube were moved until first he would only see Arctos. suppose the cube put with the line Arctos coinciding with his space. and then turn the Thus. 117) how a two-dimensional being would observe the sections of a cube when it is put with one plane side coinciding with his space. being to think of a cube passing through his space than to imagine his whole space turned round. is an equilateral If . and Dos are each cut half-way. hexagon. so that It is fix we may see how to sections of a tessaract. and then turn the sectional plane to the required whether we fix the sectional plane. In the second case /Z ( X j Y\ j I we might have put the cube with Arctos coinciding with the plane and with Cuspis and Dos equally inclined to it. Now.1 Appendix. Arctos still being parallel . Y Y ig i is also an equi- and the figure Z . The resulting figures same as those we got before but this way is the best to use. In the third case we might have put the cube with only Corvus coinciding with the plane and with Cuspis. and is then drawn partly through. whose sides are the diagonal of a half-unit squared. Dos and Cuspis were each cut half-way. the square first mentioned. or cube. as Z . and then so placed the cube that one plane side coincided with the sectional plane. and then have drawn the cube half-way through. Dos.1 j j are exactly the and then have drawn it through as before.

One point of the figure would be the middle point of Cuspis. and that the point Dos at one of its ends is half-way between Corvus and Cista. He could also see that the angles are right. which may be regarded as the first section of the square set. . it would be a more difficult He would have to take Moena. is parallel to Arctos. are purely Z. therefore Next he would take the square section half-way between Moena He knows that the line AIvus of this section is and Murex. Arctos would disappear at once he would see he would have to take the square sections of the cube. 22). the line of intersection of Moena with it the sectional plane will be parallel to Arctos. he would draw Syce. He might now draw a ground plan of the sections that is. and from the middle point of Dos to Corvus is half-a-unit. The required line then cuts Cuspis half-way. and find on each of them what lines are given by the new set of sections. and since the sectional plane is parallel to Arctos. so that this line itself is the one he wants (because the sectional plane cuts Dos half-way between Corvus and Cista. This diagonal may be written d (J)^. . 21 the two lines thus found are shown. He would also see that from the middle point of Callis to the middle point of Via is the same length therefore the figure is a parallelogram. . and Cuspis and Dos are at right angles to each other therefore from the middle point of Cuspis to the middle point of Dos is the diagonal of a square whose sides are half-a-unit in length. having two of its sides. other two each d (|)^. Y . He must now find out how far apart they are. parallel to Arctos. and the other two. a section halfway between Moena and Murex. In Fig. a b and c d. each one unit in length. He would see that Cadus and Bolus would be cut half-way. and since they have no tendency in common. and is parallel to Arctos). He knows that from the middle point of Cuspis to Corvus is hal-fa-unit. Murex and another square which he would have to regard as an imaginary section half-a-unit further Y than Murex (Fig. and produce Cuspis and Dos half-a-unit beyond Nugas and Cista. so that in the . and c d the line in the section. and to find out what to the plane. a b is the line in Moena.212 A Neiv Era of Thought. because the lines a c and b d are made up of the and Y directions. they are at right angles to each other. and cuts Callis half-way. and the . Thus he would take Moena itself. If little X he wanted the figure made by Z X .

Ct\ .

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. cias Cuspis Ground-plan oF Seetionr sAcun in /igi 22 .24. . \Toface #.g. F.g./.23. 213. F."JogSfSKY.

and a and c to Crus. a similar method followed. turned about Arctos. 23). In the last square. and as the sectional plane passes through Ilex and Nugje. each at one unit from Corvus. Suppose the sectional plane to pass through Mala. they are d (i)'' from each other. To find the figure. 24). may be Suppose the sectional plane to cut Cuspis. a section half-way between Moena and Murex. So the whole figure is the Ilex to Nugas diagonal. so that Alvus came into his plane he might then produce Arctos and Dos until they were each i^ unit long. and he would see that as the plane cuts Dos at one unit from Corvus. Murex. and Arctos. since the cube goes no further than Murex. the section and Murex. He would first take Moena. . Now Cista and Ilex are each one inch from Corvus. He could find out how far the two lines a b and^ c d (Fig. the imaginary section. Dos. whose sides are each d (i)'. In taking the third order of sections. He would produce Arctos and Cuspis to points half-a-unit from Ilex and Nugas. 213 half-way section he would have the point a (Fig. r and s being each \\ unit from Corvus. 24). the plane-being would have to take Moena. and . . for this is i^ unit from Corvus measured along Dos produced. In the imaginary section he would have g . . and in Murex the point c. and to find these he would have to make many observations. there would be the point m. and the point Cista.Appendix. and measured along lines at right angles to each other therefore. by turning Syce into his plane. There would also be lines in the other two squares. cutting Cuspis. all he would have is the point Cista. so that Iter and Semita would be cut half-way. and simply seeing that it cut Callis and Far He might now imagine a cube Mala at the middle point of each. he would see that the line passes through the middle points of Callis and Far (a. Fig. Again. From the points c and a there would be lines going Z. Dos. and Arctos each at \\ unit from Corvus. but this he might disregard. when he would see that Via and Bucina are each cut'half-way. and join their extremities. He found the points a and b (Fig 24) by drawing a line from r to s. By referring Nugae and Cista to Corvus he would find that they aretelso d (i)^ apart therefore the figure is an equilateral triangle. 22) are apart by referring d and b to Lama. b. and by joining these points. the line on Moena would be the diagonal passing through these two points Then he would take Murex. and an imaginary section half-aunit beyond Murex (Fig.

through which the plane passes. he would conclude that the X and Y lines are cut the same distance from : : : : . He has now determined six points on Mala. producing Dos and Cuspis to points \\ unit from Corvus and joining the points. He would also see that the Z and X are cut at half-a-unit. If the plane-being knew thi». if the angles of each side of a solid : The figure are determined. looking line at his square sections. d Of (J)^ long. Olus. and by referring them in pairs to Ilex. (Fig. these three lines a b. Bolus. c d. and Y lines are cut equally from Corvus. he would rightly assume that if three lines meet. Crus. is the same for those lines. making a solid angle. Nugae. the ratio of the parts between the plane and the angle is the same for those three lines. . it is half-a-unit and as the Z. He can find the distances . Sors. angles he would not have got in this observation. Bucina. on the side of the angle. he would see that Bolus and Cadus are cut halfway. He knows is. these last two being parallel to a b and a c. If he had noticed his plane-space much. if a line be drawn to cut two other lines which meet. . 24)— a b and e f are sides. and on Murex he would see a from middle of Cadus to middle of Bucina. Cadus. way by which he might have found the sides of this figure. It should be observed that a similar difficulty does not come to us in our observation of the sections of a tessaract for. Now. that is half-a-unit. Via. and b c crosses them. the middle points of Callis. and also crosses a' b' and a' c'. Cista. he would have found out that. There is another. he would find that each was d (^ from the next so he would know that the figure is an equilateral hexagon. and a plane passes through them.2 14 -^ New Era of Thought. that the X line : cut at \\ units from Corvus that half-a-unit from Nugas so he would conclude that the Z and Y lines are cut half-a-unit from Nugae. d i\f line On Callis.: Ilex as the is Z line. and any other two that are parallel to them. if a b and a c (Fig 25) meet. and c d is a section of the required figure. that is. a line the section he would see a line from middle of Via to middle of Bolus d {\f long. and Far. X. making an angle at a. then a b a c a' b' a' c'. and for any other three parallel to them. he would see on Moena a going from middle of Far to middle of long. In the case we are dealing with he knows that from Ilex to the point on Arctos produced where the plane cuts. and in some respects a better. e f. and they might be a serious difficulty to him. the ratio of the parts of the two lines cut off by the first line. He has now six points lines from Cista on the cube. Thus. the solid angles are also determined.

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Z °'' X . It is impossible in writing to show how to make the various and even if it were not so. he would show that the three bounding This is all a twolines are the diagonals of equal squares. although to his higher mind they may be selfThus a three-dimensional being can see at a glance. . Any one who or determining wishes to make them should go carefully over the sections of a cube. way from Corvus. with his three-dimensional conceptions. 1 . . them as he. when the figure is drawn. if he were taking a section where the plane cuts Arctos and Cuspis at one unit from Corvus and Dos at one-and-a-half. and the only figure fulfilling all these conditions is an equilateral and equiangular hexagon. If the resulting figure is an equilateral triangle. evident. and Y lines is the same from Corvus to the sectional plane as from any other point to the sectional plane. he would see that Dos itself is not cut at all but from Cista to the point on Dos produced is half-a-unit therefore from Cista. and can thus see it all at he wished to . between b and d by reference to NugEe. ft 11 . Enough has been said about sections of a cube. for the value of doing it is not in seeing the shapes themselves. He unadvisable . X. it would be sections of a tessaract . the Z and X lines will be cut at f of ^ unit from Cista.Appendix. and between d and f by reference to Crus and he will find that these distances are each d i^'' Thus. that if a sectional plane passes through a cube at one unit each can . . Moreover. that is where the ratio of Z and of X to Y is as two to three. plane-being would find the shapes in any set as in *. between c and e by reference to Olus. of which two of the opposite points (c and d) are d (i)'' apart. Thus. and work through the problems which a plane-being would have to work through. prove it. Y . to show how a . not looking at them as he himself can see them. he would know that the figure is an equilateral hexagon with its sides d (J)^ long. so much as in the concentration of the mind on the tessaract involved in the process of finding them out. we can look at it from a point outside the plane of the figure. but he must limit his imagination to two dimensions. ^ U I I II would always have to bear in mind that the ratio of the lengths of the Z. but it is not so evident to dimensional being would have to do him that two of the lines are the diagonals of squares. 215 between a and c by reference to Ilex.

A tetrahedron may be if Thus. and of a tetra-tessaract. given. although he cannot conceive any other plane than the one in which he exists. That will teach him nothing about a tessaract. are true. While. Then instance. if cut out and folded along the show some of the sections of a tessaract. step by step. as given sections of its figures. together with certain others of a like nature. and he assumes that three points determine a plane. regarded as a cube with every alternate the corner towards Corvus cut off as far as the points Ilex. and the corner towards Olus cut off as far as Ilex. or he might see two edges in perspective together. is no more a matter of doubt to us than what we learn of two. Lama. When any difficulty arises in taking the sections of a tessaract. then the tetrahedron. Cista. the surest way of overcoming it is to suppose a similar difficulty occurring to a two-dimensional being in taking the sections of a cube. and the corner towards Sors cut off as far as Ilex. Cista. and. and the corner towards Crus cut off as far as Lama. we can find all the sections of a tessaract. But the reader is earnestly begged not to be content with looking at the shapes only. if every alternate corner of a tessaract corner cut off.2i6 once . Cista. will A few figures are be carried on into space of four our solidity (hke the flatness of a plane-being) will allow us to learn of these shapes and relations. A New Era of Thought. what is left of the cube is a tetrahedron. we say that if this supposition. Or rather. For he knows that two points determine a line. which. We assume that four points determine a solid space. and of other four-dimensional figures by an infinite solid. Lama. Nugae. if it is the case that the laws of spaces of two and three lines. in fact.and three-dimensional shapes and relations. and of which any statement may be true. and will only tend to produce in his mind a feeling that "the fourth dimension " is an unknown and unthinkable region. whose angles are at the points Ilex. in which any shapes may be right. with dimensions . Mala have . little dimensions may. but he who has to look at it from a point in the plane can only see an edge at a time. there are certain suppositions he has to make. the equivalents in four-space of an octahedron and truth. Lama. There are given also sections of an octa-tessaract. and then to apply the same or similar principles to the case in point. Cista. to follow the solution he might obtain. or fourdimensional space. Nugae. Nugas. In a similar manner. Nugas.

Id vi. i.ITd/oci/. . (i) 2i6. Nos.

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7 jippenatx. Y . The the sections of the tessaract. ^ ^ ^ . — A z Description of Figures 26 to 41. 37. the figure left is an octa-hedron. Z 26 27 28 is a section taken i li 2 Z •^^ I ^ 29 ] is a section taken i 30 32 \\ 2 C31 2j Figures 33 to 35 are of The above are sections of a tessaract. be cut figure 2 1 off. The octa-tessaract is got by cutting off every comer of the If every corner of a cube is cut off. 40. A careful study of a tetra-hedron and an octa-hedron as they are cut out of a cube will be the best preparation for the study of these four-dimensional figures. and 38 are similar sections of an octa-tessaract. and corresponding to the figures given of tetra-tessaract is a tetra-tessaract. as How many planes and lines there are in each. Figures 39. and 41 are the following sections of a tessaract. tessaract. cutting the Z X and Y lines equally. How many solid sides there are round a point in each. supposed to be imbedded in a tessaract. Figures 36. whose angles are at the middle points of the sides. Z X Y W f ^^ '^ * section taken Z o X . the figure that is left is a tetra-tessaract. and the sections are taken through it. W . It will be seen that there is much to learn of them. which is a bounded by sixteen regular tetrahedrons. The angles of the octa-tessaract are at the middle points of its plane sides.

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Blue-green. Buff. Leaden. Lama. Vermilion. Green-grey. Bolus. Iter. Blue. Murex. Terra-cotta. Dark-slate. Bright-blue. Cadus. Surfaces Callis. Light-blue. : Moena. Lines : Cuspis. Dark-blue. Crimson. Light-buff. Via. Arctos. Dull-purple. Deep-yellow. Syce. Cms. Sors. Proes. Model MALA. K. Gold. Daps. Far. Reddish. Colours Points: Corvus. Mel. Green. Dos. Semita. : Mala. Cista. Nugse. Brown. Alvus. Ilex. Bucina. Red. White. Deep-blue. APPENDIX i. Fawn. .PART II. Light -yellow. French-grey. Black. Orange. Olus.

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K. <t\^* 6f . Model MARGO.PART II. APPENDIX 2.

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Lines : Luca. Ops. APPENDIX 3. Cuspis. 223 . Stone. Dark-purple. Lis. Sea-blue. Offex. Cista. Rose. Earthen. Opex. Green-grey. Turquoise. Purple-brown. Panax. . Blue-tint. Corvus. Mappa. Brick-red.du Syee „os CO^' >">? ^* ^v^" O <%t. Limus. Nugse. brown. Mugil. Ca. Crus.. Ancilla. Black.PART II. Model LAR. Smoke. Fawn. Gold. Lua. Buff. BrightSurfaces: Lotus. Mensura. Dull-green. K. appc /i Colours Points : : Lae. Dos. Terra-cotta. Lappa.Syce.. Bright-green. 011a. Light-green. Cadus. Bolus. Orange.^ A'' otus Of %< Luca. Spira. Blue. Lorica. Silver. Leaf-green. Azure. Magenta. Crim son.

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'?( Tilos V <i' / Tliolu* : m ''*. Callis. Reddish. Light-grey. Lines : Tholus. Green-blue. Bright- Semita. Red. vermilion.PART II. Rich-red. Quaker-green. Livor. purple. Mel. Sea-green. Dull- Lama. Deep-blue. APPENDIX 4. Sttrfaces : Limbus. Smmita. Lares. Light-red. Olus. Ochre. K. 225 . Light-blue. Model VELUM. Passer. Solia. Calor. J' Mel Callu \V* JVianjo Cr" ilu i*' •^. Emerald. Talus. Via. blue. White. Dark. Felis. Mango. Purple. Pator. Lucta. Croeta. Leaden. Deep-brown. Peacock-blue. Iter. Orsa. Deep-yellow. Brown-green. Colours Points : Velum. QrangeSors. Deep-green. Meatus. Dark-green.. Chocolate. Ilex. Pale-yellow. Libera. Lensa.

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Bucina. Olus. Pale-green. Brown. Indigo. Alvus. Deep-yellow. Emerald. Arctos. Light-green. Buff. Solia. Ilex. Red. Camoena. Lensa. 227 . Green. Purple-brown. Cista. Light-blue. Silver. Dark. Pagus. Rich-red. APPENDIX s- K. Colours Points : : Vesper. Crux. Lixa. Indian-red. Spira. Corvus. Deep-crimson. Stone. Dull-blue. Vermilion. Lua. Orsa. Dos. Lucta. Blue. Felis. Quaker-green. Model VESPER. Croeta. Surfaces : P^ina. Lis. Blue-tint. Yellow. Opex. Gold. Lines : Ops.PART II. Light-red. Purple. Panax. Light-brown. Via.

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^ V .PART II. APPENDIX 6. Model IDUS. K. *4 Libera .

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Model •%_ . K. grey. FrenchTholos.cV \^ b! *»l. Limbus. Light-blue. Onager. Cuspis. Brown-green. C«. CV/T"-'" • S ^0^*" 0^'' Z. blue. Dark-^ Pagina. Quaker-green. Lotus.PART ir.<7/«J . Brown. Dark-pink. Ops. Azure.Hi« ^' Limluf Thai OS VeV'* ^^'. Felis. Stone. Pagus. Moena. Yellow. GreenCallis. Luca v^ : Pluvium. Passer. Pator. Turquoise. Ancilla. Dull-blue. Smoke. Surfaces: Silex. Leaf-green. Rich-red.cXV PLUVIUM. Lucta. Orange. Nugse. blue. Silver. Reddish. Lines : Luca. Limus. Pactum./ Colours Points: Spira. Peacock-blue. Dull-purple. Dark-stone. Gold. APPENDIX 7. 331 .^ J^oenap»?' ^t*^ SiltX . Fawn. Far. Burnt-Sienna. Arctos. Ochre. Sors. Yellow-green. Corvus. Ilex.

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Vena. Solia. Crus. Pale-yellow. K. Leaden. Deep-blue. Orca. Mugil. Green.PART II. Bucina. Talus. Magenta. Offex. Dun. Camoena. Deep-crimson. Lorica. Purple. Sea-green. Green-grey. Seablue. Terra-cotta. Deep-green. Semita. Orsa. Pale-pink. 213 . Dark-grey. Surfaces: Portica. Dark-slate. : Tela. Mango. Colours Points: Panax. Olus. Blue-tint. Orange-vermilion. Salmon. Cadus. Dark-purple. Indigo. Murex. Emerald. APPENDIX 8. Light-yellow. Light-green. Earthen. Libera. Daps. Model TELA. Buff. Red. Lis. Livor. Lixa. Cista. Lama. Lines: Mensura.

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Lua Lotus. Azure. Lar. Dark -grey. Rich-red. Stone.PART Model 9. Emeral d. Salmon. Vesper. Pale-green. Zines (Surfaces) Pactum. Magenta. Light Meatus. Dark-stone. Yellow. Chocolate. II. Limus. Deep-crimson. Pator. Libera. Wood. Yellow-green. Light-green. Idus. Sea-blue. Rose. OUa. Brick-red. Orca. Sea-green. Lis. red. Surfaces (Solids) : Pluvium. Croeta. Ops.u<i' Colours "Points {Lines) : : Interior or Tessaract. SECTION BETWEEN MALA AND MARGO. Ochre. Green-blue. Bright-brown. \. Smoke. Pagina. Offex. Velum. APPENDIX K. Limbus. Camoena. Deep-brown. Orsa. 335 . Lorica. Tela. : Lucta. Mango.Atr>- \. Deep-green. Oak.

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APPENDIX K. Pagus. Dun. Sal. Dark-stone. Vermilion. Camoena. Orca. Proes. Onager. French-grey. Light-buff. Yellow-ochre. Dull-blue. Yellow. : . <'• ^' Jlla rgo. Alvus. Idus. Lixa. Dark-slate. Wood. Deep-crimson. Indigo. Murtx Mala £l Motna Trio. Murex.PART Model io. Sage-green. Portica. II. Surfacts (Solids) Mala. Dark-grey. SECTION BETWEEN LAR AND VELUM. Blue-green. >A0 s.. Arctos. Dark-pink. green. Margo. Pluvium. Pale-pink. Light-yellow. Daps. Burnt-sienna. i Bucina. Vf^ Colours Points {Lines) : : SiUx °-». Salmon. Oak. Pale-green. Vesper. Far. Pactum. 's?. Interior or Tessaract. Brown. Lines (Surfaces) : Silex. Vena. Crux. Moena. Tela. Dark-blue. YellowPagina. Indian-red. Green.

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^' . SECTION BETWEEN VESPER AND IDUS. APPENDIX K. <.PART Model ii.. II.

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Mel. Opex. Bolus. Pale-green. Light-buff. White. Rose. Dark. Alvus. Oak. Lensa. Syce. II. Dull-green. : Surfaces {Solids) Deep-brown. Light-grey. Mala. Chocolate. Black. Calor. Bright-green. Blue. Wood. Brick-red. Velum. Sal. Indian-red. Lines {Surfaces) Lappa. : 841 . Blue-green. Dark-green. Sage-green. Via. Yellow-ochre. 011a. Colours Points {Lines) : : Interior or Tessaract. Bright-brown. Croeta. SECTION BETWEEN PLUVIUM AND TELA. Deep-yellow. Iter. Light-red. Proes. Lua. Crimson. Crux. Dos.PART Model 12. APPENDIX K. Purple-brown. Vesper. Meatus. Mappa. Lares. Bright-blue. Margo. Lar. Idus. Vermilion.