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Gasification Products & Technologies for Pakistan’s Coal

Pakistan Coal Forum – 18 November 2010
Presented by Jim Powers and Joanne Hilton

18-Nov18-Nov-10

Gasification Why Gasification? Coal Reserves & P d ti C lR Production Gasifier Types and Selection for Pakistan’s Lignite Power Generation via Gasification Chemicals and Fuel Production from Gasification
• • • • • • Hydrogen H d Carbon Monoxide Ammonia and Fertilizers Methanol Synthetic Natural Gas Fischer Tropsch Fischer-Tropsch Liquid Fuels

2

18-Nov-10

Why Gasification?

18-Nov18-Nov-10

Gasification Gasification is Transformation Using Gasification Technologies. you can transform COAL into Valuable Products 4 18-Nov-10 .

Gasification TRANSFORMATION FEEDS Gasification Technologies Syngas Cleaning and Conversion Technologies PRODUCTS • Electricity • Hydrogen • Ammonia • Fertilizer • Methanol • SNG •Liquid Fuels •Gasoline •Diesel • Coal (all types) • Pet coke • Oil (including heavy residues) • Natural Gas • Biomass • Wastes SYNGAS H2 + CO 5 18-Nov-10 .

air/oxygen) into a gaseous product (syngas) with a useable heating value Gasification is NOT combustion because it creates a valuable product (syngas) instead of flue gas 6 18-Nov-10 .Gasification Gasification is Transformation It allows: the conversion of a carbon-containing feed using h t pressure and a gasification agent i heat. d ifi ti t (steam/water.

is used below: CH4 + ½ O2 => CO + 2 H2 (partial oxidation – CH4) CH4 + 2 O2 => CO2 + 2 H2O (combustion – CH4) 7 18-Nov-10 . Methane. the simplest hydrocarbon.Gasification This Transformation is due to the various Gasification Reactions that occur: The chemistry of gasification is very complex Multiple reactions occur in the Gasifier The partial oxidation reaction is shown along with combustion: CnHm + n/2 O2 => n CO + m/2 H2 (partial oxidation) CnHm + (n+m/4) O2 => n CO2 + m/2 H2O (combustion) As an example.

003 0. 8 18-Nov-10 .0 8.5 – 17.18 1.11 0.6 10 85 0 0 13 110.5 0 0 1–2 8.3 3 0.94 0.600 PC – New Conventional Supercritical with FGD/SCR 0.600 Source: Cambridge Energy Research Associates.5 0 0 8.Emissions and Solids fromAlternative Coal-fired Power Technologies Emission/Solid SO2 lb per MMBtu (HHV) lb per MWh NOx lb per MMBtu (HHV) lb per MWh PM10 Ib per MMBtu (HHV) lb per MWh CO lb per MMBtu (HHV) lb per MWh Ash lb per MMBtu (HHV) lb per MWh Slag lb per MMBtu (HHV) lb per MWh FGD Sludge Sl d lb per MMBtu (HHV) lb per MWh Elemental Sulfur lb per MMBtu (HHV) lb per MWh Heat Rate (Btu per kWh) Existing US Recent Generic Subcritical Coal Plant 1.02 0.15 – 0.42 0.28 0.03 0.18 0.34* 0 0 15 127.15 0 15 1.02 0.02 – 0.16 1.04* 0.05 0 05 0.000 IGCC 0.8 12 120 0 0 15 150 0 0 10.02 0. *Assumes recovery or sequestering of pure carbon dioxide stream.12 0.3 0.1 11 11 0.

25 3.5 25.5—3.000 Source: Cambridge Energy Research Associates.000—35.500 Conventional Boiler Stack gas 150 2.Mercury Removal Costs from IGCC versus Conventional Pulverized Coal Boilers Factor Process removal location Ratio of gas flow volumes Cost of removal (dollars per MWh) Cost of removal (dollars per lb) IGCC Syngas ahead of acid g gas recovery y 1 0. 9 18-Nov-10 .

Coal Reserves & Production 18-Nov18-Nov-10 .

Coal Reserves Total Coal Reserves – 826 billion tonnes (Proved Recoverable) Pakistan ranks 20th in the World with 2.9 million tonnes Total Lignite Production – 882 million tonnes Pakistan ranks 25th in the World with 1.0 million tonnes Data Source: World Energy Council.372 million tonnes Pakistan ranks 35th in the World with 3. Survey of Energy Resources Interim Update 2009 Data is for year end 2007 11 18-Nov-10 .8 billion tonnes Total Coal Production – 6.1 billion tonnes Lignite Reserves – 150 billion tonnes (Proved Recoverable) Pakistan ranks 15th in the World with 1.

000 m million tonnes 150. 200.Coal Reserves World Coal Reserves – Ranked By Country (for 2007) 250.000 Lignite Sub-bit Bit+An 100.000 50.000 0 Data Source: World Energy Council. Survey of Energy Resources Interim Update 2009 12 18-Nov-10 .000 .

000 30.000 10.000 25 000 20.000 0 Data Source: World Energy Council. Survey of Energy Resources Interim Update 2009 13 18-Nov-10 .000 5.000 million tonnes s 25.000 15.Lignite Reserves World Lignite Reserves – Ranked By Country (for 2007) 35.

5 Proved Amount in Place Proved Recoverable 1 Data Source: World Energy Council.5 20 0 Total Coal Reserves 0 Measured Total Coal Reserves Hypothetical Reserves Inferred Reserves Indicated Reserves Measured Reserves 3.5 2. Survey of Energy Resources 2007 14 18-Nov-10 .5 billion tonnes 2 1.Coal Reserves Pakistan’s Total Potential Coal Reserves 200 180 3 160 140 billion tonnes 120 100 80 60 40 0.

2% 6.Coal for Electrical Power Electricity Generation by Source for Selected Countries World Coal C l Oil Gas Nuclear Hydro y Other Total 40.5% 16.8% 76 8% 1.0% 16.0% Pakistan 0.4% 32 4% 1.0% 100.8% 40 8% 5.1% 15.1% 79 1% 0.9% 0.6% 100.0% Germany 45.4% 100.3% 20.5% 13.8% 100.6% 68 6% 4.8% 13.9% 9 9% 1.5% 21.9% 0 9% 2.8% 48 8% 1.1% 9.2% 11.0% 15 0% 0.0% India 68. Statistics for 2008 15 18-Nov-10 .0% 4.2% 21 2% 13.8% 13 8% 23.4% 32.8% 1.6% 45 6% 1.5% 100.7% 0.3% 0.9% 100.7% 2.8% 20 8% 19.5% 100.0% Australia 76.3% 4.0% USA 48.0% Data Source: International Energy Agency (IEA) website.5% 3.2% 2.1% 0 1% 35.0% China 79.8% 30.

coal represents an even higher percent of Electricity Generation South Africa Poland PR China Australia Kazakhstan India I di Source IEA 2010 93% 92% 79% 77% 70% 69% Israel Czech Rep Morocco Greece USA Germany G 63% 60% 55% 52% 49% 46% 16 18-Nov-10 .Coal for Electrical Power For some countries.

geothermal and waste 17 18-Nov-10 .5% Data Source: International Energy Agency website.Coal for Electrical Power Coal is dominant fuel for the generation of electrical power y y yp World Electricity Generation by Fuel Type 16.2% 2.8% Other Hydro 40.2% 5. wind.8% Coal Nuclear 13.5% Coal Oil Gas Nuclear Hydro Gas Oil Other 21. 2008 Statistics *Other includes solar. combustible renewables.

Gasification Pakistan uses less coal for Power Generation than most countries that have significant coal reserves 18 18-Nov-10 .

Gasifier Types and Selection yp for Pakistan’s Lignite 18-Nov18-Nov-10 .

Gasification Gasification Technologies are typically classified by the type of reactor • The main reactor types are: − Moving Bed − Entrained Flow − Fluidized Bed There is another type of Gasification under development. case the “reactor” is the cavity in the coal seam itself reactor itself. in-situ or Underground Coal Gasification (UCG). 20 18-Nov-10 . In this case.

e. the coal is moving downwards (i. “moving bed”) The syngas then exits out the top. a moving bed ). The ash or slag exits out the bottom. As it reacts. The syngas flows upwards through the coal. bottom COAL SYNGAS Gasifier Gasifier Reactor Bed OXIDANT & STEAM ASH or SLAG 21 18-Nov-10 .Gasification Moving Bed – the coal enters p from the top and the oxidant and steam enters from the bottom.

the coal and oxidant enter on the side and flow upwards as the coal reacts to become syngas.Gasification Entrained Flow – the coal enters with the oxidant and steam and flow together. COAL OXIDANT & STEAM Gasifier Reactor SYNGAS SLAG 22 18-Nov-10 . In an upflow reactor. The syngas then exits out the top and the slag exits out the bottom. The syngas then exits out the bottom with the slag slag. the coal and oxidant enter in the top and flow downwards as the coal reacts to become syngas. In a downflow reactor (shown left).

OXIDANT & STEAM SYNGAS Gasifier Reactor Bed ASH COAL 23 18-Nov-10 . The syngas then exits out the top top.Gasification Fluidized Bed – the coal enters with the oxidant and steam at the bottom and flow together. The ash is removed out the bottom. The oxidant carries the coal particles upwards “fluidizing the bed” as the coal reacts to become syngas.

2mm Unlimited High Fluidized Bed HTW. TRIG. Siemens.50mm Limited High Methane. Shell.Gasifier Types Gasifier Type Technologies Entrained Flow CoP E-Gas. Udhe Prenflow High 1250 – 1600°C (2300 – 2900°F) High Slagging <0. and oils in syngas Oxygen Demand Ash Conditions Size of Coal Feed Acceptability of Fines Carbon Conversion Other Characteristics 24 18-Nov-10 . MHI Sh ll E MHI. GE Energy. Lurgi Outlet Temperature Moderate 900 – 1050°C (1650 – 1900°F) Moderate Dry ash or agglomerating 6 – 10mm Good Low Low 425 – 650°C (800 – 1100°F) Low Dry Ash or Slagging 6 . tars. SES U-GAS Moving Bed BGL.

The high ash coal is even less efficient for slagging g gg g entrained flow Gasifiers as the reaction temperature is higher (so that the ash melts to become a liquid slag).Gasification Selection for Lignite High coal ash content is bad for all types of gasifiers as well as for coal fired boilers The high ash coal is less efficient as all of the ash must be heated to t e reaction te pe atu e This te ds to favor eated the eact o temperature. s tends a o fluidized bed or dry ash moving bed Gasifier. 25 18-Nov-10 .

entrained flow Gasifiers. the coal must be predried before it can be fed into the Gasifier Gasifier. the slurry has low solids concentration h al lid t ti For dry-feed. either moving or fluid bed. pre dried 26 18-Nov-10 . It is even less efficient for the slurry-feed Gasifiers as the high moisture coals typically do not slurry well i.e.Gasification Selection for Lignite High coal moisture content is bad for all types of gasifiers as well as for coal fired boilers The high moisture coal is less efficient as all of the moisture must be heated to the reaction temperature. the coal must also be pre-dried but typically to a lesser amount. For other dry-feed Gasifiers.

• 3 CTL plants (97 gasifiers) operating at Sasol in South Africa • Dakota Gasification had 14 gasifiers operating on lignite in North Dakota 27 18-Nov-10 .Gasification Selection for Lignite For moving bed Gasifiers. Most of the existing Gasifiers that operate using lignite are of the moving bed type. The rejected fine material can be burned in a boiler on-site. the amount of fines fed must be controlled.

Power Generation via Gasification 18-Nov18-Nov-10 .

the coal is g ground and burned in a boiler to make steam. A pulverised coal fired power plant is a single cycle plant (A only a l l t (As l steam turbine is used to generate electricity) 29 18-Nov-10 .Coal for Electrical Power For the generation of electrical power from coal. The steam goes to a steam turbine generator to produce the electricity.

Coal for Electrical Power To increase the efficiency of the power plant. a gas turbine generator can be added • This is known as a combined cycle plant • Most combined cycle plants burn natural gas in the gas turbine • Thi is called a natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) plant This i ll d t l bi d l l t Syngas from coal gasification can also be used instead of y g g natural gas in the gas turbine • This type of plant is called an Integrated Combined Cycle Gasification (IGCC) power plant 30 18-Nov-10 .

Block Flow Diagram – Basic IGCC Air Separation (ASU) Oxygen Coal Handling Gasification Raw Syngas Syngas Cooling Acid Gas Removal (AGR) Clean Syngas Electrical Power Gas Turbine Steam HRSG Flue Gas Acid Gas G Electrical Power Po er Steam Turbine Sulfur Recovery y Combined Cycle Block Sulfur Product 31 18-Nov-10 .

etc • The plant can be designed to produce other products (polygeneration) 32 18-Nov-10 .Coal for Electrical Power Advantages of Integrated Combined Cycle Gasification (IGCC) • Is a cleaner coal technology p y g • Impurities can be removed from the syngas before it is burned in the gas turbine (i. pre-combustion) resulting in lower emissions of SOx. particulates. mercury.e.

• The syngas to the gas turbine will consist mostly of hydrogen (H2) • The CO2 is then available for use in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) or for storage as part of a carbon capture and storage system (CCS) 33 18-Nov-10 .Coal for Electrical Power Advantages of Integrated Combined Cycle Gasification (IGCC) • The IGCC plant can also be designed to remove carbon dioxide (CO2) pre-combustion.

Add CO2 Compression Electrical Power Po er Steam Turbine Sulfur Recovery y CO2 Product Sulfur Product Combined Cycle Block 34 18-Nov-10 .Block Flow Diagram – IGCC with CCS Air Separation (ASU) For CCS. Add CO Shift Raw Syngas Oxygen Coal Handling Gasification CO Shift Syngas Cooling Raw H2 + CO2 Acid Gas Removal (AGR) Hydrogen (H2) to Turbine Electrical Power Gas Turbine Steam HRSG Flue Gas For CCS. Modify AGR Acid Gas G CO2 CO2 Compressor For CCS.

Coal for Electrical Power Disadvantages of IGCC • Adds complexity and cost to the power plant • Advances are being made in post-combustion CO2 removal • Can still be difficult to permit (US and Europe) as coal is perceived to be a “dirty” fuel 35 18-Nov-10 .

Chemicals and Fuel Production from Gasification 18-Nov18-Nov-10 .

e. syngas cleaning) and to create the required chemicals (i.Chemicals from Gasification Gasification can be used to generate a wide range of chemical and fuel products • Carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H2) are the building blocks y g p g p • Various syngas processing steps are used to remove contaminants (i.e. syngas conversion) • Carbon Dioxide can easily be captured and removed for use or storage (CCS) 37 18-Nov-10 .

Chemicals from Gasification Hydrogen from Gasification • One of the simplest plant configurations is used to generate a high purity hydrogen product • Hydrogen can be used: − For Refinery hydrotreating and hydrocracking − For Oil Sands Syncrude upgrading − As a decarbonized fuel – to gas turbines. fuel cells and hydrogen powered vehicles − Converted to other products such as Ammonia 38 18-Nov-10 .

Hydrogen Air Separation (ASU) Oxygen Coal Handling Gasification Raw Syngas CO Shift Syngas Cooling Raw H2 + CO2 Acid Gas cd Removal (AGR) Raw H2 Final Purification Hydrogen H d Product Acid Gas G Sulfur Recovery CO2 CO2 Compressor CO2 Product 39 18-Nov-10 Sulfur Product Optional .Block Flow Diagram .

Chemicals from Gasification Carbon Monoxide from Gasification • Another simple plant configuration is used to generate a high purity carbon monoxide product • Carbon monoxide is a starting point for: − Phosgene for polyurethane − Acetic Acid − Oxo alcohols Oxo-alcohols • Hydrogen is also available as a product 40 18-Nov-10 .

Block Flow Diagram – Carbon Monoxide Air Separation (ASU) Oxygen Coal Handling Gasification Raw Syngas Syngas Cooling Raw CO + H2 + CO2 Acid Gas cd Removal (AGR) CO + H2 Final Fi l Purification HYCO Separation Carbon Monoxide Product Acid Gas G CO2 CO2 Compressor CO2 Product PSA Hydrogen Product Off-Gas Sulfur Product Optional Sulfur Recovery y 41 18-Nov-10 .

Chemicals from Gasification Ammonia from Gasification • Ammonia is one of most widely produced basic chemical and is mostly used to produce nitrogen-containing fertilizers • Approximately 10% of the world wide ammonia production is from gasification (the rest is from natural gas reforming) • Hydrogen and nitrogen (from the ASU) are reacted in the Ammonia Synthesis section y N2 + 3 H2 => NH3 42 18-Nov-10 .

Chemicals from Gasification Ammonia and Urea from Gasification • Typically urea is also produced using the carbon dioxide from the Typically. ammonium nitrate and also ammonium sulfate 43 18-Nov-10 . gasification section 2 NH3 + CO2 => NH2CONH2 + H2O • Other ammonia-based chemicals that can be produced are nitric acid.

Ammonia Air Separation (ASU) Oxygen Coal Handling Gasification Raw Syngas CO Shift Syngas Cooling Raw H2 + CO2 Acid Gas Removal (AGR) Raw H2 Final Fi l Purification Ammonia Synthesis Ammonia A i Product Acid Gas G CO2 N2 from ASU Sulfur Recovery y CO2 Compressor CO2 Product Sulfur Product 44 18-Nov-10 Optional .Block Flow Diagram .

Chemicals from Gasification Methanol is another widely used chemical that can be produced from Gasification • Hydrogen and carbon monoxide are reacted in the Methanol Synthesis section 2 H2 + CO => CH3OH • Methanol itself is the starting point for a wide array of chemical products such as: − − − − − − − 45 18-Nov-10 Acetic Acid Acetic Anhydride MTBE DME Formaldehyde Olefins Gasoline .

Block Flow Diagram .Methanol Air Separation (ASU) Oxygen Coal Handling Gasification Raw Syngas CO Shift Syngas Cooling Raw H2 + CO + CO2 Acid Gas Removal (AGR) Raw H2 + CO Final Fi l Purification Methanol Synthesis & Distillation Methanol M th l Product Acid Gas G CO2 CO2 Compressor CO2 Product Sulfur Recovery y Sulfur Product 46 18-Nov-10 Optional .

Chemicals from Gasification Synthetic Natural Gas (SNG) from Gasification • Carbon Monoxide and Hydrogen are reacted in the Methanation section CO + 3 H2 => CH4 + H2O • Carbon Dioxide is also reacted with hydrogen CO2 + 4 H2 => CH4 + 2 H2O • The remaining carbon dioxide can also be captured for CCS 47 18-Nov-10 .

SNG Air Separation (ASU) Oxygen Coal Handling Gasification Raw Syngas CO Shift Syngas Cooling Raw H2 + CO + CO2 Acid Gas Removal (AGR) Raw H2 + CO Final Fi l Purification Methanation SNG Product Acid Gas G CO2 CO2 Compressor CO2 Product Sulfur Recovery y Sulfur Product 48 18-Nov-10 10-Nov-10 Optional .Block Flow Diagram .

represents the basic building block of the hydrocarbon chain • The FT liquids are upgraded using conventional refinery hydrotreating processes 49 18-Nov-10 .Chemicals from Gasification Fischer-Tropsch (FT) Liquid Fuels from Gasification • Carbon Monoxide and Hydrogen are reacted in the FT synthesis section CO + 2 H2 => -[CH2 ].+ H2O where -[CH2 ].

Block Flow Diagram – FT Liquid Fuels Air Separation (ASU) Oxygen Coal Handling Gasification Raw Syngas CO Shift Syngas Cooling Raw CO + H2 + CO2 Acid Gas cd Removal (AGR) CO + H2 Final Fi l Purification FT Synthesis Liquids Li id Upgrading FT Gasoline FT Diesel Acid Gas G CO2 H2 slipstream Sulfur Recovery y CO2 Compressor CO2 Product Sulfur Product 50 18-Nov-10 Optional .

Plasticizers PolyUrethane 51 18-Nov-10 . Waxes Urea Formaldehyde MTBE Acetic Acid Phosgene Detergents.Gasification Products Gasification Gas Turbines Hydrogen Fischer Tropsch Ammonia Methanol Carbon Monoxide Oxo Alcohols SNG Carbon Dioxide Electrical Power Trans Fuels.

Questions? Thank You 52 18-Nov-10 .

WorleyParsons 18-Nov18-Nov-10 .

What Differentiates WorleyParsons Committed empowered and technically capable people Comprehensive geographic presence Outstanding operational and corporate performance Industry leadership in health. safety and environmental performance Success in project delivery – g large and small Focus on long-term contracts and asset-based services 54 18-Nov-10 EcoNomics™ – delivering profitable sustainability .

Experience Covering all Phases of the Asset Lifecycle 55 18-Nov-10 .

Company Overview Leading professional services provider to the energy. resource. and complex process industries Organized into Customer Sector Groups: Upstream Hydrocarbons Fixed Offshore Facilities Floating Production Systems Deepwater Solutions Subsea Systems Offshore Pipelines Onshore Pipelines Onshore Production Facilities Heavy Oil and Oil Sands LNG Terminals Downstream Hydrocarbons Refining Petrochemicals Chemicals Polymers Gasification Sulphur Management Power Coal-Fired Pl t C l Fi d Plants Advanced Coal Nuclear Gas Turbine/ Combined Cycle Air Quality Control Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Transmission Networks Operations & Maintenance Renewable Energy Minerals & Metals Base Metals B M t l Coal Chemicals Ferrous Metals Alumina Aluminum Iron Ore Gas Cleaning Infrastructure & Environment Coastal and Marine Water and Wastewater Transport Environment 56 18-Nov-10 .

Global Reach 40 countries | 30.800 Asia 5.100 Africa 1.300 United States 5.000 Australia & New Zealand 5.000 personnel Canada 6.800 57 18-Nov-10 .500 Europe 1.300 Middle East 3.200 Latin America/ Caribbean 1.

Addendum 18-Nov18-Nov-10 .

0 120.0 60.Coal Production World Lignite Production – Ranked By Country (for 2007) 200.0 0.0 140. Survey of Energy Resources Interim Update 2009 59 18-Nov-10 Au na st ra lia G re ec e Po la nd Se rb ia In d Ro ia m an B u ia lg ar Th i a ai Bo la n sn Ca d ia -H na er zo da go vi Hu na ng ar M on y M g oli ac a ed on ia Sp a S l in ov en ia Ru ss ia Un Tu ite r ke y d St at es an y G er m Ch i .0 180.0 million tonnes s Lignite Data Source: World Energy Council.0 160.0 100.0 40.0 80.0 40 0 20.

500.0 1.0 0.0 million tonnes 2.0 1. No r Ro th m an ia Ch i at es Total Data Source: World Energy Council. Survey of Energy Resources Interim Update 2009 60 18-Nov-10 Un i te d St .0 na In d A u ia st ra lia Ru ss So ia ut h Af ric a G er m an y In do ne sia Po la Ka nd za kh st an Tu rk ey Uk ra in e Co lu m bi a Ca na da G Cz re ec ec h Re e pu bl ic Vi et na m Se Ko rb ia re a.000.0 2.000.0 500.000.Coal Production World Coal Production – Ranked By Country (for 2007) Total 3.500.

000.0 1.500.0 na In d A u ia st ra lia Ru ss So ia ut h Af ric a G er m an In y do ne sia Po la Ka nd za kh st an Tu rk ey Uk ra in e Co lu m bi a Ca na da G Cz re ec ec h Re e pu bl ic Vi et na m Se Ko rb ia re a.0 1.000. No r Ro th m an ia Ch i at es Lignite Total Data Source: World Energy Council.000. Survey of Energy Resources Interim Update 2009 61 18-Nov-10 Un i te d St .0 0.500.0 million tonnes 2.Coal Production World Coal & Lignite Production – Ranked By Country (for 2007) 3.0 500.0 2.

Coal Classification 18-Nov18-Nov-10 .

slightly lower than bituminous coal. and has two to three times the heating value of lignite Bituminous coal was formed under lignite. Subbituminous coal typically contains 35-45 percent carbon. 63 18-Nov-10 . Lignite coal deposits tend to be relatively young coal deposits that were not subjected to extreme heat or pressure. high heat and pressure. compared to 25-35 percent for lignite. Lower Rank Coals • Sub-bituminous coal has a higher heating value than lignite. • Bituminous coal contains 45-86 percent carbon. • Lignite is the lowest rank of coal with the lowest energy content.Coal Ranks Higher Rank Coals • Anthracite contains 86-97 percent carbon and has a heating value 86 97 carbon. Lignite is crumbly and has high moisture content.

3 8 2 – 3.0 16 13 – 1 13 – 1 78 – 92 5.0 4.5 3.5 4 64 64 10-Nov-10 18-Nov-10 .2 20-40 15 – 25 65 – 73 4.Coal Ranks Material Moisture (as found) Moisture (air-dried) Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Wood Peat Lignite Subbituminous Bituminous Anthracite 30 – 60 10 – 15 50 6.3 90+ 20 – 25 55 – 65 5.5 92 – 96 2.5 21 10 – 20 10 – 20 73 – 78 6.5 2 – 3.

Coal Ranks

Material

Lignite

Subbituminous

Bituminous

Anthracite

Volatile Matter Fixed Carbon Heating Value HHV, MJ/kg

27 – 35 65 – 73 26 – 28

22 – 27 73 – 78 28 – 32

8 – 22 78 – 92 32 – 36

<8 > 92 36 – 37

65 65

10-Nov-10 18-Nov-10

66 18-Nov-10

20%

30%

40%

50%

60%

70%

80%

90%

100%

Lignite minous C Subbitum Subbitum minous B Subbitum minous A High vola atile bituminou C us High vola atile bituminou B us High vola atile bituminou A us Medium v volatile Low volat bituminous tile s Semianth hracitic Anthracite e Meta-anth hracitic
Moisture Volatile matter Fixed carbon

10%

0%

Coal Ranks

Syngas Treatment (Contaminant Removal)

18-Nov18-Nov-10

Selexol and Rectisol. contaminants must be removed. Sulfur Recovery Processes capture the H2S and recover the sulfur as either elemental S in a Claus unit or by converting the sulfur to S lf i A id h lf Sulfuric Acid 68 18-Nov-10 . Carbon Dioxide and coal trace elements such as Mercury • H2S and COS (from feed sulfur) Acid Gas Removal (AGR) P A id G R l Processes remove th acid gases the id (CO2 and H2S) from the syngas • The most common AGRs are Amine.Syngas Treating Before the Syngas from Gasification can be used to make a final chemical product or burned in a gas turbine. The main contaminants include Sulfur compounds.

69 18-Nov-10 .Syngas Treating Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA) produces purified a hydrogen stream from the syngas. COS can not be removed by all AGRs while H2S is easy to remove remove. CO Shift (also called water gas shift) ( g ) • Clean or sweet shift (H2S removed before and CO2 after shift) • Raw or sour shift (H2S and CO2 removed after shift) COS Hydrolysis reacts the COS with water to produce H2S and CO2. All other components exit in the PSA off-gas stream. Mercury ca be removed from sy gas us g act ated e cu y can e o ed o syngas using activated carbon adsorbent.

Oxygen Supply 18-Nov18-Nov-10 .

9 % Argon And smaller amounts of Neon.9 % Oxygen yg 0.1 % Nitrogen 20. Helium and other rare components 71 18-Nov-10 Air Separation Unit (ASU) High Purity Nitrogen Optional: Argon. Helium.Oxygen Supply The oxygen needed for Gasification is separated out of atmospheric Air High Purity Oxygen O Air from the Atmosphere 78. Neon .

Nitrogen) • Allows higher purity syngas for use in chemical synthesis • All Allows production of hi h purity nitrogen f other uses d ti f high it it for th • Allows production of high value byproducts such as Argon and rare gases Disadvantages of using Oxygen • Capital and Operating cost of the ASU 72 18-Nov-10 .Oxygen Supply Advantages of using high purity Oxygen instead of atmospheric air include: • Lower compression cost as the atmospheric nitrogen does not need to be compressed to full supply pressure • Lower volumetric flows through the gasification and downstream processes (no atm.

Oxygen Supply There are two main types of commercially offered technologies for air separation units Cryogenic Distillation • Uses the different boiling p g points of oxygen and nitrogen to separate yg g p the oxygen from the nitrogen • Operates at very low temperatures • O Oxygen boils at -183 C and Nit b il t 183 d Nitrogen boils -196 C b il 196 • Oxygen gas becomes liquid first and is separated from the nitrogen in the distillation column Vacuum Pressure Swing Adsorption (VPSA) • Uses the differences in adsorption of oxygen and nitrogen on a solid adsorbent material to separate the oxygen from the nitrogen 73 18-Nov-10 .

8% can be achieved. 74 18-Nov-10 .000 tonne/day of oxygen in a single train). • High purity nitrogen can also be produced. Oxygen purities of 99. • Cryogenic ASU can supply very large flow rates (up to 5 000 5. High purity argon production is another option.Oxygen Supply Cryogenic Air Separation • A typical commercial air separation unit uses a multi-column multi column cryogenic distillation process for high purity oxygen production.

• VPSA systems are typically used for small flow rates (generally 150 tonnes or less) • The oxygen product purity is limited to about 93-94%. 75 18-Nov-10 .Oxygen Supply Vacuum Pressure Swing Adsorption (VPSA) • Oxygen VPSA systems use high efficiency molecular sieve adsorbent to selectively recover oxygen from the inlet air.

Gasification .

We provide full engineering services to all types of gas.000 MW of generating capacity worldwide.Global Experience WorleyParsons has extensive experience in the design. and front-end design for global power and chemical gasification applications. This plant was a dual-train unit designed to gasify the fluid petroleum coke generated at the plant to produce primarily steam and electricity. and construction services for major gasification projects. and construction of gasification process units. WorleyParsons is one of the world's prominent international project delivery organizations. Delaware and ExxonMobil at Baytown. WorleyParsons has provided engineering. oil. procurement. coal. . and have been instrumental in supplying over 115. In the most recent Engineering News-Record survey we placed 12th among International Design Firms. Texas. Motiva added a petroleum-coke integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) facility to their existing refinery. feasibility studies. WorleyParsons provided EPC services for the 235 MW IGCC repowering project. WorleyParsons has also conducted multiple process design packages. procurement. 10th in Industrial/Petroleum. The plant upgrade included an acid gas removal unit. and nuclear power plants and transmission and distribution systems. and 10th in the United States. 3rd in Power. including Valero (formerly Motiva) at Delaware City. using GE Gasification Technology (formerly Chevron/Texaco technology). and two heat recovery steam generators. WorleyParsons can assist owner’s in evaluating technology options. dual-advanced combustion turbine generators.

WorleyParsons uses in-house proprietary process models to conduct feasibility. They reuse the design framework as the basis. KBR Transport Reactor. and they contain flexible applications to facilitate and expedite subsequent design modifications. 2) hydrogen production. performance. The gasification unit utilizes two trains to generate raw syngas that is used for 1) fuel gas. Our approach virtually eliminates rework during the construction and installation phases of a power design project.Gasification The ExxonMobil Baytown Complex also used GE Gasification Technology for producing syngas from deasphalter rock. and design studies for clients. British Gas/Lurgi. . WorleyParsons has worked with other major gasification technologies such as Shell. EGas. Reference plant designs are more than replications. Services Project management Feasibility and optimization studies Process simulation and selection Process design packages Technology development Front-end engineering and design Detailed design Construction management Materials management Worldwide procurement and logistics Source inspection Repowering services Reference plant design Owner’s engineer Regulatory compliance Permitting Commissioning and start-up Operations and maintenance Quality assurance Safety programs Advanced Technology In addition to GE Gasification Technology. and 3) feedstock sold for the production of other end-use products. and Foster Wheeler fluidized beds. Reference Plant Design WorleyParsons has shifted the paradigm of engineering design with our reference plant design approach.

com . These facilities include some of the world's largest single-train units and apply proprietary WorleyParsons processes. and maintenance. Sulfur Recovery WorleyParsons is a global leader in sulfur recovery technology. PA 19607 +1 610 855 2675 michael. Owner’s Engineering WorleyParsons can help you reach your financial. Overall Project Design WorleyParsons can act as sole contractor to engineer. Europe. DEA. We have designed and built over 500 sulfur recovery plants.Gasification Acid Gas Removal WorleyParsons has extensive experience in the design and construction of acid gas removal units.deLallo@worleyparsons. For more information on how WorleyParsons can help you. modification. Taiwan. procure.eberhart@worleyparsons. operating.com Michael DeLallo 2675 Morgantown Rd. we focus on integrating our team with our client’s team. and technical goals. As Owner’s Engineer. Baytown. We can mobilize a team to manage your construction project or provide specific individuals to supplement your staff. and the Philippines. and MDEA. Texas Construction Management WorleyParsons can provide you the flexibility needed to meet your project staffing requirements. please contact: Doug Eberhart 6330 West Loop South Bellaire. and construction manage all facets of the project. TX 77401 +1 713 350 1144 doug. representing over 60 percent of worldwide production of recovered sulfur. We offer a comprehensive range of cost-effective construction management services in new construction. promoting a seamless flow of communication and progress. the Middle East. ExxonMobil Syngas Project. We have designed over 120 amine units using a variety of amine solutions such as MEA. Japan. This capability together with the know-how gained from extensive experience makes WorleyParsons the right choice as your contractor. Reading. These units are located across North America.