Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

11 views

Cooperative Auv 2

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- Dynamic Programming
- Design Testing Underwater Vehicle
- Algorithm Tutorials
- Analysis Of A Deterministic Jong Nang Gate With Transmitter Cooperation
- Shannon 1948
- 5713645 Research Process
- Paula Brough - Advanced Research Methods for Applied Psychology_ Design, Analysis and Reporting (2018, Routledge)
- telecom software marketing concept in BPO sector
- MA-Criminology-Syllabus.pdf
- Shannon 1948
- 2009 Ifa Dry Bulk Sampling
- Tugas Proposal Desain Produk
- info-lec
- Shannon 1948
- Patanjali.docx
- 258116671 USTET Reviewer Docx
- Final Report - Copy
- Citizens and Expatriates Satisfaction With Public Services in Qatar – Evidence From
- Adaptive Resource Allocation in Buffer Aided Wireless Network for Improving Capacity and Throughput
- Sample Midterm Exam Questions

You are on page 1of 39

Andrea Caiti (1,2), Pino Casalino (1,3), Andrea Munaf (1,2), Enrico Simetti (1,3), Alessio Turetta (1,3) (1) ISME Interuniv. Res. Ctr. Integrated Sys. Marine Env. (2) DSEA & Centro Piaggio - University of Pisa, Italy (3) DIST University of Genova Italy Genova, caiti@dsea.unipi.it

Menu

AUVs for environmental sampling

gliders propelled hybrid

data-driven vs. model-driven

communication localization

Traditional measurements in a cost effective way: cost-effective replace ship and/or buoys with autonomous vehicles

pre-program the mission, receive data at a remote station CTDs, water quality, bathymetry, seabed morphology data quality enhanced by the use of an underwater platform

exploit the on-board intelligence as data are gathered: adaptivity exploit the availability of multiple vehicles: p y p team cooperation

Some AUVs

Oceanographic gliders O hi lid

very long endurance inexpensive oceanographic sampling hi li pre-programmed mission cooperation (Leonard et al.)

Hybrid vehicles

some endurance inexpensive oceanographic sampling pre programmed pre-programmed mission cooperation

deep water

long endurance g very expensive seabed mapping pre-programmed mission

shallow water

some endurance moderately expensive oceanography, seabed mapping pre-programmed, cooperation

OASIS (NOAA) - Delfim (IST) Scout (MIT) - Charlie (CNRISSIA)

Sample at p p points/ p paths that maximize some figure of g merit related to our knowledge of the sampled field In the oceanographic context adaptation can be:

Model driven:

use model prediction to determine next mission no autonomous planning needed (but autonomous navigation required) open loop - feedback

Data driven:

use data to determine next way-point autonomous p u o o ous planning as we as autonomous navigation g s well s u o o ous v g o feedback only

Whenever occurrence of anomalous events has to be monitored, detected, t h t b it d d t t d classified E g : gas&oil fields E.g.:

Fixed sensors in key positions Periodic sampling around the field

Other instances:

water quality in touristic coastal areas industry discharge security: intrusion detection, mine/ordeal search

A clear qualitative concept

increase sample density when the measured quantity is rapidly varying (either in time and/or in space) estimate variation rate from past or neighborhood data

Sampling metric

deterministic setting: smoothness probabilistic setting: information gain application-dependent weighing li i d d i hi use tools from both approaches

A measure of the variability of the field

weighed sum of the time and spatial derivatives

F (r; t ) S = i bi ,r Di ,r F + ci ,t Di ,t F

n

n

F (r; t ) S k

n

projection over a space of basis functions, ordered with increasing variability F (r; t ) = h (r; t ) h =p F ; f i i i i i

hi 2 i =n

<k

Adapt the sampling step to the local smoothness Estimate local smoothness from available data

Minimize the expected uncertainty of the field

A priori mean and covariance of the field F (r; t ) = E{F (r; t ; )} C (r, r '; t , t ') = E{[ F (r; t ) F (r; t )][ F (r '; t ') F (r '; t ')]} m measurements at points (ri ;ti), estimation algorithm F (r; t ) = T ( F (ri ; ti ), F (r; t ) ) ; i = 1,..., m) choose the m samples so to minimize the a posteriori uncertainty of the estimated field t i t f th ti t d fi ld

J = E{[ F (r; t ) F (r; t )][ F (r; t ) F (r; t )]}drdt

(adapted from Leonard et al., 07)

Sensors deployment

( ) F (ri ; ti )(0)

Sense

F (ri ; ti )( k )

jointly

F (r; t ) = T ( F (ri ; ti )( k ) ) i = 1,..., k = 0,...

distributed di ib d collaborative

(ri ; ti )( k +1)

Kalman-like estimation Process Model

x(k / k 1) C(k / k 1) )

prediction

y (k ) correction

x( k / k ) C(k / k )

( adapted from Whitcomb and Yuh, 09) p , )

adaptation p same/better performance no single point weakness optimized coverage sensor networks ubiquitous computing mobile agents, consensus, ... bil

Transmission loss

affects SNR limitations on channel capacity / requirements on source level

Multi-path structure li h

causes symbolic interference limitations on coding/decoding schemes

Acoustic channel predictions used to determine relative depths and maximum range among Tx/Rx to guarantee a given SNR

Acoustic Propagation equations:

Simulates complex scenarios

environmental conditions geometrical spreading intrinsic attenuation wave interference patterns range independent stationary sources

Includes ( in TL):

Simplifications:

(Stojanovic, 07)

Network connectivity constraints limit the relative mobility of the agents y g Mobility of the agents can be exploited to dynamically maximize some figure of merit of the d ll f f f h communication channel

COTS acoustic modems have fixed bit rate and source level, with BER depending on the SNR Bit rate: from 256 b/s to optimistic 15 kb/s Underwater cooperation has to rely on the autonomy of the individual agents and on parsimonious comms overhead

Team localization

A team of AUVs must be cheap! Underwater navigation is a major source of vehicle cost

inertial systems

Use the acoustic modems also to localize acoustically the vehicles among the team with range-only measurements Some vehicles at the surface, g , geo-referenced; relative ; localization

DGPS

A hot research topics

J. Leonard; Sukhatme; Chitre; Antonelli ...

Alternate between ranging and communication COTS modems available (WHOI, Evologics, ...) (WHOI Evologics ) Use depth sensors to convert from 3D to 2D Several issues:

linear vs. nonlinear estimate observability depending on relative vehicle motion compensate for transmission delays on-board correction for bended ray-paths clock synchronization

Our approach: distributed EKF with delay (from team theory work dating back to the 80s!)

Not observable Observable EKF Error

Compensate ray bending through a look-up table B di ray error: increasing importance with range Bending i i i t ith In distributed localization range errors will accumulate Requires measurement of sound-speed vs. depth vs PTT: Partial Travelled Times PTD: Partial Travelled Distances

receiver depth

V V

emitter depth

11

12

..

V V

.

1n

21

22

.. . .. . .. .

2n

... ...

..

n1

n2

nn

V ab = [ V ab ( k1 ), V ab ( k 2 ), L , V ab ( k m ) ]

2 3 4 1 2 3 4 Vab (k ) = [T , 1 , ab , ab , ab | R, rab , rab , rab , rab ] ab

- Each vehicle performs it own f its vertical sampling - All the vehicles share information (acoustic)

plan the next move of the team in order to optimize: - sampling map quality (map res. below a given threshold) - overall area coverage measurements (cover the area by sampling where needed) - while maintaining connectivity range constraint among the vehicles, varying in space and time

Each hi l E h vehicle computes i next admissible range for its next its d i ibl f i measurement (admissible exploring radius) on the basis of the local smoothness of the environmental map - Local computations

F (r; t ) FI( k ) (r; t )

: RBF family

h: fill distance G: known function

Local decision, rule based: maximize distance from previous , f p samples and from next location of the other vehicles All vehicles apply the same rule to their available information set Information exchange needed

Communication/range constraint

Next sampling points must preserve connectivity of the communication structure

Use of Dynamic y Programming

j

Transition Cost

C ( p j , p j+1 )

Next graph

C ( p j , p j+1 )

Backward phase

Forward phase p

Minimum spanning tree algorithm current graph next graph

Comms intensive

5

salinity (ppm)

4.5 4

5

38.6 38.5 38.4

4.5 4

salinty (ppm)

38.6

37.9 37.8 37.7 37.6 0 1 2 x (km) 3 4 5

38.2

38.1 38

1.5 1

37.8

37.6 0.5 0

2 x (km)

Sound optimality proof Di t ib t d implementation of centralized algorithms Distributed i l t ti f t li d l ith Heavy comms overload Curse of dimensionality as the number of vehicles increase Possibility of a truly local rule-based algorithm? Yes behaviours Different approaches and implementations no systematic design rule in general, some cases analyzed Small comms load Not always optimality guaranteed

Goals

Critical asset protection Maintaining acoustic connectivity among the team

Each agent/node

Builds a local map of channel characteristics and comms performance Updates the map when new environmental measurements become available Adapts its behaviour to tackle changes in the environment

(Caiti et al., 2009/10)

AUVs equipped with: q pp

Acoustic modem max range: RC Detection sonar max range: RD Sensor to measure the environment (CTD)

min x xa xi cover with the sonars 2 i i the greatest area h i j around the asset to xi x j RD + RD , i, j 2 p protect i i, j : xi x j RC 2 Find a solution with distributed decisions using only closest neighborhood information

Rule 1: Move toward the asset Rule 2: Move away from your closest neighbor Implemented through gradients of artificial potential functions (interest functions - hA, hC) Vehicle course: vector sum of the two contributions

Interest functions

Ineherently robust to communication loss & equipment f l failure! Can include sonar/modem directionality

With omnidirectional sonar/modems, infinite solution , exists (all symmetric configurations around the asset) The rule-based algorithm stabilizes around one solution Analitycally once on a solution the vehicles either stay Analitycally, where they are, or move keeping the symmetry around the asset (and spanning the whole set of solutions) We have never seen the symmetric motion in simulations; in practice it can be ruled out (note: the symmetric motion may be a plus, not a minus!)

Small comms overhead

Each vehicle communicates with its closest neighbor Data to be TX:

Agent Position Maximum Detection Sonar Range

If an agent loses comms g g goes to the asset

Distributed, scalable algorithm, independent from AUV # Comms delay do not alter result, but imply longer vehicle paths and slower convergence

Experimental test

6-30 September 10, Pianosa Island b i l d

Conclusions

A set of tools for autonomous cooperative adaptive sampling with a team of AUV context: data-driven adaptation

deterministic and probabilistic metrics acoustic communication prediction cooperative distributed localization

guaranteed optimality l flexible, communication intensive less fl ibl i ti i t i

behaviour-based

robust li ht comms light optimality and convergence not guaranteed but for special cases

- Dynamic ProgrammingUploaded byKyambadde Francisco
- Design Testing Underwater VehicleUploaded byRuchit Pathak
- Algorithm TutorialsUploaded byKrutarth Patel
- Analysis Of A Deterministic Jong Nang Gate With Transmitter CooperationUploaded byJohn Berg
- Shannon 1948Uploaded byChirag Sachdeva
- 5713645 Research ProcessUploaded byJaspreet Singh
- Paula Brough - Advanced Research Methods for Applied Psychology_ Design, Analysis and Reporting (2018, Routledge)Uploaded byMarcela Fernanda Guzmán Sánchez
- telecom software marketing concept in BPO sectorUploaded bypaddyfly
- MA-Criminology-Syllabus.pdfUploaded byMano Keerthi
- Shannon 1948Uploaded byHunor Ambrus
- 2009 Ifa Dry Bulk SamplingUploaded byrvelasquez.sv8875
- Tugas Proposal Desain ProdukUploaded byahmad muflih
- info-lecUploaded bysaleemnasir2k7154
- Shannon 1948Uploaded byadnyaat
- Patanjali.docxUploaded byRj Bîmålkümãr
- 258116671 USTET Reviewer DocxUploaded byChristian JP Lijayan Robertson
- Final Report - CopyUploaded byJay Padh
- Citizens and Expatriates Satisfaction With Public Services in Qatar – Evidence FromUploaded byve
- Adaptive Resource Allocation in Buffer Aided Wireless Network for Improving Capacity and ThroughputUploaded byInternational Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology
- Sample Midterm Exam QuestionsUploaded byA K
- BooksUploaded byMorgen Sudyanto
- Statical Sampling UpdatedUploaded byPrashant Puri
- 3Business Research Methods2Uploaded byParth Rajesh Sheth
- info-lec (1)Uploaded byRicardo Gamboa
- AmulUploaded byHemanth Kumar
- Lecture 2Uploaded by01689373477
- EXPLORING THE FACTORS INFLUENCING GRADE 12.pptxUploaded byGirlie Villarta
- FrpUploaded byhimanshu
- Non Response Prof Arijit ChoudhuryUploaded byapi-3703881
- Evaluación Experimental de La Toxicidad de Cobre in SituUploaded byAngel Isidoro

- Lista 1Uploaded byJoão Augusto Oliveira Luiz
- A Unified Method for Computing Incompressible and Compressible Flows in Boundary-fitted CoordinatesUploaded byshahab_h2006
- LST Assignment#3 (Ch#4,6)Uploaded byAssassin47
- Performance Evaluation of Adaptive Filter Algorithms for EOG Signal ProcessingUploaded byeditorijsaa
- Matrix Decomposition and Its Application in Statistics NKUploaded bySean
- Introduction to Decision TreesUploaded byGia Desiré
- Audacity Point ListUploaded byfaroo28
- Transportation Problem, Linear ProgrammingUploaded byIsuru Kasthurirathne
- EncryptionUploaded bySagar Bhattacharya
- LOBOSwhitepaperv3bUploaded byMário de Freitas
- Feature Extraction Gabor filtersUploaded byZeeshan Aslam
- 13_2096Uploaded byrvshankar143
- Clustering Algorithm.pdfUploaded byisssac_Abraham
- MIE263 SyllabusUploaded bymizzali
- npcompl.pptUploaded byPetter P
- Association RuleUploaded bysskalees
- Intro to ANNUploaded byfauzansaadon
- 15-SequentialDesign.pptUploaded byBharadwaja Pisupati
- e PuzzlesUploaded bydvrao_chowdary
- In the simplest case, an optimization problem consists of maximizing or minimizing a real function by systematically choosing input values from within an allowed set and computing the value of the function. The generalization of optimization theory and techniques to other formulations comprises a large area of applied mathematics. More generally, optimization includes finding "best available" values of some objective function given a defined domain (or a set of constraints), including a variety of different types of objective functions and different types of domains.Uploaded byabhywa
- Laplace Transform - Final ExamUploaded bydatUPstudentdoe
- 2.15_Simulation+Modeling+模拟建模Uploaded byJames Jiang
- Ch6 EncryptionUploaded bynmtien1985
- Deep Learning in Neural Networks: An OverviewUploaded byDiego Ponciano
- Rayleigh Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) Channels Eigenmodes and CapacityUploaded byFakhar Abbas
- Rfc 2875Uploaded byNickyNET
- Power SeminarUploaded byAishum1
- Interpolation and MorphingUploaded bykatha_karma
- ReportUploaded byShanthi Adla
- Unit 2 SignalsUploaded byDigitallogicdl