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Miller Function & Participation Scales: M-FUN Lucy Jane Miller, 2006 PURPOSE: To assess children’s visual motor, fine

motor, and gross motor skills, in order to identify delays, determine eligibility for services, need for intervention and classroom adaptations, or need for further assessment of neuromotor status. • Performance component of the test is norm-referenced • Participation component of the test is criterion-referenced POPULATION: For children ages 2 years 6 months to 7 years 11 months Can also be used for older children to direct treatment or as an outcome measure (but don’t use norms) ICF DOMAIN: M-FUN incorporates elements of body function, activities and participation domains TEST MATERIALS: • Examiner’s Manual • Administration Directions • Record forms (2 yrs 6 mo – 3 yrs 11 mo & 4 yrs to 7 years 11 mo) o Form includes Test Observations Checklist and Neurological Foundations Profile • Workbooks (same age categories) • Home observations checklist • Classroom observations checklist • Objects & toys needed for assessment • Environment: quiet area, distractions minimized, enough room for all activities, solid or carpeted surface, adequate lighting, good shoes or barefoot, child-size table and 2 chairs TIME TO ADMINISTER: 40 to 60 minutes for performance components, 5-10 minutes for participation component TEST COMPONENTS: • Performance component: o workbook activities & play activities o visual motor, fine motor, & gross motor games o Age 2:6 – 5:11: 15 activities; age 6 – 7:11: 16 activities o Norm-referenced

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• Use standard instructions: bolded in admin section of manual • Keep other materials out of sight to ensure focus • Administer items in order except for children who are more challenging and need adaptation (note changes on record form): 1st Visual motor. LIMITATIONS: • Limited age range for SAP • Recording all of the components and following the standardized instructions can be difficult (a lot to do and watch for at once). information that you obtain about the child’s motor skills. 3rd Gross motor • Score sheet indicates equipment needed and time limits (if applicable) for each item.having crackers and a water bottle on hand. 4 of the score sheet) during or after the test STRENGTHS: • Neurological Foundations Profile is very useful clinically. fun games that are typical of children’s daily leisure and school activities.• Participation component: o Home observation checklist. • Scoring is multifaceted. test observations checklist o Criterion-referenced ADMINISTRATION: • Warm-up activity to get acquainted • Then do activities: natural. and relatively easy to follow. The child receives points for different aspects of the motor skill he or she is demonstrating • Do teaching and practice of item first (up to 60 sec. then do actual test item. • Reliability for Visual Motor section is fairly low for 7:0-7:11 age band (0. the examiner’s manual goes over the objectives of the activity.67) kmckellar Page 2 4/29/2012 . 2nd Fine motor. Answers are also noted on the score sheet. • Complete Behavior Ratings after each section of the test • Complete Test Observations Checklist (p. what the performance results mean in relation to a child’s home or school environment. (p.). Suggestion: 2 assessors when starting to use this assessment. and an item analysis that indicates the neurological foundations for each task and the corresponding items. • The snack section means a bit more preparation . particularly for newer therapists • Kids love it: skills are tested in a game format • You can do and score sections independently • For each activity. 23 – 36) • The manual is very thorough. classroom observation checklist.

• Internal structure: Moderate correlations (0.83) • Clinical validity statistics: Excellent sensitivity (the probability that someone who has the condition will test positive for it) and good specificity (the probability that someone who does not have the condition will test negative) at –1 and –1.  Reliabilities for VM were lower for ages 6:0-6:11 (0. parent education (measure of socio-economic status).91). o For the standardization sample:  The average reliability coefficients were good (0. kmckellar Page 3 4/29/2012 .STANDARDIZATION: • Normative sample: 414 children in the USA. Assesses VM. and ethnicity.47-0.82 and 0.47 to 0. geographic areas of USA. distributed throughout age bands. Checklists also evaluate social participation in the home. VM.85). • Normative data in 6 month age bands except 5:0 –7:11 (1 year) • Sample sizes for each age group ranged from 45-60 kids • 6.  Reliabilities for FM were lower for ages 6:0-6:11 (0.85 for VM) to excellent (0.92 for GM).5 standard deviations below the mean when clinicians are testing a referral population.58) between FM. FM and GM skills relevant to tasks leading to early school success. and during testing. 2004-2005. and GM scaled scores: supports the concept that these are indexes of different aspects of motor abilities • Relationship to other variables: Correlations between M-FUN scores and MAP (Miller Assessment of Preschoolers) ranged from moderate to high (0.76) and 7:0-7:11 (0.8% of the children received some type of school service or were identified as having a specific condition requiring PT or OT VALIDITY: • Test content: Reflects developmental progression of motor abilities in children aged 2:6 to 7:11.  Reliabilities were high for VM and FM for ages 2:6-5:11 (0. classroom. Response processes for the activities have excellent face validity because they are very functional activities. RELIABILITY: • Test-retest reliability: corrected reliability coefficients ranged from .90 for FM and 0. gender.77 (Visual Motor and Gross Motor) to .110-111) summarizes the areas of motor ability covered in each M-FUN test.67).82 (Fine Motor): Moderately high • Internal consistency: implies that the items in the domain tested are measuring one construct. The Neurological Foundations Profile (P.79) and 7:0-7:11 (0. this is a key construct of the WHO-ICF.

coefficients ranged from very good (0.) Standard error of measurement: related to reliability coefficients and variability of test scores.95-0.91-0.93 for FM.91 for GM. and 0. (High degree of consistency. therefore equally reliable for measuring skills of children from the general population and children who are at risk for motor impairment Inter-rater reliability: Correlation between raters’ scores was 0.93 for all ages except 2:6-2:11 (0.98) o For a clinical group:  Similar to above. Can be used to place a confidence interval around the child’s score (the range of scores within which the child’s true score is likely to be). When examined by age.96.• • GM reliabilities were 0.  kmckellar Page 4 4/29/2012 .91 for VM.87) to excellent (0. ranging from 0.88)  Average reliability coefficients for the checklists were excellent. 0.