GIS & REMOTE SENSING ASSIGNMENT QUESTION: Find out any other active remote sensing sensor apart from

the one discussed in class (laser scanner/multispectral scanner) and give its detailed working principle. INTRODUCTION Remote sensing is a way of collecting and analysing data to get information about an object without the instrument used to collect the data being in direct contact with the object Remote sensing can also be defined as the science of gathering information about something without coming into direct contact with it. Examples include using telescopes to gaze at objects light years away. It also involves aiming viewing instruments on board orbiting satellites back toward the Earth. If you take a photograph of your house, and on the picture you see that the house is composed of a roof, walls and windows, all of which appear as different colours, then this is remote sensing. In all cases, the viewing target is measured and analyzed from a distance. In remote sensing, three elements are essential and they include ; 1-a platform to hold the instrument 2- a target object to be observed 3 - an instrument or a sensor to observe the target There are two main classes of remote sensors: active and passive. Active remote sensors transmit some form of energy and detect its reflection from the viewing target while Passive remote sensors collect reflected energy from natural sources such as the sun such as the camera you use to take your favorite pictures is an example of a passive remote sensor. You take each picture without needing to touch the object. However, the light received by the camera is representing only a narrow part of all the energy reflected . Today, much of what we have learned about the ongoing process and extent of deforestation is a result of remote sensing. This is particularly true in the tropical rainforests. Images taken of the same location, years and even months apart, often yield startling evidence of a changing landscape. There are several types of active remote sensing apart from multispectral scanner or laser scanners that was discussed in class and these include Lidar (LIght Detection And Ranging), and Radar (RAdio Detection And Ranging). We have chosen to talk about Radar (RAdio Detection And Ranging). 1. Radar basics • Radar is an active remote sensing system operating at the microwave wavelength. • Radar is a ranging instrument: (Radio Detection and Ranging)

grows rapidly until The annulus is formed. as opposed to the twodimensional representation of imaging sensors: . Examples isNASA Quick Scatterometer (QuikSCAT): Imaging Non-imaging sensors take measurements in one linear dimension. Applications: measurements of wind speed and wind direction over the oceans. Applications: used on aircraft for altitude determination and on aircraft and satellites for topographic mapping. Ground based scatterometers are used extensively to accurately measure the backscatter from various targets in order to characterize different materials and surface types. where it starts to diminish.Basic principles: The sensor transmits a microwave (radio) signal towards a target and detects the Backscattered radiation. as does the returned power. the Illuminated area grows rapidly from a point to a disk. The returned signal strength. remains constant until the growing annulus reaches the edge of the radar beam. Two primary advantages of radars: all-weather and day /night imaging Types of radars: non-imaging: •Altimeters (often nadir-looking) Operation principle: transmit short microwave pulses and measure the round trip time delay to targets to determine their distance from the sensor. The strength of the backscattered signal is measured to Discriminate between different targets and the time delay between the transmitted and reflected signals determines the distance (or range) to the target. •Scatterometers Operation principle: transmit microwave signal and measures the strength of the Backscattering radiation (reflection). an Annulus is formed and the geometry is such that the annulus area remains constant as the diameter Increases. As the pulse advances. Eventually. sea surface height measurements from which wind speed can be estimated Examples: ERS altimeter t0=2H/c tp*> tp tp is the duration ofthe pulse Reflection of an altimeter pulse from a flat surface. which depends on the reflecting area.

Side-looking viewing geometry of Imaging radar systems: The platform travels forward in the flight direction (A) with the nadir (B) directly Beneath the platform. • Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is used to acquire high resolution (~10m . • HV .for horizontal transmit and vertical receive.for vertical transmit and horizontal receive. The microwave beam is transmitted obliquely at right angles to the direction of flight illuminating a swath (C). • VV . and • VH . Examples: ERS satellite. Range (D) refers to the across-track dimension perpendicular to the flight direction. Doppler weather radars measure both the amplitude and the phase of radar echoes . Canadian satellite Multi-polarization radars are able to transmit either H or V polarization and receive both the like. while azimuth (E) refers to the along-track dimension parallel to the flight direction.and cross-polarized returns : • HH .for horizontal transmit and horizontal receive.1km) Images.for vertical transmit and vertical receive.