MEMS Assignment on Crystal Structure of Silicon

R.Vijayaraghavan

- 11MMT0002

Faculty : Dr.P.Vivekanada Shanmuganathan

2p. planetoids. It implies all the corner atoms share the plane. but very rarely occurs as the pure free element in nature. Fig 1 : Atomic Structure of Silicon Crystal Structure of Silicon : The Unit Cell of Silicon is Cubic.(111) of X.silicon satisfies the unfilled 3p energy levels by sharing electrons with the four nearest neighbour atoms forming covalent bonds .(011). The 1s. In the solid state . The crystal planes are usually represented using unit cell . The representation means it makes a unit intercept in the corresponding axis . 2s. making silicon the second most abundant element in the earth's crust (about 28% by mass) after oxygen. Fig 2 : The Different Planes of Silicon o  Number of atoms in a unit cell: 4 atoms completely inside cell Each of the 8 atoms on corners are shared among cells  count as 1 atom inside cell . and 3s energy levels are all filled and the 3p energy level has 2 electrons occupying levels with a capacity of 6 electrons. and planets as various forms of silicon dioxide (silica) or silicates. Four Atoms surround any silicon atom.Y& Z Coordinates. 90% of the Earth's crust is composed of silicate minerals. Silicon is the eighth most common element in the universe by mass.A silicon has 3 standard planes that are widely used in the form of silicon wafer for various components in electronics and mems manufacturing.Silicon : Silicon with an atomic Number 14 is behaves like a semi conductor. sands. It appears in the free form of dusts. These are (100) .

6 x 10-22 cm3 cells  count as 3 atoms • Density of silicon atoms = (8 atoms) / (cell volume) = 5 x 1022 atoms/cm3 (100) Plane : The (100) surface has a unit cell area where a is the lattice constant.  • Each of the 6 atoms on the faces are shared among 2 inside cell Total number inside the cell = 4 + 1 + 3 = 8 Cell volume: (.543 nm)3 = 1. The unit cell area is Area = 2.95* 10-15 cm2 .

Thus the surface energy is: SE(100)=(4 bonds/atom)(0.and each unit cell contains 2 atoms yielding 3. The remaining eight are split between those above the plane and below. It is shown in the figure to the right and has only four atoms as nearest neighbours in the plane.39 1014 cells/cm2 and 6.92 1015 bonds/cm2. We know that the PD for FCC (100) is 79%.16/pi*R^2 bonds/area.17 10-15/cm2 and each unit cell contains 4 atoms yielding 2. so that in net there are four dangling bonds in (100) FCC. area is 4.40 1014 cells/cm2 and 9. There are 4 dangling surface bonds per unit cell or 1.79/pi*R^2 atoms/area) = 3.17 10-15/cm2 . The (110) surface : The (110) surface has a unit cell area The unit cell area is 4.36 1015 bonds/cm2.78 1014 atoms/cm2.60 1014 atoms/cm2. The (100) plane in FCC is much less densely packed. There are 8 surface bonds (dangling plus parallel) per unit cell [1] or 1.

55 10-15/cm2 and each unit cell contains 2 atoms yielding 3. There are 4 surface bonds per unit cell or 1.57 1015 bonds/cm2.83 1014 atoms/cm2. Figure : Silicon Structure in different Planes .The (111) surface : The (111) surface has a unit cell area The unit cell area is 2.92 1014 cells/cm2 and 7.

When we are solidifying the melt under the controlled conditions it is easier to grow in (111) direction because those planes are most closely placed together.Factors Affecting Silicon in etching : Generally during fabrication of any device we need to have a block of single crystal silicon which is generally grown from the melt. Consider the angle between a (100) and (111) planes where cos Ѳ = 1/ √3 Ѳ = 54.74° This shows that whenever a (100) plane is etched it will etch at an angle of 54. For this reason it is most difficult to etch silicon in (111) direction as there is least spacing between them. Silicon Structure in Silicon Wafers : .74 deg forming a V groove shape instead of a vertical type. making 100 being the most easy plane to etch than any other plane. When the silicon is exposed to etchant it will stop etching once it encounters a (111) plane.