Module #20

Module #20
Particle Hardening
(i.e., Precipitation and Dispersion Hardening)
READING LIST
DIETER: Ch. 6, pages 212-220
HOMEWORK
List and describe the
primary strengthening
mechanisms are in Pearlite.
For help consult the
following article:
JOM, v. 54 (2002) p. 25-30
How can dispersed particles influence strength?
How can dispersed particles influence strength?
• Dispersed particles can increase the strength of a solid by
impeding dislocation motion.
• The particles can be precipitates, which are natural. They can
also be things like dispersed oxide or carbide particles which are
not necessarily natural.
• Particle hardening is generally a more potent way to strengthen
a material than solid solution hardening. Precipitates and
dispersoids are usually more effective barriers to dislocation
penetration than single solutes.
 NOTE: Most structural materials utilize some sort of particle
hardening in conjunction with the other hardening mechanisms
to achieve high strengths.
What determines the degree of strengthening?
– Particle size
– Particle volume fraction
– Particle shape
– Nature of the interface between the particle and the matrix
– Structure of the particle
These things define the mean particle
spacing L
obstacles
Dislocation line
L’
|
c
|’
c
For deformation to proceed dislocations must:
Cut through particles
(“shearing” or “cutting”)
or
Extrude between particles
(“bowing” or “Orowan looping”).
[Ashby, Shercliff, & Cebon, p. 129]
[Weaver]
Sheared
precipitate
particle
Precipitate
particle
Successive positions of
the dislocation line
Force per
unit length τb
[Ashby, Shercliff, & Cebon, p. 131]
2
2
o
ppt
bL
Gb
bL L
t
o
t
I
I
=
= ~
I
I
Stress on ppt.
Derived from line tension.
What dictates the mechanism?
What dictates the mechanism?
• Type of interaction
• Properties of particles
• Particle distribution
__ Gb
L
t
max
=
overaged or
incoherent
particles
underaged or
coherent particles
Adapted from Reppich, in
Plastic Deformation and
Fracture of Materials,
VCH, (1992).
What dictates the mechanism?
What dictates the mechanism?
• Type of interaction
• Properties of particles
• Particle distribution
__ Gb
L
t
max
=
overaged or
incoherent
particles
underaged or
coherent particles
Adapted from Reppich, in
Plastic Deformation and
Fracture of Materials,
VCH, (1992).
B*
Particle shearing/cutting
Particle shearing/cutting
What determines whether or not this process occurs?
[Humphreys and Hatherly, Recrystallization and
Related Annealing Phenomena, 2
nd
Ed., p.49.]
[Argon, Strengthening Mechanisms in Crystal Plasticity., p.221.]
[Roesler, Harders, Baeker, p. 191]
Precipitation
Precipitation
1. Small particles are generally coherent with the matrix
2. Intermediate particles are often semi-coherent with the matrix
3. Large particles are generally incoherent with the matrix
Properties scale with precipitate size and spacing for a constant precipitate volume fraction
Precipitate size
scales with
composition, time and
temperature.
THUS
Properties change
with time at temp.
As you learned in Physical Metallurgy and Thermodynamics, precipitates are generally
very small in the early stages of precipitation. They coarsen with time at temperature.
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
% B (wt% or at%)
A
o
o+L
o+|
Approx. ppt. size as
function of aging
temperature
L
|+???
Adapted from
Roesler,
Harders,
Baeker, p.
15,16
Types of
interfaces
Coherent
All crystal planes line up
Semi-coherent
Come crystal planes line up
Incoherent
Different crystal orientations
Incoherent
Different crystal structures
Effect of Interface Character
Effect of Interface Character
• Precipitates can have stress fields associated with
them.
• Stress fields around particles, when present, creates
a larger effective particle volume.
Dislocations will interact with the stress fields
surrounding coherent particles in the same way that
they do with the stress fields around solute atoms
(i.e., just like solid solution hardening).
Coherency Strain
Coherency Strain
• Dislocations interact with the stress fields that surround coherent
particles in the same way that they interact with the stress fields
surrounding solid solution atoms.
– Coherency strains develop that reduce dislocation velocity (remember
the Taylor-Orowan equation?) and increase strength. The increase in
resolved shear stress is:
– In this equation, the rf/b term · to solute concentration in that f is the
precipitate volume fraction (i.e., “precipitate concentration”).
3/ 2
7
where
ppt matrix
coh
matrix
coh coh
a a
rf
G
b
a
c
t c
÷
~
=
Origin of coherency strains in precipitation strengthened materi Origin of coherency strains in precipitation strengthened material al
Just a convenient way to visualize it.
Notice that the number of lattice points inside the hole is conserved
a
α
a
β
a
β
< a
α
ppt matrix
coh
matrix
a a a
a
a
a
| o
o
c
÷ ÷
= =
• Modulus hardening
– When a precipitate has a shear modulus that is different from that of the
matrix, the line tension on a dislocation that enters a precipitate is altered.
– This is analogous to solid solution hardening. The modulus change
induces a local change in the elastic strain energy of the line segment (i.e.,
the dislocation). The resulting hardening has been equated (by Courtney)
as:
– This equation only provides an approximate estimate in the early stages of
precipitation.
Other factors to consider when particles are coherent (1) Other factors to consider when particles are coherent (1)
3/ 2
0.01
Gppt Gppt
fr
G
b
t c =
G
matrix
G
ppt
Change in line tension on cutting
dislocation segment
2
( )
(2 )
2
ppt matrix
G G b
r
÷
=
Other factors to consider when particles are coherent (2) Other factors to consider when particles are coherent (2)
• Chemical strengthening
– When a dislocation passes through a particle, a new region of particle-
matrix interface is produced. There is a surface energy associated with
this new interface. Work must be done to produce it. The strengthening
associated with this is called chemical strengthening.
– Chemical strengthening does not play as
large a role in precipitation hardening as
other mechanisms.
b
ppt ppt ppt
b
b
(1) (2) (3)
3/ 2
3/ 2
2 2
s
chem chem
fr fr
G G
Gr b b
¸
t c
| |
= =
|
\ .
Reppich, in Plastic
Deformation and Fracture of
Materials, VCH, (1992) p. 325.
Other factors to consider when particles are coherent (3) Other factors to consider when particles are coherent (3)
• Order strengthening and stacking fault strengthening
– When the stacking fault energies of the particle and matrix are different,
dislocations will be impeded because the equilibrium separation of the
partial dislocations is different in the matrix and the particle.
– When a particle has an ordered structure, like bonds (i.e., A-A, B-B, etc.)
will form when a single dislocation passes through the precipitate. These
are called anti-phase boundaries (APBs). This represents a higher energy
state than the desired A-B type bonding. The energy increase is the APB
energy.
2
APB
order
f
b

t =
b
ppt
b
b
(1) (2) (3)
A
B
A
B
A
B
A
B
A
B
A
B
A
B
A
B
A
B
A
B
A
B
A
B
A
B
A
B
A
B
A
B
A
B
B
A
B
A
B
A
B
A
B
A
A
B
A
B
A
B
A
B
A
B
A
B
A
B
A
B
A
B
A
B
A
B
A
B
• Order strengthening and stacking fault strengthening (cont’d)
– A second dislocation must pass through the precipitate to return the lattice to its
preferred stacking sequence.
– The second dislocation is attracted to the particle because it “removes” the APB created
by the passage of the first. Separation between the dislocations bounding the APB is
quite complicated.
– Keep in mind that each individual
dislocation can also dissociate into
a partial dislocations separated by
stacking faults and APBs. One such
example in Ni
3
Al is illustrated to the right.
– We’ll address this more in the ordered
alloys lecture module.
Other factors to consider when particles are coherent (4) Other factors to consider when particles are coherent (4)
b
b
(5)
B
A
A
A
B
B
B
A
A
A
B
B
B
A
A
A
B
B
B
A
A
A
B
B
b
b
(4)
B
A
A
A
B
B
B
A
A
B
A
B
A
B
A
B
A
B
A
B
A
B
A
B
APB
The two dislocations are
termed superlattice
dislocations or
“superdislocations”
[Soboyejo, p. 203]
Other factors to consider when particles are coherent (5) Other factors to consider when particles are coherent (5)
• For low APB energies (wide
dislocation separation) in the early
stages of precipitation:
• For high APB energies (smaller
dislocation separation) in the early
stages of precipitation:
3/ 2
0.7 , where
APB
ord ord ord
fr
G
b Gb
¸
t c c ~ =
3/ 2
0.7 0.7
ord ord ord
fr
G f
b
t c c
(
~ ÷
(
¸ ¸
• For low APB energies (wide
dislocation separation) in the late
stages of precipitation:
• For high APB energies (smaller
dislocation separation) in the late
stages of precipitation:
0.44
ord ord
G f t c ~
0.44 0.92
ord ord
G f f t c
(
~ ÷
¸ ¸
Loss of coherency
Loss of coherency
• When precipitate particles grow, coherency can be lost.
• The energy of the strained interface between the particle and matrix
becomes greater than the energy for an incoherent interface. This
occurs when the particle size exceeds a critical value. You should
recall this from Physical Metallurgy. See a physical metallurgy text
such as Reed-Hill and Abbaschian for more details.
• When you lose coherency, you lose the coherency strain and
associated hardening. This same thing occurs in dispersion
hardening materials where there is no coarsening and no
coherency.
• Strength still increases anyway (up to a point)! WHY?
Orowan Looping
Orowan Looping
What determines whether this process occurs?
[Humphreys and Hatherly, Recrystallization and
Related Annealing Phenomena, 2
nd
Ed., p.49.]
b
[C.R. Barrett, W.D. Nix and A.S. Tetelman, The Principles of Engineering
Materials, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ (1973) p.263.]
Orowan bypass mechanisms
Orowan bypass mechanisms
• Particles can bypass incoherent precipitates by looping/bowing around
them.
• This also applies to non-deformable particles.
t t t t
L L-2r
r = ppt. radius
L-2r′
t
Dislocation
loop
• Dislocation bowing will occur when the volume of particle phase increases
above some critical value or when the interface boundary is incoherent.
• The shear stress required to cause bowing is given by:
• This stress will increase after a loop forms around a particle because a
subsequent dislocation would have to “squeeze through” a smaller region in
between the two loops. The end result is an increase in strength.
( 2 )
bowing
Gb Gb
L r L
t = =
'
÷
Orowan loops as they appear in Orowan loops as they appear in
an electron microscope an electron microscope
Strengthening caused by
Orowan looping
Shear stress increment
converted to normal
stress by applying the
average Taylor factor
(i.e., inverse Schmid
factor)
L´ (nm)
[Martin, Precipitation Hardening, 2
nd
Ed.]
Does the bowing stress change with particle
Does the bowing stress change with particle
volume fraction (
volume fraction (
f
f
)
)
?
?
• YES! For a fixed volume fraction of particles, the bowing stress
decreases with increasing particle radius r. This is accompanied by
an increased particle spacing.
• Increasing f also increases the bowing stress. How does this relate
to structure?
• What happens if we increase the resistance to dislocation
penetration after bowing commences?
t
bowing
Particle radius, r
f
1
f
2
> f
1
f
2
Increasing volume
fraction of particles
Transition from cutting to bowing
Transition from cutting to bowing
• Assuming a constant precipitate volume fraction, the following events
occur.
• As particle size increases, it becomes more
difficult for cutting to occur. This means it
becomes more difficult for dislocations to
pass through particles. Coherency is also
lost.
• The difficulty of cutting arises from:
– The increase in the amount of work that is required to shear a larger
precipitate.
– Also, the mean spacing between particles increases which causes
the shear stress required to cause bowing to decrease.
• In general, particles that are smaller than some critical size are
“sheared.” This means that dislocations cut through them. When
particles are larger than the critical size, they are bypassed by “Orowan
looping/bowing.”
[Roesler]
Do variations in volume fraction and precipitate
Do variations in volume fraction and precipitate
hardness influence strength?
hardness influence strength?
• Constant volume fraction of particles
– Increase precipitate hardness ÷increase strengthening; decrease
precipitate radius where bowing begins.
• Constant particle hardness
– Increase precipitate volume fraction ÷increase strengthening;
increase precipitate radius where bowing begins.
Change in shear stress with increasing particle hardness and
radius
S
h
e
a
r

S
t
r
e
s
s
,

τ
Particle Radius, r
Low hardness
High hardness
r
c1
r
c2
r
c3
Change in shear stress with increasing particle volume fraction
S
h
e
a
r

S
t
r
e
s
s
,

τ
Particle Radius, r
Low volume fraction
High volume fraction
r
c1
r
c2
CONSTANT PARTICLE
HARDNESS
CONSTANT PARTICLE
VOLUME FRACTION Orowan
looping
Orowan
looping
Cutting
Cutting
Precipitation hardening and work hardening rates
Precipitation hardening and work hardening rates
• The extent of work hardening depends upon whether or not
dislocations cut through or bow/loop around precipitates.
• Deformable particles
Easily sheared.
Work hardening is very similar
to that of materials without
precipitates. Dislocations cut
precipitates repeatedly. This
does not yield a dramatic in-
crease in dislocation density.
It also makes it easier for
subsequent dislocations to
pass through.
Deforming particles lead to slip concentration.
[Adapted from Humphries & Hatherly,
Recrystallization and Related Annealing
Phenomena, 2
nd
Edition, (Elsevier, Amsterdam,
2004) p. 50]
Precipitation hardening and work hardening rates
Precipitation hardening and work hardening rates
• The extent of work hardening depends upon whether or not
dislocations cut through or bow/loop around precipitates.
• Non-deformable particles
Can’t be sheared. Must bypass (Orowan looping).
Work hardening rate is much greater
than that of a material without precipitates. Plastic
deformation causes loops to form around precipitates which
leads to a decrease in the precipitate spacing and an
increase in the stress to cause further plastic deformation
(bowing).
• The Cu-Be alloy contains coherent
shearable particles. The
precipitates are bypassed by
particle shearing. This results in a
dramatic increase in strength but in
virtually no increase in work
hardening above pure copper.
• The Cu-BeO alloy, however
contains non-deformable BeO
particles. They are bypassed via
the Orowan looping mechanism.
This results in a smaller increase in
strength at low strains compared to
materials where particle shearing
occurs; however, the work
hardening rate is much higher
because dislocation motion is
constrained to the region between
particles.
• What is the influence of particle
spacing?
Particle shearing
Orowan looping
Normal work hardening
[Courtney]
cutting bowing
lost
strength
higher
WHR
Loss of coherency
• Classical examples of materials
where both mechanisms occur
are the 2000 series aluminum
alloys (Cu is the major alloying
element). Nice model systems
are the Al-Cu and Al-Ag
systems. Al-Cu is shown to the
left.
• Precipitate coherency is lost
between 30 and 100 hours at
190°C. You can see that the
strength decreases at low
strains but the work hardening
rate increases dramatically
when we transition from cutting
to bowing.
[Courtney]
Example: Al
Example: Al
-
-
Cu alloys
Cu alloys
• Precipitation sequence:
α →GP → θª → θ'→ θ
• GP zones →shearable
• θª →shearable
• θ' →semi-shearable
• θ →not shearable
[Porter & Easterling]
[Porter & Easterling]
GP zones
θª
θ'
θ
Summary of hardening/strengthening mechanisms for crystalline so Summary of hardening/strengthening mechanisms for crystalline solids lids
[1]
[2]
Work hardening Other dislocations Strong
(see )
Grain size / Hall-Petch Grain boundaries Strong
(see )
Solid solutio
y
Gb
k d
t o µ
t
A =
' A =
Hardening Mechanism Nature of Obstacle Strong or Weak Hardening Law
[3] 3/2 1/2 [4]
[5]
3/2 [6]
[7]
n Solute atoms
Weak (see ) / 700 (see )
Deforming particles Small, coherent
Weak (see )
(see )
particles
Non-deforming particles Large, incoherent
Strong (see )
particles
s
G c
fr
CG
b
t c
t c
t
A =
A =
A
( )
[1] equals about 0.2 for FCC metals and about 0.4 for BCC metals.
[2] scales with inherent flow stress and/or shear modulus; therefore is generally greater for BCC
metals than for FCC m
2
k k
y y
Gb
L r
o
' '
=
÷
etals.
[3] Exception to weak hardening occurs for interstitials in BCC metals; the shear distortion interacts with screw
dislocations leading to strong hardening.
[4] Equation apropos to substitutional atoms; parameter is empirical, reflecting a combination of size and modulus
hardening.
[5] Coherent particles can be "strong" in optimally aged materials.
[6] Constant depends on specific mechanism
s
C
c
of hardening; parameter relates to hardening mechanism(s).
Equation shown applies to early stage precipitation. Late stage precipitation results in saturation hardening.
[7] Highly overaged alloys ca
c
n represent "weak" hardening.
shear modulus; = Burgers vector; dislocation density ; grain size; solute atom
concentration (at.%); precipitate volume fraction; precipitate
G b d c
f r
µ = = = =
= =
SYMBOLS :
radius; spacing between precipitates on
slip plane.
L =
Table adapted from Courtney, Mechanical Behavior of Materials, 2
nd
edition, p. 232.

How can dispersed particles influence strength?
• Dispersed particles can increase the strength of a solid by impeding dislocation motion. The particles can be precipitates, which are natural. They can also be things like dispersed oxide or carbide particles which are not necessarily natural. Particle hardening is generally a more potent way to strengthen a material than solid solution hardening. Precipitates and dispersoids are usually more effective barriers to dislocation penetration than single solutes.

 NOTE: Most structural materials utilize some sort of particle hardening in conjunction with the other hardening mechanisms to achieve high strengths.

What determines the degree of strengthening?
– Particle size – Particle volume fraction – Particle shape – Nature of the interface between the particle and the matrix – Structure of the particle
c

These things define the mean particle spacing L

Dislocation line obstacles
’c
L’

& Cebon.For deformation to proceed dislocations must: Cut through particles (“shearing” or “cutting”) or Extrude between particles (“bowing” or “Orowan looping”). 129] Sheared precipitate particle Precipitate particle [Weaver] Force per unit length τb Successive positions of the dislocation line . Shercliff. [Ashby. p.

& Cebon. Shercliff.  [Ashby.  ppt 2  Gb   bL L . 131] 2   obL Stress on ppt. Derived from line tension. p.

in Plastic Deformation and Fracture of Materials. . VCH.What dictates the mechanism? • Type of interaction Gb  max  __ L • Properties of particles • Particle distribution underaged or coherent particles overaged or incoherent particles Adapted from Reppich. (1992).

VCH. . (1992).What dictates the mechanism? • Type of interaction Gb  max  __ L • Properties of particles • Particle distribution underaged or coherent particles overaged or incoherent particles B* Adapted from Reppich. in Plastic Deformation and Fracture of Materials.

Baeker. 2nd Ed. 191] [Argon.49. p. p.] [Humphreys and Hatherly. Recrystallization and Related Annealing Phenomena. Harders.. p.] .221. Strengthening Mechanisms in Crystal Plasticity..Particle shearing/cutting What determines whether or not this process occurs? [Roesler.

L Temperature +L  + Approx. They coarsen with time at temperature. precipitates are generally very small in the early stages of precipitation.Precipitation As you learned in Physical Metallurgy and Thermodynamics. time and temperature. A % B (wt% or at%) 1. ppt. Intermediate particles are often semi-coherent with the matrix 3. size as function of aging temperature +??? Precipitate size scales with composition. Small particles are generally coherent with the matrix 2. THUS Properties change with time at temp. Large particles are generally incoherent with the matrix Properties scale with precipitate size and spacing for a constant precipitate volume fraction .

15. Harders.Types of interfaces Coherent All crystal planes line up Semi-coherent Come crystal planes line up Incoherent Different crystal orientations Incoherent Different crystal structures Adapted from Roesler. p. Baeker.16 .

creates a larger effective particle volume..Effect of Interface Character • Precipitates can have stress fields associated with them.  Dislocations will interact with the stress fields surrounding coherent particles in the same way that they do with the stress fields around solute atoms (i.e. • Stress fields around particles. . just like solid solution hardening). when present.

the rf/b term to solute concentration in that f is the precipitate volume fraction (i.. “precipitate concentration”).e. – Coherency strains develop that reduce dislocation velocity (remember the Taylor-Orowan equation?) and increase strength. The increase in resolved shear stress is:  coh  7  coh 3/ 2 G rf b where  coh  a ppt  amatrix amatrix – In this equation. .Coherency Strain • Dislocations interact with the stress fields that surround coherent particles in the same way that they interact with the stress fields surrounding solid solution atoms.

aα aβ aβ < aα  coh  a ppt  amatrix amatrix  a  a a Notice that the number of lattice points inside the hole is conserved .Origin of coherency strains in precipitation strengthened material Just a convenient way to visualize it.

e. – This is analogous to solid solution hardening.. the dislocation). The modulus change induces a local change in the elastic strain energy of the line segment (i. The resulting hardening has been equated (by Courtney) as: 3/ 2  Gppt  0. Change in line tension on cutting dislocation segment Gmatrix Gppt  (G ppt  Gmatrix )b 2 2 (2r ) .01G Gppt fr b – This equation only provides an approximate estimate in the early stages of precipitation.Other factors to consider when particles are coherent (1) • Modulus hardening – When a precipitate has a shear modulus that is different from that of the matrix. the line tension on a dislocation that enters a precipitate is altered.

325. Work must be done to produce it. The strengthening associated with this is called chemical strengthening. a new region of particlematrix interface is produced. – Chemical strengthening does not play as large a role in precipitation hardening as other mechanisms. (1992) p. VCH. . b b ppt ppt ppt (1) (2) 3/ 2 (3) b  chem    2G  s   Gr  fr 3/ 2  2G chem b fr b Reppich.Other factors to consider when particles are coherent (2) • Chemical strengthening – When a dislocation passes through a particle. in Plastic Deformation and Fracture of Materials. There is a surface energy associated with this new interface.

Other factors to consider when particles are coherent (3) • Order strengthening and stacking fault strengthening – When the stacking fault energies of the particle and matrix are different. A-A. b ppt ABAB ABAB BABA BABA ABAB ABAB ABAB ABA BAB BAB ABAB ABA ABAB AB AB BABA BA BA ABAB AB AB b (1) (2) (3) 2b b  order   APB f .. like bonds (i. dislocations will be impeded because the equilibrium separation of the partial dislocations is different in the matrix and the particle.e. B-B. – When a particle has an ordered structure.) will form when a single dislocation passes through the precipitate. The energy increase is the APB energy. These are called anti-phase boundaries (APBs). This represents a higher energy state than the desired A-B type bonding. etc.

p.Other factors to consider when particles are coherent (4) • Order strengthening and stacking fault strengthening (cont’d) – A second dislocation must pass through the precipitate to return the lattice to its preferred stacking sequence. 203] . – The second dislocation is attracted to the particle because it “removes” the APB created by the passage of the first. b APB b BABB ABAB ABAA BABA ABAB ABAB BA BA BABA ABAB ABAB AB AB ABAB (4) b The two dislocations are termed superlattice dislocations or “superdislocations” (5) b – Keep in mind that each individual dislocation can also dissociate into a partial dislocations separated by stacking faults and APBs. – We’ll address this more in the ordered alloys lecture module. One such example in Ni3Al is illustrated to the right. [Soboyejo. Separation between the dislocations bounding the APB is quite complicated.

Other factors to consider when particles are coherent (5) • For low APB energies (wide dislocation separation) in the early stages of precipitation: 3/  ord  0.7G ord2 • For low APB energies (wide dislocation separation) in the late stages of precipitation:  ord  0.92 f    .7G  ord   fr  0. where  ord  APB b Gb • For high APB energies (smaller dislocation separation) in the early stages of precipitation:  ord  3/ 2  0.44G ord  f  0.44G ord f fr  .7 ord f  b  • For high APB energies (smaller dislocation separation) in the late stages of precipitation:  ord  0.

Loss of coherency • • When precipitate particles grow. coherency can be lost. When you lose coherency. You should recall this from Physical Metallurgy. This same thing occurs in dispersion hardening materials where there is no coarsening and no coherency. you lose the coherency strain and associated hardening. Strength still increases anyway (up to a point)! WHY? • • . This occurs when the particle size exceeds a critical value. See a physical metallurgy text such as Reed-Hill and Abbaschian for more details. The energy of the strained interface between the particle and matrix becomes greater than the energy for an incoherent interface.

Nix and A.Orowan Looping What determines whether this process occurs? b [Humphreys and Hatherly.] . NJ (1973) p. Recrystallization and Related Annealing Phenomena. Barrett. Englewood Cliffs.263. 2nd Ed..R.] [C.S.49. p.D. Prentice Hall. W. The Principles of Engineering Materials. Tetelman.

The end result is an increase in strength. radius Dislocation loop •  L-2r L    L-2r′  • Dislocation bowing will occur when the volume of particle phase increases above some critical value or when the interface boundary is incoherent. r = ppt. • • . This also applies to non-deformable particles. The shear stress required to cause bowing is given by: Gb Gb  bowing   ( L  2r ) L This stress will increase after a loop forms around a particle because a subsequent dislocation would have to “squeeze through” a smaller region in between the two loops.Orowan bypass mechanisms • Particles can bypass incoherent precipitates by looping/bowing around them.

inverse Schmid factor) L´ (nm) [Martin. Precipitation Hardening. 2nd Ed.] .Orowan loops as they appear in Strengthening caused by an electron microscope Orowan looping Shear stress increment converted to normal stress by applying the average Taylor factor (i.e..

How does this relate to structure? What happens if we increase the resistance to dislocation penetration after bowing commences? . f2 Increasing volume fraction of particles bowing f2 > f1 f1 Particle radius. r • • Increasing f also increases the bowing stress. This is accompanied by an increased particle spacing. the bowing stress decreases with increasing particle radius r.Does the bowing stress change with particle volume fraction ( f )? • YES! For a fixed volume fraction of particles.

the following events occur. When particles are larger than the critical size. Coherency is also lost. The difficulty of cutting arises from: – The increase in the amount of work that is required to shear a larger precipitate.Transition from cutting to bowing • • Assuming a constant precipitate volume fraction. particles that are smaller than some critical size are “sheared. they are bypassed by “Orowan looping/bowing. it becomes more difficult for cutting to occur. This means it becomes more difficult for dislocations to pass through particles. the mean spacing between particles increases which causes the shear stress required to cause bowing to decrease. As particle size increases. – Also.” This means that dislocations cut through them. • In general.” [Roesler] • .

• Constant particle hardness – Increase precipitate volume fraction  increase strengthening.Do variations in volume fraction and precipitate hardness influence strength? • Constant volume fraction of particles – Increase precipitate hardness  increase strengthening. Orowan looping CONSTANT PARTICLE VOLUME FRACTION Shear Stress. decrease precipitate radius where bowing begins. increase precipitate radius where bowing begins. r rc1 rc2 Particle Radius. τ Orowan looping Low hardness Low volume fraction rc1 rc2 rc3 Particle Radius. τ High hardness Cutting CONSTANT PARTICLE HARDNESS High volume fraction Cutting Shear Stress. r Change in shear stress with increasing particle hardness and radius Change in shear stress with increasing particle volume fraction .

Recrystallization and Related Annealing Phenomena. 2004) p. Deforming particles lead to slip concentration. [Adapted from Humphries & Hatherly. 2nd Edition.Precipitation hardening and work hardening rates • The extent of work hardening depends upon whether or not dislocations cut through or bow/loop around precipitates. Dislocations cut precipitates repeatedly. This does not yield a dramatic increase in dislocation density. • Deformable particles Easily sheared. (Elsevier. Work hardening is very similar to that of materials without precipitates. 50] . It also makes it easier for subsequent dislocations to pass through. Amsterdam.

• Non-deformable particles Can’t be sheared. Plastic deformation causes loops to form around precipitates which leads to a decrease in the precipitate spacing and an increase in the stress to cause further plastic deformation (bowing). Work hardening rate is much greater than that of a material without precipitates. Must bypass (Orowan looping). .Precipitation hardening and work hardening rates • The extent of work hardening depends upon whether or not dislocations cut through or bow/loop around precipitates.

They are bypassed via the Orowan looping mechanism. What is the influence of particle spacing? Particle shearing • Orowan looping Normal work hardening • [Courtney] . The precipitates are bypassed by particle shearing. however. This results in a dramatic increase in strength but in virtually no increase in work hardening above pure copper. however contains non-deformable BeO particles. This results in a smaller increase in strength at low strains compared to materials where particle shearing occurs. the work hardening rate is much higher because dislocation motion is constrained to the region between particles.• The Cu-Be alloy contains coherent shearable particles. The Cu-BeO alloy.

higher WHR lost strength cutting bowing Loss of coherency • Classical examples of materials where both mechanisms occur are the 2000 series aluminum alloys (Cu is the major alloying element). Precipitate coherency is lost between 30 and 100 hours at 190°C. You can see that the strength decreases at low strains but the work hardening rate increases dramatically when we transition from cutting to bowing. • [Courtney] . Al-Cu is shown to the left. Nice model systems are the Al-Cu and Al-Ag systems.

Example: Al-Cu alloys • Precipitation sequence: α → GP → θ → θ→ θ • • • • GP zones → shearable θ → shearable θ → semi-shearable θ → not shearable [Porter & Easterling] .

GP zones θ θ θ [Porter & Easterling] .

[7] Highly overaged alloys can represent "weak" hardening. [2] k  scales with inherent flow stress and/or shear modulus. . b = Burgers vector. p. Equation shown applies to early stage precipitation.%). the shear distortion interacts with screw dislocations leading to strong hardening. c  solute atom concentration (at. r  precipitate radius. parameter  s is empirical. 2nd edition. Mechanical Behavior of Materials.4 for BCC metals. reflecting a combination of size and modulus hardening.Summary of hardening/strengthening mechanisms for crystalline solids Hardening Mechanism Work hardening Grain size / Hall-Petch Solid solution Deforming particles Non-deforming particles Nature of Obstacle Other dislocations Grain boundaries Solute atoms Small. coherent particles Large. Late stage precipitation results in saturation hardening. [4] Equation apropos to substitutional atoms. incoherent particles Strong or Weak Strong Strong Weak (see [3] ) Weak (see [5] ) Strong (see [7] ) Hardening Law    Gb  (see [1] )   k  y d (see [2] ) fr (see [6] ) b   G s3/2 c1/2 / 700 (see [4] )   CG 3/2   Gb  L  2r  [1]  equals about 0.2 for FCC metals and about 0. f  precipitate volume fraction. Table adapted from Courtney. 232. SYMBOLS : G  shear modulus. parameter  relates to hardening mechanism(s). [5] Coherent particles can be "strong" in optimally aged materials.   dislocation density . L  spacing between precipitates on slip plane. [3] Exception to weak hardening occurs for interstitials in BCC metals. d  grain size. therefore k  is generally greater for BCC y y metals than for FCC metals. [6] Constant C depends on specific mechanism of hardening.