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40

th
Anni versary Edi ti on
CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
Ter nagedachtenis aan E.H. Meursing
3 maart 1924 – 7 juni 2008
De grondlegger van de De Zaan Cocoa Manual
The first edition of the De Zaan Cocoa Manual was published in 1969 by Dr. E.H. Meursing.
The people of De Zaan are especially proud to share with you this 40
th
anniversary edition.
From the very beginning, Dr. Meursing introduced each new edition by noting, “a product
from De Zaan loses its identity as soon as it is incorporated in a customer’s product. From that
moment on, it bears the name and reputation of this customer. The people of De Zaan are conscious
of the confidence others place in our products and know their responsibility towards the customer.”
We hope you find our new deZaan Chocolate and Cocoa Manual a useful addition to your
library. This special 40
th
anniversary edition includes updated chapters along with new
chapters covering chocolate and cocoa sustainability.
We realize however that the information within is only a start to understanding the
complexities of cocoa and chocolate and their use in countless food products around the
globe. For this reason, we also conduct Advantage
TM
Seminars at our Advantage Centers
around the world or at our customer’s sites to provide more information, solutions, ideas
and hands-on experience. We encourage you to contact us for the latest information
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2009 ADM Cocoa
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any
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We DISClAIM ANy AND All WArrANTIeS, WheTher expreSS or IMplIeD, AND SpeCIfICAlly
DISClAIM The IMplIeD WArrANTIeS of MerChANTAbIlITy, fITNeSS for A pArTICulAr
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make, use, or sell products containing Archer Daniels Midland Company ingredients. deZaan
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Cocoa & Chocolate
Manual
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CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
Table of
Contents
Module 1
History and Supply of Cocoa
1. A brief history of cocoa 9
Introduction -
Cortez -
Spread of the cocoa tree -
Main cocoa growing areas -
Early processing and trade -
2. Cocoa today 12
Cultivation of cocoa -
Types of beans -
Harvesting and fermentation -
Quality and grading -
Physical cocoa versus cocoa futures -
Industry trends -
3. World demand for cocoa 18
Major cocoa processing countries -
World’s cocoa products flow -
Module 2
Cocoa Processing
1. Introduction 21
2. The raw material 21
Standards -
Selection -
3. The quality factor 22
Definition -
Customer requirements -
4. The production process 23
Flow sheet -
Bean blending -
Cleaning, breaking and winnowing -
Sterilization and alkalization -
Roasting -
Nib grinding -
Cocoa liquor -
Pressing -
Cocoa cake -
Cocoa powder -
Cocoa butter -
5. Process control 25
Fluctuating bean characteristics -
Principles of quality assurance -
Good Manufacturing Practices -
(GMP)
Hazard Analysis Critical Control -
Points (HACCP)
Production coding and sampling -
Reference samples -
Module 3
Methods of Analysis
1. Introduction 29
2. Sampling procedure 29
Sampling—general -
Sampling—bags or FIBCs -
3. Cocoa liquor/cocoa powder 31
Flavor evaluation -
Determination of fat content -
Determination of pH -
Determination of sieve residue -
Determination of moisture content -
4. Cocoa powder 36
Visual color evaluation -
Instrumental color evaluation -
5. Cocoa butter 39
Refractive index -
Melting point -
Lovibond color -
Extinction values -
Saponification value -
Iodine value by Wijs method -
Unsaponifiable matter -
Blue value -
Moisture and volatile matter -
Peroxide value -
Free fatty acid content -
6. Microbiological 48
Introduction -
Sample preparation for total plate -
count (TPC), molds/yeasts and
Enterobacteriaceae
Determination of total mesophilic -
aerobe plate count
Determination of mold and yeast -
count
Qualitative determination of -
Enterobacteriaceae incl. E. coli
Determination for presence of -
Salmonella
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CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
Module 4
Flavor and Flavor Development
1. Formation of cocoa flavor 53
Cocoa bean variety -
Fermentation and drying -
Alkalization -
Roasting -
2. Chemistry of roasting 55
3. Sensory evaluation of cocoa
flavor 57
Introduction -
Flavor release -
Appearance, sound, mouthfeel, -
texture, taste and smell
Adaptation, synergism, total -
impression and judgment
Flavor memory -
Sensory evaluation -
Difference (discrimination) tests -
Descriptive tests -
Sensory evaluation in the food -
industry
Basic cocoa flavor notes -
Cocoa off-flavor notes -
Module 5
Color and Color Development
1. Formation of the cocoa color 65
Precursors of the color component -
Alkalization and color development -
Color of cocoa butter -
2. Elements of color 68
The three dimensions of color -
The CIE color coordinates -
Color differences -
3. Measuring color 69
The source of light -
The reflecting surface of the sample -
Color measuring -
Visual judgment of color -
Instrumental color measurement -
Module 6
Health and Nutritional Aspects
1. Introduction 73
2. Manufacturer’s responsibility 73
3. Indicative nutritional
information 73
Fat (cocoa butter) -
Moisture -
Proteins -
Sugar and starch -
Dietary fiber -
Flavonoids -
Organic acids -
Methylxanthines -
Ash -
Minerals -
Vitamins -
Energy -
4. Cocoa and allergies 80
Module 7
Cocoa Liquor
1. Functionality and attributes of
cocoa liquor 83
Introduction -
Standard of identity -
The personality of chocolate -
Cocoa bean selection -
Processing equipment -
Flavor -
Color -
Fat content -
Fineness -
Free fat -
Maintenance cost -
Rheology -
Microbiology -
Lipase activity and cocoa liquor -
2. The application of cocoa liquor 92
Chocolate -
Other applications -
3. Packaging, storage and
transportation 93
4. Specification of cocoa liquor 94
Module 8
Cocoa Butter
1. Functionality and attributes of
cocoa butter 97
Introduction -
Standard of identity -
Flavor -
Flavor characteristics -
Flavor stability -
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CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
Color and opacity -
Hardness -
Tempering—measured by means of -
a tempermeter
Optimal tempering -
Under tempering -
Over tempering -
Solidification behavior -
Polymorphic crystallization -
properties
Methods to measure solidification -
characteristics
Influence of alkalization -
Influence of deodorization -
Contraction -
Rheology -
Gloss and shelf-life stability -
2. The application of cocoa butter 109
Chocolate production -
Confectionery fillings -
Other applications -
3. Packaging, storage and
transportation 110
4. Specification of cocoa butter 112
Module 9
Cocoa Powder
1. Functionality and attributes of
cocoa powder 115
Introduction -
Standard of identity -
Flavor -
Range of cocoa flavors -
Flavor and consistency -
Guidance on tasting -
Color -
The color essential -
Appearance -
External (“dry”) color -
Intrinsic color -
Color matching -
Influence of cocoa color on the -
final product
Fat content -
pH and alkalinity -
Fineness -
Shell content -
Rheology and water absorption -
Wettability and dispersibility -
2. The application of cocoa powder 126
Introduction -
Dairy products -
Ice cream and frozen desserts -
Bakery products -
Confectionery, coatings and cocoa -
products
Instant products and premixes -
3. Packaging, storage and
transportation 131
Packaging -
Coding -
Transport and storage -
Bulk and semi-bulk packaging -
4. Specification of cocoa powder 133
Introduction -
Controllable and non-controllable -
factors
Food safety aspects -
Impurities -
Metallic iron -
Pesticides -
Heavy metals -
Mycotoxins -
Specification components -
Flavor and color -
Fat content -
pH -
Fineness -
Moisture content -
Microbiological characteristics -
Fumigation or irradiation -
Module 10
Chocolate
1. History of Chocolate 139
2. Standards of Identity 140
3. Process Flow 140
Refining -
Conching -
4. Raw Materials 140
Nutritive Carbohydrate Sweeteners -
Cocoa liquor -
Milk powder -
Cocoa butter -
Butter oil -
Emulsifiers -
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CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
Flavors -
5. Formulations 145
Bittersweet/Semisweet (Dark) -
Chocolates
Milk Chocolates/White Chocolate - s
6. Pre-Refining Mix 145
Mixin - g
7. Refining 146
Stage # - 1
Stage # - 2
8. Conching 147
Summary of the conching steps -
The conching process - :
9. Standardization and Quality
Control 149
Rheology -
Total fat (%) -
Particle size -
Color -
Flavor -
10. Tempering 149
11. Application of Various
Chocolate Products 151
Hand dipping -
Enrobing -
Molding -
Panning -
Chocolate inclusions -
12. Cooling 154
Cooling methods and -
recommendations for hand dipping
and enrobing
13. Packaging, Storage and
Distribution 155
Quality changes observed during -
storage
Sugar bloom -
Fat bloom -
Cracking or leakage -
Module 11
Sustainable Cocoa
A Better Future for Cocoa
Communities 159
Addressing Child Labor -
Holistic Sustainability Programs 159
ADM Technical Training Program -
Builds Cooperatives’ Capacity
The - SERAP program:
Encouraging Socially &
Environ ment ally Responsible
Practices
Cocoa Livelihoods Program: -
Partnership with the
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
On-Farm Practices 160
Spreading The Word of Improved -
Farm Practices: STCP Partnership
Future Generations 161
Nourishing Children’s Bodies & -
Minds: School Meals Program
Health 161
HIV/AIDS - Program Focuses on
Prevention and Treatment
Bibliography 162
The ADM Cocoa Global
Organization 168
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CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
1. A bri ef hi story of
cocoa
Introduction
Throughout history, many discoveries’
future significance to man were never fully
appreciated at the time. The cocoa bean
is such a discovery. Now used for a wide
range of foods and delicacies, the cocoa
bean enriches the lives of us all. The first
time that people far from the areas of its
origin were confronted with the cocoa bean
was thanks to Columbus. On his fourth
voyage to America, he reportedly discov-
ered a canoe off the Yucatan Peninsula
laden with fruit and cocoa beans. But it was
only years later at the beginning of the 16th
century that Cortez confirmed the remark-
able value assigned to the cocoa beans. He
found that the Aztecs valued them so much
that they used them both as means of pay-
ment and as the source of a beverage drunk
at court and religious ceremonies. Little
is known as to how the bean came to take
on such a powerful role. One can imagine
that the realization of its potential occurred
in much the same way as wine. That is to
say, a natural product was accidentally left
in storage and subjected to the forces of
nature, and a series of chance events then
led to the discovery of its potential.
Although its exact origins are not known,
the Cacao tree was then exclusive to the
Americas. The closest estimates put the
area of origin in and around the valleys of
the Amazon and Orinoco Rivers.
High ambient temperatures were clearly
necessary for the development of the bean.
Evidence suggests that the tree has been
cultivated for more than 3,000 years.
Cortez
In 1519, Cortez arrived in Mexico and met
Montezuma II, a most significant patron
of cocoa. Because of the Aztecs’ belief that
Cortez was the reincarnation of their God
Quetzalcoatl, he was showered with gifts
and honors, including cocoa beans. The
tributes requested by Montezuma from
his subject people were in part taken in the
form of supplies of cocoa beans. The cocoa
beans were then consumed primarily in the
form of a drink known as xocolatl, the Aztec
name for the bitter stimulant. Its name
would later be applied to all products,
drinkable or solid, that were made from
the cocoa bean. It is a word that perhaps
has the remarkable distinction of being
one of the first ever to be adopted from
one language and then applied on a truly
global scale.
Recipes for xocolatl were rarely recorded
and probably varied by location. The beans
would have first been collected, left to
ferment naturally, sun dried, roasted in
earthen pots, and deshelled by hand. The
kernels were then ground on a slightly
concave stone called a metate using a
cylindrical grinder. At this point, spices
and herbs of various kinds, including
vanilla, might have been added to improve
the taste. The resulting paste was then
formed into cakes to cool and harden. For
consumption, the cakes would be broken
up, dissolved in water, and beaten to a
foamy consistency.
The attraction of this bitter drink clearly
lay in the physiological effects it offered
the drinker, many of which are still not
clearly explained. The fact that cocoa is
chemically very complex and that many of
its components have not been fully identi-
fied confirms the complexity of this natural
bean’s biochemistry. Its stimulating effects
certainly offer clear reason for its traditional
History and Supply of Cocoa
1
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CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
use in medicine. (See also Module 6: Health
and Nutritional Aspects).
Spread of the cocoa tree
As the first main colonizing power, it was
the Spaniards who ruled in this region
of the Americas. The popularity of the
bean conquered the court of Spain. As
imports grew, although only under close
and direct supervision of the Spanish
royal court, attempts were initiated to
reduce dependence on a single source of
the bean. Cultivation across all of their
colonized territories was encouraged, not
without frustration, as the cocoa trees were
strangely susceptible to disease. In 1525,
for example, the Spaniards transplanted
one of the main types of
cocoa beans from Mexico
to Trinidad, where it
flourished until being
completely wiped out in
an epidemic.
Over time, the cocoa tree
was planted throughout
many islands and coun-
tries of the Caribbean and
later to other continents,
all areas that offered the
ideal climatic and soil
conditions for successful
cultivation.
The popularity of the
cocoa drink at the Spanish
royal court was such that
still in the 16th century,
cocoa was declared a state
secret by decree from King
Charles V of Spain. Cocoa
was to remain a Spanish
possession.
Cortez was instructed
never to divulge its origin.
Though it was actually
known to people other
than the Spanish, no
one invested the effort
to research it further.
The secrets of cocoa
took almost 140 years to
filter out of Spain. Eventually, through a
diplomat, the secret passed into Italy, then
to Austria and France, and on to northern
Europe, where the Dutch encouraged and
later came to dominate cocoa trade.
By the end of the 17th century, drinking
cocoa had become so popular in Europe
that it was serving as a source of tax
revenue for governments, a sure sign that
consumption was spreading beyond the
small elitist groups that initiated its success.
Cocoa tree with ripe fruit
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CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
The Food of the Gods, or Theobroma cacao
L., as it is known by its scientific classifica-
tion, would become one of the world’s
great commodities.
Main cocoa growing areas
The spread of the cocoa bean across the
world was a long and frequently inter-
rupted journey. Pests and disease frustrated
many attempts to transplant the tree. Its
successful cultivation required specific
climatic conditions. The tree first spread
out in regions close to its origins, from
Brazil and Mexico in the 15th century
across Central America and the Caribbean
islands in the 16th. By 1560, the Spaniards
had introduced it to some of the Indonesian
islands. They brought the bean to the West
African island of Fernando Po, where it
was later transferred to the mainland. The
great growth of cocoa trade in the 19th
century saw its expansion across many
other countries, especially in West Africa
and Southeast Asia.
Early processing and trade
The Dutch were the first to actively trade
the commodity and, until the 18th cen-
tury, dominated the world trade in cocoa.
Because of this, the Dutch also became
more involved in research into cocoa
processing. In the 16th and 17th centuries,
most processing was in the hands of the
Spanish, even though they bought most of
their beans from Amsterdam or the Dutch
port of Zeeland.
Cocoa processing developed during the
18th century in the Netherlands. In 1825, to
reduce the fattiness of the chocolate drink,
Coenraad Johannes van Houten developed
a mechanical pressing process to fractionate
the cocoa liquor, the result of grinding the
roasted beans into a fatty fraction (cocoa
butter) and a partially defatted fraction
(cocoa cake or powder).
Another process developed by van
Houten was alkalization, or the “Dutch
process,” a procedure of treating cocoa with
alkali. This was originally done in order to
improve the solubility. It was found that
at the same time, taste and color were also
changed.
Some years later, cocoa butter would
come into its own: Originally used as a
simple household fat, it would pave the
way for the creation of chocolate.
In 1847, an important discovery was
made by John Fry in England. By adding
cocoa butter to a mixture of liquor and
sugar, chocolate was created, one of the
confectionery industry’s greatest discover-
ies. This is not only an easily handled
product, but it is solid at room temperature
and melts just below body temperature.
Thus, it is a product that, when eaten,
releases its flavors in an optimal manner.
Meanwhile, cocoa powders with differ-
ent tastes and colors became widely used
as flavor and color ingredients in the food
industry.
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CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
2. Cocoa today
Cultivation of cocoa
The successful cultivation of cocoa requires
a special climate that is mostly found
within the area bounded by the Tropics
of Cancer and Capricorn. The majority
of the world’s crop is now grown within
10° North and South of the equator. It will
grow from sea level up to a maximum
of some 1,000 meters, although most of
the world’s crop grows at an altitude of
less than 300 meters. Temperatures must
generally lie within the band of 18°-30° C
(65°-86° F). Rainfall must be well distrib-
uted across the year, with a minimum of
1,000 mm. The trees must be protected
from strong winds (the root system is
not robust); soils must be well aerated,
and pests and diseases must be carefully
controlled.
The original cocoa tree grew to a height
of ±10 meters at maturity and preferred the
shade of other larger trees. Modern breed-
ing methods have led to the development
of trees of a standard ±3 meters tall to allow
for easy hand harvesting.
Certain cocoa trees become productive
in three to four years, while in the past six
to seven years was common. When the
evergreen cocoa tree reaches its bearing
age, flowers and fruits begin to appear in
modest amounts. These can be found on
the tree at all seasons of the year, although
typically two crops are harvested each year.
The fruits grow directly from the trunk
of the tree and the thicker branches. While
there may be several thousand flowers on a
mature tree, only a small number matures
into fruits or pods. These take some six
months to grow from a fertilized flower,
measure 10-15 cm at the center, and are
15-25 cm long. The pod contains some 40
seeds or beans. After fermentation and
drying, one pod produces some 40 g of
beans, one bean typically weighing around
1 gram.
Yields per hectare have risen over time
from around 350 kg to more than 1,500 kg
on the most efficient farms. Today, cocoa
trees are cultivated in more than 40 coun-
tries around the world, across an estimated
area of 3.6 million hectares, producing an
annual crop of more than 3.0 million tons of
dried beans ready for processing.
Types of beans
Typical attributes of the bean, such as
bean size, flavor, color, and chemical
composition of the fat, vary considerably
in beans of different origins. Traditionally,
there have been two main types of cocoa
described: Criollo and Forastero. Criollos
are commonly known as lighter in color
with a mild, nutty character. Forastero
cocoas are characterized as darker brown,
more strongly flavored, slightly bitter,
and as having a higher fat content. The
greater part of the world’s cocoa crop has
Major Cocoa Bean Producing Areas (× 1,000 mt and %)
1980/81 1990/91 2000/01 2007/08 2008/09
Africa 1,010 59.6 1,418 56.6 1,948 68.2 2,682 71.8 2,442 70.4
Central/South America 542 32.0 611 24.4 369 12.9 400 10.7 383 11.0
West Indies 47 2.8 53 2.1 53 1.9 51 1.4 52 1.5
Asia & Oceania 97 5.7 487 16.9 487 17.0 602 16.1 590 17.0
Total world production 1,696 2,506 2,857 3,735 3,467
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CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
long been considered to be of the Forastero
type, more specifically a sub-type known
as Amelonado. Parts of Ecuador boast a
very specific type of cocoa, Cacao Nacional
or Arriba. The Criollo are known for
flavor characteristics, while the Forastero
plant are most commonly known for their
ability to withstand more severe climatic
conditions. A third type is has also been
described as “Trinitario”; essentially a
hybrid of Criollo and Forastero crosses.
In 2008 a large study of genetic and
geographic differentiation of Theobroma
cacao was completed in Latin America.
The results suggest, as researchers now
recommend, a new classification of
cacao germplasm into ten major groups:
Marañon, Curaray, Criollo, Iquitos, Nanay,
Contamana, Amelonado, Purús, Nacional
and Gulana. This new classification is said
to reflect much more accurately the genetic
diversity of cacao and should act to support
new mating schemes targeted to increase
disease resistance, enhance flavor and
improve crop yield.
It would be wrong to claim that certain
natural varieties of cocoa are better than
others. Each has its own specific chemical
and physical characteristics that are taken
into careful consideration when beans are
blended.
The ultimate quality of cocoa, what-
ever its origin, is significantly affected by
weather conditions during growing, soil
status, fermentation, and drying. Storage
conditions are also important in preventing
deterioration of the quality.
Harvesting and fermentation
Although nearly 500 years have passed
since Cortez first witnessed the mak-
ing of hot cocoa by the Aztecs, the basic
methodology for processing cocoa beans
has remained much the same. While a vast
amount of research has been undertaken
to speed up the cocoa bean fermentation
process, there has been little success.
Clearly, the different stages of fermentation
are essential in the creation of the complex
organic components essential to the final
taste and enjoyment of cocoa.
The pods grow directly from the trunk
of the tree. Mostly they are harvested by
hand using long-handled cutting tools and
broken open to reveal the beans and the
white pulp surrounding them. Beans are
then extracted and directly subjected to
fermentation.
The traditional process in West Africa,
the world’s largest cocoa growing area, is
simple: Farmers place the pulp-covered
beans on the ground, cover them with
layers of leaves (often banana), and allow
A cocoa pod contains some 40 seeds.
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CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
the heap to remain for four to seven days,
depending on the variety of the bean.
It is preferable to mix the heap every
two days so that the bean mix ferments
evenly. The fermentation is critical for the
future development of color and flavor of
the cocoa, although there are still many
unknowns as to the exact processes occur-
ring. Development of aroma precursors is
essential to the eventual creation of flavors.
A more industrial fermentation uses
three to five stepwise-positioned boxes:
the highest box is filled with pulp-covered
beans, and after one to two days the con-
tent is mixed and transferred to the lower
box, a process which is repeated until the
lowest box is reached. In four to six days,
this box fermentation can reach the result
of the traditional heap process.
After the fermentation process is com-
pleted, during which the white pulp is
totally degraded, the cocoa beans have to
be dried. In Africa the traditional method is
to spread the beans out on mats or in trays
in the open air to dry in the sun.
Because of the high rainfall and cloud
cover in Brazil and Malaysia, other tech-
niques are more popular. In Brazil the
beans are typically laid out on broad mats
on stilts above ground level to dry. In
the event of rain, a roof can be slid across
the mats, and hot air is used to dry them.
In Malaysia widespread use is made of
mechanical rotary driers. After drying,
the beans are bagged and made ready for
transport to buying stations and regional
warehouses.
Quality and grading
Cocoa is a natural product and suffers all
the risks inherent to that. The flower is very
susceptible to rain and temperature condi-
tions during its development. The pod can
be attacked by a variety of molds, insects,
Fermentation of beans under banana leaves
15
CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
and rodents, and the shell may be contami-
nated microbiologically.
The quality of beans is assessed under
various headings:
degree of fermentation •
number of defects •
number of broken beans •
bean count (number per 100 g) •
flavor •
color •
fat content •
fat quality •
shell content •
moisture content •
uniformity •
insect and rodent infestation •
certain chemical residues •
The bean cut test is used to evaluate
defects and the degree of fermentation.
(See also Module 4: Flavor and Flavor
Development.)
A key criterion is flavor. An expert panel
grades a consignment, seeking to identify
off-flavors. This depends on the type of
bean and its handling. Moldy off-flavors
come from molds; smoky taints may come
about during drying; acidic off-flavors
are due to excessive acid created during
fermentation or improper drying. Off-
flavors can also be caused by the proximity
of another strong-smelling product during
storage and shipping.
The yield of a consignment of cocoa
beans is the usable proportion—the cocoa
nib (the kernel without shell). Bean size
is important because small beans have a
proportionately lower amount of nib and a
higher shell content, neither conducive to a
good yield. Beans should also be uniform
in size because variable-sized beans are
harder to break and deshell. The shell
percentage is dependent on the type of
bean. Asian beans typically have a higher
shell content than African beans. Shells
should be whole but loose. The higher the
moisture content, the higher the chances
of mold development. The fat content, the
amount of foreign matter, broken beans,
Drying of cocoa beans on mats
16
CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
insect damage, and other such factors may
negatively influence the true value of the
beans for the user.
The cocoa butter should be low in free
fatty acids and show specific melting and
solidification characteristics.
In the past, cocoa bean marketing in
origin countries was mainly government
controlled (purchasing from farmers,
selling, and setting prices), but today free
marketing systems more often prevail.
When the beans are grown on very small
farms, the collection, grading, and financ-
ing of the crop can be rather complex.
At the buying station, a farmer’s crop is
weighed, inspected, and paid the current
market (or government set) price.
Price discounts/premiums can be made
for poor/good quality. From the buying
stations, the cocoa beans are collected and
finally arrive at the nearest port of embar-
kation or are delivered to local processing
plants.
Sales are made to licensed traders
and cocoa merchants or directly to
cocoa processors. Cocoa brokers can be
intermediaries who have expertise on crops
and trade and who advise and act for both
buyers and sellers.
Physical cocoa versus cocoa futures
Physical cocoa is real cocoa, bought and
sold according to its actual quality, ton-
nage, delivery time, place, and price. Cocoa
traded on the terminal or futures market is
paper cocoa, traded according to a uniform
description and lot tonnages, with price
and delivery period as the only variables.
In West Africa cocoa is traded through
government-controlled marketing boards
(Ghana) as well as by local exporters and
cocoa processors (Ivory Coast, Cameroon,
and Nigeria), where the cocoa trade has
been privatized albeit with certain signifi-
cant regulatory limitations. The level of
trade regulations and taxes levied on cocoa
usually reflects the importance of cocoa for
the national economy. Generally speaking,
foreign ownership of cocoa farms in West
Africa is not allowed.
Cocoa beans vary in size, shape, color, and other features.
17
CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
In other major producing areas, such as
Central and South America and Asia, cocoa
is freely traded and exported.
Cocoa does not play as dominant a role
in these economies. Farming in some coun-
tries like Brazil may be done on a much
larger scale than in Africa or Indonesia.
With more than 3.0 million tons
consumed annually (2002/2003), cocoa
beans are today a major commodity. The
main cocoa exchanges are London and
New York. The physical traders of cocoa
are located in many other cities such as
Amsterdam, Geneva, Hamburg, London,
Paris, Kuala Lumpur, Philadelphia, San
Salvador, and Singapore.
As a commodity exposed to oversup-
ply by bumper harvests, or to shortage
caused by weather or disease, the price
of cocoa naturally varies. As with other
commodities, the futures market allows
manufacturers to purchase for future
requirements at a known price. In that
way, the prices of beans and intermediate
products are based on the market’s percep-
tion of the current and future supply and
demand. Everyone can see what is happen-
ing. Cocoa is thus traded openly.
Terminal prices, however, do not neces-
sarily reflect the values of the specific types
of beans. Each cocoa bean origin will have
its own price, selling at a premium above
the terminal price or at a discount below it.
This is because the market recognizes that
each bean origin has a particular demand
due to its specific characteristics, such as
flavor, color, and cocoa butter properties.
These distinct characteristics can play a
significant role in the pricing.
Major ports of entry are Amsterdam,
Philadelphia, and Hamburg. Amsterdam
receives about 20% of the world crop.
Industry trends
Bulk shipment of cocoa beans has made its
entrance in Europe since 1995. Instead of
receiving the beans in traditional jute bags,
cocoa may now be shipped to a large extent
in bulk in containers or directly in vessel
holds. New handling technology, as well
as innovative quality control procedures,
were developed and implemented both at
the loading and discharging points, leading
to a highly efficient bulk transportation
system.
In the countries of origin, sustained
by government incentives to promote
industrialization, there is a trend to grind a
larger part of their cocoa bean output into
semi-finished products and export cocoa
liquor, butter, and powder instead of raw
beans.
Liberalization of the cocoa trade and
industry in the countries of origin, notably
those in West Africa, will continue, result-
ing in greater transparency of the cocoa
trade, while various bean grading systems
control the quality of the beans shipped to
the consuming countries.
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CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
3. World demand
for cocoa
Major cocoa processing countries
The world demand for cocoa beans has
steadily increased over recent decades as a
direct result of increased world demand for
chocolate and chocolate-flavored products.
On the other hand, because cocoa is an
agricultural product subject to the influ-
ences of nature, the supply fluctuates from
year to year.
The bean grinding quantities do not
indicate what is actually made from
cocoa. For example, in the Netherlands,
the world’s largest cocoa bean processor,
almost the entire quantity of beans is
processed by the cocoa press industry into
intermediate cocoa products rather than
directly into cocoa consumer products like
chocolate.
World’s cocoa products flow
Three products—cocoa liquor (also called
cocoa paste or cocoa mass), cocoa butter,
and cocoa powder—are initially made from
cocoa beans. Combining cocoa liquor and
cocoa butter (with sugar and possibly milk
powders) creates chocolate.
All beans, after having been cleaned,
deshelled, roasted, and ground, are first
processed into cocoa liquor. Any change in
the supply position of one product has an
effect on the availability of the others.
For example, in the case of an increase in
chocolate consumption, a larger quantity of
liquor and butter will be required to satisfy
that increase in demand.
Consequently, a larger volume of cocoa
powder will become available to the
market, which may not necessarily coin-
cide with a simultaneous increase in the
demand for cocoa powder.
Major Cocoa Processing Countries (based on bean grind)
(× 1,000 mt and %)
1980/81 1990/91 2000/01 2007/08 2008/09
Netherlands 140 9.0 268 11.5 452 14.7 491 13.1 475 13.5
USA 186 11.9 268 11.5 456 14.9 391 10.4 355 10.1
Germany 180 11.6 294 12.6 227 7.4 385 10.2 335 9.5
Ivory Coast 60 3.9 118 5.1 285 9.3 374 10.0 440 12.5
United Kingdom 80 5.1 145 6.2 151 4.9 108 2.9 110 3.1
France 48 3.1 71 3.0 145 4.7 160 4.3 150 4.3
Malaysia 7 0.4 78 3.3 125 4.1 331 8.8 260 7.4
Former USSR 114 7.3 83 3.6 102 3.3 96 2.6 88 2.5
Indonesia 13 0.8 32 1.4 87 2.8 160 4.3 110 3.1
Others 730 46.9 974 41.8 1,035 33.8 1,262 33.6 1,192 33.9
Total world grindings 1,558 2,331 3,065 3,758 3,515
Source: International Cocoa Organization Quarterly Bulletin
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CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
It is estimated that some 65% of the
world grind is pressed into about 55% of
cake (powder) and about 45% of butter. The
other 35% is processed into cocoa liquor
and almost entirely used directly for the
manufacture of chocolate.
This interlocking relationship between
liquor, butter, and powder not only has a
direct influence on their physical supply
and demand positions, but also on their
relative pricing against the raw material:
the cocoa bean.
This book basically deals with the
functional aspects of the three intermediate
products (cocoa liquor, cocoa butter,
and cocoa powder) and chocolate in
their respective applications. To dwell
extensively on issues of commercial or
legislative considerations would go beyond
its purpose.
Worth mentioning though, is the new
Cocoa and Chocolate Directive of the
European Union (2000/36/EC), allowing
up to 5% of six specific vegetable fats other
than cocoa butter to be used in chocolate;
this substitution has a quantitative and
adverse effect on the supply and demand
positions of cocoa butter and cocoa
powder.
The price of cocoa butter relative to the
cocoa bean also remains under pressure.
Whatever the extent of the individual
effects of these two aspects, the combina-
tion causes an imbalance in the product
flow. As no cocoa butter can be made with-
out obtaining a similar quantity of cocoa
powder (and vice versa), an adjustment
will then clearly have to occur. This can be
quantitative (less butter produced leads to
less powder available), by means of a price
adjustment (a lower butter price must lead
to a higher powder price), or through a
combination thereof. Competitive market
forces, as usual, will ultimately lead to the
most practical solution.
Cocoa
beans
3,500
Cocoa
nibs
2,825
Shell
675
PRESS INDUSTRY
Cocoa liquor
1,800
CHOCOLATE INDUSTRY
Cocoa liquor

1,025
Cocoa powder
1,000
Cocoa
butter
800
Chocolate
5,000
(estimate)
Sugar
Milk
Diagram of World’s Cocoa Products Flow
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CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
1. Introducti on
Module 1: History and Supply of Cocoa
gives a brief account as to where and how
cocoa is grown, harvested, and shipped
from the major cocoa growing areas. In this
module, we deal with cocoa processing into
the three products that are highlighted in
this book: cocoa liquor, cocoa butter, and
cocoa powder.
As the prime purpose of the deZaan
TM

Cocoa Manual is to be a practical guide to
the user of cocoa products, this module
focuses on those elements of the produc-
tion process most likely to be relevant
to users of such products. For them it is
important to know what stages of the
process are critical in view of the key
features of the cocoa products that they
buy as ingredients for application in their
products.
Basically the principle of processing
cocoa beans into cocoa products has not
changed in the past 150 years. Today, the
beans are still cleaned, deshelled, roasted,
and sometimes alkalized, then ground
into cocoa liquor, which is subsequently
pressed into butter and cake. Finally, the
cake is pulverized into powder. Of course,
over time mechanical efficiency and the
quality and risk management have vastly
improved. Particularly the knowledge
and expertise with regard to controlling
the intrinsic potential of the raw material
have expanded significantly in the past
decades. Like many other food processing
industries, cocoa product manufacturing
has also become a highly automated,
capital intensive, high-tech industry.
Before describing the basic features of
cocoa processing, however, the role of the
raw material in that process must first be
discussed.
2. The raw materi al
Standards
Certainly the condition of the starting
material, the cocoa bean, determines the
ultimate characteristics of the end prod-
ucts. Close scrutiny of the raw material is
essential, and several aspects have to be
taken into account.
Cocoa is traded on terminal markets
around the world, and standard contracts
define a number of quality requirements.
An average shipment of cocoa should
comply with the following:
Fermentation - adequately fermented •
(if fermented)
Foreign matter - nil •
Waste - < 2% •
Moisture content - < 7.5% •
Smoky or foreign odors - absent •
Bean size uniformity - reasonably •
uniform
Packing weight, bag quality, and •
marking - should be as defined (if
applicable)
These standard characteristics, applied in
the various grading systems in the coun-
tries of origin, are generally limited to those
that can be observed by the eye or nose
(insect infestation, moldy, slaty, violet, or
flat beans, off-flavors) and to characteristics
that can be defined with simple equipment
(number of beans per 100 g, moisture
content).
For the cocoa processing industry,
other characteristics have to be taken
into account. A distinction must be made
between those characteristics of signifi-
cance to quantity or yield, like percentage
of shell, moisture, and fat, and characteris-
tics that are significant to the quality of the
products finally obtained from the beans.
For cocoa butter, for example, the free
fatty acids and the crystallization behavior
of the fat present in the bean are of great
Cocoa Processing
2
22
CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
importance. For liquor and powder, the
flavor and color potential are essential.
Once released from the pod, cocoa beans
are subjected to a spontaneous fermenta-
tion process, causing a bacterial load to
build up. Subsequent drying of the beans
does not lead to a microbial improve ment,
and some bacteria are acti - vated to form
spores. The fermentation and drying pro-
cesses usually take place in the open air on
the farms.
During harvesting, post-harvesting, and
collection, the beans, like any agricultural
commodity, are subject to contamination
with filth and foreign matter.
Selection
Whenever possible, bean parcels are
selected and analyzed by ADM Cocoa prior
to shipment from the country of origin.
This is of particular importance in respect
to bulk shipment of cocoa, which today is
more and more the standard method of
bean transportation.
The importance of bean selection with
regard to the ultimately desired flavor
profile of cocoa liquor, as well as the
further development of color and flavor
during the alkalization and roasting steps
in the manufacture of cocoa powder, is
discussed in Module 4: Flavor and Flavor
Development and in Module 5: Color and
Color Development.
3. The quali ty factor
Definition
At ADM Cocoa, we strive to supply cocoa
products, consistent in their attributes,
based on mutually defined functional
specifications with accompanying services
to the worldwide market at competitive
prices. Because quality is subject to individ-
ual judgment, covers many disciplines, and
involves many individuals of an organiza-
tion, the disciplined management of quality
standards is essential.
Customer requirements
ADM Cocoa concentrates on the specific
wishes of its industrial customers. Our
standards and internal control procedures
are upgraded and adapted constantly, bear-
ing in mind the given, unavoidable, natural
variability of an agricultural commodity.
In the manufacturing world, the concept
of quality has long been understood and
defined as the way a physical product
compared to some defined ideal. Close to
the ideal, the quality of a product or service
was considered good; below the ideal, then
quality was poor. Quality tended to be
restricted solely to physical attributes.
However, today the concept of quality
has expanded to mean the way a product
or service responds to the expectations
of clients, not only in terms of product
safety and attributes but also in such areas
as delivery reliability, after-sales service,
user support, and, of course, overall
value. This extension of the meaning of
quality has brought changes within food
manufacturing organizations. Not only are
all departments involved; every individual
employee is involved as well. The concept
of the quality factor today is how an orga-
nization like ADM Cocoa is able to respond
to customer demands.
ADM Cocoa realizes that just like its own
business, the businesses of its customers are
constantly evolving. To maintain its posi-
tion of leadership in the supply of cocoa
ingredients, ADM Cocoa takes customers’
current and anticipated requirements into
account, whereby customers are:
creating more new products with •
cocoa ingredients
requesting more data on the properties •
and applications of products
becoming more critical, asking for •
ever-stricter product consistency
asking for more non-material added •
value, which means attention, service,
and follow-up and bringing solutions

23
CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
asking for support in rationalizing the •
number of cocoa products required for
their growing businesses
becoming oriented toward keeping •
low stocks, demanding speedy and
flexible just in time deliveries
trying to eliminate dependence on •
product inspection of incoming
materials
In practice, this often means that iden-
tifying particular requirements, be it on
product specifications or any other aspect,
becomes a matter of close cooperation with
the customer that ultimately leads to jointly
defining these requirements.
4. The producti on
process
Flow sheet
Cocoa processing at ADM Cocoa is
described in the simplified diagram below.
The various production steps and critical
control points are then discussed.
Bean blending
On the basis of the analysis of the individu-
al bean lots, an optimal blend is prepared.
In this way, fluctuating characteristics
can be reduced or evened out before the
beans are further processed. An alternate
approach is to process specific lots of beans
and blend the resulting cocoa liquors.
Cleaning, breaking and winnowing
The actual production process starts with
the following three steps: cleaning, break-
ing, and winnowing. Their objective is to
obtain clean, broken, deshelled kernels
(nibs).
These kernels must be as uniform in size
as possible in order to achieve constant
quality.
First, the beans are
sieved, and foreign
matter such as bam-
boo, twigs, string,
stones, and magnetic
materials is removed.
The clean beans are
then broken to loosen
the shells from the
nibs.
The breaking
process takes place
in multiple steps to
avoid an excess of
fine particles. After
the breaking step, the
product is sieved into
a number of fractions
to reach optimal
separation during
winnowing.
These fractions then
go to the winnowing
cabinets where the
“lighter,” broken
shell is removed by a
Beans
Nibs
Liquor
Liquor Powder Butter
Pre-
cleaning
Storage
Blending
(optional)
Breaking &
winnowing
Sterilization
Alkalizing
(optional)
Roasting
Liquor
grinding
Pressing
Breaking
Cake
blending
Filtering
Deodorization
(optional)
Cooling
Pulverization
Packaging
Blending
Cake Butter
Production Flow Sheet
24
CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
stream of air. The breaking and winnowing
steps separate the essential ingredient
of the cocoa bean, the kernel, most often
described as the nib, from its shell. Strong
magnets remove magnetic foreign matter
from the nib. The nib may then be stored,
awaiting further processing. The separated
shell is often sold to agricultural mulch or
fertilizer producers.
Sterilization and alkalization
The microbiologically contaminated nib
is sterilized in a batch or a continuous
process by wetting and heating with steam:
the Total Plate Count (TPC) is normally
reduced to less than 500 per gram, and
pathogenic bacteria are killed. After ster-
ilization, the nib can be roasted directly
(natural process) or can be alkalized first
(Dutch process).
Alkalizing or Dutching consists of treat-
ing the cocoa nibs with an alkali solution
such as potassium or sodium carbonate. It
is practiced primarily to modify the color
and flavor of cocoa powder or cocoa liquor;
for the effects of alkalization on the forma-
tion of flavor and color of cocoa products,
see Module 4 and Module 5.
Alkalization can be conducted at
various points in the production process.
Depending on the stage at which alkaliza-
tion takes place, different results will
be obtained. Nib alkalization is often
preferred, as it combines optimal flavor
and color development with minimal alkali
usage.
Roasting
The roasting process has the objec-
tives of reducing the water content and
further developing flavor. Roasting is
particularly important to the final flavor
because the nib’s flavor is formed from the
precursors that developed during fermen-
tation. (See Module 4: Flavor and Flavor
Development). Roasting temperatures
range from 95-145° C (200-295° F) depend-
ing on the process, equipment, type of nib
processed, and the end product required.
Exposure of the nib to such temperatures
during roasting causes an additional reduc-
tion in the number of microorganisms. A
low level of those organisms after steriliza-
tion and roasting is essential for ultimately
obtaining excellent food-grade products
(cocoa powder, butter, and liquor) with
stringent microbiological specifications.
ADM Cocoa does not carry out post pro-
cess sterilization by means of fumigation
or irradiation at the end of the production
process, as post-process sterilization often
serves to hide poor hygienic process
conditions and contamination with foreign
matter, which is not eliminated by post-
process sterilization. Further fumigation
may leave residues, and irradiation may
cause an undesired change in the flavor
(oxidation).
Nib grinding
The roasted nib is typically ground in a
multi-stage process. During grinding, the
broken kernels change from a solid to a
fluid mass of cocoa particles suspended
in cocoa butter. This is due to the high fat
content of the bean: About half of the nib is
fat. Grinding breaks up the cell structure of
the cocoa nibs and releases the cocoa butter.
Cocoa liquor
After the last stage of the grinding process,
the mass is passed through sieves and over
strong magnets to remove any remaining
coarse cocoa or metal particles.
This finely ground fluid mass, the cocoa
liquor, can either be stored in tanks to await
pressing, or it can be shipped and used
by chocolate manufacturers for further
processing into chocolate.
Pressing
Cocoa butter constitutes about half the
weight of the cocoa nib. This fat is partially
removed from the cocoa liquor by means
of hydraulic presses applying pressures as
25
CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
high as 450 kg/cm
2
. Depending upon the
pressing time and the setting of the press,
the resulting cakes may have a fat content
of 10 to 24%.
Cocoa cake
After pressing, the cakes are broken into
kibbled cake. The pressing operation is
microbiologically vulnerable, as this is the
only part of the process when the prod-
uct is not in a closed system and is thus
exposed to the surroundings. Hygienic
procedures are therefore of particular
importance in the pressing department.
Kibbled cake is typically stored by fat
content and degree of alkalization and may
be blended before pulverization to obtain
the desired type of cocoa powder. The
cocoa butter is filtered and stored in tanks.
Cocoa powder
The powder grinding lines pulverize cocoa
cake particles into the defined fineness
levels. After pulverization, the powder is
cooled so that the fat of the cocoa powder
crystallizes into its stable form. This pre-
vents any discoloring (fat bloom) and lump
forming in the bags later, a phenomenon
that is caused by insufficient crystallization
of the fat at the moment of filling. Next,
the free-flowing powder is passed through
sieves and over magnets prior to packing in
paper bags or in bulk containers.
Cocoa butter
The cocoa butter from the presses is filtered
and stored. Upon request, the butter can
be partly or wholly deodorized. Delivery
of the various types of cocoa butter can
be either in liquid form or in solid form
(plastic-lined cardboard boxes).
Storage and packaging of cocoa products
are discussed further in Modules 7-9 for
Cocoa Liquor, Cocoa Butter, and Cocoa
Powder.
5. Process control
Fluctuating bean characteristics
Cocoa is a natural product with consider-
able quality variations from year to year,
from country to country, and from lot
to lot. Sometimes certain types of cocoa
may not be available at all. As customers
expect to receive a consistent final product,
fluctuation of quality characteristics of
our end-products has to be eliminated or
reduced. So the bean mix and the process-
ing conditions can be adapted based on
experience, technological expertise, and
knowledge of the properties of the raw
material.
Therefore, the critical points in process-
ing of cocoa beans into wholesome, safe,
and consistent cocoa ingredients are:
the quality of the cocoa beans; they •
should be ideally well-fermented and
clean.
the production process; the process •
must be carried out according to the
specified norms, with strict hygienic
standards.
Assessing the quality of the cocoa beans
has been described on page 21 under “The
raw material.” Further in the process, the
roasting and alkalization stages can be
adapted to the specific characteristics of
the particular cocoa bean mix. In Module 7
and Module 9, the influence of these stages
of the production process with respect to
the desired flavor and color development
of cocoa liquor and cocoa powder is
extensively discussed.
Variations, for example in color, flavor,
and pH of cocoa powder, can be reduced.
Blending of different cocoa cakes or
powders may control the characteristics of
the resultant cocoa powder. In this way,
ADM Cocoa is able to supply each type
of cocoa powder within the specifications,
every time.
Principles of quality assurance
Part of ADM Cocoa’s quality assurance is
based on supplying the necessary informa-
26
CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
tion regarding the production process
and the way in which quality control is
achieved.
One of the most important objectives of
ADM Cocoa is to transform the naturally
fermented cocoa beans into wholesome
cocoa products with suitable bacteriological
specifications. To this end, bean quality is
constantly being assessed and controlled.
Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP)
Although the influence of the raw cocoa
beans as a source of contamination is
greatly diminished by the procedure
described above, it is essential to prevent
contamination after the roasting step. For
this reason, processing in accordance with
the principles of Good Manufacturing
Practices (GMP) is indispensable.
These rules are of a preventative nature:
They rely not so much on the checking of
the finished product but concentrate efforts
on the production process itself. They call
for careful processing and use of specific
checks throughout the production process.
This principle was introduced by the Food
and Drug Administration in the USA and
adopted by the Codex (Code of Practice
from 1997) and by the European Union
(REGULATION (EC) No 178/2002).
Hazard Analysis and Critical Control
Points (HACCP)
Later, the concept of Hazard Analysis
and Critical Control Points (HACCP) was
developed, a comprehensive, step-by-step
quality assurance program. This goes
beyond the hygienic aspects of quality
assurance and is a step-by-step outline for
the entire production process. Assessments
of hazards associated with raw materials,
processing, and transport are made.
At ADM Cocoa, the microbiological,
chemical, and physical influences of the
processing are considered in relation to
food safety and quality. After hazard
assessment, the Critical Control Points
(CCP’s) required to control the identified
hazards are determined. For each CCP,
critical limits, procedures for monitoring,
and corrective actions in case of devia-
tions are established and continuously
monitored.
Within HACCP, special attention is
given to prevention of contamination with
Salmonella after the roasting process. The
International Confectionery Association
(ICA) offers the industry a code of hygienic
practice based on HACCP for the preven-
tion of Salmonella contamination in cocoa,
chocolate, and confectionery products.
Production coding and sampling
ADM Cocoa’s production is planned
according to deliveries defined as a quan-
tity of product that possesses a high degree
of homogeneity because it is made at the
same production unit without significant
changes in process conditions and raw
material composition. Such a delivery may
consist of several homogeneous batches.
Each delivery is given a unique lot
identification code that is printed on the
individual packing or, in the case of liquid,
tank car shipments, indicated on the
accompanying documents. Traceability for
packaging (bag or carton) is obtained with
a production code.
When the food manufacturer wishes to
control incoming ingredients, e.g. cocoa
products, it is important to ensure that
representative samples are taken and exam-
ined. It is essential that the manufacturer
of the ingredient is able to demonstrate
the homogeneity of the delivered quantity.
With this in mind, ADM Cocoa welcomes
its customers to audit its production
facilities in order to assess the confidence
that can be placed in the adopted control
systems, procedures, standards, and norms.
If the homogeneity of incoming ship-
ments can be assured, then a somewhat
simplified random check can be used on
the incoming lots. See also the sampling
procedure described in Module 3: Methods
of Analysis.
27
CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
Reference samples
Should a customer wish to check, for
example, the color and flavor of a powder,
a reference sample of the type in ques-
tion is needed; delivery samples can be
checked against such reference samples.
Such samples should be packed in a well
sealed container and kept cool and dry.
They should also be replaced twice a year.
To this end, the expiration date is shown on
the reference sample label.
Please note
The preceding information has been given
for use as a basis on which customers can
make important decisions with regard to
the extent cocoa ingredients are examined
before use. Based on the delivery history,
audits, and additional information from
ADM Cocoa staff, the customer may make
simplifications in checking deliveries of
ADM Cocoa products.
29
CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
1. Introducti on
Good methods of analysis are not only
essential for upholding the quality specifi-
cations and customer requirements but also
for process control purposes. ADM Cocoa
often uses classic analytical methodology,
such as fat content by extraction, moisture
content by oven drying, acidity (free fatty
acid) by titration, etc. These methods are
by definition related to the specification
parameters. However, many modern
instrumental and automated techniques,
like spectroscopy, chromatography, and
densitometry, are used for obtaining results
faster and for additional information on the
products.
Always, but especially for specifications
and requirements, it is necessary to define
and describe the methods of analysis clear-
ly and in detail; this assures consensus on
the results and no analytical bias caused by
using different methods. In addition to our
own methodology, we refer to the methods
of international analytical and standard
organizations like the International
Organization for Standardization (ISO),
the International Union of Pure and
Applied Chemistry (IUPAC), and the
Association of Official Analytical Chemists
(AOAC). Analytical and microbiological
experts from the cocoa and chocolate
industries, organized in the International
Confectionery Association (ICA- for-
merly known as IOCCC), developed and
approved about 50 analytical methods
specifically for cocoa, cocoa products, and
chocolate. These methods can be ordered at
the ICA-Secretariat, Rue Defacqz 1, B-1050
Brussels, Belgium, or at www.caobisco.com
under ICA-publications.
ADM Cocoa uses the official analytical
methods as well as simplified, faster,
instrumental methods. The latter always
have to be calibrated and checked against
the often more time-consuming official
methods.
The quality of the sampling is often
more important for a reliable result than
the analysis itself; however accuracy and
precision of analytical methods for process
control and finished goods analysis have
to be known and evaluated regularly.
Analytical data are never absolute but
have a “natural” uncertainty or variation.
The analyst has to check and evaluate
each analysis and each result using his
experience and knowledge. Are the results
as expected, or is reassurance (reanalysis)
necessary?
Good Laboratory Practices (GLP) are
essential for validation of data. On a
regular basis, analysis of control or check
samples must be carried out to evaluate
the performance of the methods and the
analysis.
In this Module the analytical methods
advised by ADM Cocoa for the analysis of
specification parameters of cocoa liquor,
cocoa powder, and cocoa butter are
described; a trained analyst should be able
to perform the analyses and obtain reliable,
accurate results.
References are given to official methods
(ISO, AOAC, IUPAC, ICA); many analyti-
cal textbooks also have chapters on the
analysis of cocoa products.
2. Sampli ng procedure
Sampling—general
Correct sampling procedures are essential
for obtaining good and reliable analytical
results. The sampling and sampling condi-
tions may depend on the type of analysis
to be carried out, but the sample always
has to be representative for the product or
lot. Non-sterile conditions are sufficient for
such analyses as fat or moisture content,
however sterile conditions are essential
Methods of Analysis
3
30
CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
when the samples have to be analyzed
microbiologically.
In commercial scale plant processing the
sampling is preferably done automatically
and in line by taking (and combining)
portions of the product stream at regular
intervals with automatic samplers (avail-
able for liquids as well as solids). In general
the sampling procedure can be divided into
two steps:
primary sampling of the production lot •
and preparation of the “bulk” sample
secondary sampling or preparation of •
the laboratory or test sample from the
“bulk” sample
Samples should ideally be packed in
moisture- and air-tight, inert containers/
bags of suitable size and shape, preferably
be stored in a cool and dark place, and
be labeled with the product and sample
information. This will protect the product
from any change in the relevant parameters
for as long as the sample is needed for
analysis or as evidence (counter samples).
This includes no increase in moisture
(cocoa powder is very hygroscopic), no
change in color (by temperature variation
or effect of light), no effect on flavor (too
high temperature and influence of air and
light), etc.
Deliveries of ADM Cocoa products can
be in liquid (tank containers) and solid
(bags or cartons) forms. Liquid deliveries
should preferably be sampled at regular
intervals during unloading of the tank.
The “bulk” sample can be sub-sampled
to give the laboratory or test sample. The
solids in liquid cocoa liquor may partly
sediment, so when the delivery is not well
stirred many samples have to be taken and
recombined (e.g. for analysis of fat content
and fineness).
Solid deliveries can be sampled by
taking primary samples from a number of
pallets with cartons or bags. This process is
intended to assure that all units on a pallet
(with the same production code) represent
the same homogeneous product. The size
of a primary sample has to be at least 50 g
to be representative for the pallet and to
allow the necessary analyses. By comparing
primary samples of a delivery, the customer
can evaluate its consistency.
Sampling—bags or FIBCs
For cocoa powder, the following procedure
is advised, based on one sample per pallet
or flexible intermediate bulk containers.
Check the dry (external) color immedi-
ately. Only a limited color variation both
from sample to sample as well as between
samples and reference is allowed.
Next, other parameters can be deter-
mined, for instance, fat content, moisture
content, or pH. Microbiological analysis is
generally carried out separately.
Primary sampling of a bag of cocoa
powder from a pallet is as follows:
Make an inverted U-shaped cut in the •
shrink-wrap or foil wrap.
Make a similar but smaller cut in the •
bag, such that the bag can easily be
resealed with tape.
Take a sample of 50-250 g with a sterile •
sampling spoon (penetrating 5-10 cm
into the bag).
Place the sample in a plastic bag or •
sterile container. Close carefully and
label with product type, lot number,
production code, sampling date, and
name of sampler.
Close the bag and then the wrap with •
adhesive tape.
Primary sampling of the flexible •
intermediate bulk container is done
by opening the filling tube, taking a
sample of 5-10 cm under the surface
and subsequently closing the filling
tube.
Samples for microbiological analysis
must be taken aseptically: The bag surface,
the knife used to cut open the bag, and the
sampling spoon must first be cleaned and
disinfected.
Secondary (sub) sampling depends on
customer requirements:
31
CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
Composite samples can be prepared by •
taking and blending identical quanti-
ties of the primary samples.
Single primary samples may be •
sub-sampled and analyzed for specific
parameters.
3. Cocoa li quor/
cocoa powder
Flavor evaluation
DEFINITION
The flavor of cocoa liquor and cocoa pow-
der is evaluated by trained panel members
under standard conditions, using a stan-
dard sample as a reference.
EQUIPMENT/MATERIALS
sugar, granulated and powdered •
tap water, 55° C (131° F) •
beakers, glass, 400 ml •
disposable cups, approx. 30 ml and •
150 ml, with lid, (odor free)
stirrers, measuring cylinders, •
thermometer (0°-100° C/32-212° F)
hot plates •
balance, 0.1 g accuracy •
GENERAL TEST CONDITIONS
For effective flavor evaluation, a trained
panel of five to eight members is necessary,
and test conditions must be standardized.
TASTE PANEL ROOM
The test conditions require a special and
separate taste panel room for concen trated,
undisturbed, and unobserved test ing under
comfortable sitting conditions with good
lighting and temperature.
Smells, sounds, and disturbances should
be excluded. It must be possible to spit
out the sample and rinse the mouth with
warm tap water. Clear written instructions
are supplied to each panel member. At
each sample booth, general test guidelines
should be present.
PANEL MEMBERS
Panel members are selected and trained
to discriminate between basic tastes and
essential cocoa flavors and off-flavors.
In addition, panel member performance
is evaluated regularly by flavor analysis
supervisors.
The following basic rules apply to taste
panel members:
no tasting when feeling unwell •
no smoking, eating, or drinking for •
half an hour before tasting
no tasting on an empty stomach •
PROCEDURE
Sample preparation
1. Weigh 15 g of liquid cocoa liquor or 12 g
of the cocoa powder to be tested and 15 g
of sugar into a 400 ml glass beaker.
2. Add 200 ml of tap water at 58° C (136° F)
and stir to a homogeneous suspension.
3. Pour about 50 ml of the suspension into
each of the six cups (150 ml) and close
with a lid.
4. Repeat these steps with the reference
sample (see remarks).
5. Place the samples on hot plates to keep
the contents at 50° C (122° F).
TESTING TECHNIQUE
Each panel member evaluates a sample
against the reference, separately judging
different aspects of odor and flavor.
1. Before starting an evaluation: The mouth
is rinsed with lukewarm water.
2. The odor of the reference is judged first,
then the sample, and again the reference.
3. The nature and intensity of any differ-
ences perceived are recorded on the test
form supplied.
4. The flavor of the reference is tested, then
the sample, and again the reference, rins-
ing the mouth with lukewarm water each
time before tasting. The sample is then
spit out, after swirling in the mouth for
5-10 seconds to evaluate and memorize
the different flavor aspects.
32
CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
5. The nature and intensity of any differ-
ences perceived are noted on the test
form.
RESULTS
The panel members’ evaluation forms are
collected; the members are interviewed
further if necessary, and the forms are
interpreted to obtain an overall impression
of the differences against the reference.
The overall impression is reported, if pos-
sible, in a numerical way for purposes of
historical comparison.
REMARKS
Reference samples should be carefully
selected, kept under cool (15° C/59° F),
dark, and dry (relative humidity below
50%) storage conditions and not be more
than six months old.
REFERENCE
ICA method 6/1963 (formerly 2/1963).
Determination of fat content
DEFINITION
The fat content of cocoa liquor and cocoa
powder according to the Soxhlet extraction
method is the percentage by mass of fat
and other components extractable with
petroleum ether (p.e.).
EQUIPMENT/MATERIALS
Soxhlet extractors, siphon capacity •
about 100 ml, NS 29 at the bottom and
NS 45 at the top
condensors, Dimroth with NS 45 and •
Call2- tube
Erlenmeyer flasks, 250 ml with NS 29 •
hot plate for flasks (fire-safe) •
desiccator with desiccant •
vacuum drying oven set at •
80° C/176° F
defatted glass beads, extraction •
thimbles, round filters (Ø 15 cm) cotton
wool and boiling stones (see Remark 1)
residue-free petroleum ether (p.e.), bp. •
40°-60° C/104-140° F (see Remark 1)
analytical balance, 0.1 mg accuracy •
sand, acid-washed at 60° C (140° F) •
glass stirring rod, length 10 cm •
PROCEDURE
1. Place a dry and clean Erlenmeyer flask
with a few boiling stones for 30 min-
utes in the drying oven.
2. Let the flask cool in the desiccator for
30 minutes.
3. Weigh the tare weight of the flask to
the nearest 0.1 mg (M
1
in g).
4. Weigh approx. 5 g of cocoa powder to
the nearest 1 mg (M
2
in g), and transfer
the powder into an extraction thimble
weighted down with glass beads in
which a round filter has been folded to
form a bag inside the thimble wall (see
Remark 2), or
5. Bring about 10 g of sand into an extrac-
tion thimble with a stirring rod; weigh
approx. 3 g of well-mixed liquid cocoa
liquor to the nearest mg (M
2
in g) into
the thimble, and mix the liquor and
sand homogeneously with the stirring
rod.
6. Fill the thimble with a solid wad of
cotton wool and place the thimble in
the Soxhlet extractor. Add about 50 ml
of p.e. to the tared Erlenmeyer flask,
and connect this flask to the extractor.
7. Add slowly more p.e. (about 100 ml) to
the extractor until the solvent starts to
siphon (see Remark 3).
8. Connect the condenser to the extractor,
and place the assembly on the heating
plate.
9. Extract the powder/liquor plus sand
in the thimble for at least eight hours
with 10-15 siphonings per hour (see
Remark 4).
10. Disconnect the Erlenmeyer flask and
distill off the p.e.
11. Dry the flask with the residue under
vacuum in the drying oven at 80° C
(176° F), for the first 15 minutes at
33
CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
400 mm Hg, followed by one hour at
less than 10 mm Hg.
12. Cool the flask in the desiccator for 30
minutes and weigh the flask.
13. Repeat the drying, cooling, and weigh-
ing until the difference between two
successive weighings is less than 1 mg
(M
3
in g).
RESULTS
1. Calculation
The fat content of the cocoa liquor/powder
sample is:
M
3
–M
1
× 100% (m/m)
M
2
Where:
M
1
= mass in g of Erlenmeyer flask (tare)
M
2
= mass in g of the cocoa liquor/ powder
sample
M
3
= mass in g of the Erlenmeyer flask with
residue
The result should be expressed to two
decimal places.
2. Repeatability
The difference between the results of two
independent determinations should not
exceed 2% of the fat content (0.2% with 10%
fat, 0.4% with 22% fat, and 1.1% with 55%
fat).
REMARKS
1. Materials and solvent have to be residue
free; a complete blank extraction without
cocoa liquor/powder should be per-
formed regularly, and the residue should
be less than 2.5 mg (0.05% fat in the
sample); when the residue is larger than
2.5 mg, the cause of this increase should
be investigated. The p.e. should have an
evaporation residue of less than 1 mg per
150 ml.
2. The round filter folded to the shape of
a bag around a clean rod permits the
repeated use of the extraction thimble. It
also prevents very small particles from
passing through the thimble into the
flask and adding to the residue.
3. During extraction the quantity of solvent
in the flask should always be at least
50 ml.
4. For the complete extraction of the fat, at
least 80 siphonings are needed, each of
them effectively emptying the extractor.
Completeness of the extraction can be
checked by an additional extraction with
fresh solvent in a new flask; after two
to three hours or 20-40 siphonings the
residue after evaporation and drying
should be less than 1 mg.
REFERENCE
ICA method 37/1990 (formerly 115/1990).
Determination of pH
DEFINITION
The pH of cocoa liquor and cocoa powder
is the pH (negative logarithm of the hydro-
gen ion concentration) of a suspension
of these products in water, prepared and
measured according to this method.
EQUIPMENT/MATERIALS
pH meters with combined glass •
electrodes readable to 0.01 pH unit
thermometer, 0°-100° C (32-212° F) •
with 1° C graduation
buffer solutions of pH 4.00, 7.00, and •
9.00
distilled or demineralized water, •
carbon dioxide free on hot plate
glass beakers (150 ml) and measuring •
cylinder (100 ml)
balance, 0.01 g accuracy •
PROCEDURE
1. Calibrate one pH meter at 20° C (68° F)
using buffers of pH 4.00 and 7.00 and
another pH meter at 20° C (68° F) using
buffers of pH 7.00 and 9.00.
2. Weigh 10.00 g cocoa powder to the near-
est 0.01 g into a 150 ml glass beaker.
34
CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
3. Slowly add, while stirring, 90 ml of boil-
ing hot distilled (or demineralized) water
with a measuring cylinder.
4. Leave to cool to 20°-25° C (68-77° F), e.g.
in a cold water bath, stirring occasionally.
5. Measure the pH with both pH meters,
and use the pH reading nearest to the
buffer range.
RESULTS
The results should be expressed to two
decimal places. The difference between the
results of two independent determinations
should not exceed 0.1 pH unit.
REFERENCE
ICA method 15/1972 (formerly 9/1972).
Determination of sieve residue
DEFINITION
1. The “wet” sieve residue (or “coarseness”)
of cocoa liquor and cocoa powder is
defined as the mass percentage of the
product that does not pass a plate sieve
with apertures of 75μm × 75μm accor-
ding to this method.
2. The fineness of cocoa liquor and cocoa
powder is expressed as 100% minus the
% sieve residue (the fraction remaining
on the sieve).
EQUIPMENT/MATERIALS
plate sieves with apertures of 75μm × •
75μm ± 2μm (200 mesh), diameter 6
cm, height 7 cm, open area 25-40% (see
Remark 1)
drying oven, well ventilated, set at •
103°-105° C (217-221° F)
desiccator with desiccant •
glass beakers (400 ml), glass stirring •
rod, mechanical stirrer
watch glasses, diameter about 8 cm •
squeeze bottles of 500 ml (for hot •
water) and 250 ml (for acetone)
graduated cylinders of 25 ml and •
250 ml
analytical balance (accuracy 0.1 mg) •
and weighing balance (accuracy 0.01 g)
hot water 75° C (167° F) ±5° and •
acetone (water free)
detergent (surface active •
agent— concentrated)
PROCEDURE
1. Weigh a dried, clean sieve (75μm) on
a dry watch glass to the nearest 0.1 mg
(M
1
in g).
2. Weigh approx. 10 g of well-mixed
cocoa liquor or cocoa powder to the
nearest 0.1 g in a glass beaker (M
2
in g).
3. Add with cocoa liquor 2 g of detergent
or with cocoa powder 1 g of detergent.
4. Add 20 ml hot water (see Remark 2),
stir the mixture with a stirring rod
until all lumps have disappeared.
5. Add 280 ml of hot water and stir
mechanically for 2 minutes without
producing a vortex and with the pro-
peller near the bottom of the beaker.
6. Pour the hot suspension slowly
through the sieve, meanwhile moving
and swirling the sieve in a circular
manner over the sink (see Remark 3).
7. Rinse the beaker, stirrer, and rod into
the sieve, and rinse the sieve with
up to 1.5 l of hot water until no more
particles pass the sieve.
8. Rinse the sieve and residue with
15-25 ml of acetone to remove water
and fat residues.
9. Place the sieve on the watch glass in
the oven for 45 minutes (see Remark 4),
cool the sieve and glass in the desicca-
tor for 45 minutes.
10. Weigh the sieve and residue and watch
glass to the nearest 0.1 mg (M
3
in g).
RESULTS
1. Calculation
The “wet” sieve residue (or “coarseness”)
of the cocoa liquor or the cocoa powder
sample is:
M
2
–M
3
× 100% (m/m)
M
2
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CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
Where:
M
1
= mass in g of the dried sieve + watch
glass
M
2
= mass in g of the sample
M
3
= mass in g of the dried sieve + residue
+ watch glass
The result should be expressed to two
decimal places.
The fineness percentage is:
{ 1–M
3
–M
2
}
× 100% (m/m)
M
1
2. Repeatability
The difference between the results of two
independent determinations should not
exceed 0.04% on a 75μm sieve.
REMARKS
1. Plate sieves are very delicate; they may
not be touched, not even with a brush.
Dirty sieves can be cleaned with a deter-
gent solution in an ultrasonic bath. Sieves
should be inspected regularly for dam-
age with a magnifying glass.
2. The detergent dissolves the fat of the
cocoa liquor or the cocoa powder.
3. When the sieve becomes clogged, tap the
side of the sieve gently.
4. The watch glass collects cocoa particles
passing through the sieve on drying,
cooling, and weighing.
REFERENCES
ICA method 38/1990 (formerly 116/1990).
Determination of moisture
content
DEFINITION
The moisture content of cocoa liquor or
cocoa powder is the percentage of mass lost
drying for 4 hours at 105° C (221° F).
EQUIPMENT/MATERIALS
drying oven, well ventilated, set at •
103°-105° C (217-221° F)
desiccator with desiccant •
glass weighing flask for cocoa powder, •
always with ground glass stopper,
Ø 50 mm (see Remark 1)
alumina weighing dish with lid for •
cocoa liquor, Ø 70 mm
glass stirring rod, length 10 cm •
sand, ashed at 600° C (1112° F) •
ethanol p.a. •
analytical balance, accuracy 1 mg •
PROCEDURE
1. Dry a clean and empty weighing dish or
flask with stopper side by side in the dry-
ing oven for 60 minutes at 103°-105° C
(217-221° F) 2. Let the dish/flask cool in
the desiccator for 30 minutes.
3. Weigh the tare weight of the dish/flask
to the nearest 1 mg (M
1
in g).
4. Weigh to the nearest 1 mg approx. 5 g of
well-mixed cocoa powder into the tared
flask (M
2
in g) (see Remark 2), or
5. Add approx. 20 g of sand into the alu-
mina dish with lid and weigh the tare
weight of the dish plus sand to the near-
est 1 mg (M
1
in g).
6. Weigh to the nearest 1 mg, 5 g of well-
mixed liquid cocoa liquor into the tared
dish (M
2
in g); saturate the sand with
ethanol, and mix the sand homogeneous-
ly with the liquor using a stirring rod.
7. Dry the dish/flask with stopper beside it
in the oven for four hours at 103°-105° C
(217-221° F). Then remove and place the
stopper on the dish/flask (see Remark 3).
8. Let cool and weigh as described above
(M
3
in g).
RESULTS
1. Calculation
The moisture content of the sample is:
M
2
–M
3
× 100% (m/m)
M
2
–M
1
Where:
M
1
= mass in g of the empty stoppered
dish/flask (tare)
36
CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
M
2
= mass in g of the stoppered dish/flask
with sample
M
3
= mass in g of the stoppered dish/flask
with dried sample
The result should be expressed to one
decimal place.
2. Repeatability
The difference between the results of two
independent determinations should not
exceed 0.2%.
REMARKS
1. The flask should always be weighed
with the stopper (on or beside it) and
only after conditioning in the desiccator.
With more than four flasks, the cooling
time should be 45 minutes instead of 30
minutes. The correct weighing practices
have to be adhered to.
2. Cocoa powder is very hygroscopic; the
lab sample has to be stored in an airand
moisture-tight container, and the sample
transfer has to be carried out rapidly and
carefully.
3. Drying should last exactly four hours,
and the oven should not be opened dur-
ing this period.
REFERENCE
ICA method 1/1952 (formerly 3/1952).
4. Cocoa powder
Visual color evaluation
DEFINITION
The color of cocoa powder can be evalu-
ated as such (the dry or extrinsic color) or
as suspension in milk or water (the intrinsic
color) against reference and other samples,
using the methods below.
EQUIPMENT/MATERIALS
beakers, 100 ml and 150 ml, glass •
spoon •
stirring rod, length approx. 15 cm •
grease-proof paper sheets, 20 × 12 cm •
pasteurized milk •
color evaluation flasks of colorless, •
clear glass with flat sides and screw
tops, 45 ml
color evaluation cabinet with standard •
light, with daylight lamp of 6500° K
(see Remark 3)
hot plates •
balance, 0.001 g accuracy •
PROCEDURE
1. Dry (extrinsic) color
1. Place approx. 0.5 g of the cocoa pow-
der on the table surface of the cabinet.
2. Place one or more reference cocoa
powder(s) in a similar way beside or
around the sample to be evaluated.
3. Put a grease-proof paper over the
samples and flatten them by gently
stroking the sheet with a flat hand until
they touch each other.
4. Remove the sheet carefully.
5. Evaluate the color difference(s) with
two or more persons (see Remarks 1
and 2).
2. Color (intrinsic) in milk
1. Weigh 1.20 g of cocoa powder to be
evaluated in a 100 ml beaker to the
nearest 0.01 g.
2. Add 5 ml of pasteurized milk and mix
until a homogeneous paste is achieved.
3. Add 45 ml of milk, heated to about
60° C (140° F).
4. Stir thoroughly and fill a color evalua-
tion flask with the suspension.
5. Repeat the above steps twice using the
reference cocoa powder, filling two
flasks with the suspension.
6. Close the three flasks properly and
shake them prior to the evaluation (see
Remark 4).
7. Place the suspension to be evaluated
between the reference suspensions.
8. Evaluate the color under standard light
conditions in the cabinet with two or
more persons (see Remarks 1 and 2).
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CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
3. Color (intrinsic) in water
1. Weigh 1.20 g of the cocoa powder to
be evaluated in a 150 ml beaker to the
nearest 0.01 g.
2. Add 100 ml of water and bring it to a
boil on a hot plate.
3. Allow to boil for a moment, stirring the
suspension with a stirring rod.
4. Fill one color evaluation flask with the
suspension.
5. Repeat the above steps twice, using the
reference cocoa powder, and fill two
flasks with the suspension.
6. Close the three flasks properly and
shake them prior to the evaluation.
7. Place the suspension to be evaluated
between the reference suspensions.
8. Evaluate the color under standard light
conditions in the cabinet with two or
more persons (see Remarks 1 and 2).
REMARKS
1. The visual evaluation of the color should
be carried out by people who have suc-
cessfully passed an eye test (e.g. the S.
Ishihara test).
2. There should be unanimity about the
terminology used for the evaluation
of the colors: expressions such as “too
light,” “too dark,” “redder,” “greyer,”
etc. should have the same meaning for all
evaluators.
3. The lamps of the color evaluation cabinet
should be replaced regularly to ensure
the consistency of the standard light
conditions.
4. To prevent the rapid sedimentation of
the suspension, the following modifica-
tions can be used:
- Weigh 1.20 g of cocoa powder, 20 g of
sugar, and 0.035 g of the gelling agent
carrageenan E407 in a 100 ml beaker.
- Add 10 ml of pasteurized milk and stir
the contents to a paste with a stirring
rod.
- Add 40 ml of pasteurized milk heated
to approx. 60° C (140° F).
- Proceed as described in 2. Color
(intrinsic) in milk.
Instrumental color evaluation
DEFINITION
The instrumental color evaluation of cocoa
powder as such or as a slurry in water is
expressed in L*-, C*-, and h-values mea-
sured with a color meter.
The L*-, a*-, and b*-values are calculated
from the CIE X-, Y-, and Z-values using
the CIE 1976 equations. C*- and h-values
are calculated from the a*- and b*-values
according to the following:
C*=Ï(a*
2
+b*
2
)
h = arcig (b*/a*)
L* value – the lightness/darkness coor-
dinate; a low value indicates a
dark color, a high value indi-
cates a light color
a* value – the red/green coordinate,
with +a* indicating red and
–a* indicating green
b* value – the yellow/blue coordinate,
with +b* indicating yellow and
–b* indicating blue
C* value – the chroma coordinate, indicat-
ing brightness; a higher value
indicates a brighter color
h value – the hue angle; a lower value
indicates more redness, a
higher value indicates more
yellowness
EQUIPMENT / MATERIALS
Datacolor Spectraflash SF 450 × color •
spectrophotometer (or equivalent)
measuring geometrics d/8 - -
specular excluded -
illuminant D65 -
observer angle 10° •
quartz cuvette •
tubing pump system •
magnetic stirrer •
beakers, 400 ml, glass •
38
CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
balance, 0.1 g accuracy •
demineralized water •
PROCEDURE
1. Dry (extrinsic) color
1. Fill a cuvette 3/4 full with the cocoa
powder sample and tamp the powder
down carefully.
2. Then add cocoa powder until it is
heaped above the rim.
3. Level the powder evenly by using
the edge of a spatula with tapping
movements.
4. Remove the surplus powder carefully
with the spatula to produce a flat sur-
face in line with the rim (see Remarks).
5. Place the cuvette carefully against the
illuminated window of the calibrated
meter.
6. Read and record the L*-, C*-, and
h-values.
7. Compare the values found with those
of a standard sample.
2. Intrinsic color measurement
1. Weigh 7.5 ± 0.05 g of cocoa powder in a
400 ml beaker.
2. Add 100 ml demineralized water of
50° C (122° F) and stir with a stirring
rod until a smooth slurry is obtained
without lumps.
3. Continue stirring using a magnetic
stirrer for 10 minutes.
4. Add 50 ml demineralized water at
room temperature.
5. Continue stirring for at least 1 minute.
6. Pump the suspension through the
quartz flow cuvette, while stirring.
7. Read and record the L*-, C*-, and
h-values with a calibrated color
spectrophotometer.
REMARKS
The flow rate during pumping of the
water/cocoa powder suspension should
be so that settlement of cocoa particles is
prevented. If the cocoa powder is lumpy,
the surface will be irregular when evaluat-
ing the dry color. It is then advisable to
sieve the cocoa powder through a 500μm
sieve and carefully break down the lumps.
Mix the powder thoroughly.
REFERENCES
1. Schulze: “Farbelehre und
Farbemessung,” 1966 (Springer-Verlag,
Berlin).
2. Clydesdale: “The measurement of color,”
Food Technology 23 (1969), 16-22.
3. CIE, 1978: “International Commission
of Illumination. Recommendations on
uniform colour spaces, colour difference
equations, psychometric colour terms.”
(Bureau Central de la CIE, Paris).
4. Instruction manual: Datacolor
Spectraflash SF 450 × Colour
spectrophotometer.
5. DataFacts Technical bulletin nr. 004-96
from Datacolor International.
5. Cocoa butter
Refractive index
DEFINITION
This method describes the determination
of the refractive index of cocoa butter.
The refractive index is expressed as nD
(40° C/104° F).
EQUIPMENT / MATERIALS
water bath, thermostatically controlled •
at 40° C (104° F) ± 0.5° and with a
circulation pump
refractometer, e.g. Abbe type, con- •
nected to the water bath
light source (sodium vapor light) •
PROCEDURE
1. Bring the prisms of the refractometer to
40° C (104° F) by connecting the refracto-
meter to a water bath.
2. Place a drop of clear, filtered cocoa butter
on the surface of the prisms and close the
prisms.
39
CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
3. Wait a few seconds to allow the butter to
obtain the temperature of the prisms.
4. Adjust the refractometer in such a way
that a clear contrast line can be read
where it crosses the scale.
5. Read the refractometer at the nearest
0.0001.
REMARKS
The prisms should be handled with care.
REFERENCES
1. IUPAC Standard Methods of the
Analysis of Oils, Fats and Derivatives,
6th Edition, Method 2.102.
2. ISO 6320:1995 - Animal and Vegetable
Fats and Oils - Determination of
Refractive Index.
Melting point
DEFINITION
This method describes the determination
of the melting point of cocoa butter. The
melting point is expressed as Slip Point (the
butter starts to melt) and/or as Clear Point
(the butter is fully liquid/molten).
EQUIPMENT / MATERIALS
magnetic stirrer with hot plate •
stirring bars •
exterior water bath •
inner water bath •
plate with two holes: one for fixation of •
the inner water bath
movable rubber ring for adjusting the •
inner water bath
rubber plate to cover the inner bath •
thermometer, range 0°-50° C (32- •
122° F), graduation of 0.1°
U-tubes for melting point according to •
H. Fincke
thermometer for exterior water bath, •
graduation of 0.5°
water baths thermostatically controlled •
at 25° C (77° F) and 32°-33° C (90-91° F)
PROCEDURE
1. Pretreatment of cocoa butter
1. Heat >50 g of cocoa butter to 50°-60° C
(122-140° F), and filter through a fluted
filter, Whatman no. 3, Ø 15 cm.
2. Pour 50 g of this filtered butter into a
glass beaker of 100 ml and immerse
the glass beaker in a water bath, which
is thermostatically controlled at 25° C
(77° F).
3. Cool the butter while constantly
stirring until it assumes a pasty
consistency.
4. Prevent the inclusion of air bubbles.
5. Subsequently, immerse the glass
beaker into a water bath that is ther-
mostatically controlled at 32°-33° C
(90-91° F). Continue to stir until the
butter has come to the same tempera-
ture. This takes about 30 minutes.
6. Pour the cocoa butter into a metal
tray and allow to stand for at least
two hours at room temperature (20°-
22° C/68-72° F). Note: Seeding crystals
(grated cocoa butter) should in no case
be added.
2. The melting point of cocoa butter
1. Press a 1 cm column of pretreated
cocoa butter into the longer side of the
U-tube.
2. Use a very fine metal rod to push the
column of cocoa butter down to 1 cm
before the bend of the tube.
3. Fix the shorter side to the thermometer
(0°-50° C/32-122° F) by means of the
rubber ring, and make sure that the
bend of the tube is on the same level as
the bulb of the thermometer.
4. Introduce the thermometer with the
U-tube into the inner water bath of the
melting point equipment. The water
level of the inner water bath has to be
1 cm below the level of the exterior
water bath, which has a level of about
9.5 cm high.
5. Slowly heat the exterior water bath
while constantly stirring by means
40
CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
of the magnetic stirrer. Up to 30° C
(86° F), the maximum increase in tem-
perature of the inner water bath may
be 1° per minute. Over 30° C (86° F),
the increase in temperature may not
exceed 0.2° per minute.
6. Read the temperature when the col-
umn of solid cocoa butter moves (slips)
down; this is the Slip Point.
7. Read also the temperature when the
column of cocoa butter is completely
molten (clear); this is the Clear Point.
8. Give the temperature of both the Slip
Point and the Clear Point in °C (or °F)
and to one decimal place.
REFERENCES
1. ISO 6321: Animal and Vegetable Fats -
Determination of Melting Point in Open
Capillary Tubes (Slip Point).
2. ICA Method 4/1962: Determination of
the Melting Point of Cocoa Butter (for-
merly 8b/1962).
Lovibond color
DEFINITION
This method describes the determination
of the color of liquid cocoa butter with the
Lovibond Tintometer and Yellow, Red, and
Blue color glasses.
EQUIPMENT / MATERIALS
Lovibond Tintometer, type 1A with •
two identical lamps of 60W (to be
replaced after 100 burning hours or
after three years)
magnesium carbonate blocks as stan- •
dard white (clean surface by rubbing
the cubes together)
1-inch glass cuvette for the Tintometer •
set of Yellow, Red, and Blue Lovibond •
color glasses (clean regularly with lens
paper)
neutrally hued filter (Grey) •
PROCEDURE
1. Switch the lamps on and fill a 1-inch
cuvette with clear-filtered cocoa butter of
approx. 40° C (104° F).
2. Place the cuvette against the opening at
the rear side of the color compartment
in the Tintometer, covering the entire
opening.
3. Compare the color of the cocoa butter
with Lovibond color glasses: start with
40.0 Yellow and add Red (units and
tenths) and, if necessary, Blue until the
combination of color glasses matches the
color of the cocoa butter.
4. If a color cannot be matched by means of
the color glasses, then use the neutrally
hued filter (Grey).
5. The color is expressed in a sum of units
and tenths used from the Yellow, Red,
and Blue color glasses.
REFERENCES
ISO 15305: Animal and Vegetable Fats and
Oils - Determination of Color - Tintometer
Method.
Extinction values
DEFINITION
This method describes the determination of
the extinction values of cocoa butter before
and after washing with alkali.
PRINCIPLE
The cocoa butter extinction values are
indicative of the degree of contamination
and aging of cocoa butter. During oxidation
of cocoa butter, products such as conju-
gated dienes and diketones are formed.
Measurement of the absorbance of dienes
can take place at around 232 nm and that
of diketones can be measured at 268 nm.
The absorbance of conjugated trienes can
be measured at approx. 270 nm. Pure prime
pressed cocoa butter is containing very
low amounts of dienes (extinction max
0.5) and trienes (extinction max 0.14). Any
higher extinction value could, for example,
41
CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
be an indication of a blend with refined
cocoa butter or expeller butter. If at approx.
270 nm several peaks are observed, this
would mean that the cocoa butter has been
treated with bleaching earth.
EQUIPMENT / MATERIALS
cyclohexane (for spectroscopy) •
diethyl ether (p.a.) •
potassium hydroxide solution (4 N) •
sodium sulfate (anhydrous) •
pipette (5 ml) •
graduated measuring cylinder •
separating funnels (100 ml) •
Erlenmeyer flasks (25 ml with ground- •
glass stopper)
fluted filters (Ø 7 cm, e.g. S&S no. 597) •
water bath •
pH-indicator paper •
quartz-cells (1 cm) •
UV spectrophotometer •
glass beakers •
PROCEDURE
Measurement of the extinction values:
1. Weigh 0.1 g cocoa butter to the nearest
0.1 mg into a 25 ml Erlenmeyer flask
(weight: g in g).
2. Add 5 ml of cyclohexane by means of a
pipette and mix.
3. Fill a 1 cm quartz-cell and scan
the UV spectrum between 220 nm
and 290 nm by means of the UV
spectrophotometer.
4. Use cyclohexane as blank (reference).
5. Register the UV curve by means of a
recorder.
6. Read the extinction values at 270 nm
and 325 nm.
Alkali washing and measurement of the extinc-
tion values:
1. Weigh about 2 g of cocoa butter into a
100 ml glass beaker.
2. Add 5 ml of diethyl ether and mix.
3. Pour the solution into a separating
funnel of 100 ml.
4. Rinse the glass beaker with 5 ml of
diethyl ether and pour into the separat-
ing funnel.
5. Add 3 ml of potassium hydroxide
(4 N) and shake for 2 minutes.
6. Draw off the alkali layer and thorough-
ly wash out the ether layer by means of
3 ml of distilled water.
7. Continue to wash out (five times on
average) until the water layer has
become alkali free.
8. Check by means of the indicator paper.
9. Add 5 ml of diethyl ether and draw off
the solution into a 25 ml Erlenmeyer
flask with stopper.
10. Add about 2 g of anhydrous sodium
sulfate and allow to dry for about one
hour.
11. Filter through a fluted filter (Ø 7 cm)
into a glass beaker of 25 ml and com-
pletely evaporate the ether on a water
bath.
12. Proceed by carrying out steps 1-6 as
described in “Measurement of the
extinction values.”
CALCULATION
Calculate the extinction values with the
following formulas:
E270 = Ext at 270 nm
20 x G
E325 = Ext at 325 nm
20 x G
Express the extinction values with two
decimal places.
REFERENCES
1. ICA method 18 and 19, 1973:
UV Extinction Values for Cocoa Butter
(formerly 8d + 8c/1973).
2. ISO 3656: Animal and Vegetable Fats and
Oils - Determination of UV Absorbance.
42
CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
Saponification value
DEFINITION
This method describes the determination
of the saponification value (S.V.) of cocoa
butter. The S.V. is the number of mg of
potassium hydroxide required to saponify
1 g of fat.
EQUIPMENT/MATERIALS
0.5 N KOH in ethanol (clear, color less •
solution, stored in a brown glass bottle
with a rubber or Teflon stopper)
0.5 N hydrochloric acid (accurately •
standardized)
phenolphthalein, 1% w/v solution in •
95% ethanol
Erlenmeyer flask, NS 29 •
spiral reflux condenser NS 29 •
volumetric pipette •
boiling stones chips •
hot plate •
PROCEDURE
1. Weigh about 2 g of cocoa butter to
the nearest 1 mg into a 200 ml (NS 29)
Erlenmeyer flask.
2. Add 25.0 ml of ethanolic KOH solution
by means of a pipette.
3. Add some boiling stones and attach the
reflux condenser to the Erlenmeyer flask.
4. Place the flask on the hot plate and
gently boil for 60 minutes.
5. Add 1 ml of phenolphthalein to the
hot soap solution and titrate with 0.5 N
hydrochloric acid until the color changes
to colorless (V
1
in ml).
6. At the same time, carry out a blank
(without cocoa butter) determination (V
2

in ml).
7. Calculate the saponification value with
the following formula:
56.1 × N (V
2
– V
1
)
G
Where:
N = normality (0.5 N) hydrochloric acid
V
1
= ml hydrochloric acid (0.5 N)
determination
V
2
= ml hydrochloric acid (0.5 N) of the
blank
G = cocoa butter weight in g.
Express the result with one decimal place.
REFERENCES
IUPAC Standard Methods for the Analysis
of Oils, Fats, and Derivatives, 6th Edition,
Method 2.202.
Iodine value by Wijs method
DEFINITION
This method describes the determination
of the iodine value (I.V.) of cocoa butter
by the Wijs method. The I.V. of a fat is the
number of grams of halogen absorbed by
100 g of fat and expressed as the weight of
iodine. The I.V. is a measure of the degree
of unsaturation of fat.
EQUIPMENT / MATERIALS
equipment has to be clean and dry •
Erlenmeyer flasks of 300-500 ml with •
NS29 and ground stoppers •
burette, graduated in 0.1 ml •
pipette, 25 ml •
demineralized water •
N sodium thiosulfate solution •
(standardized)
Wijs solution 0.2 N •
glacial acetic acid/cyclohexane solu- •
tion, ratio 1:1
potassium iodide (KI) solution in •
water, free from iodine or iodate
starch solution in water •
reference sample of cocoa butter •
PROCEDURE
1. Weigh 0.32-0.38 g of the cocoa butter
to be analyzed to the nearest 1 mg into
an Erlenmeyer flask; weigh also 0.32-
0.38 g of the reference sample into an
Erlenmeyer flask (m in g).
43
CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
2. Dose 15 ml of the glacial acetic acid/
cyclohexane solution into the flasks,
stopper the flasks, and dissolve the cocoa
butter.
3. Pipette 25.0 ml of 0.2 N Wijs solution into
the flasks, stopper, and mix carefully.
4. Place the flasks in the dark for at least
one hour but not more than 1.5 hours
(exclusion of daylight is essential).
5. Add after this time 20 ml of KI solution
and 150 ml of demineralized water.
6. Titrate the free iodine in the contents of
the flasks with the sodium thiosulfate
solution (Normality T) from the 50 ml
burette; add 5 ml of starch solution
(indicator) at the end of the titration and
continue the titration under vigorous
shaking till the blue color just disappears
(V
2
in ml).
7. Carry out a blank test simultaneously
under the same conditions and without
cocoa butter (V
1
in ml).
EXPRESSION OF RESULTS
Calculate the I.V. with the formula:
I.V. = 12.69 × T × (V
2
– V
1
)
m
Where:
V
1
= ml of standardized sodium thio-
sulfate solution used for the blank
determination
V
2
= ml of standardized sodium thiosulfate
solution used for the cocoa butter
samples
T = the exact Normality of the sodium
thiosulfate solution used
m = the mass, in g, of the cocoa butter
samples
REMARKS
Determination of the I.V. by an automatic
titration often gives better reproducibility
and repeatability than manual titration.
The reference sample is used to check the
performance of the methodology.
REFERENCES
1. IUPAC Standard Methods for the
Analysis of Oils, Fats, and Derivatives,
6th Edition, Method 2.205.
2. ISO 3961 - 1996: Animal and Vegetable
Fats and Oils - Determination of Iodine
Value.
Unsaponifiable matter
DEFINITION
This method describes the determination
of the % of unsaponifiable matter of cocoa
butter.
PRINCIPLE
The unsaponifiable matter is that part of
the cocoa butter which, after saponification,
is still soluble in a non-polar solvent. The
unsaponifiable matter consists of lipids of
natural origin present in press butter, such
as sterols, alcohols, and hydrocarbons.
The % of these substances is <0.3% in
pure prime press cocoa butter . When the
unsaponifiable matter is >0.3%, the but-
ter is contaminated with nonvolatile (at
103° C/217° F) organic matter foreign to
press butter (for example mineral oils or
shell fat).
EQUIPMENT/MATERIALS
KOH p.a. •
petrol ether (p.e.) b.p. 40°-60° C (104- •
140° F), p.a. (free from residue)
ethanol 96% •
ethanol/water mixture 1:1 (v/v) •
Erlenmeyer flask of 200 ml NS 29 with •
reflux condenser
Erlenmeyer flask of 100 ml •
separating funnel 500 ml •
oven 103° C/217° F (± 3°) •
heating bath—fireproof and spark-free •
desiccator with blue silica gel •
fume cupboard •
phenolphthalein solution, 1% (w/v) in •
ethanol
44
CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
PROCEDURE
1. Weigh approx. 5 g of cocoa butter to
the nearest 10 mg into an Erlenmeyer
flask of 200 ml (NS29) (G
1
in g).
2. Add approx. 5.5 g of potassium
hydroxide and 50 ml of ethanol.
3. Attach the Erlenmeyer flask to a reflux
condenser and boil gently in a heating
bath for one hour.
4. Add 50 ml of distilled water through
the top of the condenser.
5. Mix and cool down.
6. Transfer the contents of the flask into a
separating funnel of 500 ml.
7. Rinse the flask several times with a
total of 50 ml of p.e.
8. Transfer these p.e. rinsings into the
separating funnel.
9. Shake the separating funnel vigorously
for 1 minute.
10. Allow to stand until there is complete
separation of the two phases.
11. Draw off the soap solution (the lower
layer) into a second separating funnel
of 500 ml.
12. Add small amounts of ethanol (96%)
or concentrated potassium hydroxide
solution if an emulsion has formed that
must be broken.
13. Extract the soap solution twice more,
each time with 50 ml of p.e.
14. Draw off the soap solution into the
original Erlenmeyer flask.
15. Collect the three p.e. layers in the first
separating funnel.
16. Wash out the p.e. at least three
times, each time with 50 ml of the
ethanol/water mixture (1:1), until the
ethanol/water mixture reacts neutral.
Check this by means of a drop of
phenolphthalein.
17. Transfer part of the p.e. into an
Erlenmeyer flask of 100 ml with boil-
ing stones. The flask must previously
be dried and tare weighed to the near-
est 0.1 mg (G2
in g).
18. Evaporate the p.e. on the heating bath
in the fume cupboard.
19. Transfer the remainder of the p.e.
quantitatively into the Erlenmeyer
flask and rinse the separating funnel
with small amounts of p.e.
20. Evaporate the p.e. completely in the
heating bath.
21. Dry 100 ml flask with residue in an
oven at 103° C (217° F) for 15 minutes,
placing the flask in a horizontal
position.
22. Cool in a desiccator for approx. 30 min-
utes and weigh the flask to the nearest
0.1 mg.
23. Repeat the drying for successive
15 minute periods until the weight loss
between two successive weighings is
less than 2.0 mg (G
3
in g).
24. Calculate the % of unsaponifiable
matter with the following formula:
% unsaponifiable matter = 100 (G
3
-G
2
) / G
1

REFERENCES
1. IUPAC Standards Methods for the
Analysis of Oils, Fats, and Derivatives,
6th Edition, Method 2.401.
2. ISO 3596-2: Animal and Vegetable
Fats and Oils - Determination of
Unsaponifiable Matter, part 2: rapid
method using hexane extraction.
3. ICA method 23/1988: Determination of
Unsaponifiable Matter in Cocoa Butter
(formerly 102/1988).
Blue value
DEFINITION
This method describes the quantitative
determination of the blue value (B.V.) of
cocoa butter; a B.V. of >0.05 is indicative of
a too high % of shell in the nibs from which
the cocoa butter is obtained.
PRINCIPLE
The B.V. of cocoa butter is the extinction
of a blue-colored solution that is formed
after oxidation of the reaction product of
behenic acid tryptamide with p-dimethyl
45
CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
aminobenzaldehyde. The reaction takes
place under acid conditions. Behenic acid
tryptamide is only found in the shell of
cocoa beans.
EQUIPMENT / MATERIALS
carbon tetrachloride (p.a.) •
p-dimethyl aminobenzaldehyde (p.a.) •
hydrochloric acid (32% p.a.) •
hydrogen peroxide (30% p.a.) •
pentanol-2 (p.a.) •
demineralized water •
volumetric flasks (10 ml) •
water bath (40° C/104° F ±1°) •
spectrophotometer •
cuvette (3 cm) •
graduated pipette (1 ml) •
PROCEDURE
1. Dissolve 0.2 g of p-dimethyl amin-
obenzaldehyde in 20 ml of carbon
tetrachloride (1% solution).
2. Add 1 ml of hydrogen peroxide (30%)
to 60 ml of demineralized water (0.5%
solution).
3. Weigh approx. 0.2 g of liquid cocoa
butter to the nearest 0.1 mg in a volu-
metric flask of 10 ml (G in g).
4. Add 1 ml of carbon tetrachloride, dis-
solve the cocoa butter, and successively
add 0.5 ml of p-dimethyl aminobenz-
aldehyde solution and 0.05 ml (1 or 2
drops) of 32% hydrochloric acid.
5. Mix and shake the volumetric flask in
a water bath of 40° C (104° F) conti-
nuously for 5 minutes.
6. Add 0.05 ml (one or two drops) of 0.5%
hydrogen peroxide solution.
7. Heat, under continuous shaking, in the
water bath of 40° C (104° F) for another
3 minutes.
8. Make up the volumetric flask with
pentanol-2 to 10 ml and mix.
9. Also carry out a blank determination
(steps 4-8).
10. Measure the extinction of the pen-
tanol-2 solution in a cuvette of 3 cm
compared to the blank sample (step 9)
at 500, 630, and 680 nm.
11. Calculate the B.V. with the formula:
0.4[E
630
– (E
500
+ E
680
)/2]
3G
Where:
E
500
= measured extinction at 500 nm
E
630
= measured extinction at 630 nm
E
680
= measured extinction at 680 nm
G = weight of the cocoa butter in g
Express the result in two decimal places.
REMARKS
1. If tetrahydrofuran is used instead of
pentanol-2, the extinction must be mea-
sured at 510, 625, and 675 nm. Although
tetrahydrofuran has a higher M.A.C.
value than pentanol-2, the latter is pre-
ferred because of its low vapor pressure.
Both liquids are poisonous.
2. For the B.V., the extinction is converted
into that of a 2% solution (2 g in 100 ml)
measured in a cuvette of 2 cm.
REFERENCES
ICA method 29/1988: Method for
Determination of the “Blue Value”
(formerly 108/1988).
Moisture and volatile matter
DEFINITION
This method describes the determination
of the moisture and volatile matter in
cocoa butter by heating the butter at 125° C
(225° F).
EQUIPMENT / MATERIALS
boiling stones •
glass beaker with flat bottom, 100 ml •
thermometer 100°-150° C (212-302° F) •
hot plate •
balance (accuracy 1 mg) •
watch glass •
46
CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
PROCEDURE
1. Put some boiling stones into a beaker
and, subsequently, add 20 g of butter to
the nearest 1 mg. The weighed amount of
butter is G
1
in g, the weight of the glass
beaker plus butter is G
2
in g.
2. Heat the beaker on a hot plate.
3. During heating, continuously stir the
fat with a thermometer, which has been
weighed together with the beaker glass
and the butter.
4. Raise the temperature to 125° C (225° F)
and keep at this temperature until there
is no vapor escaping anymore.
5. Check this by covering the beaker with
a cold watch glass. The glass may not
steam up.
6. Allow the beaker to cool down and weigh
again to the nearest 1 mg (G
3
in g).
7. Calculate the percentage of water and
other volatile constituents with the
help of the following formula:
(G
2
– G
3
) / G
1
× 100%
Express the value obtained in two decimal
places.
REFERENCES
1. IUPAC Standard Methods for the
Analysis of Oils, Fats, and Derivatives,
6th Edition. Method 2.601.
2. ISO 662 - Animal and Vegetable Fats and
Oils - Determination of Moisture and
Volatile Matter Content.
Peroxide value
DEFINITION
This method describes the determination
of the peroxide value (P.V.) of cocoa butter.
The P.V. of a fat is the number of m.eq of
active oxygen (peroxides) per kg of fat; the
P.V. relates to the oxidative stability (ran-
cidity) of the fat.
EQUIPMENT / MATERIALS
chloroform, p.a. •
glacial acetic acid, p.a. •
saturated KI solution in water •
(140 g/100 ml of water), free of iodine
and iodates
sodium thiosulfate 0.002 N, freshly •
prepared from a 0.1 N stock solution
starch solution 0.5% •
Erlenmeyer flask (200 ml) with NS29 •
and glass stopper, clean and dry
micro-burette according to Bang 5 ml •
with 0.01 ml graduations
PROCEDURE
1. Homogenize the liquid cocoa butter by
stirring without introducing air.
2. Weigh 1.2-2.0 g of cocoa butter to the
nearest 1 mg into an Erlenmeyer flask of
200 ml (weight g in g).
3. Add 10 ml of chloroform and dissolve
the cocoa butter by shaking.
4. Add 15 ml of glacial acetic acid and,
subsequently, 1 ml of KI solution.
5. Shake for 1 minute and allow the
Erlenmeyer flask to stand in the dark at
room temperature for 5 minutes.
6. Add 75 ml of distilled water and 3 ml of
starch solution.
7. Titrate, while shaking vigorously,
the released iodine with the sodium
thiosulfate solution 0.002 N. (V in ml),
Normality thiosulfite = N.
8. At the same time, carry out a blank
determination, during which no iodine
may be released.
9. Calculate the peroxide value with the
formula:
P.V. = (1,000 × V × N) / G
REMARKS
1. It is essential to reduce presence of air
(oxygen) during steps 1-7 of the proce-
dure, so the flask has to be stoppered
as much as possible or nitrogen can be
introduced into the flask regularly. Direct
daylight also must be prevented.
2. The P.V. must be determined as quickly
as possible. If this is not possible, the
47
CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
sample must be stored in a cool and dark
place.
3. The P.V. can be expressed in m.eq as well
as in m.mol or mg of active oxygen per
kg.
Conversion
factors
multiply the
P.V. with
m.eq/kg 1
m.mol/kg (Lea value) 0.5
mg/kg 8
REFERENCES
1. IUPAC Standard Methods for the
Analysis of Oils, Fats, and Derivatives,
6th Edition. Method 2.501.
2. ISO 3960: Animal and Vegetable Fats and
Oils - Determination of Peroxide Value.
Free fatty acid content
DEFINITION
This method describes the determination
of the percentage of free fatty acid (ffa)
of cocoa butter, expressed as % oleic acid
(then also called acidity). The ffa can be
recalculated into Acid Degree (m.eq KOH
required to neutralize 100 g of cocoa butter)
or into Acid Value (mg KOH required to
neutralize the ffa in 1 g of cocoa butter).
EQUIPMENT / MATERIALS
Erlenmeyer flasks of 250 ml •
burette of 25 ml, graduated in 0.1 ml •
ethanol (p.a. 96%) •
diethylether p.a. •
KOH solution in water, approx. 0.1 N. •
accurately standardized •
diethylether-ethanol (3:2) mixture, •
neutralized before use with KOH
solution against phenolphthalein
phenolphthalein solution, 1% in •
ethanol
PROCEDURE
1. Weigh 5-10 g of liquid cocoa butter to the
nearest 1 mg into a 250 ml Erlenmeyer
flask (m in g).
2. Add 50 ml of the diethylether-ethanol
mixture and dissolve the cocoa butter by
swirling.
3. Add a few drops of phenolphthalein
solution and titrate with 0.1 N KOH
(Normality T) to the end point. (The pink
color persists for at least 10 seconds.)
4. Register ml KOH used (V in ml).
RESULTS
The ffa, expressed as oleic acid, is calcu-
lated with the formula:
ffa = 28.2 × T × V / m
Where:
T = the Normality of the standardized
KOH solution
V = ml of the standardized KOH solution
m = the mass (g) of the cocoa butter sample
The Acid Value can be calculated with the
formula:
Acid Value = 56.1 × T × V / m
The Acidity can be calculated with the
formula:
Acidity = 100 × T × V / m
REFERENCES
1. IUPAC Standard Methods for the
Analysis of Oils, Fats, and Derivatives,
6th Edition, Method 2.201.
2. ISO 660 - Animal and Vegetable Fats and
Oils - Determination of Acid Value and
Acidity.
6. Mi crobi ologi cal
Introduction
The microbiological specifications are based
on the IOCCC methodology: method
39/1990 (formerly 118/1990), which is the
48
CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
reference method used for arbitration and
calibration of other methods.
For the microbiological control of
finished goods and process samples
(microbiological - HACCP), large numbers
of samples have to be analyzed per day.
Special methodology has been developed
and optimized for efficiency and rapid
availability of the results.
Determination of total plate •
count (TPC), molds/yeasts, and
Enterobacteriaceae starts from the same
sample suspension in lactose broth
(1:10 dilution).
Salmonella • determination starts with
pre-enrichment of 4 × 375 g = 1,500 g
of product per production day in
sterilized skimmed milk. These
samples could be composed of 15 ×
25 g samples or bigger samples from
automatic sampling.
Sample preparation for total plate
count (TPC), molds/yeasts and
Enterobacteriaceae
1. Mix 13 g of lactose broth (LB, com-
mercially available) with 1,000 ml of
demineralized water in a glass bottle.
2. Sterilize the broth in an autoclave at
121° C (250° F) for 30 minutes.
3. Allow to cool to about 45° C (113° F) and
check the pH (6.9 ± 0.1).
4. Weigh 2 g of cocoa powder in a sterile
(glass) flask, add 18 ml of lactose broth or
10 g of cocoa butter or liquor in 90 ml of
lactose broth. Close the bottle and shake
well.
5. Let the suspension stand for about 30
minutes and continue with method
TPC, method Molds/Yeasts, or method
Enterobacteriaceae.
6. Always carry out the same analysis with
a blank sample containing lactose broth
only.
Determination of total mesophilic
aerobe plate count
DEFINITION
The TPC or total number of viable meso-
philic aerobe microorganisms is defined as
the number of microorganisms per grams
of product that develop into colonies on a
non-selective agar medium by incubation
at 30° C (86° F) ± 1° For 48 hours.
MEDIA
(LB): see sample preparation. •
Plate Count Agar (PCA) (commercially •
available): Mix 8-13 g of PCA (depend-
ing upon supplier) with 500 ml of
demineralized water, sterilize for 15
minutes at 121° C (250° F), and cool to
about 48° C (118° F).
PROCEDURE
1. Take the sample suspension (1:10 dilu-
tion) and shake.
2. Pipette 2 ml of this suspension into a
sterile test-tube with 8 ml of LB (1:50
dilution), and mix.
3. Pipette in each of two petri dishes 1 ml of
the 1:50 dilution.
4. Add about 15 ml of liquid PCA (about
48° C/118° F). Mix the suspension with
the PCA in the dish and allow the mix-
ture to solidify (cool).
5. Check the sterility of the PCA by pouring
the last remains of each bottle into a petri
dish.
6. For the blank LB samples no dilution has
to be made.
7. Incubate the petri dishes bottom up at
30° C (86° F) ± 1° For 48 hours.
8. Count the number of colonies and multi-
ply this by 50.
9. Calculate the average of the two petri
dishes per sample.
49
CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
Determination of mold and yeast
count
DEFINITION
The number of molds and yeasts is defined
as the number of molds and yeasts per g
product that develop into colonies on
selective agar media by incubation at 25° C
(77° F) ± 1° For three days (72 hours).
MEDIA
(LB): see sample preparation. •
Rose-Bengal Chloramphenicol Agar •
(RBC) (commercially available): Mix
16.1 g of RBC with 500 ml of deminer-
alized water, sterilize for 15 minutes at
121° C (250° F), and cool to about 48° C
(118° F).
PROCEDURE
1. Shake the sample suspension (1:10 dilu-
tion), and also analyze the blank LB.
2. Pipette 1 ml of this suspension into each
of two petri dishes.
3. Add about 15 ml of liquid RBC (about
48° C/118° F), mix the suspension with
the RBC in the dish, and allow the mix-
ture to solidify (cool).
4. Check the sterility of the RBC medium by
pouring the last remains of each bottle in
a petri dish.
5. Incubate the petri dishes bottom up at
25° C (77° F) ± 1° (for 72 hours).
6. Count the numbers of mold and yeast
colonies.
7. Multiply the count by 10 and calculate
the average of the two petri dishes per
sample.
Qualitative determination of
Enterobacteriaceae incl. E. coli
DEFINITION
Enterobacteriaceae and/or Escherichia coli are
considered to be present if microorganisms
develop on selective media and show posi-
tive responses according to a specific pat-
tern of reactions.
MEDIA
LB: see sample preparation. •
Violet Red Bile glucose agar (VRBG) •
(commercially available): Mix 17-21 g
of VRBG (depending on supplier) with
500 ml demineralized water; heat to
boiling and pour 6 ml into sterile tubes
and cool to room temperature.
Tryptone water (TW): Mix 7.5 g of TW •
(commercially available) with 500 ml
of demineralized water, pour 6 ml into
test tube and sterilize for 15 minutes at
121° C (250° F).
Brilliant Green Bile Lactose Broth •
(BGL): Mix 20 g of BGL (commercially
available) with 500 ml of demineral-
ized water, pour into reagent tubes
with Durham tubes (about 6.5 ml
liquid should fully immerse the
Durham tube) and sterilize for 15
minutes at 121° C (250° F).
Kovacs’ reagent. •
PROCEDURE
1. Take the remaining sample suspension
(1.6 g sample in about 16 ml LB) and
shake.
2. Incubate this suspension and a blank
LB sample at 37° C (99° F) ± 1° For 20-24
hours.
3. Inoculate a VRBD tube from the incu-
bated suspension by stabbing with an
inoculation wire down the center to the
bottom of the tube.
4. Incubate the VRBG tube at 37° C (99° F) ±
1° For 24 hours.
5. A sample is considered positive when
the whole VRBG agar has become turbid
and colored purple-red to yellow, while
gas formation may also cause the agar to
lighten.
Positive readings have to be confirmed
and tested for the presence (quantitative)
of E. coli.
1. Inoculate from the positive VRBG tube
into:
a TW-tube (indol formation) •
50
CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
a BLG-tube (lactose formation) •
2. Incubate both tubes at 42° C (108° F) ±
1° For 24 hours.
3. Add Kovacs’ reagent to the TW-tube:
Formation of a red ring indicates the
presence of indol.
4. A gas bubble in the Durham tube indi-
cates a positive BGL.
5. E. coli was present in the VRBG tube
when the indol (TW) as well as the lac-
tose BGL-tests were positive.
REMARKS
In case of a positive reaction, the determi-
nation has to be repeated with 1 g of cocoa
powder in 10 ml of LB.
Determination for presence of
Salmonella
DEFINITION
Salmonellae are considered to be present if
microorganisms develop on the selective
media and show positive responses to a
specific number of tests (biochemical and
serological).
This method includes the motility test,
which allows for a negative detection
within 48 hours. (In case of a positive
motility, test isolation and confirmation
have to take place.)
MEDIA
1. Pre-enrichment medium
Sterilized milk, pre-heated to 35-38° C •
(95-100° F). Add 4 ml of 0.5% Brilliant
Green solution (BG) to 1,000 ml of the
milk, preheated to 37°± 1° C (99° F)
2. Selective enrichment medium
Rappaport-Vassiliadis Broth (RV) •
(commercially available): Mix 30-43 g
of RV broth (depending on supplier)
with 1,000 ml of demineralized water,
pour into 10 ml tubes, and sterilize for
15 minutes at 121° C (250° F).
3. Selective media
Modified semi-solid Rappaport- •
Vassiliadis medium (MSRV).
- Novobiocin solution (2%); dissolve
200 mg of Novobiocin into 10 ml
demineralized water.
- Dissolve 31.6 g of the MSRV agar
into 1,000 ml demineralized water.
- Bring to boil to sterilize (do not
autoclave).
- Cool to 50° C (122° F), add 1 ml 2%
solution Novobiocin.
Xylose Lysine Desoxycholate agar •
(XLD) (commercially available):
Dissolve 151-178 g of XLD agar
(depending on supplier) into 3,000 ml
demineralized water, heat to boiling,
cool to about 50° C (122° F) and pour
plates; allow to solidify and dry the
plates overnight in an incubator at
37° C (99° F) upside down. Keep them
for 1 hour at room temperature and
store them at 3°-7° C (37-45° F).
Mannitol Lysine Crystalviolet Brilliant •
Green Agar (MLCB): Dissolve 147 g
of MLCB in 3,000 ml demineralized
water, heat to boiling, cool to about
50° C (122° F); pour plates, allow to
solidify and dry the plates overnight
in an incubator at 37° C (99° F) upside
down. Keep the plates for one hour at
room temperature and store them at
3°-7° C (37-45° F).
CONFIRMATION
1. McConkey-agar (commercially
available): Dissolve 136-163 g of
McConkeyagar (depending on sup-
plier) into 3,000 ml of demineralized
water, sterilize for 15 minutes at 121° C
(250° F) and cool to about 50° C (122° F);
pour plates, allow them to solidify and
dry the plates overnight in an oven at
37° C (99° F) upside down, keep them at
3°-7° C (37-45° F).
2. Biochemical identification consisting of:
API 20E-strips, sterile water (5 ml), VPI,
VPII, TPA, James reagent.
51
CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
PROCEDURE
Pre-enrichment
1. Weigh 375 g of product and mix with
1,375 ml of sterilized milk at 37° C (99° F)
in a 5 l stainless steel beaker.
2. Add a further 2,000 ml of sterilized milk
heated to 37° C (99° F) and mix.
3. Resuscitate for one hour at room
temperature.
4. Add 13.5 ml BG solution (0.5%) and mix.
5. Incubate the suspension at 37° C (99° F) ±
1° for 16-20 hours.
Selected enrichment
1. Pipette 0.1 ml of incubated suspension
into a 10 ml RV-tube and incubate at
42° C (108° F) ± 1 for one day.
2. Also bring three drops (about 0.1 ml) of
the incubated suspension onto an MSRV-
plate and incubate the plate at 42° C
(108° F) ± 0.5° for one day.
Isolation
1. Check the MSRV-plate for suspected
growth.
2. From the RV-tube streak an oculation eye
from the edge of the surface onto XLD
and MLCB agar, and also bring three
drops (about 0.1 ml) of the incubated
suspension onto an MSRV-plate.
Suspect Non suspect
XLD: Pink to red
colonies with/
without black cen-
ters, black colonies,
yellow colonies
with/ without center
White
colonies
MLCB: purple-black
colonies, mauve-grey
colonies with cratered
No growth
MSRV: Growth, with
a clear, milk-white
No growth
3. Incubate the XLD- and MLCB-plates for
one day at 37° C (99° F) ±1°.
4. Incubate the MSRV-plate for one day at
42° C (108° F) ±0.5°.
5. Check the three plates for suspected
growth.
All above typical and suspected colonies
have to be streaked onto McConkey plates
and brought onto an API 20E strip for
confirmation.
CONFIRMATION
If the colonies on the McConkeys are pure,
then read the API 20E strip, non pure
colonies give false results. Biochemical
identification with API 20E: see instructions
from the supplier.
REMARKS
If the API 20E-strip identifies the micro-
organism as Salmonella, serological
confirmation has to give the definitive
typing.
53
CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
Research into the flavor of cocoa has been
a fruitful topic in the past decades. Modern
analytical techniques have contributed to
a better understanding of the composi-
tion and the formation of the cocoa flavor
components. However, even with all of the
new and additional information recently
gathered, we still do not know exactly what
constitutes cocoa flavor. More than 480 dif-
ferent volatile components divided among
some 20 different chemical classes have,
to date, been identified in roasted cocoa,
making it one of the most complex flavors
known to mankind.
1. Formati on of cocoa
flavor
The most important factors in the forma-
tion of the cocoa flavor are:
cocoa bean variety •
fermentation and drying •
alkalization •
roasting •
Cocoa bean variety
In Module 1: History and Supply of Cocoa,
we mentioned the major cocoa bean grow-
ing countries of today. Not all countries
produce the same variety or type of cocoa.
It is very important to distinguish between
the various types with regard to their dif-
fering flavor formation characteristics.
The oldest-known type is the Criollo,
which means “native.” This variety was
already cultivated by the Aztecs and
Mayans in Central and South America.
Later, new varieties from the Amazon
region were imported, called Forastero,
which means “foreign.” These were
appreciated particularly for their greater
resistance to diseases and pests.
Therefore, it was chiefly the Forastero
type that was exported to other parts of
the tropics in West Africa and East Asia.
However, the flavor of the Forastero was
less appreciated by chocolate manufactur-
ers. In trying to combine the advantages
of the Forastero and the fine flavor of the
Criollo, new hybrids were cultivated.
These are known under the variety name
of Trinitario. More recently, hybrids have
been cultivated by crossing Trinitario and
newly collected varieties from the upper
Amazon, which give higher yields and are
more resistant and faster growing.
Each bean variety has its own specific
potential flavor profile. However, growing
conditions like climate, amount and time
of sunshine and rainfall, soil conditions,
ripening, time of harvesting, and the time
between harvesting and fermentation of the
beans all contribute to the flavor formation.
Differing conditions may lead to
significantly different flavor profiles. A
good example is the difference in flavor
profile between cocoa produced from
beans growing in Ghana and Malaysia.
Although the variety cultivated in Malaysia
was originally imported from Ghana, their
flavors are completely different.
Fermentation and drying
During fermentation, enzymatic reactions
play a principal role in the formation of
the cocoa flavor precursors. Peptides and
amino acids are generated by proteolytic
enzymatic breakdown of proteins. Sugar
from the pulp is split into glucose and
fructose. The peptides and amino acids and
reducing sugars are the precursors for the
formation of the volatile flavor components
formed by Maillard reactions during the
later stages of the processing of the cocoa
beans. Enzymes are also responsible for
the conversion of monomeric flavonoids
into tannins, leading to a decrease in
astringency of the cocoa and changing the
Flavor and Flavor Development
4
54
CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
original purple color of the fresh beans into
the typical brown color of cocoa.
The chemical processes involved in
fermentation are complex and not com-
pletely understood.
Two phases can be distinguished. In the
first phase the conditions are more or less
anaerobic. The pulp sugars are converted
into alcohols by yeasts, and lactic acid
bacteria and pectins are broken down by
pectinases, which results in liquefaction of
the pulp. The liquefied pulp drains from
the mass and allows aeration of the mass,
which starts the second aerobic phase of
fermentation. Acetic acid bacteria take
over and the temperature in the mass
is increased to about 50° C (122° F). The
combination of acid and heat kills the
germinal force of the bean. This is accom-
panied by the loss of cellular integrity,
which permits the mixing of substrate
and enzymes leading to the reactions that
produce the precursors of the cocoa and
chocolate flavor.
The proteins in the beans are broken
down in two stages. In the first stage, early
in the fermentation at a pH <4, the proteins
are split into hydrophobic peptides by
proteases. Later, during the fermentation
at a pH >5, these peptides are converted by
carboxypeptidases into hydrophilic pep-
tides and free amino acids. The conversion
of the flavonoids by polyphenol-oxidases
into tannins takes place during the aerobic
stage of the fermentation as oxygen is
needed for the reaction. At that stage, the
saccharose from the pulp penetrates into
the bean and is broken down into the
reducing sugars by enzymatic hydrolysis.
Also at this stage, sucrose is cleaved into
fructose and glucose, both reducing sugars,
by enzymatic hydrolysis. During sun dry-
ing after fermentation at moisture contents
below 12%, the Maillard reaction starts
and creates conditions supporting further
Maillard browning during subsequent
processing steps.
Good fermented
Unfermented, violet
Unfermented, slaty
55
CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
All these reactions have to take place
for the ultimate development of a good
cocoa flavor. The degree of fermentation of
the cocoa bean is therefore considered of
paramount importance.
The cut test is used to determine the
degree of fermentation of the bean. In this
test, each bean out of a sample of 300 beans
is bisected, and the color of the interior of
the bean is assessed by counting the percent-
age of slate-colored and violet-colored
beans. Slaty beans are not fermented, and
violet beans are incompletely fermented.
Non-fermented beans do not lead to cocoa
flavor development. To qualify as being
“good fermented,” the percentage of slaty
beans should not be more than 5%.
Cocoa beans can also be overfermented.
In this case, the beans begin to decompose,
and the pH rises sharply as proteins in
the beans start to break down. During this
process, very dark pigments are formed.
They are reaction products of flavonoids
with amino acids. The beans are then very
dark colored and brittle.
Overfermented beans lead to a hammy
off-flavor.
Alkalization
Alkalization is not a common step in the
manufacture of chocolate. However, in the
manufacture of cocoa powder, alkalization
has a number of distinct benefits. It will
influence both the color and the flavor of
the end product.
In the alkalization process, the cocoa is
treated with an alkaline solution. A number
of different alkalis are permitted and the
process conditions can vary considerably.
Among other criteria are the kinds of
beans, the type and quantity of alkali used,
ratio of the active ingredients, time, and
temperature. Alkalization can take place in
the cocoa nib (preferably) or in the cocoa
cake/powder.
Literature reveals little of the numerous
and complicated chemical reactions taking
place during alkalization. It is assumed
that further reactions take place as were
earlier described during fermentation.
In an alkaline medium, the polyphenolic
components are converted into phenoxides,
which easily oxidize into quinones. The
active role of the polyphenolic components
during alkalization is demonstrated by
analysis of the components before and after
alkalization.
Alkalization reduces the acidity of the
flavor of cocoa as well as its astringency.
Flavor aspects like typical cocoa and
bouquet are enhanced and intensified. The
lowering of the astringency is caused by a
further polymerization of the flavonoids
during the alkali treatment.
Roasting
The roasting process is of great importance
for the ultimate flavor profile of the end-
product. The roasting step is also important
because it allows the manufacturer to
influence the flavor development to a
significant degree. By adapting the roast-
ing conditions, a variety of flavor profiles
can be obtained for cocoa liquor, the base
flavor component for chocolate and cocoa
powder.
During the drying after fermentation,
the Maillard reactions cause the first
meta-stable components to be formed,
the Amadori compounds, which are
condensation products of amino acids and
reducing sugars like fructose. A direct
correlation has been demonstrated between
these compounds and the formation of the
volatile cocoa flavor components.
2. Chemi stry of
roasti ng
Most of the various compounds found in
the flavor of cocoa are generated by the
Maillard reactions. The aldehydes and
pyrazines in particular, are considered to be
important for the character of cocoa flavor.
The Maillard reactions play a major part
in all food preparations in which the flavor
is developed by a heating process like
56
CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
baking, frying, or roasting. It is essentially
a reaction between a reducing sugar like
glucose or fructose with an aldose-group
and a compound with an amino-group. In
food, this is usually an amino acid, peptide,
or protein. Initially the aldose group reacts
with the amino-group by removal of a
molecule of H
2
O.
In cocoa, a large part of the Maillard
reactions already take place during sun
drying after fermentation, and in the first
stage of roasting, the Amadori compounds
are formed. The Amadori compounds are
reacting further in different ways depend-
ing on the reaction conditions.
For cocoa, the so-called Strecker
Degradation is considered to be very
important for the development of the cocoa
flavor.
First, the Amadori compounds are
converted into dicarboxylic compounds by
further removal of H
2
O molecules. These
compounds reduce the -amino acids into
aldehydes, and during further dehydration,
the heterocyclic components like pyrazines
are formed.
From these mechanisms, it is quite
apparent that the formation (and removal)
of water is the driving force in these
reactions. Therefore, they can only take
place in a rather dry medium and at higher
temperatures. However, particularly in
the first stages, some free water should be
available in order to make contact between
the various reactants.
Formation of an Amadori Compound from
a Reducing Sugar and an Amino Acid
(–H2O)
| |
H– C = O + H2N – R1 ¢ H– C = N – R1 ¢ H– C – – R1
| | |
H– C–OH H– C–OH C = O
| | |
R R R
Reducing sugar + amino acid (Intermediate) Amadori compound
Compounds Found in Cocoa
Flavor (Flamant, 1989)
Component Number
Aliphatic, Alicyclic
Hydrocarbons 39
Organic acids 51
Amines 45
Alcohols 25
Aldehydes 22
Ketones 24
Esters 58
Lactones 7
Ethers 8
Sulfides 10
Phenols 6
Heterocyclic
Furans 19
Thiazols 8
Thiophenes 1
Pyridines 12
Pyrroles 18
Oxazoles 15
Pyrazines 95
Total 463
57
CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
The roasting process is required to fur-
ther develop the desired flavor. For cocoa,
the roasting conditions are rather mild.
The product temperature at the end of the
roasting process should not exceed 110°-
120° C (230°-248° F), and the final moisture
content should be between 1 and 2%. If the
roasting is continued for too long, then the
more volatile components like aldehydes,
esters, and low molecular acids like butyric
acid will be removed, leaving only the
pyrazines and the non-volatile acids. This
results in a burnt flavor.
Another important reaction during
roasting is the change in the organic acid
composition. The major acids in cocoa are
acetic, lactic, and citric acid. Acetic acid is
volatile; the others are not. During roasting,
the pH increases due to the removal of
acetic acid.
In general, cocoa products made from
Malaysian beans have a more acidic flavor
compared to products made from African-
type beans. Also, in Malaysian and South
American beans, the content of lactic acid
is usually higher. During roasting, lactic
acid is not removed, which might explain
the higher acidity of cocoa made from these
beans.
The beans from Venezuela and Ecuador
contain a relatively high amount of esters,
which contributes to fruity wine-like flavor
top notes, expressed as bouquet. They are
already present in the fermented cocoa
beans before roasting. Because these esters
are rather volatile, they are easily removed
during roasting. Therefore, these beans
should be subjected to a very light roast in
order to keep these bouquet flavors in the
cocoa.
The chocolate and cocoa industries
use a wide assortment of equipment,
methods, and conditions for roasting cocoa.
Differences in roasting conditions have a
distinct effect on the flavor development.
3. Sensory evaluati on
of cocoa flavor
Introduction
People have a flavor memory that allows
both instantaneous judgment as well as
comparison with experiences from the
Maillard Reactions: Strecker Degradation
H–C = O H
2
N–CH–COOH
R
2
–C = O
+
(–H
2
O)
H–C = N–CH–COOH
R
1
R
2
–C = O R
1
H–C–N = C–COOH
R
2
–C–OH R
1
(–CO
2
)
(+H
2
O)
2 ×
NH
2
NH
2

H–C H–C
R
2
–C R
2
–C
OH O
+
O = C–H
R
1
Aldehyde
(–2×H
2
O) 
N
H–C C–R
2

R
2
–C C–H
(O
2
)
N
R
2

N
–R
2
Pyrazine
Maillard Reactions: Strecker Degradation
N
58
CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
past. The consumer’s sensory evaluation of
foods is a process that can offer information
often difficult to obtain from an instrument
and is critical in the assessment of a food
product’s acceptability.
Sensory evaluation is, in the first place,
an individual’s judgment of a taste or smell
of a food product. Because it is largely a
subjective process, it must be transformed
into an objective assessment to be of use
to a food manufacturer in the areas of new
product creation or improvement and
quality control. In essence, flavor evalua-
tion is a tool with which a food processor
is able to convert the subjective judgment
of consumers into measurable data from
which an objective analysis can be made.
Sensory evaluation may be defined as
analysis performed using the senses: taste,
smell, touch, sound, and sight. In this
context, the concept of “taste” should be
interpreted in a much wider sense than
the direct impression on the tasting sense
when eating. To avoid confusion between
the wider and the narrower concepts of
“taste,” the word “flavor” is often used.
“Flavor” encompasses the total impression
of taste (gustation), smell (olfaction),
and trigeminal nerve sensations such as
touch, temperature, pain, and chemical
irritants (giving a heat or cooling response)
obtained when eating a product. Sensory
evaluation is used in quality control,
product development, and consumer tests.
Sensory evaluation can, for example, pro-
vide the answer to the question of whether
a change in raw material or process
conditions results in a flavor change in the
end-product. Recent development of flavor
selective sensors, also called “electronic
noses,” could be helpful in increasing the
number of discriminatory tests, but the
calibration and internal control of such
equipment will always require a panel of
flavor experts.
Flavor release
One of the most important factors to be
considered when judging the properties
of a flavor is how it ultimately manifests
or releases itself in the final product dur-
ing consumption. Flavor release is the
perceived intensity of a certain aspect
of the flavor as a function of time, when
the product is sensorially evaluated. It is
determined, for example, by the physical
and chemical properties of the flavor itself,
by the location in the mouth and the nose
where the flavor is perceived as well as
by the texture and the temperature of the
product in which the flavor is incorporated.
In many products, fat is an important
transmission medium for flavor. In such
products, the amount of fat and its melting
point and melting behavior are important
for the flavor release, as the fat must first
melt before the flavor becomes available.
This is one of the reasons why the cocoa
flavor in different end-products shows a
different flavor profile. With cocoa butter
melting rapidly at body temperature (in the
mouth), the flavor release is relatively fast,
allowing a variety of different flavors, each
having a different time-intensity curve,
to be expressed in unique ways. For a full
flavor evaluation, it is important to keep
the product in one’s mouth for some time
before it is swallowed. Contact with saliva
is also essential.
Appearance, sound, mouth-feel, texture,
taste and smell
The importance of products’ appearance is
evident. Size, weight, shape, and color are
the most important contributing character-
istics. In the case of cocoa, this is even more
obvious, as the intensity of the color will
initiate a corresponding flavor expectation.
Packaging also serves to enhance the expec-
tations for a food item.
Sound can also play a crucial role. With
some products, the sound generated during
consumption can lead to a more positive or
negative judgment. Consider the “crunch”
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CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
of a fresh apple or the “snap” of a good
chocolate bar—both are necessary for a
positive valuation.
The mouth-feel of a product is deter-
mined by its texture, viscosity, and
behavior during the (often short) period of
residence time in the mouth. This can be
described in such terms as hard, smooth,
crunchy, watery, powdery, greasy, waxy,
or dry. The melting behavior of the fat
phase can be of influence also. A product
can be liquid, half liquid, paste, or solid, all
forms in which cocoa-flavored products are
available to the consumer.
Chewing refines the product. In the
meantime, the texture of the food is evalu-
ated, and its temperature is adapted to that
of the mouth. It creates the desired particle
size and allows the release of the less
volatile components of a food. As a result,
the flavor of a product can be appreciated
to its fullest extent. This is of particular
importance to the cocoa flavor as it releases
comparatively little volatile flavor compo-
nents by itself.
Taste is appreciated by taste receptor
cells present mainly on the tongue and
soft palate. The taste buds (2,000-5,000)
situated in papillae on the tongue (except
in the middle, where the filiform papillae
only have a tactile function) each contain
50-150 taste cells that respond to all taste
stimuli; only the sensitivity (threshold
value) varies for the types of papillae or
position on the tongue. The four classical
taste sensations are salt, sweet, sour, and
bitter; a fifth sensation, umami, associated
with monosodium glutamate (MSG),
is getting acceptance, while terms like
metallic and astringent are also named. The
receptor cells in the taste buds regenerate
about every 10 days, so damage is repaired,
though sickness or ill health may temporar-
ily delay this.
The role of saliva is very important for
tasting as the nonvolatile taste stimuli have
to be dissolved before they can contact
the taste pores of the taste buds. A “dry”
mouth or reduced saliva flow, e.g. caused
by drugs or medication, results in loss of
taste.
The ability to taste declines slightly as
people age, as does, to a larger extent the
ability to detect smells, especially for males.
It has been established that elderly people
develop a preference for more bitter and
stronger, but less sweet, chocolate flavored
products. This is primarily due to the fact
that their threshold for bitter compounds
is higher and, therefore, they perceive the
bitterness less in foods.
The nose can detect the most ephemeral
of sensory messages. If the nose is pinched
closed while eating, mostly touch;
temperature; texture; and the basic salt,
sweet, bitter, or sour tastes can be detected.
No other flavors of a food can be perceived.
(Smell forms about 75% of the flavor
impression.)
High up in the nose, against the nasal
wall, lies the olfactory organ. The olfactory
organ is lined with a mucous membrane,
about 2-5 cm
2
, which has to be penetrated
by the volatile odor molecules in order
for them to be perceived by the olfactory
receptor cells, regenerating about every 50
days. The olfactory organ lies out of the
direct stream of air that we inhale when
we breathe. Only 2% of the air we breathe
reaches the receptors.
Odoriferous molecules (stimulants) can
reach the olfactory organ either via the
normal respiratory passages or in a retro-
nasal manner. During eating, the flavor of a
food is primarily perceived in the retronasal
manner. Sensitivity differs considerably per
substance and per person. Individuals can
display differences in olfactory sensitivity by
factors up to 1,000 for the same substance.
About 150-200 odor qualities containing
about 10,000 different odors can be recog-
nized by trained persons.
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CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
Adaptation, synergism, total impression
and judgment
Adaptation, or fatigue, is the decrease in
response with constant stimulation and is
observed both with smell and taste (and
with many other senses). So, the sensitivity
to a certain stimulant declines as a result
of previous exposure to that stimulant.
At complete adaptation, the sensitivity
to the stimulant involved is completely
lost. In cross adaptation, the reduction of
sensitivity is caused by exposure to another
stimulant. Adaptation is time dependent (a
few minutes), and it can be neutralized by
removing the stimulant (rinsing with fresh
air or clean, warm water).
Synergism is the enhanced impression of
taste. It is the taste impression above that or
different from two individual components,
so a mixture with sub-threshold levels
of its components will produce a strong
taste sensation. Inhibition or mixture
suppression is the opposite effect, where
taste sensations are reduced or changed in
a mixture of stimulants.
It is important to realize that sensory
sensitivity and capability differ strongly
between individuals. The population con-
sists of about 25% “supertasters” and 25%
“non-tasters.” For evaluation purposes,
the “non-tasters” and persons with taste or
smell defects (temporarily or definite) have
to be excluded from panels by adequate
screening and training sessions.
When we evaluate a food product, each
of our five senses are used: sight, sound,
taste, touch, and smell. The information
is gathered and integrated into a total
sensory picture or impression by the brain.
This judgment process is immediate and is
the way in which the brain interprets this
impression.
The process by which a consumer makes
a judgment on a food involves three
separate phases. The first is the input phase
to the brain. The second is the comparison
of the input with what exists in the flavor
memory. The third is the output presented
in the form of an opinion. It is this opinion
that is critically important for the food
technologist to be aware of. This is where
the acceptability of a new formulation will
first be visible. And this opinion is very
clearly a function of what happens after
that initial tasting. Does it taste good?
Flavor memory
The brain has a powerful memory for
flavor, retaining the most subtle features
of a flavor with amazing accuracy. It is this
flavor memory that represents the reference
against which a new flavor is compared.
The memory contains details of thousands
of flavors that range from delicious to
unpalatable.
Experience has taught that if a product
offers a totally new sensory picture, it runs
a high risk of rejection. It is unknown. For
a new flavor to be successful, it should be
reasonably close to a familiar and trusted
flavor impression. Moreover, the expecta-
tion of the consumer should be confirmed
in the actual tasting experience. In creating
new formulations, emphasis is often placed
on adapting known and trusted flavors
rather than creating completely new ones.
This is very much the case in the cocoa,
chocolate, and confectionery industries.
The flavor of cocoa is well known and has
proven to be immensely successful.
Sensory evaluation
Sensory evaluation as we know it today
was developed after World War II. Almost
all food companies carry out sensory evalu-
ation, notably on the product lines that
carry and represent their own particular
house flavor. The number of measure-
ment methods for sensory research has
increased over the past years, partly due to
the opportunities that computers offer to
process complex data.
Methods for analytical sensory evalua-
tion can be divided into two groups:
difference tests and descriptive tests. In
difference or discrimination tests, samples
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CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
are always judged in comparison with
another sample or a standard; in descrip-
tive tests, a sample is examined on its own
to determine its sensory qualities and the
intensities of these qualities.
Difference (discrimination) tests
Some well-known methods are the
Triangle Test, Paired Comparison Test,
Ranking Test, and Two-Out-of-Five Test.
These indicate only whether or not there is
a significant difference between samples.
Difference tests are easy to carry out. It is
not necessary for the members of the test
panel to have intensive training, and the
cumulative results will indicate whether or
not there is a significant difference between
the samples. Therefore, it is not surpris-
ing that difference tests are often used.
However, unlike descriptive techniques,
the nature of the difference is not always
established.
Descriptive tests
The first, and for a long time the only,
descriptive method was the Flavor Profile
Method (FPM). The panel leader would
determine the aspects of the samples to
be tested, usually with four to five panel
members. A disadvantage is that the panel
members have to undergo fairly intensive
and lengthy training before they can par-
ticipate. They also need regular retraining
to keep the variations in individual judg-
ments within narrow limits.
The ’70s saw the development of the
Quantitative Descriptive Analysis test
(QDA). In this method, the aspects to be
tested are jointly determined by all mem-
bers. Eight to 10 panel members perform
the testing.
A QDA variant is Free Choice Profiling
(FCP). In this method, panel members
individually indicate only those aspects
they want to test.
The principal component analysis (PCA)
is a methodology that is further described
in Module 7: Cocoa Liquor under “Flavor.”
Sensory evaluation in the food industry
Sensory evaluation, as a management
tool to improve a company’s operations,
requires a systematic approach. Current
findings suggest strongly that Descriptive
Analysis Tests provide the best informa-
tion, which tells investigators what they
want to know, can be related to results
obtained from instruments, can be stored
for future reference, and can be collected
systematically.
Some of the activities to which systematic
sensory evaluation can contribute include:
quality control •
quality assurance •
shelf-life determination •
product reformulation •
new product development - R&D •
marketing •
evaluating competitive products •
Sensory evaluation contributions to
company operations can best be made
through a team of specially trained
personnel — the Sensory Evaluation Panel.
Its evaluation work must be independent
and totally free from interference. It must
provide an objective testing medium and
should communicate adequately with all
company departments that are going to use
the information obtained.
ADM Cocoa uses a combination of a
descriptive test (the QDA test) and a differ-
ence test (the paired comparison test).
It involves the following three steps:
creating a glossary of terms used to •
describe different sensory aspects
(cocoa flavor and flavor notes)
training panels to judge and rate those •
aspects
evaluating the ratings •
The methodology for the sensory
evaluation of cocoa powder can be found
in Module 3: Methods of Analysis under
“Flavor Evaluation.”
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CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
Basic cocoa flavor notes
As part of the flavor evaluation, panel
members can use the following as the glos-
sary of terms for cocoa products:
Cocoa
The basic cocoa note, which is derived from
a good fermented, deshelled, roasted, and
ground cocoa bean
Bitter
One of the four basic tastes perceived most
sensitively at the back of the tongue, stimu-
lated by solutions of caffeine, quinine, and
other alkaloids (ASTM)
Rich or Full
A full-flavor intensity contrasting with
watery. It indicates the “overall” or total
flavor intensity of the product.
Bouquet
General term covering all flavor elements
over and above the cocoa character, e.g.
aromatic, floral, and fruity notes
Acid (Sour)
One of the four basic tastes perceived on
the tongue, associated with acids (ASTM)
like citric acid
Astringent
The chemical feeling factor perceived
on the tongue and other oral surfaces,
described as puckering or drying, elicited
with tannins or alum (ASTM)
Acrid
A burnt, harsh, aromatic taste often associ-
ated with burnt wood, smoke, or roasted
beans (ASTM) or a pungently bitter note
often associated with astringency and
acidity, when tasted it gives a sensation of
dryness
Cocoa off-flavor notes
Burnt
Tar-like flavor
Earthy/Moldy
Stale, a flavor suggestive of a badly venti-
lated cellar
Hammy
A flavor suggestive of smoked bacon/ham
Smoky
A burnt wood note
Metallic
A note suggestive of iron and copper
Rancid
A flavor suggestive of oxidized butter or oil
Cardboard
A note suggestive of paper or cardboard
Baggy / Raw
A note suggestive of raw beans and/or
burlap bags
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After vanilla, cocoa is the most popular
food flavor in the Western hemisphere.
Cocoa, however, fulfills two primary
functions in foods: as a colorant and as
a flavor ingredient. In many cases, the
flavor function dominates. In practice, this
double role has led to a wide range of cocoa
powders adapted to applications in a very
large range of foods.
1. Formati on of the
cocoa color
The formation of the color of cocoa passes
through a number of stages. It starts with
the formation of precursors by biochemical
processes that take place in the cocoa beans
during the growth and ripening of the fruit
on the tree. This process is largely deter-
mined by the bean varieties, disease stress
and the climatic conditions during growth.
The next stage takes place subsequent to
harvesting during fermentation and dry-
ing of the beans. This is a very important
phase, as it is here that the characteristic
brown color of cocoa is formed. The ulti-
mate color of cocoa, however, is reached
after further processing of the beans, where
alkalization is the critical step. Depending
on the process conditions and the alkali
used, the initial yellowish-brown color
develops into a variety of hues from light
brown to red or even black.
Controlling the influence of the various
stages of production on the color develop-
ment of cocoa powders is complicated and
difficult.
The color of the beans arriving from their
countries of origin is beyond the immediate
control of the manufacturer. The only
direct control the cocoa powder producer
exercises is at the stage of bean selection
and blending, which is very important for
providing the raw material for a consistent
product. Users of cocoa products like liquor
and powder, however, can set their own
standards in purchasing specifications.
It is the combination of expertise in bean
selection, blending, and successful manage-
ment of the production process that offers
the cocoa products buyer the confidence of
a product that will fulfill the requirements
of both the manufacturer and the final
consumer.
Precursors of the color component
Flavonoids, a sub-group of polyphenols,
are the primary precursors of the pigment
in cocoa. They occur widely in the plant
kingdom and have a variety of functions:
as pigments, as protective agents against
disease, and as disinfectants when a plant
is wounded. Their concentration in fresh,
unfermented cocoa beans may be approxi-
mately 12-18% on a dry bean basis. The
anthocyanidines and proanthocyanidines
are flavonoids of particular interest as color
precursors.
The purple color in fresh, unfermented
beans is due to anthocyanines.
These are esters of anthocyanidines and
sugars. Procyanidines are present in cocoa
as dimers through decamers of epicatechin.
They are also found in the form of sugar
ester derivatives. During fermentation,
the sugar esters are hydrolyzed by
enzymes. The free antho- and procyanidine
molecules are then oxidized by enzymes
to quinones. The quinones are reactive
agents and behave as oxidizing agents,
oxidizing other organic molecules, which,
in turn, react themselves. Quinones react
with amino acids and proteins, forming
covalently bonded complexes.
In this way, they form various strongly
colored pigments.
They also react with other flavonoids,
forming high-molecular weight condensed
tannins. If the molecular weight of the
Color and Color Development
5
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CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
tannin is above 3,000, it forms complexes
with proteins by hydrogen bonding. As
oxidation is involved, the reactions take
place during the second oxidative stage of
fermentation and during sun drying of the
beans. The result is a brown pigment that is
stable and insoluble in water.
The conversion of flavonoids into brown
tannins can be demonstrated easily by cut-
ting a fresh, non-fermented cocoa bean in
half. The cells on the surface are destroyed,
freeing the enzymes to react with the
phenols. In a few seconds, the color of the
surface turns from deep purple to brown.
The concentration of anthocyanidins and
epicatechin are lowered during fermenta-
tion because the anthocyanins (the purple
pigment) react, and the purple color almost
vanishes. Therefore, these color precursors
are probably the controlling factor in this
enzymatic browning.
In certain Theobroma cacao species, such
as the Criollo, the beans do not contain this
purple pigment, and after fermentation
the beans are still very lightly colored. In
the cut test, the color is used to assess the
quality of the bean.
When a consignment of beans is of good
quality, only a small percentage of the
beans will show these defects. They are not
so important for the color formation but
may indicate that insufficient or subopti-
mum flavor will develop on roasting.
Alkalization and color development
Reactions taking place during the alkaliza-
tion process are complex. It is practiced in
many different ways by different produc-
ers, and many aspects influence the color of
the final product. As mentioned above, the
kind of beans, type and quantity of alkali
used, ratio of the active ingredients, time,
and temperature are all of influence.
Although alkalization in itself appears to
be essentially a simple process, in practice
the greatest challenge is to consistently
keep the color and flavor within a desired
range. In particular, the production of
dark and red cocoa powders without the
sacrifice of flavor demands great skill and
advanced technology.
At ADM Cocoa, the available technologi-
cal expertise allows the alkalization process
to be easily adapted to the differences in
the various types of cocoa beans, resulting
in a wide range of end-products with
consistent colors. The color range varies
from light brown to reddish brown to very
dark brown tints.
Color of cocoa butter
Flavonoid-based pigments are insoluble
in cocoa butter. The color of cocoa butter
OH
OH
OH
OH
OH
OH
OH
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
HO
HO
HO
HO
HO
H
O
O
O
O
O
O
O+ 1'
2'
3'
4'
5'
6'
1
2
3
3
1
2 4
4
5
5
6
6
7
8
Stereostructure of an Anthocyanin
Glycoside (Goto et al. 1978)
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CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
is a result of another group of natural
pigments called carotenoids. This natural
coloring occurs in such products as carrots.
Vitamin A is one example of this group of
compounds. The amount of ß-carotene in
cocoa butter can vary and, depending on
the amount, the butter will have a more
or less yellow-orange, transparent color.
Pure prime pressed cocoa butters are not
bleached and therefore retain their typical
ivory color.
Refining and bleaching are applied to
cocoa butters with high free fatty acid con-
tents. These butters are usually extracted
from waste material and second-grade
cocoa beans. The carotenoids are then
removed, rendering the butter colorless.
2. Elements of color
The three dimensions of color
A quantitative and accurate definition of
color is a recent development. The founda-
tion for the color theory was laid out by
HO
HO
HO
OH
OH
OH
OH
OH
OH
OH
OH
OH
OH
OH
OH
O
O
O
Structure of Flavonoids in Cocoa
Mono- and Polymers
Epicatechin
Procyanidin B
OH
OH
O
O
R
R
Polyphenol
Quinone
Browning During Fermentation
Polyphenol-oxydase enzyme
Oxidation
Complexation
Polymerization
: Quinone + RH
2
Phenol + R
: Quinone + Amino Acid/Protein Complexes
: Quinone + Phenol+ O
2
Tannins
Tannin + Protein Complexes
Secondary Reactions
(enzyme)
O
2
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CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
A.H. Munsell. He was the first to describe
color by means of three parameters.
Lightness (L): The light or dark aspect
of a color. The lower the l value, the darker
the cocoa powder will appear.
Chroma (C): The intensity of a color by
which one distinguishes a bright or gray
color. The higher the C value, the brighter
the powder will be.
Hue (H): Color in daily speech, such as
red, yellow, or blue. For cocoa powders,
a low H value indicates a red color, and a
high H value indicates a brown color.
Munsell classified all colors and shades
on maps with color areas in an atlas accord-
ing to the coordinates above. This meant
that by comparing an object with one of
the color areas in the atlas, colors and color
differences could objectively be described.
The CIE color coordinates
A next step in the color theory was the
quantification of colors that would enable
color calculations. This development was
based on the idea that colors are made by
mixing the additive primary colors: red (R),
green (G), and blue (B), corresponding with
the three types of cones in the retina of the
eye.
The disadvantage of this system was
that certain colors had to be indicated
with negative figures. This is why the
Commission Internationale d’Eclairage
(CIE) created three primaries, or tristimuli,
indicated with the letters X, Y, and Z.
These do not exist in reality but are derived
mathematically from the original R, G,
and B primaries, with which all colors can
be expressed with positive figures. The
translation of X, Y, and Z values to L*, a*,
and b* values according to the CIE system
can be expressed as follows:
L*= 116 × Y%
1/3
– 16
Y% = Y/100
a*= 500 × (X%
1/3
– Y%
1/3
)
X% = X/98.0721
1
b*= 200 × (Y%
1/3
– Z%
1/3
)
Z% = Z/106.892
1
(
1
2° Standard Observer, Standard Illuminant D65)
Color differences
Although a mathematical description of the
spectral colors was now available, the XYZ
coordinate system still had difficulties with
the color differences calculated.
These did not correspond to visual obser-
vation. The human eye is less sensitive to
color differences in the light area than in
the dark area. A calculated identical color
difference in the dark area was therefore
experienced as greater than in the light
area. Attempts to overcome this trans-
formed the XYZ coordinate system with
the help of conversion factors. An example
is the Hunter color system, with coordi-
nates L, a, and b, which can be calculated
from X, Y, and Z as follows:
L = 10 ÏY
a =
17.5 (1.02 X–Y)
ÏY
b =
7.0 (Y–0.847 Z)
ÏY
A number of transformed coordinate
systems are still in use. However, none
of them is completely satisfactory, so no
universal agreement has been reached. This
is why it is always necessary to determine
which coordinate system is being used
when discussing color. The L coordinate is
consistent with the Value of Lightness then
introduced by Munsell, and from the a and
b coordinates, the Chroma and Hue can be
calculated as follows:
C = Ï(a
2
+b
2
)
H = arctg(b/a)
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CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
3. Measuri ng color
The source of light
The spectral color is the result of the source
of light and the reflecting surface. So for a
good reproducible measurement of color,
it is essential that the source of light is
standardized.
The CIE has defined four standard
sources:
Source A: Incandescent light
Source B: Simulated noon sunlight
Source C: Simulated overcast sky daylight
Source D65: Daylight
A distinction is made between the fol-
lowing concepts:
a source that defines the physical •
source of light, for instance, an electric
bulb (source A)
an illuminant that defines the theo- •
retically defined division of spectral
energy of the source of light. This is an
index of numbers as a function of the
wavelength. Of course, “source” has to
be as close to “illuminant” as possible
In practice, “A” and “D65” are mainly
employed as the light sources. Because the
color measured depends on the light source
used, this should always be stated with the
measurement.
The reflecting surface of the sample
Reflection is largely determined by the
morphology of the sample. When a light
beam strikes a surface, it is partly passed
through, partly absorbed, and partly
reflected. Light reflects at an angle of inci-
dence of 90°, and it is diffused at an angle
of 45°.
When a surface is smooth, much light
will be reflected. With a rough surface, the
light will mainly be diffused, i.e. light is
absorbed and re-emitted.
When using color meters, there are two
ways in which the light should be directed
onto the surface of the sample to minimize
reflection:
by means of a focused light source •
at an angle of 45° to the sample
surface. Reflection is then minimized.
However, the measurement can be
susceptible to the orientation of the
sample relative to the light source.
Certain surface effects can result in
differences in measurements.
by means of an “integrating sphere,” •
so that the light is directed onto the
subject from all sides from the interior
surface of a white sphere. Then, the
color measurement is not dependent
on the position of the sample relative
to the light source. However, light is
still reflected. In practice, this can be
eliminated by making a hole in the
sphere at the place where this light is
reflected most.
Color measuring
There are two basic approaches for measur-
ing color.
Visual judgment of color
Because of the natural human tendency to
trust only one’s own eyes, colors are still
frequently judged only visually. To be able
to do this in a reproducible manner, certain
standard conditions have to be met:
the light source, preferably one of the •
earlier mentioned CIE standards
the position of the sample relative to •
the light source, preferably at an angle
of 45° to each other
the background of the sample, uniform •
and preferably gray
the distance between the eyes and the •
sample
the size of the sample •
In practice, color cabinets are mostly
used with standard light sources.
Instrumental color measurement
Color meters can be distinguished by their
two measurement principles:
Tristimulus colorimeter
The diffuse reflected light that passes
through four filters is measured with a
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CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
photometer. The filters are made in such a
way that they come as close to the spectral
distribution of the Standard Observer
as possible. The fourth filter is used to
account for the correction in the second
filter between 400 and 500 nm. One can
then read the X, Y, and Z color coordinates
directly. These instruments are linked to a
computer. The color differences between
samples and standards in one of the other
coordinate systems can be calculated as
desired.
Color spectrophotometer
Using this principle, the whole visible
spectrum can be measured. The X, Y and
Z color coordinates are calculated by
combining the measured spectrum and
the theoretical spectra of the Standard
Observer (CIE).
The spectrophotometer has a number of
advantages:
No filters are required. (These have to •
meet very high standards and are very
hard to manufacture.)
The color with different light sources •
can be calculated from the measured
spectrum. From the spectra of the
individual components, one can
calculate the color of a mixture.
Color measurement is dealt with in
Module 3: Methods of Analysis.
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1. Introducti on
To the Aztecs, cocoa was not only a
stimulant, but first and foremost a magical
medicine, through which the properties
of the four elements, Fire, Water, Air, and
Earth, exercised their beneficial influence
on humans. When cocoa initially became
popular in Europe, it was also attributed
quite a few beneficial factors. For example,
in 1717, a German physician recommended
cocoa as a product that: “strengthens the
stomach, stimulates the spirits. It stimulates
the working of the brain and eases pain. It
cannot be recommended enough both as
a food and as a medicine.” Quite a broad
statement, and one that would not be
acceptable today without elaborate support
from scientific facts.
This chapter gives an overview of the
current state of affairs with regard to the
health and nutritional aspects of cocoa and
cocoa products. A clear distinction is made
between facts and fiction on one of the
most popular foods known to mankind.
2. Manufacturer’ s
responsi bi li ty
The increasing awareness of the relation-
ship between the quality of the food we eat
and the effects that food may have on our
health understandably means that increas-
ing demands are being placed on the food
manufacturer to provide assurances that
the products offered to the consumer are of
high quality. This awareness has resulted
in many countries creating legislation that
holds manufacturers legally responsible for
the safety of their products.
In this respect, ADM Cocoa is very much
aware of its responsibility to its customers.
Our products lose their identity as soon as
they are incorporated in a customer’s final
product. From that moment on, they bear
the name and reputation of that customer.
In Module 2, Cocoa Processing, we
indicate how this responsibility is realized.
3. Indi cati ve
nutri ti onal
i nformati on
The nutritional data on cocoa liquor (Table
1 on page 74), cocoa butter (Table 2 on
page 74), and cocoa powder (Table 3 on
page 75) are provided. It should be kept in
mind that the values are indicative. They
may occasionally show significant varia-
tions due to natural fluctuations in the raw
material.
Health and Nutritional Aspects
6
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CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
Table 1: Indicative Nutritional
Information on Cocoa Liquor
Main components per 100 g
fat 55.0 g
moisture 1.0 g
crude protein 11.9 g
theobromine 1.1 g
caffeine 0.1 g
sugars 0.5 g
starch 6.5 g
total dietary fiber 16.6 g
organic acids 2.1 g
ash 3.1 g
Minerals
potassium 1000 mg
sodium 10 mg
calcium 80 mg
magnesium 300 mg
phosphorus 400 mg
chloride <10 mg
iron 18 mg
zinc 4 mg
copper 2 mg
Vitamins
- A (retinol) <50 I.u.
- B1 (thiamine) 0.1 mg
- B2 (riboflavin) 0.3 mg
- B3 (niacin) 1.0 mg
- Vitamin B5 2.1 mg
- C (ascorbic acid) <0.1 mg
- E (tocopherol) 17.5 I.u./100 mg
Energy (Atwater system)
kcal 521
kJ 2,180
kcal from fat 460
kJ from fat 1,925
Various
cholesterol 1.7 mg
Table 2: Indicative Nutritional
Information on Cocoa Butter
Main components per 100 g
total fat 99.9 g
moisture 0.1 g
Fatty acids (%)
saturated 61.5%
monounsaturated 35.0%
polyunsaturated 3.5%
Fatty acid composition (%)
palmitic (C16:0) 26.0%
stearic (C18:0) 34.5%
arachidic (C20:0) 1.0%
palmitoleic (C16:1) 0.3%
oleic (C18:1) 34.5%
linoleic (C18:2) 3.2%
others 0.5%
Minerals
calcium 0.25 mg
copper 0.01 mg
iron 0.05 mg
magnesium 0.5 mg
phosphorus 25.0 mg
potassium 20.0 mg
Vitamins
- A (retinol) 90 Iu
- E (tocopherol): 32 Iu/100g
Energy (Atwater system)
kcal 835
kJ 3,495
kcal from fat 835
kJ from fat 3,495
Various
cholesterol approx. 3.0 mg
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Table 3: Indicative Nutritional Information on Various Cocoa Powder Types
Non-alkalized Lightly alkalized Strongly alkalized
Main components per 100 g per 100 g per 100 g
fat 11 g 11 g 11 g
moisture 4 g 4 g 4 g
crude protein 23 g 22g 22 g
theobromine 2.1 g 2.1 g 2.1 g
caffeine 0.2 g 0.2 g 0.2 g
sugars 1 g 1 g 1 g
starch (complex CHO) 12.5 g 11.5 g 11.5g
total dietary fiber 32.0 g 32.0 g 32.0 g
organic acids 4 g 4 g 4 g
ash 6 g 9 g 12 g
Minerals
potassium 2000 mg 3000 mg 5000 mg
sodium 20 mg 30 mg 30 mg
calcium 150 mg 150 mg 150 mg
magnesium 550 mg 550 mg 550 mg
phosphorus 700 mg 700 mg 700 mg
chloride 10 mg 10 mg 10 mg
iron 35 mg 35 mg 35 mg
zinc 7.0 mg 7.0 mg 7.0 mg
copper 4.0 mg 4.0 mg 4.0 mg
Vitamins
- A (retinol) <50 Iu <50 Iu <50 Iu
- B1 (thiamine) 0.1 mg 0.1 mg 0.1 mg
- B2 (riboflavin) 0.5 mg 0.3 mg 0.3 mg
- B3 (niacin) 2.0 mg 2.0 mg 2.0 mg
- C (ascorbic acid) <0.1 mg <0.1 mg <0.1 mg
- E (tocopherol) 3.5 Iu 3.5 Iu 3.5 Iu
- pantothenic acid 4.0 mg 1.5 mg 1.5 mg
Energy (Atwater system)
kcal 206 201 197
kJ 862 841 824
kcal from fat 92 92 92
kJ from fat 384 384 384
Various
cholesterol <1 mg <1 mg <1 mg
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Fat (cocoa butter)
Most commercially available cocoa pow-
ders contain between 10 and 24% fat while
the 10-12% fat range is the most frequently
used. Cocoa butter contains specific flavor
ingredients, antioxidants, and, as a vege-
table fat, only traces of cholesterol (approx.
3.0 mg/100 g). The fatty acid composition
(Table 4) shows that cocoa butter is rich in
stearic, palmitic, and oleic acid.
Table 4: Indicative Fatty Acid
Composition (%) of Cocoa Butter
palmitic acid (C16:0) 26.0%
palmitoleic acid (C16:1) 0.3%
stearic acid (C18:0) 34.5%
oleic acid (C18:1) 34.5%
linoleic acid (C18:2) 3.2%
arachidic acid (C20:0) 1.0%
others 0.5%
saturated 61.5%
monounsaturated 35%
polyunsaturated 3.5%
Even though about 60% of the fatty acids
present in cocoa butter (stearic + palmitic)
are characterized as saturated fatty acids, a
number of clinical research studies suggest
cocoa butter, and stearic acid in particular,
do not function the same as other saturated
fats in vivo. Stearic acid consumption
has not led to increasing levels of blood
cholesterol and therefore is characterized
as having a neutral effect. In fact, studies
including cocoa butter and even chocolate
have demonstrated similar neutral effects
on blood cholesterol levels.
Moisture
Cocoa powder is hygroscopic. If a cocoa
powder has an excessive level of moisture,
flavor may deteriorate. The actual moisture
content of cocoa powders is lower than the
moisture content found by analysis. The
method of analysis used to determine the
moisture content does not discriminate
against other components that easily
evaporate (such as certain organic acids)
and disappear from the cocoa powder dur-
ing the procedure. Because cocoa powder is
hygroscopic, good packaging and storage
conditions are essential to preventing the
take-up of moisture. (See also Module 9:
Packaging, Storage, and Transportation of
Cocoa Powder.)
Cocoa powder is safe at a moisture con-
tent of up to 5%. ADM Cocoa’s production
and packaging technology ensures that the
moisture content of their cocoa powders is
typically below 5%, provided the product is
stored under proper conditions.
Proteins
Proteins are essential constituents of all liv-
ing cells. Biochemically, proteins are built
from amino acids as basic building blocks.
Proteins are of great nutritional value and
have numerous physiological functions.
In the tables, the total nitrogen as well as
the nitrogen originating from the so- called
crude proteins and alkaloids are given for
cocoa liquor and cocoa powder. The crude
protein is calculated from the nitrogen
content. The Kjeldahl method is used to
establish the total nitrogen content from
which the nitrogen originating from the
alkaloids is then subtracted from the total,
and the result is multiplied by 6.25. (A fac-
tor based on the average nitrogen content
of vegetable proteins.) The protein from
cocoa powder is low in digestibility, proba-
bly because it forms a complex with certain
polyhydroxyphenols (condensed tannins).
An indicative amino acid pattern of cocoa
protein is shown in Table 5. (Significant
differences in amino acid patterns exist
depending on the origin of the cocoa.) The
effect of the alkalization is illustrated by
the difference in the indicative amino acid
profile of proteins for a natural process and
an alkalized cocoa powder.
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Table 5: Indicative Amino Acid Profile
of Cocoa Powder Protein
(in g/100 g cocoa powder)
Amino acid Non-alkalized Alkalized
isoleucine 0.75 0.70
leucine 1.22 1.13
lysine 0.93 0.61
methionine 0.29 0.26
cystine 0.45 0.34
phenylalanine 0.94 0.85
tyrosine 0.70 0.65
threonine 0.83 0.77
tryptophan 0.26 0.24
valine 1.17 1.10
arginine 1.32 1.17
histidine 0.32 0.28
alanine 0.86 0.77
aspartic acid 1.96 1.84
glutamic acid 3.28 3.08
glycine 0.85 0.79
proline 0.89 0.85
serine 1.05 0.93
Sugar and starch
Sugars are commonly occurring carbohy-
drates characterized by the presence of
the saccharide group. They are a primary
source of energy for the human body.
Whenever cocoa products are manufac-
tured from good fermented cocoa beans
that are roasted in the correct manner,
they will contain only traces of mono- and
disaccharides.
Starches, as complex polysaccharides, are
the form in which carbohydrates are stored
in plants. They are broken down during
digestion.
The starch in cocoa liquor and powder
consists of approx. 36% amylose and 64%
amylopectin.
Dietary fiber
Dietary fiber in cocoa products is the col-
lective term for the structural parts of plant
tissues that are not or only partly digested.
It is the modern term for what used to
be referred to as “roughage” or “bulk.”
In recent decades, it has been established
that a diet high in fiber is recommended.
Dietary fiber has been found to reduce the
risk of cancer in the digestive tract.
The quantities of dietary fiber found in
a product are largely dependent on the
analytical method chosen to determine
them. In theory, dietary fiber consists of the
following components:
Structural polysaccharides
- cellulose
- hemicellulose
- pectic substances
Structural non-carbohydrate
- lignin
Non-structural polysaccharides
- gums
- mucilages
From the various analytical methods that
are published for the determination of
dietary fiber, ADM Cocoa uses the method
developed by Prosky et al. for the follow-
ing reasons:
It gives an optimal picture of the •
dietary fiber.
The method is relatively simple. •
It is the official method of the United •
States Food & Drug Administration
(FDA) and the Association of Official
Analytical Chemists (AOAC).
Flavonoids
From a nutritional standpoint, the most
interesting components of cocoa powder
are possibly the flavonoids. These are
complex aromatic compounds widely
found in nature as pigments in flowers,
fruits, vegetables, and bark. Cocoa prod-
ucts consist of a relatively high percentage
of these important components.
During fermentation, roasting, and
alkalization of the cocoa, mono- and
oligomeric-catechins may be partially
polymerized into tannins. They play an
important role in color formation and
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CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
partly influence flavor. In addition, with
the increase of molecular weight, reactivity
with proteins and peptides increases. As
a result, complexes that reduce the digest-
ibility of the protein are created.
In literature, flavonoids are known to
possess antioxidative properties in vitro.
This may help explain the long shelf life
of cocoa powder and chocolate products.
Moreover, research carried out in connec-
tion with the function of cocoa flavanols
suggests certain potential preventive effects
against a number of chronic conditions
including cancer and cardiovascular
disease.
Organic acids
In the natural fermentation process of
cocoa beans, organic acids such as acetic
and lactic acid are formed. During further
processing, these are partially converted or
volatilized, but they represent some 2% of
cocoa liquor and 4% of cocoa powder (in
non-alkalized cocoa powder as the acids in
alkalized cocoa powders as salts).
In addition to acetic acid, lactic acid, and
citric acid, cocoa contains a small quantity
of oxalic acid (approx. 0.5% on fat-free dry
matter.)
Methylxanthines
Cocoa products contain theobromine,
caffeine, and traces of theophylline.
Depending on the degree of fermentation
and the type of cocoa powder, the theobro-
mine and caffeine contents will vary from
1.5-3.0% to 0.1-0.5% respectively.
Despite its close chemical resemblance,
theobromine does not possess the stimulant
effect caffeine has on the human nervous
system.
Ash
The ash content of cocoa products is the
residue after the organic matter has been
subject to incineration. It indicates a mea-
sure of the presence of the inorganic salts in
the original material.
The natural ash content of non-alkalized
cocoa powder is approx.6.0% of the
fat-free dry material. The ash content in
alkalized cocoa powder is affected by the
type and quantity of alkalis that are used
in the alkalization process itself. The EU
directive 95/2/EC on food additives other
than colors and sweeteners allows max.
7% potassium carbonate (or equivalent on
fat-free dry basis) to be added for alkaliza-
tion. In the U.S., the CFR 163.110 states that
3% of potassium carbonate may be added
to cocoa nibs for alkalization.
When the ash content of cocoa powder is
determined, it is frequently combined with
the determination of the alkalinity of the
ash. This is important for certain applica-
tions. For instance, in baking, it does have
an effect on the characteristics of certain
baked products and is a better and more
objective parameter than pH. The latter
can easily be influenced and is dependent
on the production process but also the age.
(The pH of alkalized cocoa powder may
drop during storage, particularly when
moisture has been picked up.)
Minerals
The minerals shown in the tables on pages
76 and 77 are those for which the greatest
interest exists.
Of those mentioned, potassium and
sodium are of primary importance.
Potassium is generally regarded as ben-
eficial for humans. It fulfills a role in the
synthesis of proteins and the formation of
glycogen in the human body.
The natural potassium content of cocoa
powder is relatively high at approx. 2%.
As a result of alkalization with potassium
carbonate, this number may rise to 5%.
In the manufacture of dark brown
powders, sodium hydroxide is often used.
This can raise the natural sodium content of
0.01% to more than 2%. So, in cocoa pow-
ders in which these darker components are
incorporated, an increased sodium content
may be present.
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Vitamins
Vitamins are naturally occurring organic
substances that are essential in very small
quantities for the normal functioning of
living cells. Cocoa products are not an
important source of vitamins. As shown,
vitamin A is negligible; the quantity of
vitamin C is very low, and the B-group
vitamins are also low and decline further
in alkalized cocoa powder as a result of the
alkalizing process. The presence of vitamin
E (tocopherol) and to a lesser extent, vita-
min A, in cocoa butter is an exception.
Energy
Interest in the caloric value of food
products is currently high because of
consumers’ sensitivity to diet.
The amount of cocoa powder in a
product is generally low in comparison to,
for example, sugars and fats. The caloric
value of cocoa powder is also intrinsically
low. Cocoa powder thus contributes little
to a product’s total caloric value and thus
has minimal effects on total energy intake.
The caloric values for cocoa liquor and
cocoa butter are, of course, correspondingly
higher.
There are various methods available to
calculate the caloric value of cocoa powder.
ADM Cocoa follows accepted U.S. FDA
methods for caloric calculations such as
Atwater food factors or the general factors:
4 for protein, 4 for carbohydrate, and 9 for
fat in calories per gram, as described by
Merrill and Watt.
In the application of Atwater factors, the
following calculation of caloric value is
used:
% fat × 0.9 (Digestibility Coefficient) × 9.3
(Heat of Combustion) + % protein × 0.42
(D.C.) × 4.35 (H.C.) + % carbohydrate ×
0.32 (D.C.) × 4.16 (H.C.) = % fat × 8.37 +
% protein × 1.83 + % carbohydrate × 1.33
= caloric value
In this, the following should be
considered:
Digestibility Coefficient (D.C.) •
The digestibility coefficient is a
measure of the proportion of a food
absorbed into the bloodstream. It is
measured as the difference between
intake and fecal output, with an
allowance made for that part of the
output not derived from undigested
food residues, such as the lining of the
intestinal tract, digestive juices, etc.
Heat of combustion (H.C.) •
This is the energy released by the
complete combustion or oxidation
of a food. With allowances made for
materials not oxidized in the body,
the values are used to indicate energy
availability.
Carbohydrate •
The proportion of carbohydrate is
obtained by means of the so-called
difference method: 100 – (crude protein
+ fat + ash + moisture)
Protein •
In order to not overestimate the
content of carbohydrate, not crude
protein but total nitrogenous matter
(obtained by multiplying total nitrogen
by 5.63 (Merrill and Watt)), is used as
the basis for calculating carbohydrate
by difference.
If the general factors (4, 4, and 9) are used
for calculating the caloric value, then the
determination of the carbohydrate content
is made according to the following differ-
ence method:
100 – (crude protein + fat + insoluble fiber
+ ash + moisture)
(Because insoluble dietary fiber is not
digestible.) The protein content is, in this
case, calculated from total N × 6.25.
This last calculation leads to higher
energy values than the Atwater approach.
Considering the fact that bomb calorimetry
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CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
measurements compare well with the
results of the Atwater calculations, and
taking into account recently published
information on the lower digestibility of
fat-free dry cocoa components, the Atwater
system for the energy values are shown in
Tables 1-3 on pages 74 and 75.
4. Cocoa and
allergi es
Food allergy is a phenomenon vastly
misunderstood by the general public.
For example, the American Academy
of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
has found that as many as one-third of
American adults believe they are allergic
to at least one food, whereas in reality, less
than 2% of Americans actually have a true
food allergy. For children, this figure is
about 5%; however, many children seem to
outgrow their hypersensitivity.
Food allergy is caused by an overreaction
of the immune system. It identifies a harm-
less substance, often a particular protein,
as an antigen. To fend off the “invader,”
antibodies are produced that ultimately
lead to symptoms of allergic diseases like
asthma, eczema, and hay fever. In some
cases, the reactions can be very serious and
even life threatening.
Chocolate is often mentioned as being
allergenic. More often than not, it must be
seen in the light of the above-mentioned
gap between perception and reality.
Clinical tests have been carried out on a
group of adults suspected of allergic reac-
tions to chocolate. From the test results, it
was concluded that chocolate allergy is rare
in adults.
Nevertheless, food allergies must have
the undivided attention of the food and
confectionery industries. In chocolate and
cocoa-flavored products, a wide range of
different raw materials is used in an almost
endless variety of consumer products.
It is of paramount importance that the
food manufacturer properly labels the
products (e.g. the presence of nuts, even
in trace amounts) to give the consumer the
opportunity to select a food on the basis of
the presence of possible allergens.
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1. Functi onali ty and
attri butes of cocoa
li quor
Introduction
Cocoa liquor is the product from which
cocoa butter and cocoa powder are made.
It is also the base raw material for making
chocolate. No other ingredient in the choco-
late formula has such an impact on the
ultimate outcome of the product as cocoa
liquor. Dark chocolate is basically a mixture
of liquor, sugar, and cocoa butter, whereas
in milk chocolate, milk powder has also
been added.
In combination with the chocolate
manufacturing process, each of these
components has a specific influence on
the final characteristics of the chocolate
product. However, cocoa liquor is always
the dominant factor in determining the
chocolate experience of the consumer.
Although cocoa liquor is sometimes used
as a flavoring component in other food
products, its principal use is as an ingredi-
ent in the manufacturing of chocolate.
Within the scope of this chapter, we focus
particularly on the attributes of cocoa
liquor as a raw material for chocolate. A
number of these attributes are highlighted
as they relate to quality aspects of the
end-product, while others are mentioned
because they are important to the user of
liquor in the chocolate production process
itself.
It is not uncommon to use different
words for the same product or raw mate-
rial. This is the case with cocoa liquor. It
is also often called cocoa mass, sometimes
cocoa paste, and in the United States, it
is referred to as unsweetened chocolate,
chocolate liquor, or simply chocolate. It was
the cocoa press industry that introduced
the name “cocoa liquor.” As this industry
today supplies the bulk of this raw material
to the merchant market, we believe that
the name “cocoa liquor” has become more
familiar to the cocoa and chocolate industry
as compared to other industries. In the
context of this book, we have chosen to
refer to this product as “cocoa liquor” or
simply “liquor.”
Standard of identity
Most countries provide a definition of
cocoa liquor in their food laws. From
country to country, the definition may
vary somewhat, but in Codex Standard
141-1983, Rev. 1-2001, cocoa mass or liquor
is described as “the product obtained from
cocoa nib from cocoa beans of merchant-
able quality which have been cleaned and
freed from shell as thoroughly as is techni-
cally possible (with/without roasting and
with/without removal of or addition of
any of its constituents).”
The European Directive 2000/36/EC
relating to cocoa and chocolate products
does not contain a definition of cocoa
liquor. In the U.S., cocoa liquor is described
in CFR 163.111 as the solid or semi-plastic
food prepared by grinding cocoa nibs
(which can be alkalized), allowing a
maximum of 1.75% shell based on alkali-
free nibs and containing 50-60% cocoa fat
content. Legislators have left it up to the
Cocoa Liquor
7
Typical Chocolate Recipes
Dark
chocolate
Milk
chocolate
Sugar 50% 45%
Cocoa liquor 45% 10%
Cocoa butter 5% 25%
Full cream
milk powder
- 20%
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CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
chocolate maker to decide in what stage of
the production process the roasting takes
place. Whole bean roasting, nib roasting, or
liquor roasting can be used.
The Federation of Cocoa Commerce
(FCC) defines cocoa mass or liquor as
obtained from cocoa nib (roasted or
unroasted, max. 5% shell and max. 10%
ash, both on a fat-free dry basis), mechani-
cally processed to a paste, which retains the
natural fat content of the cocoa nib.
In some countries, an important aspect
in the marketing of chocolate is that if a
certain percentage of the cocoa liquor used
is made from so-called fine or flavor beans,
the final product may be called fine grade
chocolate (Edelschokolade in German). The
International Cocoa Organization (ICCO)
listed in the International Cocoa Agreement
of 1993 certain cocoa bean origins as flavor
beans (Edelkakao in German). Cocoa beans
from the following countries are desig-
nated as fine or flavor beans: Dominican
Republic,
Grenada, Jamaica, St. Lucia, St. Vincent,
Samoa, Surinam, and Trinidad & Tobago.
In addition, from the following countries
only a portion of the cocoa export may
be called fine or flavor beans: Colombia,
Costa Rica, Ecuador, Indonesia (Java),
Madagascar, Sao Tomé & Principe, Papua
New Guinea, Sri Lanka, and Venezuela.
Some chocolate manufacturers empha-
size to the consumer that their products
are made of a particular cocoa bean origin,
aiming at a special market position.
However, selection of sound and
well-fermented beans of most origins, in
combination with proper processing, can
result in a whole range of flavors.
The personality of chocolate
When discussing cocoa liquor, it is almost
inevitable to directly deal with its prime
application: the making of chocolate.
It plays such a predominant role in deter-
mining the ultimate flavor of the chocolate
that it is justified to extensively dwell on
the subject of how the flavor in cocoa liquor
is developed.
The flavor of cocoa liquor is dependent
on three very distinct and equally impor-
tant factors:
the type of cocoa bean used (generic •
background and growing conditions)
the flavor precursor development in •
the bean during fermentation and
drying, as well as the first steps in
further handling
the flavor formation during subse- •
quent processing
Bean type and bean quality are major
factors in determining the flavor charac-
teristics of the final product. Subsequent
processing can be further influenced by the
choice of equipment and by varying the
processing conditions, thereby tailoring to
the specific flavor needs of each individual
customer. Obviously, that specific flavor
has to be reproduced time and again to
assure that the customer receives what is
expected: that typical, recognizable, and
unique house flavor. In short, the cocoa liquor
determines the personality of the chocolate.
Cocoa bean selection
In Module 1, the various types of beans
with their specific characteristics were
discussed. Differing cocoa bean types and
beans from different origins each have their
own flavor potential. Therefore, choosing a
particular type of bean to be used for cocoa
liquor is of paramount importance. This
does not mean simply specifying the origin
of the bean, as both short- and long-term
influences have an impact on the flavor
potential. Among the short-term effects are
climatological aspects and crop handling,
in particular fermentation and subsequent
drying of the beans. Longer-term factors
are the genetic history of the bean, soil
conditions, the age of the trees, and crop
management, all of which must be taken
into account. During recent years we have
seen significant changes in the availability
of certain types of cocoa beans. Industrial
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CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
processors have had to adjust to a 50%
drop in the supply of Brazilian cocoa.
Malaysian bean production rose rapidly
in the late ‘80s, only to fall back again in
the ‘90s. The Ivory Coast has increased its
output to more than 40% of the total world
crop. Indonesia has shown a tremendous
increase in cocoa production, but the flavor
potential of the beans coming from the
various regions is vastly different, as a
substantial part is unfermented.
Crop management is another factor:
In Ecuador, producer of the unrivaled
Arriba beans, there are fewer and fewer
true Arriba-yielding trees. They are being
replaced by hybrids that yield a far higher
bean production per acre but lack the
unique flavor of the original Arriba cocoa.
Similar examples can be found in other
cocoa growing areas.
At the same time, the cocoa trade itself
has experienced important changes (e.g.
the privatization of the cocoa trade in
some countries of origin), making direct
control over the selection of beans even
more important. Obviously, only ripened,
good fermented, and adequately dried
cocoa beans will lead to good quality
cocoa liquor. During fermentation and
subsequent drying of the cocoa beans, the
flavor precursors are developed. They will
ultimately come to their full flavor during
roasting. The initial stages of pretreatment
of the beans prior to roasting, as discussed
in Module 4, will influence the precursor
formation as well.
Even the best starting material will fail
to deliver its potential if it has not been
treated correctly. For that reason, ADM
Cocoa has established itself on every
cocoa-growing continent. Having resources
and an actual presence in the major cocoa
growing areas not only assures that ADM
Cocoa is able to procure the cocoa needed
to produce the desired products, but also
enables participation in rapidly changing
local cocoa environments, as well as direct
control over bean quality.
Processing equipment
Cocoa processing has progressively devel-
oped over the years. Many production
systems are available, from whole bean
roasting to nib roasting, special steps to
reduce the overall plate count, and thin
film techniques for even better homog-
enous roasting.
The two most commonly used roasters are:
contact roaster, in which batches of •
cocoa nibs are heated in a large rotat-
ing drum
continuous air roasters, whereby cocoa •
beans or nibs are roasted by direct
contact with hot air
Some prefer liquor from whole bean
roasting; others prefer nib-roasted liquor.
Both methods are very adequate and can
produce similar but also distinctly different
types of cocoa liquor. This can be even
further accentuated by pretreatment of the
nibs, during which they are wetted and
heat treated to reduce the plate count.
Temperature, moisture content, and air
throughput are very different in both types
of equipment, resulting in quite different
types of liquor. Nib contact roasters and
whole bean roasters are particularly
suitable for delicate top-note flavors that
mark the bouquet and richness of cocoa.
On the other hand, if full-bodied chocolate
flavors with pronounced cocoa and bitter
notes and lower acidity and astringency are
required, an air nib roaster is the better sys-
tem. Nib contact roasters and whole bean
roasters are recommend ed for processing
the fine flavor beans and for low and
medium roasting of West African beans.
Air roasters are excellent for West African
cocoas that require full development of
their typical cocoa and bitter potential (See
Figures 1-4).
If subsequently the cocoa liquor is
subjected to a thin film treatment, a process
whereby the astringent and acid notes are
significantly reduced, the conching time of
the chocolate can also be reduced consider-
ably (See Figure 5).
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CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
In the manufacturing of chocolate,
the conching process allows some of the
natural volatile flavoring components that
do not have a favorable effect on the taste
of the chocolate to escape.
Each of the different types of equipment
has specific features. By combining them
in the appropriate manner, the best can be
brought out of each of the different bean
origins and particular bean blends.
ADM Cocoa produces a range of liquors,
with and without subsequent thin film
treatment.
Flavor
To be able to determine the flavor profile
of a cocoa liquor, six different descriptors
have been defined: favorable ones like
cocoa, bitterness, bouquet, and richness/
body, and less favorable ones such as
astringency and acidity. Off-notes are
classified separately under descriptors like
burnt, hammy, smoky, moldy, earthy, and
woody.
The ultimately desired chocolate flavor
may vary considerably, not only from
manufacturer to manufacturer but also
regionally. Some consumers prefer a
Tixiin.+Uni .Ni Ii.von INiix
DUniNo Ain Ro.s+iNo oi Nins
Time (minutes)
Flavor Index
Temperature Air temperature 125°C
25
20
15
10
5
0
0
5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
Temperature (˚C) Flavor Index (–)
Tixiin.+Uni .Ni Ii.von INiix
DUniNo CoN+.c+ Ro.s+iNo oi Nins
Time (minutes)
Flavor Index
Temperature
25
20
15
10
5
0 0
20
40
60
80
100
120
0 5 10 12.5 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 53
Temperature (˚C) Flavor Index (–)
Tixiin.+Uni .Ni Mois+Uni CoN+iN+
DUniNo Ain Ro.s+iNo oi Nins
Time (minutes)
Moisture
Temperature Air temperature 125°C
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
0
5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
Temperature (˚C) Moisture (%)
Tixiin.+Uni .Ni Mois+Uni CoN+iN+
DUniNo CoN+.c+ Ro.s+iNo oi Nins
Time (minutes)
Moisture
Temperature
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
5 10 12.5 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 53
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
Temperature (˚C) Moisture (%)
Figure 1 Figure 3
Figure 2 Figure 4
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robust flavor, whereas others prefer a mild
flavor like that of milk chocolate. Principle
Component Analysis uses biplots to deter-
mine the flavor profile. An example, based
on four differently processed cocoa liquors
made from the same blend of West African
main crop cocoa beans, is given in Figure 6.
Principle Component Analysis is a
method used to easily gain insight into
the complex connections between many
variables, such as in the case of a sensoric
analysis. The information contained in
the variables is reduced by grouping the
most important variables on the basis of
their inter-related connection. By means of
these groups of variables (dimensions), a
Ii.von INiix .Ni Mois+Uni CoN+iN+
DUniNo TniN Iiix Tni.+xiN+ oi LiQUon
Flavor Index
Moisture Content
25
20
15
10
5
Input After
homogenizing
After 1st
column
After 2nd
column
After 3rd
column
0 0
0,5
1
1,5
2
2,5
Moisture (%) Flavor Index (–)
Figure 5
Cocoa Beans
Whole Bean
Roasting
Breaking and
Winnowing
Breaking and
Winnowing
Nib
Roasting
Grinding
Grinding
Thin Layer
Treatment
Liquor
Thin Layer
Treatment
Liquor
Treated
Liquor
Treated
Liquor
Cocoa Liquor Processing Methods
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CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
graph can be drawn to show the essential
information of all the data.
The variables in the graph are indicated
as lines. The angle between two lines
indicates the degree to which the variables
are inter-related, whereas the length of
the line indicates the significance of the
variable. The placing of the products in the
graph emphasizes the variables applicable
to that product. In order to be meaningful,
however, the two dimensions shown in the
graph must explain the greater part of the
variation.
As can be deduced from the biplot, very
different flavor profiles can be obtained to
meet the needs of the individual chocolate
maker, from low roast, thin to fully roasted
cocoas.
When using different cocoa bean
sources, the rich palette of different flavor
characteristics can be enlarged. In Figure 7,
the flavor profiles for four different cocoa
liquors are shown, each produced under
similar conditions and made from cocoa
from the same source.
Clearly, the typical flavor aspects come
forward:
Arriba, known for its unique bouquet, •
with flowery, honey, and nutty top
notes
horizon axis: Component 1
Vertical axis: Component 2
Bitterness
Acidity
Astringency
Cocoa Flavor
Full/Rich
Bouquet
Type 1
Type 2
Type 3
Type 4
-2.7 -1.7 - 0.7 0.3 1.3 2.3 2.9
-1.7
-0.7
0.3
1.3
2.3
Figure 6: Principle Component Analysis of Four Cocoa Liquor
Types Based on the Same Bean Blend of West African Origin
Type 1 - low roast + thin film treatment
Type 2 - Medium roast
Type 3 - full roast + thin film treatment
Type 4 - full roast
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CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
Venezuela, with its characteristic •
cheesy, nutty bitterness
Sumatra, with its extreme acidity and •
astringency
Ghana, known for its full chocolate •
flavor
Color
The roasting process of good fermented
beans renders a characteristic brown color
to the cocoa liquor. Differing roasting con-
ditions may lead to color differentiation in
the liquor. A low-roasted liquor will have
a slightly lighter color compared to a high-
roasted liquor. In chocolate, however, these
color differences will not be very distinc-
tive. The color of Criollo beans is somewhat
lighter than the Forasteros’ color, but this
difference mostly disappears after roasting.
Some bean types, the so-called light
breaking beans such as from Java and
from Madagascar, are substantially
lighter in color compared to others. Both
of these bean types are classified as fine
flavor beans, and they not only enable the
manufacturer to produce a chocolate with
typical value-added top flavor and color
notes, but they may also call their chocolate
fine-grade chocolate (Edelschokolade) in the
European Union. Thus, both the applied
technology and the chocolate formula
make it possible to influence the color of
the end-product.
Fat content
Usually, cocoa butter is the most expensive
ingredient in the chocolate recipe. Cocoa
liquor contributes a significant amount of
cocoa butter to the chocolate formula, so
using cocoa liquor favorably affects the
total raw material cost of the chocolate.
IioUni :. PniNcii.i CoxioNiN+ AN.ivsis oi V.nioUs Coco.s
Bitterness
*Venezuela
Acidity
*Sumatra
Astringency
*Ghana
Cocoa Flavor
Full/Rich
Bouquet
*Arriba
Horizontal axis: Component 1
Vertical axis: Component 2
-1,1
-0,6
-0,1
0,4
0,9
1,4
1,9
2,4 1,4 -0,4 0,6 1,6 2,6
horizon axis: Component 1
Vertical axis: Component 2
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Depending on the bean origin and its
quality, the fat content of the nib usually
varies between 50 and 57%. Small beans
contain proportionately less fat and more
shell compared to large beans, and main
crop beans have a higher fat content than
mid-crop beans. Seasonal effects, such as
the amount of rainfall, may cause the fat
content to fluctuate.
Cocoa liquor made from good quality
main crop bulk beans from West African
countries such as Ghana, Ivory Coast, and
Nigeria have a cocoa butter content higher
than 54% of the dry matter. Criollos such as
Ecuadorian and Venezuelan beans usually
have a somewhat lower fat content. The
resulting liquor should normally have a
butter content of 50%. The same goes for
Asian types such as Java beans.
It should be noted that adverse climatic
and growing conditions have a direct
negative influence on the butter content
of the bean. If the fat content of the liquor
fluctuates too much, problems may arise
during chocolate production.
Significant fluctuations in fat content will
lead to differences in the consistency of
the chocolate mass, requiring continuous
adjustment of the roller refiners. This will
cause problems with respect to the particle
size distribution after refining, as the result
of which the desired viscosity of the choco-
late is not reached. It is therefore necessary
to keep the fat content of the cocoa liquor
as constant as possible.
Fineness
Cocoa liquor as an ingredient is ground
again during the production of chocolate,
usually on a five-roller refiner. Therefore,
the impression could mistakenly arise that
the fineness of cocoa liquor is of secondary
importance.
For two reasons, the fineness of the cocoa
liquor itself is of paramount importance in
the production of chocolate:
the availability of free fat •
the maintenance cost of roller refiners •
Free fat
In the nib, the cocoa butter is encapsulated
in the plant cells. During the grinding of
the nib into cocoa liquor, the fat is released,
and the physical form of the product, above
35° C (95° F), is changed into a paste. In
case the plant cells remain intact, the fat
will not be released and thus will not be
available to participate in the continuous
phase in the cocoa liquor and, later on, in
the chocolate.
It would be optimal if all of the cocoa
butter in the liquor were already present
as free fat in the kneader. The fat can, of
course, still be released during the refining
stage of the process, but this may lead
to extra slip of the upper rollers, then
to undesirable extra fine particles in the
chocolate. In Figure 8, the influence of the
fineness on the viscosity of a West African
cocoa liquor is demonstrated.
There is, however, an optimum fineness
and particle size distribution of the cocoa
liquor. If too many very fine particles are
present, increasing the specific surface of
the fat free matter exponentially, the viscos-
ity of the liquor would increase as well,
thereby creating the opposite result.
Maintenance cost
The fat-free dry matter of cocoa liquor
consists mostly of fibrous material. Fiber
material is difficult to disintegrate. The
grinding of cocoa liquor demands not only
a vast amount of energy, it also causes
significant wear on equipment.
In particular, the five-roller refiner is sub-
jected to this wear. Repair or maintenance
of such refiners is costly. In cases where the
cocoa liquor being processed is too coarse,
further disintegration of the particles will
take place on the roller refining equipment,
leading to excessive wear. The difference
between an adequate and an insufficient
fineness of cocoa liquor can lead to a differ-
ence in terms of downtime of the refiner of
a factor 4 to 5.
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Furthermore, in chocolate recipes with
very high liquor contents, part of the liquor
has to be added in the conching stage, as
the total fat content would be too high to
pass through the refiners without causing
problems. However, this can only be done
if the cocoa liquor is sufficiently fine. If
the cocoa liquor contains too many coarse
particles, these particles will appear in the
chocolate as separate specks.
Rheology
Obviously, both the fat content and the
fineness of the cocoa liquor have a direct
influence on the viscosity of the product.
Other factors, however, are also of
importance, such as the moisture content,
the time and intensity of processing, and
the shear forces to which the liquor is
subjected during production. From this,
one can safely conclude that the lower the
viscosity of the cocoa liquor, the better the
rheological properties in the chocolate, with
minimal fat content.
Microbiology
Certainly, all ingredients to be used in food
products should be of excellent micro-
biological quality, regardless of whether
these ingredients will be subjected to an
adequate reduction of microorganisms
90.0%
0
1,000
2,000
3,000
4,000
5,000
6,000
7,000
8,000
Viscosity
in mPa.S
Fineness in % through 75µm
97.95 99.73% 99.73% 99.95% 99.97% 99.99%
Figure 8: Influence of the Fineness on the Viscosity
of a West African Cocoa Liquor
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CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
during further processing into a finished
product. Similarly, it is no longer sufficient
for a supplier to specify only a maximum
plate count for a particular food ingredient.
The water activity of cocoa liquor and
chocolate is usually too low to permit
growth of microorganisms. On the other
hand, pathogenic organisms such as
Salmonellae can survive in the fat medium
of both these products.
Furthermore, cocoa liquor, and the
chocolate made from that liquor, can be
used in combination with other products
in which microbial growth conditions are
favorable. Therefore, it is important to
adhere strictly to specified maximum plate
counts and understand the end product
applications involved.
Lipase activity and cocoa liquor
Enzyme activity forms an integral part of
live seeds, and the cocoa bean is no excep-
tion to this. In particular, the fatty acid
liberating lipase enzyme is undesirable in
most food products. Hydrolization of fats
(triglycerides) produces free fatty acids and
di- and monoglycerides.
Although not prominent in cocoa fat, it
is worth noting that short chain fatty acids
in particular produce strong off-flavors
at very low concentrations. For instance,
when lipase is introduced to lauric fats
such as coconut oil and sufficient water is
available, saponification may occur. The
resulting soapy flavor is caused by the
lauric acids formed. In a similar way, if
lipase catalyzes the hydrolysis of butter fat,
strong rancid notes will become apparent.
This normally will not occur in cocoa
liquor and chocolate, but in products such
as ice cream coatings and filled chocolates
(bonbons), conditions may be appropriate
for enzymatic activity. Thus, when lauric
fats are associated with chocolate product
formulations, lipase-free ingredients should
be used.
2. The appli cati on of
cocoa li quor
Chocolate
The overall taste perception of chocolate
is, to a large extent, the result of a balance
between the sweetness of sugar and the bit-
terness of the cocoa liquor. Relatively small
variations may have a significant influence
on that balance. The degree of roasting as
well as the origin of the cocoa can change
the perception of the bitterness of the cocoa
liquor substantially. A chocolate product
that is perceived as too bitter can be cor-
rected by using cocoa liquor with a milder
flavor. Such a correction, however, can
often also be achieved by merely increasing
the sweetness of the product. Similarly,
a chocolate product that is found to be
too sweet can be harmoniously balanced
without having to reduce the sugar content
by adding a somewhat stronger-flavored
cocoa liquor.
Supporting flavor ingredients such as
vanillin are often instrumental in rounding
off the total flavor impression. Quite a large
number of spices and herbs have been
described in literature as enhancing the
overall chocolate flavor.
The fineness of chocolate is an important
factor in both the color and the flavor of the
product.
The finer the chocolate, the lighter its
color will be. The flavor experience of such
a product will also be more rounded and
more harmonious. This is particularly true
for chocolate with a median particle size
(<18μm). In coarser material (>25μm), the
harsher flavor components, like bitterness,
will come forward in a more pronounced
manner.
As a rule, chocolate with a high liquor
content is very finely ground. When the
high amount of cocoa liquor causes the fat
content of the chocolate mass to become too
high, this mass can no longer be fed over
the roller refiners. In such a case, part of the
cocoa liquor must be directly added to the
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CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
conching equipment. This can only be done
if the liquor has a sufficient fineness.
Other applications
Apart from chocolate, cocoa liquor is also
used in other applications, though only in
modest amounts. In ice cream, ice cream
coatings, bakery products, chocolate
drinks, and desserts, the use of cocoa liquor
is sometimes preferred over that of cocoa
powder. Usually, it is then a matter of
weighing the chocolate flavor against the
flavor of cocoa powder.
Adding a proportionate amount of cocoa
butter to cocoa powder will not provide a
comparable flavor to the flavor produced
from cocoa liquor. The conditions to which
the liquor is subjected during the press
operation lead to a certain loss of the typi-
cal chocolate flavor notes in the resulting
cocoa powder.
If cocoa powder is not able to give an
adequate chocolate flavor in a particular
end-product, then either chocolate or cocoa
liquor can replace it. Notably, in Europe,
labeling a product “made with real choco-
late” is a strong consumer marketing tool.
In that case, chocolate must indeed be the
ingredient used. In other parts of the world,
the use of the word “chocolate” seems to be
of lesser importance, and consequently, the
alternative ingredient could instead be the
thin film pre-treated cocoa liquor, which
resembles the flavor of a liquor that has
been subjected to a conching treatment.
3. Packagi ng, storage
and transportati on
Cocoa liquor as a rule is used in liquid
form. Large users accept the product in
tank trucks in liquid form as soon as this is
logistically feasible. Transportation must
take place in clean, odor-free, dry tanks that
are exclusively used for food-grade prod-
ucts and that have proper insulation.
Loading temperature of the cocoa liquor
should be between 55°-65° C (131°-149° F).
During transport, depending on the
distance, the temperature of the liquor
may drop somewhat, but at the point of
discharge, the temperature should not be
below 45° C (113° F).
Cocoa liquor is a dispersion of very fine
particles in cocoa butter. When it is stored
in tanks, these particles will settle to the
bottom of the tank (the lower the viscosity,
the quicker this will happen).
In order to avoid settling on the bottom
part of the tank and prevent the liquor
from separating, it is necessary to stir the
liquor regularly.
Usually, an intermittent scraping/stir-
ring device is installed to keep the liquor
moving during the entire storage time and
protect it from overheating and settling.
Special care must also be taken to
prevent condensation in the storage tank.
This may especially occur near the manhole
or the lid of the tank. These should be
properly insulated or traced.
Cocoa liquor is a very stable product.
Still, for prolonged optimal storage in
liquid form, it is advisable to keep the
temperature of the product, under stirring,
between 40°-45° C (104°-113° F). Storage
tanks can be heated by hot air in a hot room
where the tank is located, by a jacket, or by
an internal hot water spiral.
Steam heating should be avoided, as this
may raise the contact temperatures too
high, causing after-roasting.
Designating tanks for the exclusive
storage of cocoa liquor is recommended.
They need not be made of stainless steel.
As long as the tanks are used properly and
regularly, it is also not necessary to clean
them. If, for whatever reason, a tank has to
be cleaned, the inside must be completely
dried and rinsed with cocoa butter before it
is put in use again.
When cocoa liquor cannot be received in
liquid form, it can be supplied in cartons in
solid blocks of 25 kg or in kibbled form in
bags of 25 kg.
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CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
In solid form, the liquor must be protect-
ed against direct sunlight and other heat
radiation sources during transportation.
Store in cool (15°-20° C/59°-68° F), dry (RH
<50%), dark conditions.
Temperature fluctuations should be
avoided. During melting of the liquor, it is
best if temperature does not exceed 60° C
(140° F). In the spirals of the melting tank,
use warm water rather than steam, as this
would raise the contact temperature too
high.
Cocoa liquor is a product with a high fat
content—about 50% of it is cocoa butter.
Like all high fat products, cocoa liquor eas-
ily absorbs foreign odors. During storage,
be sure no undesirable odors are directly
exposed to the cocoa liquor, as the product
will quickly absorb these.
4. Speci fi cati on for
cocoa li quor
The standard specification of a natural-pro-
cess (non-alkalized) cocoa liquor is based
on West African cocoa beans and applies
to an average sample of a consignment
leaving the production plant, determined
with the company’s standard methods of
analysis (shown in Module 3).
Standard Specification
Flavor up to standard
Fat content, extraction with petroleum ether 50-51% or 52-54% or 54-56%
pH 5.3-6.0
Fineness (%), 75μm sieve, water-suspension 99.0 min. (or micrometer fineness 10-12)
Moisture content (%) 1.5 max.
Standard plate count 5,000 max. (or up to 25,000 max.)
Molds per g 50 max.
Yeasts per g 50 max.
Molds and yeast per g 100 max.
Enterobacteriaceae (Coliforms in the US) in 1g negative
E. coli in 1 g negative
Salmonellae negative
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Cocoa Butter
8
1. Functi onali ty and
attri butes of cocoa
butter
Introduction
If it had not been for John Fry, it is debat-
able whether chocolate as we know it today
would ever have come into existence. In
1847, he discovered one of the confec-
tionery industry’s greatest inventions by
adding cocoa butter to a mixture of cocoa
liquor and sugar.
Chocolate was born, and it was here to
stay. Like many inventions, his discovery
seems like a relatively simple matter today.
Cocoa butter was the key to John Fry’s
chocolate invention. Probably no other
edible fat available at the time would have
produced a consumer product that, right
from the beginning, proved to possess such
commercial staying power globally.
Particularly, the functional properties
of cocoa butter in the initial recipe made
it possible to formulate the chocolate into
a product with the specific characteristics
that it still has today.
This module deals with the functional-
ities and attributes of cocoa butter in its
almost sole application: the manufacture of
chocolate.
Standard of identity
Cocoa butter is one of the most expensive
commodity-based vegetable fats available.
Therefore, it is not surprising that over the
years legislators have been very particular
in defining its standard of identity.
Current legal definitions around
the world are very similar. The Codex
Standard (Codex Stan 86-81, Rev. 1-2001)
and the European Directive 2000/36/EC,
for instance, define the standard of cocoa
butter in almost identical wording. In the
USA, cocoa butter is not separately defined,
but it is described in CFR 163.112 as the
cocoa fat removed from ground cocoa nibs.
It seems logical that cocoa butter is made
from cocoa beans, but some legislators
have gone one step further by stipulating
that cocoa butter can only be made from
cocoa beans, cocoa nibs, cocoa liquor, cocoa
cake, or cocoa dust. In other words: from
nothing else.
Relevant factors for cocoa butter and its
production are:
use of sound cocoa beans to obtain •
cocoa butter with max. 1.75% of free
fatty acids (FFA)
reduction of shell content in the cocoa •
nibs (max. 1.75% on alkali-free nibs),
resulting in max. 0.35% unsaponifi-
ables in press cocoa butter but in max.
0.7% unsaponifiables in expeller and •
refined cocoa butter (larger portion of
shell)
processing like filtering and/or •
centrifuging, degumming and/
or deodorizing, neutralization, and
bleaching
Based on these factors, some legislation
and several trade contracts on cocoa butter,
e.g. of the Federation of Cocoa Commerce
(FCC), recognize four defined types or
quality grades of cocoa butter:
Press Cocoa Butter • , obtained by means
of mechanical pressing of cleaned
and ground cocoa nibs and subse-
quently only filtered/centrifuged and
degummed and/or deodorized
Expeller Cocoa Butter • , obtained by the
expeller process, often with whole
beans or nibs with high shell content
and only subjected to further process-
ing similar to Press Cocoa Butter Press
Cocoa Butter Other Types of Cocoa
Butter
Refined Cocoa Butter, • obtained by expel-
ling or pressing, subjected to the same
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CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
treatments as Expeller Cocoa Butter,
and neutralized and bleached (refined)
Analytical criteria have been defined for
the various types of cocoa butter:
Cocoa Fat forms a separate category.
This is defined as fat obtained in any way
from part of the cocoa bean that does not
necessarily conform to one of the above
definitions.
The chocolate industry is almost the sole
user of cocoa butter, and usually press
cocoa butter is set as the standard.
The other types are generally considered
to be somewhat lower standard, mostly
because they are often made from subgrade
cocoa beans or extracted from cocoa waste
material. In this module, we will exclu-
sively deal with the standard of the press
cocoa butter.
Flavor
The flavor of cocoa butter should be inves-
tigated from two different angles: its own
typical flavor characteristics and its flavor
stability. Both aspects are dealt with in this
module.
Flavor characteristics
After the roasting and alkalizing steps,
cocoa butter intrinsically incorporates all
of the typical cocoa flavor elements. It will,
therefore, have a distinct cocoa flavor.
Cocoa butter made from alkalized liquor
has a somewhat stronger flavor than butter
obtained from non-alkalized liquor. By
far, most cocoa butter today is made from
alkalized cocoa liquor.
Particularly, the bitter and specific cocoa
flavor components are accentuated in this
type of cocoa butter.
Most often, the term “natural cocoa
butter” is used for cocoa butter that has not
been subjected to a deodorization step, so it
has the full cocoa butter flavor.
Sometimes the term “natural cocoa
butter” describes the cocoa butter from
non-alkalized (natural) cocoa liquor.
The flavor intensity of cocoa butter can
be managed by subjecting it to a deodor-
izing treatment. Depending on the required
flavor intensity, cocoa butter can be fully or
partially deodorized. A taste panel can help
establish to what degree of deodorization
the cocoa butter should be subjected in
order to obtain the desired flavor profile.
The Rostagno Aroma Index can be used
as an instrumental aid in establishing the
extent of deodorization.
Fully deodorized butter has hardly any
cocoa flavor of its own, whereas non-
deodorized butter absorbs the cocoa flavor
components released during the roasting
process. The degree of deodorizing is
determined by the flavor intensity the
cocoa butter user requires:
In dark chocolate, which contains a •
relatively high amount of cocoa liquor
and a proportionately lower amount
of cocoa butter, the flavor contribution
of cocoa butter is acceptable. However,
depending on flavor profile target and
customer preferences, fully or partially
deodorized cocoa butter is normally
used.
In creamy milk chocolate, which •
contains much smaller quantities of
cocoa liquor in combination with
higher quantities of cocoa butter and
has a flavor profile that usually avoids
strong and bitter notes, fully deodor-
ized cocoa butter is often used.
In white chocolate, which contains no •
cocoa liquor at all, the type of cocoa
butter will heavily depend on flavor
profile and customer targets. For
children, who expect a smooth, creamy
flavor, fully deodorized butter might
be used. For adults, who expect a cocoa
flavor experience, partially or non-
deodorized butter may be preferred.
In contrast with other refined oils and
fats, cocoa butter is deodorized by means
of a light treatment with steam under
vacuum. As this treatment is very mild, the
less volatile flavor components of cocoa
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CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
butter can still be detected even if it is fully
deodorized. Also, tocopherols, the natural
antioxidants present in the cocoa butter, are
not removed.
The main reason for a mild steam
treatment lies in the need to maintain the
optimal functional properties of the cocoa
butter. More stringent conditions could
trigger interesterification of the butter.
The unique triacylglycerol composition of
the butter, with the unsaturated oleic acid
on the 2- position and the saturated fatty
acid on the 1- and 3- positions, would be
lost due to interesterification, causing the
fatty acids to be more randomly distribut-
ed. This is detrimental to the hardness and
the crystallization properties of the cocoa
butter, which are sensitive issues for cocoa
butter users. Under “Hardness” on page
103, we discuss this subject in more detail.
Flavor stability
Like any fat, cocoa butter can deteriorate.
Fat oxidation leads to a variety of off-
flavors which, in combination, are usually
referred to as rancidity. This can also hap-
pen to cocoa butter, although cocoa butter
is one of the most stable lipids in compari-
son with other fats and oils.
The sensitivity for oxidation can be
measured in several ways. In the food
industry, the Rancimat test is often used for
establishing the oxidation stability of oils
and fats. The longer the incubation time the
more stable the product will be.
In Table 1, a comparison is given for a
Rancimat test carried out at 100° C (212° F)
on a number of natural and processed oils
and fats.
Table 1: Rancimat Test at 100° C (212° F)
Cocoa Butter 50
Vegetable Oils
Canola Oil 6
Olive Oil 20
Peanut Oil 29
Soybean Oil 11
Vegetable Fats
Coconut Oil 180
Hydrogenated Soybean Oil 174
Palm Oil 43
Palm Kernel Oil 45
Animal Fats
Butter Oil 17
Lard 3
The reason for the high stability is
twofold:
By nature, the composition and struc- •
ture of cocoa butter give it outstanding
protection. Just over one-third of all
fatty acids present in the triacylg-
lycerols are unsaturated. By far, the
largest part is oleic acid. Only about
10% of the unsaturated fatty acids is
polyunsaturated linoleic acid, whereas
the very unstable linolenic acid is
virtually absent. In addition, almost all
unsaturated fatty acids are located on
the 2- position of the triacylglycerides,
which allows for structural protection.
Cocoa is a rich source of antioxidants. •
The well-known tocopherols are found
in cocoa butter. A typical analysis
shows that cocoa butter contains about
200 mg/kg tocopherols, with the larger
part (170 mg/kg) consisting of gamma
tocopherol and the remainder being
alpha and delta tocopherol (15 mg/
kg each). Too-stringent deodorization
reduces the tocopherol level, resulting
in reduced stability.
In addition, cocoa is rich in flavonoids.
These substances have attracted attention
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CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
lately because of their radical quenching
properties and their effectiveness in retard-
ing the oxidation process. Flavonoids,
however, perhaps because of their polar
character, will remain mainly in the solid
phase (cocoa powder), and their positive
influence is hardly conveyed to the cocoa
butter.
In order to establish oxidative deteriora-
tion, the peroxide value determination is
sometimes used. (See Module 3: Methods
of Analysis.) This test, however, often lacks
accuracy, as many oxidative products such
as n-hexanal show a much lower detection
level than those that can be determined.
An experienced taste panel proves to be
a very reliable means to detect taste and
flavor deviations and is often much more
sensitive to these deviations than existing
instrumental techniques.
Color and opacity
Cocoa butter has an ivory color in solid
form and is yellowish in liquid form. In
liquid form, its color should be clear and
may not contain any solid particles. In
most cases the color of cocoa butter is
not relevant with regard to the color of
the chocolate made from it. The brown
color of the fat-free dry cocoa constituents
determines the color of the chocolate, and
in this respect the color influence from the
butter is negligible. There is, however, one
exception: white chocolate. Although here
the color of the milk components is domi-
nant, the color of cocoa butter does have its
impact as well.
Color is usually measured by means
of a Lovibond tintometer. (See Module 3:
Methods of Analysis.) For cocoa butter,
normally the red color is measured, after
having standardized the yellow color on
40 in a 1-inch cell. The red color varies
between 1 and 3. For white chocolate,
it is desirable to limit the red color to a
maximum of 1.6, as otherwise the chocolate
tends to become too dark yellow.
When white chocolate is exposed to
UV light, the yellow color will disappear.
This bleaching effect occurs due to photo-
oxidation of the photo-sensibilizers. These
are present in cocoa butter (chlorophyll
derivatives) as well as in the milk
constituents (riboflavines). As the color
gradually disappears and the bleaching
effect becomes noticeable, the oxidation can
also be sensorically detected (rancidity).
It is therefore important to protect cocoa
butter and white chocolate from direct UV
sources such as sunlight.
Clearness of the cocoa butter is of no
significance for chocolate. However, it is an
indication as to whether proper processing
conditions have been applied. It is impor-
tant that liquid cocoa butter is completely
clear and shows no particles, either in
suspended form or as a sediment.
Turbidity of fat may be caused by
contamination with moisture. In the
manufacturing of chocolate, this should
immediately be corrected to avoid prob-
lems in the production process.
Hardness
Due to its typical chemical composition,
cocoa butter is a unique fat. In contrast
with most other vegetable and animal fats,
cocoa butter consists of mainly three tria-
cylglycerol molecules: POS, SOS, and POP
(P=palmitic acid, O=oleic acid, S=stearic
acid). The uniqueness of these three
molecules is that they strongly resemble
each other, with the unsaturated oleic acid
mainly located on the 2-position and the
saturated palmitic and stearic acid on the
1- and 3-positions of the glycerol molecule.
Because cocoa butter is made up of about
80% of these three molecules, its behavior
at a phase transition resembles that of a
pure chemical substance:
The fat is almost entirely solid up to 27.5° C
(81.5° F), quickly becomes softer when the
temperature is raised, and is entirely liquid
above 34° C (93° F).
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CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
The group of symmetric triacylglycerols
is often indicated with the letters SUS,
meaning saturated-unsaturated-saturated
triacylglycerol. Table 2 shows the different
types of triacylglycerols (trisaturated = SSS,
monounsaturated = SUS/SSU, disaturated
= SUU/USU and triunsaturated = UUU)
in cocoa butters from various origins,
and Table 3 illustrates the differences and
variations in monounsaturated (SUS/SSU)
triacylglycerols by country of origin.
These tables show that Malaysian
cocoa butter contains substantially lower
quantities of unsaturated triacylglycerol
molecules (SUU/UUU) and much higher
quantities of monounsaturated molecules
(SUS). This explains why cocoa butter
made from Malaysian beans is much
harder than cocoa butter made from
Brazilian beans, for example. The variations
that can be observed for Brazilian beans are
mainly due to the significant fluctuations
in temperature between the summer and
winter seasons in this region.
Unsaturated fatty acids in fats can be
determined by means of the Iodine Value.
(See Module 3, Methods of Analysis.) In
Table 4, the variation in iodine values
between the various cocoa bean origins is
indicated. This indirect method, defining
the Iodine Value, proves to be an effective
parameter for the hardness of cocoa butter.
Amore direct method for determining
the hardness is to determine the amount
of solid fats present in the cocoa butter.
Table 5 shows the differences and varia-
tions in amounts (content) of solid fats
(SFC) found in cocoa butters from the same
bean origin, measured at 30° C (86° F).
From these data, it can be concluded that
butter from Malaysian beans is harder
than butter from Brazil and that butter
from West African beans is somewhere in
between these two. Penetration and snap
tests on chocolate confirm these differences
between the various origins.
From the aforementioned chemical
(triacylglycerol) differences, the physical
T.nii :
CnioiN Coco. BU++in .Ni Coxiosi+ioN oi Tni.cvioivcinois
Malaysia
Ivory Coast
Ghana
Cameroon
Brazil
0 20 40
Contents (%)
sss sus ssu suu usu uuu
60 80
100
102
CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
Average
Low
High
Malaysia
Cameroon
Ivory Coast
Ghana
Brazil
T.nii s
CnioiN Coco. BU++in .Ni MoNoUNs.+Un.+ii Tni.cvioivcinois
SUS (%)
60
70 80 90 100
Average
Low
High
Malaysia
Cameroon
Ivory Coast
Ghana
Brazil
T.nii a
CnioiN Coco. BU++in .Ni IoiiNi V.iUi
30
35 40 45
Iodine Value
103
CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
differences in the hardness of cocoa butter
have been explained. However, cocoa
butter with a low Iodine Value does not
necessarily lead to a harder chocolate,
compared to butter with a medium Iodine
Value. There are two important reasons for
this:
It is essential that the cocoa butter is •
brought into the correct and stable
crystal structure. (See page 107 under
“Solidification behavior.”) An example
of the effects of the various tempering
methods on the hardness of chocolate
is given in Table 6.
In chocolate recipes, fats other than •
cocoa butter, like dairy fat and possibly
oils from added hazelnuts or almonds,
are often introduced. These can have
a major influence on the ultimate
hardness and handling characteristics
of the chocolate. Understanding what
type of softening is occurring and how
to overcome or cope with it, can be
an important product performance
consideration.
Tempering—measured by means of a
tempermeter
The tempering process is one of the most
important steps in the manufacturing
of chocolate. The degree of tempering,
indicating the quantity of stable crystals
that have been formed, can be measured by
means of a tempermeter. With this method,
a certain amount of liquid chocolate is
cooled under specific conditions, and the
temperature of the chocolate is registered
with a temperature sensor. Initially, the
temperature will drop linearly. When the
temperature is low enough, the chocolate
starts to solidify. Due to the crystallization
heat, the temperature of the chocolate will
change.
Average
Low
High
Malaysia
Cameroon
Ivory Coast
Ghana
Brazil
T.nii s
CnioiN Coco. BU++in .Ni Soiii I.+ CoN+iN+
20% 40% 50% 30% 60% 70%
SFC (%) at 30° C (86° F)
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CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
Optimal tempering
When chocolate is tempered properly,
its temperature will remain more or less
constant for some time during cooling.
The released crystallization heat is then
balanced by an equal amount of cooling
energy. Only when the liquid cocoa butter
is transformed into solid crystals will the
temperature of the chocolate drop further.
Under tempering
If the chocolate is insufficiently tempered
or not tempered at all, thus making fewer
stable seeding crystals available, more
crystallization heat will develop dur-
ing cooling, as more liquid fat has to be
transformed into the solid form. A distinct
increase in temperature can be observed at
the beginning of the crystallization. It will
decline again after reaching a maximum.
This phenomenon is called under-tempered
chocolate, and it often leads to demolding
and fat bloom problems because insufficient
stable crystals were present during the cool-
ing of the end-product.
Over tempering
Chocolate can also contain too many stable
seeding crystals. This will be perceptible in
the rheology of the chocolate.
Because a significant part of the liquid fat
has been withdrawn from the continuous
phase of the chocolate and is now trans-
formed to the solid form, less liquid fat is
available for pumping the product. This
type of chocolate will release little crystal-
lization heat during cooling, rendering a
rather flat cooling curve. As a substantial
part of the phase transition (from liquid to
solid) has taken place before the chocolate
reaches the mold, less contraction will
occur in the mold, leading to demolding
problems at the end of the process.
Crystallization is a process whereby time
and temperature are important factors.
They are determinants with regard to the
speed of crystallization. The higher the
re-crystallization speed, the smaller the
crystals will become, and more crystals will
be formed. The number of crystals is, in
turn, important for the speed with which
T.nii e
H.niNiss oi Miii Cnocoi.+i
Eiiic+ oi Coco. BU++in .Ni TixiiniNo
Hardness at 18° C (64° F) (MN/M2)
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.6
Ivory Coast Malaysia Soft Brazil
0.0
Origin of Cocoa Butter
Tempering 26.5° C
Tempering 27.4° C
(79.7° F)
(81.3° F)
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CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
the chocolate will solidify, whereas the size
of the crystals influences the final gloss and
hardness of the endproduct.
Small crystals are preferred.
Solidification behavior
For the application of cocoa butter in
chocolate, the solidification behavior
of cocoa butter is its most important
functional property. The conversion from
liquid into solid form is a critical step in the
chocolate production process that not only
determines the quality and the shelf life of
the end-product but also requires capital
investments in tempering and cooling
equipment.
A number of factors have to be taken into
account with regard to the solidification
behavior of cocoa butter:
the polymorphic crystallization •
properties
influence of the cocoa bean origin •
influence of alkalization •
influence of deodorization •
Polymorphic crystallization properties
Some fats can solidify in various crystal
forms that have different melting points.
This is referred to as polymorphism. The
density in which the fat crystals are packed
and the ultimate crystallization form vary
by crystal type. In their least-stable form,
the triacylglycerols can freely rotate around
their axis, resulting in poor packing of the
crystals. Very little heat is required to bring
them back to their liquid form.
In the case of cocoa butter, at least six
crystal forms (I-VI) can be distinguished.
The most stable form is the one where the
fat molecules are most densely packed
and structured in such a way that the least
space exists between them. This form
requires the most heat to convert from the
solid to the liquid form and is indicated for
cocoa butter as forms V and VI. Between
the forms I + II and V + VI lie the meta-
stable forms III and IV. In Table 7, the six
forms, on the basis of the characterization
of Wille and Luton (1966), are given.
All cocoa butters, regardless of origin,
demonstrate this polymorphic behavior.
To be able to make stable end-products, the
cocoa butter must assume the crystalline
form V. This can be achieved by a process
called tempering. The completely liquefied
chocolate is cooled, usually by means of a
scraped surface heat exchanger, so that part
of the fat crystallizes into unstable crystals.
Subsequently, the temperature is raised,
so that most of these crystals will liquefy
again, but a part will re-crystallize into the
stable form.
By maintaining the temperature below
the melting point of the stable crystal form,
the product (chocolate) is being seeded
with stable crystals. These are the basis of
the crystal structure that will be formed
during subsequent cooling.
Table 7: Polymorphy of Crystals of Cocoa Butter
Form X-Ray Pattern Heat of Fusion Melting Point Chain Packing
kJ/mol °C (°F)
I Y unknown 17.3 (63.1) double
II  85.5 23.3 (73.9) double
III b' 113.0 25.5 (77.9) double
IV b' 118.0 27.5 (81.5) double
V b 137.3 33.9 (93.0) triple
VI b 148.7 36.3 (97.3) triple
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CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
Methods to measure solidification
characteristics
The Shukoff test is often used to determine
the solidification characteristics of cocoa
butter. In Figure 1, the curve clearly dem-
onstrates when the cocoa butter begins to
crystallize. When the line deviates from
the cooling line at a temperature of about
20° C (68° F), the -crystals start to form.
When the line reaches its minimum, the
-crystals re-crystallize into the more stable
b'-modifications. At this stage a lot of crys-
tallization heat is generated. Due to the
released crystallization heat, the tempera-
ture increases to a maximum, whereby re-
crystallization occurs into the more stable
crystal modifications. The increase in tem-
perature between the minimum and the
maximum temperature in degrees Celsius,
divided by the time in minutes between
both points (T/t), allows such a curve to
be expressed in a number.
Other methods, like the viscosimetric
cooling curve, can give a good indication
of that transition. Cocoa butter is cooled to
25° C (77° F), and subsequently the increase
in viscosity in the fat over time is followed
at that temperature. The required time to
reach a certain viscosity is a good indica-
tion for the crystallization behavior.
Influence of alkalization
Alkalization of cocoa is an important step
in influencing both flavor and color of the
solid parts of the cocoa bean: cocoa pow-
der. The impact of alkalization on cocoa
butter has been demonstrated in a study in
which raw, roasted, and roasted/alkalized
cocoa have been compared. In Table 8 on
page 107, the analytical results are given,
comparing cocoa butters from a single bean
origin.
Though slight differences can be noticed
in the analytical data, these differences
appear to be of minor influence. In general,
it can therefore be said that the mild alkal-
ization process, if properly carried out, has
no negative impact on the properties and
characteristics of the cocoa butter.
Influence of deodorization
The effect of deodorization on the flavor of
cocoa butter has already been discussed.
IioUni 1
SnUioii CooiiNo CUnvi oi Coco. BU++in
dT/dt
Temperature (° C)
Time (Minutes)
35
30
25
15
20
5 25 45 65 85 105 125 145 165
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CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
It was also mentioned that a possible nega-
tive influence could be expected due to
acyl migration. If the symmetric molecule
triacylglycerol is transformed into an
asymmetric molecule with the unsaturated
fatty acid on the 1- or 3- position, the hard-
ness and the crystallization behavior of the
cocoa butter can be significantly influenced.
The characteristics of cocoa butter before
and after deodorizing have been investi-
gated and are shown in Table 9.
A minimal decrease in ffa (free fatty
acids) can be noticed. However, the
crystallization behavior and the hardness
of the cocoa butter have hardly changed.
It can therefore safely be assumed that
deodorization carried out under controlled
conditions has no negative influence on the
properties of cocoa butter, other than the
flavor. However, when processing high-ffa
cocoa beans, a stronger deodorization
might be necessary, with potential impact
on color and crystallization behavior.
Contraction
Contraction is an important parameter
in the manufacture of chocolate, notably
when demolding the product. Its principle
is based on the fact that liquefied fat has a
higher volume compared to its solidified
form. The crystal modification is also of
importance: The stable b-crystal form in
cocoa butter has 1.5 times more contraction
property as compared to the α-form.
Rheology
In the processing of chocolate, rheology
plays an important role. Because fat is
the continuous phase, the amount of fat
available determines the ultimate rheology
Table 8: Cocoa Butters - Effect of Alkalization and Roasting
Raw Beans Roasted Beans
Alkalized and
Roasted
% ffa 1.28 1.29 1.12
% Diglycerides 0.95 0.98 1.03
% Sat. Fatty Acids 2 pos. 1.60 1.60 1.90
Oxyd.Stab. (hrs. at 120°C/248˚F) 40.0 41.0 41.0
Cooling Curves
Shukoff DT/Dt 0.21 0.20 0.18
Viscosimetric (min.) 39.0 40.0 51.0
Melting Curve
% SFC (pNMR) 30° C (86˚ F) 39.0 39.7 39.6
Table 9: Cocoa Butters -
Effect of Deodorization
Before After
% ffa 1.23 1.18
% Diglycerides 0.95 0.93
Oxyd.Stab. (hrs. at 120°C/248˚F) 39.0 41.0
Cooling Curves
Shukoff DT/Dt 0.18 0.19
Viscosimetric (min.) 39.0 43.0
Melting curve
% SFC (pNMR) 30°C
(86˚F)
39.0 39.8
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CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
of the chocolate in liquid form. As cocoa
butter is usually the most expensive ingre-
dient in the chocolate recipe, the quantity
of cocoa butter used is minimized and
adapted to a required rheology.
The type of cocoa butter has no influence
on the rheology. Cocoa butter, or any other
fat in liquid form, behaves similarly, and
butter from one particular origin is not
better or worse than butter from another
origin.
Gloss and shelf-life stability
Cocoa butter, or the fat phase in chocolate,
is largely responsible for the gloss of the
end-product. The dispersed dry matter in
chocolate—sugar, dry fat-free cocoa con-
stituents, and dry fat-free milk solids—do
not contribute to the gloss. These cause the
background color against which the gloss
is visible. Gloss on white chocolate is there-
fore hardly noticeable, whereas the gloss
on dark chocolate, because of the dark
background, is very visible. Cocoa butter
crystallizes into very small (1-2μm) crystals,
resulting in a smooth surface. Light is then
very well reflected. In addition, contact
with the smooth surface of the mold
enhances the gloss impression even more.
Gloss stability depends on the degree to
which the fat crystals are stable. When fat
crystals re-crystallize under uncontrolled
conditions, which is usually a slow pro cess,
larger crystals will be formed. If these
crystals are large enough that they can be
seen with the naked eye, the phenomenon
of fat bloom occurs. A picture of a bloomed
chocolate surface is shown on page 109.
Fat bloom can be caused by:
inadequate tempering, due to slow •
re-crystallization of still present α- and
α'-crystals into large α-crystals
melting of stable • α-crystals followed by
slow, uncontrolled re-crystallization
fat migration due to other oils and fats, •
e.g. from nuts or from the enrobed
Electron scan microscopy of smooth chocolate
109
CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
center migrating to the surface of the
chocolate
It is beyond the scope of this module to
dwell extensively on this subject. It should
be noted that certain forms of fat bloom
seem to manifest themselves easier and
faster in very hard fat systems as compared
to softer fat systems.
Finally, not all bloom is fat bloom.
When mistakes are made in moisture
management, sugar bloom can occur:
re-crystallization of sugar crystals at the
surface of the chocolate. Obviously, cocoa
butter has nothing to do with this.
When a chocolate product shows fat
bloom, it is often thought that its quality
has deteriorated due to mold growth, for
example. The unattractive, grayish discol-
oration contributes to this perception. The
occurrence of fat bloom, however, is likely
due to the causes described. One well-
known contributing factor is storage under
fluctuating temperatures. Apart from the
unattractive appearance, the quality of the
product is not affected.
2. The appli cati on of
cocoa butter
Chocolate production
There are two ways in which cocoa butter
finds its way into chocolate: as a raw mate-
rial and as part of the cocoa liquor. About
half of the cocoa liquor consists of cocoa
butter. This means that in dark chocolate,
only a limited quantity of cocoa butter
is added, whereas in milk chocolate, the
added butter quantity forms the main part
of the overall fat content.
The amount of butter used in the
chocolate recipe depends on the sensory
requirements, notably the fineness and the
desired flavor, as well as on the rheology
needed during processing of the chocolate.
Particularly, the ultimate application of
the chocolate itself dictates the rheological
requirements. The lowest overall fat content
Electron scan microscopy of bloomed chocolate
110
CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
is found in extruded and molded chocolate.
Typical fat contents for products like
panning centers, chips, and chunks vary
between 24 and 28% and for solid chocolate
bars between 27 and 31%. Chocolate for
shell products, enrobing, and panning has
an intermediate fat content between 30
and 40%. For very thin enrobing purposes
and coatings for dipping ice cream bars, fat
contents of between 40 and 50% are used,
and for spraying applications, even higher
fat contents are required. It should be kept
in mind that total fat contents are mentioned
here; that is, the total of the added cocoa
butter, the cocoa butter from the cocoa
liquor, and in the case of milk and white
chocolate, also the fat from the added milk
constituents. In addition, the fat from nuts
like hazelnuts or almonds should be taken
into account.
Confectionery fillings
In the chocolate and confectionery industry,
quite a tradition exists for high-quality
fillings.
Usually, roasted nuts like almonds and
hazelnuts are ground and blended with
sugar and other ingredients, including
cocoa and milk products. The oil from the
nuts gives the filling a very soft, liquid
texture that can easily migrate through the
chocolate enrobing. By adding cocoa butter,
the texture may be regulated from soft to
cuttable or extrudable, and fat migration
may be diminished. The advantage of
cocoa butter is its complete compatibility
with the chocolate that surrounds the fill-
ing, reducing eutectics and other problems
to a minimum.
In the application of fillings, cocoa butter
competes with other vegetable oils and fats
that are usually lower priced. This limits
the use of cocoa butter in this application
to only products that are catered to the
higher-priced market segment.
Other applications
Cocoa butter is defined in several phar-
macopoeia under descriptions like cocoa
butter (USP 1990, JAP 1991), Cacao oleum
(DAB 10, 1992, PhNed 8), and Theobroma
Oil (BRIT 1998).
For a long time, cocoa butter has been
used in suppositories. Administering a
medicine rectally provides an alternative to
oral and intravenous options. Cocoa butter
is very well suited for this purpose as it
liquefies evenly and completely within 15
minutes at a body temperature of 37.6° C
(99.7° F). Also its high oxidative stability
makes the use of cocoa butter favorable.
Cocoa butter is a product of nature
with its own unique properties, includ-
ing unavoidable, natural fluctuations.
Because the pharmaceutical industry
requires different melting behavior, a range
of crystallization times, and absorption of
water-soluble medicines, the use of cocoa
butter in suppositories has diminished.
Today, more and more synthetic glycerides
are used in this application.
The use of cocoa butter in skin creams,
soap, and shampoo should largely be seen
as a marketing tool, rather than an actual
functional property. Usually, refined cocoa
butter is used for these applications, and
the quantities involved are limited.
3. Packagi ng, storage
and transportati on
Cocoa butter is mostly stored in tanks
and transported in special, properly
insulated tank containers or tank cars
in liquid form. Usually, the butter is
loaded at temperatures from 60°-75° C
(140°-167° F), depending on the destination
and the transition time. During transport
the temperature will drop about 2°-5° C
(4°-9° F) per day depending on the outside
temperature. At the point of discharge, the
temperature should not have fallen below
40° C (104° F). This limits the transport time
to about one week.
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CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
Tank cars should be operated under
very strict conditions. They must only
be used for food-grade products, and a
certificate should indicate that the tanker
has been cleaned and properly dried prior
to loading.
If bulk shipping is not possible, the cocoa
butter is packed in solid form, usually
in cartons of 25kg (55 lbs.) that contain a
polyethylene inner bag. The cartons are
stacked on a pallet and shrink wrapped.
During transportation, it is important that
the product is not subjected to excessive
heat.
Fats are known to quickly pick up
volatile matters like odors from their
surroundings. It is therefore very important
that both during transport and subsequent
storage cocoa butter does not come into
contact with strong-smelling products.
Paint; chemicals; cleaning agents; spices,
herbs, and other flavoring substances
should not be stored in the direct vicinity of
cocoa butter.
If cocoa butter is stored under dry
(RH 40-70%), cool (<20° C/<68° F), and
dark conditions, the shelf life is at least
12 months.
When liquefying solid cocoa butter,
high contact temperatures should be
avoided. Stainless steel melting grids,
heated by water up to 90° C (194° F), are
recommended.
Liquid butter should be kept at tempera-
tures of 40°-45° C (104°-113° F), preferably
in a stainless steel or coated tank. The tank
can best be heated by means of a warm
water spiral or jacket. Steam heating is not
to be advised because of its high contact
temperature. Heating by means of hot air
in the tank storage room is also an option,
as are piping and an adequate thermostat
tracing system.
Exposure to air or oxygen should be
avoided as much as possible. Vertical
storage tanks are therefore preferred over
horizontal ones. Care should be taken that
no air is trapped in the cocoa butter due to
malfunctioning pumps, for example. The
IioUni :. Eiiic+ oi Mois+Uni oN Coco. BU++in DUniNo S+on.oi
Inii I.++v Acii CoN+iN+ .Ni Pinoxiii V.iUi Ai+in a: D.vs .+ ac° C
Free Fatty Acid Content (%) Peroxide Value (meq 0
2
/kg)
Moisture Content (%)
Free fatty acids (%)
Free fatty acids regression
1.55
1.50
1.45
1.40
1.35
1.30
1.25
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20
Peroxide value (meq/kg)
Figure 2: Effect of Moisture on Cocoa Butter During Storage
Free Fatty Acid Content and Peroxide Value After 42 Days at 80° C
112
CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
tanks can best be filled from underneath,
rather than letting the butter fall from the
top. Furthermore, air contact can be dimin-
ished by leaking an inert gas like nitrogen
through the cocoa butter. This will drive
out the oxygen, creating optimal storage
conditions for cocoa butter. Even small
amounts of oxygen can initiate the oxida-
tion process. This is why it is important
that, when blanketing, a first-grade inert
gas free from oxygen is used.
Metals and alloys like copper and
bronze, which have a catalytic effect, must
be excluded from the processing equip-
ment (piping, pumps, seals, etc.).
Finally, care should be taken that fresh
cocoa butter is not continuously being
added to butter that has been stored for
some time. If cocoa butter is kept in storage
for too long, catalytic reactions can deterio-
rate the quality of the tank. Therefore, it is
good practice to completely empty the tank
on a regular basis.
Under optimal conditions as described
above, liquid cocoa butter can withstand
a storage time of two months without any
problem.
4. Speci fi cati on of
cocoa butter
The specification of a typical deZaan
TM

pure prime pressed cocoa butter based
on West African cocoa beans is shown
below. This specification applies to an
average sample of a consignment leaving
the production plant, determined with the
company’s standard methods of analysis
shown in Module 3.
The cocoa butters are available as
deodorized or partly deodorized butters
with controlled flavor strength.
Specification of Typical deZaan
TM
Pure Prime Pressed Cocoa Butter
Acidity (%) 1.75 max.
Iodine Value 33-40
Refractive Index nD(40° C/104˚ F) 1.456-1.458
Clear Point (°C/˚F) 32-35/90-95
Blue Value 0.05 max
Unsaponifiables (%) 0.35 max.
Absorbance (270 nm), after washing with alkali 0.14 max.
Saponification Value 192-197
Peroxide Value 4 max.
Color (yellow + red) min. 40 + 1.0/max. 40 + 2.0
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CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
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CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
Cocoa Powder
1. Functi onali ty and
attri butes of cocoa
powder
Introduction
The two most prominent attributes of cocoa
powder are its abilities to give color and
flavor to a wide variety of food products. In
many instances, the consumer will directly
associate brown color with chocolate flavor,
and the darker the color, the stronger the
flavor expectation will be.
These two attributes of cocoa powder in
a food product formulation are only part
of the story. Other aspects such as fineness,
fat content, pH, and alkalinity may have an
important functional impact on the end-
product in which the powder is used.
Manufacturing parameters and other
ingredients in the formula may distinctly
influence the overall performance of cocoa
powder in the final product as well. The
structure of a cake, the smoothness of a
pudding, the whipability of a cream, and
the viscosity of a syrup may in part be
determined by the type of cocoa powder
used.
In addition, cocoa powder may function
as an antioxidative agent in many product
recipes, thereby having a positive effect on
the shelf life of these products.
The advantage of cocoa powder as a
flavoring and coloring agent is that many
types are available, differing not only in
color shades and flavor profiles, but also in
other aspects that make them suitable for
use in just about any food system, includ-
ing foods with virtually no fat content.
So when choosing a cocoa powder for a
specific product application, it is important
to carefully determine which functionalities
and attributes of the cocoa powder are to be
priorities. A dark-colored, lightly flavored
chocolate pudding is bound to disappoint
the consumer, as will a homemade brownie
that does not have the right texture or a
chocolate milk beverage in which the cocoa
powder has formed a difficult-to-disperse
sediment on the bottom of the container.
In the next paragraphs a number of these
functional aspects of cocoa powder will be
discussed.
Standard of identity
Many countries have defined cocoa pow-
der in their food laws. Depending on when
these food laws were initiated and the
prevailing chemical and physical analytical
capabilities, as well as the process and tech-
nical advancements, these laws may differ
on essential elements. In many instances, a
differentiation exists between the product
definition of cocoa powder and the legal
specification of the product.
At the beginning of the 20th century, it
was not technically possible to mechani-
cally press the cocoa liquor into cocoa cake
with a fat content below 20%. Hence, the
standard of identity for cocoa powder in
some countries indicates that the name
“cocoa powder” is exclusively reserved for
a product containing a minimum of 20%
cocoa butter. Any powder with a lower
fat content must be declared as low-fat
cocoa, strongly reduced-fat cocoa, or a
similar description. And some countries
specify the fat content to be calculated on
dry matter, whereas others require it to
be calculated on the basis of a maximum
moisture content.
9
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CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
In this module we will use the descrip-
tions “cocoa powder” as well as “high-fat”
and “low-fat” for practical purposes
only, disregarding whether or not these
descriptions comply with the food laws of
a particular country with respect to the fat
content of the product.
The use of cocoa powder as an ingredient
in a consumer product may also have an
influence on how that product may or
may not be labeled. Descriptions such as
“chocolate” or “chocolate-flavored” are
in many countries reserved for products
that actually contain chocolate, whereas in
others these terms are allowed to be used
for products made with cocoa powder
containing a certain minimum percentage
of cocoa butter.
This illustrates the complexity of only
one aspect of the standard of identity of
cocoa powder: the matter of the fat content.
Many more rules and regulations exist in
different countries concerning the permit-
ted production processes, the raw materials
used, the product specifications and label-
ing requirements, extraneous matter, and
even packaging.
It goes beyond the scope of this module
to discuss the multitude of differences in
the various existing food laws.
Flavor
Range of cocoa flavors
The range of deZaan
TM
cocoa powders
available from ADM Cocoa can be divided
into two basic types: non-alkalized or nat-
ural-process cocoa powders and alkalized,
also called Dutch-process, pow ders. These
two types have their own very specific
flavor profiles. In Figure 1, the differences
in flavor, expressed in acidity, cocoa, bitter-
ness, and acridity, are indicated.
Non-alkalized cocoa powders have •
an acidic, somewhat astringent flavor
with a typical chocolate note. Many of
the acids naturally present in the cocoa
bean are still present in the powder
after processing. Roasting is the prin-
ciple step in the production process
that can influence the development of
the final flavor.
In alkalized cocoa powders, alkaliza- •
tion partially neutralizes the acids
present in cocoa and reduces the
astringency. It is a precisely defined
treatment of the cocoa solids with an
alkaline solution such as potassium
carbonate. Alkalization, in combina-
tion with the roasting process, allows
the cocoa manufacturer to directly
influence both the flavor and the color
of the final product. Depending on
the degree of alkalization, the flavor
profile can be described as ranging
from mild chocolate-like to a very
pronounced, strong cocoa flavor.
Flavor is a characteristic that is very
difficult to describe. The descriptions
used in this book can best be read when
Relevant Regulations
Form
Low-fat cocoa
powder
Reduced-fat
cocoa powder
Cocoa Breakfast cocoa
EU: Directive
2000/36/EC
< 20% fat 20% fat or more
USA: 21 CFR
163
<10% fat 10-<22 % fat 22% fat or more
Codex Stan. 105-
1981, Rev.1-2001
<10% fat 10-<20% fat 20% fat or more
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CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
comparing and contrasting them with each
other. (See Module 4, Flavor and Flavor
Development.)
Flavor and consistency
Because the consumer expects a specific
product with consistent flavor character-
istics, the raw materials supplier seeks to
deliver ingredients that are able to provide
this to the manufacturer. In this respect,
consistency in flavor is one of the most
important aspects. Here, the sensory evalu-
ation process plays a key role.
Today’s consumer is probably more
responsive to the flavor of food than
ever before. The food manufacturer has
therefore never been more dependent
on the consumer’s flavor preference. As
the flavor of cocoa powder is one of the
primary reasons for its use in confectionery
and other food products and is judged
and defined by a person’s capacity for
sensing flavors, the sensory evaluation
process plays a critical role in today’s food
manufacturing.
Guidance on tasting
When testing cocoa powders for a new
product or reformulating an existing prod-
uct, the following should be kept in mind.
Because the medium in which a cocoa
powder is tasted has a substantial effect
on the final flavor, it is wise to carry out
comparative sensory tests on the effects
of a powder on a newly formulated food
product itself. For example:
The temperature at which a final •
product is consumed affects its flavor.
Testing should always be carried out at
the eating temperature of the product.
In other words, a cocoa powder meant
for ice cream should be tested in ice
cream.
Cocoa powders meant for cakes •
should be tested in cakes because other
ingredients can interact with the cocoa
powder. Also, texture affects the taste
perception.
When cocoa powders in chocolate •
milk drinks are compared, the drinks
should have equal viscosity, as a
drink’s viscosity has great influence on
the taste perception.
The circumstances in which sensory
evaluation should be carried out can be
compared with those for a musical instru-
ment: Just like an instrument can only
function at its best when the circumstances
are also at their best, a human being can
only participate in sensory evaluation
adequately when the circumstances are
IioUni 1. Ii.von Pnoiiiis Coco. Powiins
wi+n DiiiiniN+ Aii.iiz.+ioN Dioniis
Strongly
alkalized “black”
Acidity
Cocoa
Bitterness
Acridity
Non-
alkalized
Lightly
alkalized
Medium
alkalized
Strongly
alkalized “red”
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
118
CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
right. This means allowing for complete
concentration by the sensory evaluation
participants without risks of distraction or
external influences.
The flavor of cocoa powder is the
primary reason the product is used in
confectionery and foodstuffs. Cocoa is
a product of nature, and fluctuations
in flavor are, therefore, unavoidable.
However, ADM Cocoa has developed the
technology and has the expertise to limit
such variations. The development of cocoa
flavor is dealt with in Module 4, Flavor and
Flavor Development.
Color
The color essential
The color of food products is a factor of
critical importance to consumers and thus
to food manufacturers. Color is one of the
first messages the brain receives in making
a sensory judgment on a consumer prod-
uct. It carries a whole range of conscious
and subconscious associations that affect
sensory perception and thus appreciation.
Because most consumers can detect very
slight differences in color in the red-brown
sector of the visible spectrum, differences
in the color of cocoa-flavored and chocolate
products can be easily detected.
Color Matrix
N-11-N 100-NP-11 130-SP-11
200-DP-11
D-11-DQ
D-11-GR D-11-A
250-DP-11 D-11-V D-11-MC
D-11-MR D-11-S
300-DP-11 D-11-DL D-11-CK
350-DP-11 354-DP-11
420-DP-11 D-11-CE
490-DP-11 D-11-SB
500-DP-11
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CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
The consistency of a product’s color is
also important to a food manufacturer,
because it reinforces the image of constant
product quality. Color variation between
batches may create the impression of incon-
sistent production and quality control.
The color of a product containing cocoa
has always been an indicator of taste due to
the relationship between color, the quantity
of cocoa, the degree of alkalization, and
the consequent flavor modifications. Dark
colors suggest a strong flavor. Light colors
suggest a mellow or bland flavor. Cocoa
powder is one of the primary colorants
used in the food industry today.
Appearance
Cocoa powder contains naturally occurring
colorants, most of which have been influ-
enced in the alkalizing and roasting stages
of the production process. Precise control
of alkalizing and roasting allows optimum
hue and color intensity of the powder to
be obtained after grinding the nib and
pressing.
Non-alkalized cocoa powders usually
have a light brown color, whereas alkalized
powders may vary from light reddish-
brown to very dark red-brown. (See Color
Matrix.)
However, cocoa powder also contains
a certain amount of cocoa butter, which,
while intrinsically almost colorless, never-
theless affects the color of the powder.
When evaluating the color of cocoa powder
it is therefore important to distinguish the
two ways in which color manifests itself:
external color and intrinsic color.
External (“dry”) color
The color of cocoa powder as such is the so-
called external or dry color. This is strongly
influenced by an optical effect in which the
fat on the solid particles affects the light
absorption. The higher the fat content of
the powder, the darker the external color
will appear to be.
The crystallization form of the cocoa
butter in the solid particles determines
the strength of this optical effect. When
cocoa powder is subjected to temperature
fluctuations, discoloration will occur due
to a change in the crystalline form of the
cocoa butter. The crystals should be small
and in the stable form. This can be achieved
by rapid cooling and tempering. Slow
cooling or rapid cooling without tempering
will result in larger crystals that impart
a greyish hue to the cocoa powder. This
discoloration, however, does not affect
The sample on the left contains 11% less fat as compared
to the sample of the same powder type on the right.
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CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
121
CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
the quality of the product nor the intrinsic
color in any way. Different pulverizing
and tempering equipment and conditions
(within or between locations) may also
result in more external color variation.
Intrinsic color
The intrinsic color of cocoa powder is the
color that the product made with the pow-
der will ultimately have. In most finished
products, the external color of cocoa pow-
der no longer plays a role, and only the true
color, the intrinsic color, is seen.
The selection of a cocoa powder for its
coloring capabilities should be based on
evaluation of the color of the final product.
This is the reason why deZaan
TM
cocoa
powders are standardized on intrinsic
color. As such, the external color of the
powder is only of importance when the
final product is used as powder, like in the
case of truffles. For such cases, the dry color
may also be specified.
Color matching
The production processes at ADM Cocoa
are designed so that within the limits from
light brown and red-brown to very dark
brown, each required tint can be consis-
tently produced. As a result of this great
flexibility in the process, it is possible to
perfectly match client color requirements.
The Color Matrix (see page 118) depicts
only a limited number of cocoa powder
types. They are part of the wide range of
the De Zaan cocoa powders available from
ADM Cocoa.
The cocoa powder Color Matrix gives
an idea of the color range of powders
available from ADM Cocoa. The matrix
only includes types with a fat content of
10-12% and is based on the colors of the
powders in dry form. The horizontal axis
depicts the actual color changes from red
to brown, while the vertical axis represents
the lightness or intensity of the colors. It is
not possible to reproduce in print the true
brilliance of cocoa powders. Therefore, the
color range of the matrix is only indicative.
Influence of cocoa color on the final product
The deZaan
TM
powders cover a range of
colors from red-brown to yellow-brown,
to light and dark brown to almost black. A
powder is selected by formulators and
recipe experts according to the application
requirements and naturally, the desired
final color of the food product. Their deci-
sion is also a function of the other qualities
they wish to impart to a product, such as
flavor or texture.
The color of the food product depends
not only on the type of cocoa powder used,
but also on certain other factors:
The other ingredients that are present •
in addition to cocoa powder also
influence the color. For example, milk
powder tends to “dilute” a brown
cocoa color. A product that contains
cocoa together with milk powder has
a lighter color than the same product
without milk powder. Another phe-
nomenon: Chocolate milk made with
skim milk has a darker color than with
whole milk. The color of chocolate milk
is clearly influenced by the presence of
milk fat.
The higher the concentration of cocoa •
powder, the more intense the color of
the final product will be. Obviously,
products with a low concentration
of cocoa powder are lighter in color.
Utilizing powders as color boosters, a
light cocoa powder can be replaced by
a darker powder without increasing its
concentration. In some circumstances,
a darker cocoa can be used to change
or intensify the flavor as well.
There are also technical reasons that •
might favor low concentrations of
cocoa powder. Coatings based on
lauric fats, for instance, should contain
only a limited concentration of cocoa
butter in order to prevent fat bloom.
A very dark lauric coating could be
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CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
made with a high percentage of light
cocoa powder but with the risk of fat
bloom. An alternative would be to
use a darker cocoa powder at a lower
concentration.
The structure of the product. A •
cocoa-containing product that has been
whipped so that it contains trapped
air has a lighter color than a product
that has not been aerated. Examples
include ice cream and mousse.
The above applies to all products
in which the intrinsic color of cocoa is
important, and also in part to powder
products in which the dry color of the
cocoa powder is evident. The importance
of the fat content of cocoa powder with
regard to its dry color has already been
mentioned. However, there are other
factors that are important for defining color
in dry products.
For dry products, both the colors of the
other ingredients and the concentration
of the cocoa powder determine the color
of the final product. Factors that have an
influence on such products include:
The particle size of the other ingredi- •
ents. A product in which cocoa powder
has been mixed with a finely ground
ingredient made of small particles will
have a different coloration from one
containing a more coarsely ground
ingredient.
The surface structure of a component •
such as sugar. Crystal sugar has a
different surface structure than finely
ground sugar. The latter, therefore,
appears whiter than the former. This
has an obvious effect on processed
sugar products.
The method and extent of agglo me- •
ration. There are various systems
available to agglomerate cocoa-
containing powders. Partly dissolved
sugars as well as emulsifiers can play
an important role in the agglome ration
process. Both affect the surface of the
dry matter in particular, causing the
external color to be darker.
Fat content
Cocoa butter constitutes about half the
weight of the cocoa nib. This fat is partially
removed from the cocoa liquor by means of
mechanical pressure as high as 450 kg/cm
2
.
Depending on the pressing time and the
setting of the press, the resulting cocoa cake
may have a fat content varying between
8 and 24%. It is technically not possible to
press exactly to a specific percentage of
cocoa butter; therefore some tolerance is
necessary.
However, this should be as narrow as
possible and it is generally specified with
a margin of ±1.0%. Most commercially
available cocoa powders contain 10-24%
fat, while the 10-12% fat range is the most
widely used.
Although cocoa butter has hardly any
flavor of itself, it does contain specific
flavor ingredients, as cocoa powder does.
It contributes to an overall rich mouthfeel
in a number of products such as mousse
and ice cream, while in white chocolate
and milk chocolate, the flavor of cocoa
butter can have a significant effect. Fat also
masks both the bitter element of cocoa as
well as the sour element, rendering a more
chocolate-like, softer flavor.
The indicative composition that high-fat
cocoa powder contains fewer coloring and
flavoring constituents on an equal weight
basis. On the other hand, the dry, external
color of high-fat powder is substantially
darker and more brilliant compared to
low-fat cocoa powders. (See page 124
under “Color.”) This can be of particular
interest for applications such as truffles
and dry mixes in which the dry color is of
importance.
When low-fat and high-fat powders
are exchanged in a formula, a correction
should be made for the difference in
fat-free dry cocoa matter between the two,
if the color and flavor intensity of the end
product should remain the same.
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CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
Low-fat powders are recommended for
use in compound coatings that contain
lauric fats, as a higher cocoa butter content
has a negative influence on the gloss reten-
tion of these coatings.
Due to the lower fat content, the 10-12%
fat powders are less susceptible to lumping
and are more free flowing. These powders
are therefore better suited for products like
vending mixes.
In some product formulas it is desirable
to keep the fat content as low as possible.
This goes, of course, for low calorie diet
products, but also for products in which
the presence of fat should be avoided for
technical reasons, such as aerated products
like a meringue or an angel food cake.
pH and alkalinity
The pH of non-alkalized cocoa powder is
dependent on the acidic components of
the cocoa beans from which the powder
has been made. The variation in pH can be
controlled to a certain extent by blending
certain types of cocoa beans. In general the
pH of non-alkalized cocoa powders ranges
between 5.0 and 6.0, and it can be observed
that this slight acidity con tributes to the
typical chocolate, some what fruity flavor of
these powders.
The pH of alkalized cocoa powders is
largely determined by the amount and type
of alkalis used during production.
The added alkalis not only influence the
pH of the cocoa powder but also raise
its alkalinity and ash content. This may
have an effect on the product in which the
powder is used. This is particularly the
case with bakery products (affects leaven-
ing) and dairy-based products (affects
milk protein stability). In our technical
information bulletins Cocoa Powders
in Bakery Applications; Chocolate Milk,
a Complicated Product; and Chocolate
Flavored Desserts this matter is further
discussed.
It can be said that the pH of cocoa
powder usually has limited influence
on the ultimate pH of the final product
because the amounts of cocoa powder used
in the product formulas are comparatively
small. The products in which it is processed
mostly have a buffering capacity. In some
specific cases, however, a small change in
pH can adversely affect the outcome of a
product. The stability of foam, for instance,
is higher at a low pH, which suggests the
recommendation of low pH powders if
foam development is an important feature
of the final product such as in milk shakes.
Higher pH levels may also decompose
some vitamins.
Fineness
The fineness of cocoa powder is usually
determined in the liquor grinding phase
of the production process, but cake grind-
ing can also have an effect. For many
applications, proper tempering of the cocoa
powder is an important processing step,
both for the dry color and for avoiding
lump formation. This holds true in particu-
lar for high-fat cocoa powders.
In most applications the fineness of cocoa
powder is of major importance. The finer
the powder, the smaller the individual
particles and the greater the surface area
of the powder will be. This can affect both
flavor development and mouth-feel of a
finished product. Also, very finely ground
cocoa powder has a positive effect on
the color intensity of the end-product, as
well as on the viscosity of products such
as syrups. Fine powders also show less
tendency to settle out in liquid products.
Indicative Composition of
Cocoa Powder
High fat
(22-24%)
Low fat
(10-12%)
Cocoa butter 23% 11%
Fat-free dry
cocoa
72% 84%
Moisture 5% 5%
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CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
Furthermore, the finer the powder, the
more quickly its effect becomes evident
in the mouth and the less the powder can
be detected as an ingredient by itself. In
chocolate milk or milk-based desserts, for
instance, the presence of a small amount of
coarse particles can easily be noticed.
They can be seen against the white back-
ground of the milk as brown specks and
can adversely affect the smooth mouth-feel
of the product.
In biscuits, cookies, or cake mixes, the
fineness is a less sensitive factor, as the
particular character of the powder is lost
in the overall flavor appreciation of the
final product due to its texture. However,
in bakery products, fineness of powder
has an effect on the water absorption in the
dough phase and thus on formulation and
handling characteristics.
When considering the fineness of a
cocoa powder, a distinction has to be made
between the average fineness and the
particle size distribution. Figure 2 illus-
trates the typical particle size distribution
of selected deZaan
TM
cocoa powders.
The tails of the curve do not influence the
average fineness of the powder. However,
it is the percentage of the coarse particles
in the right tail, their nature, and their size
that may have an effect on the end-product.
Shell content
Shell does not contribute to cocoa flavor
and cocoa color and has to be removed
from the cocoa nibs as required by stan-
dards. With removal of most of the shell,
the microbiological status is improved. In
addition, wear and tear on equipment such
as roller refiners and homogenizers by the
hard cocoa shell particles is reduced.
Determining the shell content of cocoa
powder is not a simple matter. Many of the
methods of analysis used for this purpose
are unsatisfactory. In the U.S., the FDA
requires the shell content to be analyzed
with AOAC method 970.23 (1990).
Figure 2: Typical particle size distribution
deZaan
TM
cocoa powder
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CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
Rheology and water absorption
Cocoa powder has an important effect on
rheology and water absorption in many of
the products in which it is used. A distinc-
tion can be made in food systems where
water is the continuous phase (dough for
bakery products, desserts, toppings, and
chocolate beverages) or in products where
fat forms the continuous phase (compound
coatings, chocolate, and fillings on fat
basis).
Whenever moisture is available, cocoa
powder will compete with other ingredi-
ents to absorb it. It can take in moisture up
to 100% of its own weight. In comparison,
flour can absorb moisture up to 60% of its
own weight.
This means that in dry mixes, a balance
in water activity will be established
between the various ingredients. The water
activity of cocoa powder is low: With a
moisture content of 5%, the water activity
amounts to about 0.3. Flour has a much
higher water activity, namely 0.55, and a
moisture content of 14%. In bakery mixes,
a balance will therefore be established
between all the ingredients.
As a consequence of the strong water
absorbing capacity of cocoa powder in
bakery mixes, stiffer dough and dryer
bakery products with more breakage will
occur if no moisture correction is made
when flour is partially replaced by cocoa
powder. To avoid this, the moisture content
in cocoa powder-containing dough must be
adjusted. As a guideline, it can be said that
40% of the weight of the cocoa powder has
to be added as extra moisture in order to
obtain an optimal result. In ADM Cocoa’s
technical information bulletin Cocoa
Powders in Bakery Applications this subject is
extensively discussed.
In food products containing a high
quantity of moisture, cocoa powder
also has an effect on the rheology of the
ultimate product. For example, in chocolate
milk, cocoa powder forms a network with
the stabilizer and the milk proteins, that to
a large extent, avoids settling of the cocoa
particles. When this network is disturbed
by shearing forces, the product loses its
initial viscosity and will quickly become
thin fluid.
After it has come to rest again, the net-
work will recover itself, but not entirely.
This phenomenon is called hysteresis. It is
a good indication of the degree to which
the product is sensitive to settling of the
non-soluble cocoa particles.
The fat content of cocoa powder influ-
ences the rheology as well. In water-based
systems, the cocoa butter, like oil in a
water emulsion, is distributed in small fat
globules. The more fat available, the richer
and more viscous the end-product will be.
Therefore, high fat cocoa powder gives
chocolate milk not only a richer flavor, but
it also makes the product more viscous.
These subjects are further discussed in
ADM Cocoa’s technical information bul-
letin Chocolate Milk, a Complicated Product.
In syrups and other sugar-rich products
such as toppings, the rheology of the
end product is not stable during storage.
Aggregation and sedimentation of solid
particles and sugar crystallization lead to
undesirable after-thickening effects.
This is caused by an interaction between
cocoa particles and the sugar in the syrup.
In the toppings, it is triggered by a slow
crystallization of the sugar.
A three-dimensional network is
developed that results in a higher viscosity.
Alkalized cocoa powders have a positive
effect on retarding after-thickening during
storage and are therefore recommended for
these applications.
Cocoa powder in almost moisture-free
systems like chocolate and compound
coatings manifests itself as a dispersion in
the fat or oil present in the product. Here,
the fat is the continuous and the powder
the discontinuous phase.
Cocoa powder is very finely ground,
giving it a very large specific surface.
At first, the powder will show a distinct
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CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
fat-absorbing tendency, but as a result
of shearing forces during processing, a
substantial part of the fat is freed up for the
continuous phase, and then the viscosity
drops sharply.
Another phenomenon in compounds
is the effect of moisture in the sugar-rich
environment. At very low concentrations
(1% and higher), an important increase in
the liquid chocolate or compound coating
can be observed. Cocoa powder, with its
maximum of 5% moisture, is an important
source of moisture in the recipe. The
development of shearing forces and the
evaporation of moisture take place during
the conching. This processing step is there-
fore of great importance for the rheology of
the end product.
This subject is further dealt with in ADM
Cocoa’s technical information bulletin
Cocoa Powder and Compound Coatings.
Wettability and dispersibility
One of the problems confronting a user of
cocoa powder is slow dispersibility in an
aqueous system. Manufacturers of instant
products especially have to address this
phenomenon. In fact the problem refers
not just to solubility (about 30% for cocoa
powder), but rather to the whole complex
of wettability and dispersibility of cocoa
powder as such.
When cocoa powder is added to cold
water or cold milk, the powder tends to
float on the surface because of its poor
wettability. When one tries to disperse the
cocoa powder in a liquid by stirring, the
still insufficiently wetted powder particles
will partially remain in and on the surface
of the liquid as small lumps.
By its nature, cocoa powder is not
inclined to disperse but to float on the
surface of a liquid. This is primarily due
to the cocoa butter present in the powder,
which repels water and prevents the wet-
ting of the powder particles.
Wettability and dispersibility can
be significantly improved by blending
the cocoa powder with lecithin. As an
emulsifying agent, lecithin is a mixture of
phosphatides that is surface active. The
lipophilic (fat-affinity) part of the molecule
attaches to the cocoa butter present in the
cocoa powder, and the hydrophilic (water-
affinity) part of the molecule attracts the
water in the solution. It is recommended
to use lecithinated cocoa powders rather
than adding the lecithin separately during
the agglomeration process of products
such as two- and three-component instant
cocoa beverages. (See also ADM Cocoa’s
brochure Sol Lecithinated Cocoa Powders.)
Notwithstanding the fact that cocoa
powder has poor wettability, it is very
hygroscopic. When exposed to a humid
environment, it will immediately attract
moisture, which may lead to bacteriological
spoilage due to mold growth. Cocoa pow-
der should preferably be stored under cool
(15°-20° C/59°-68° F), dark, and dry (RH
<50%) conditions, in its original protective
packaging. (See also “Packaging, storage,
and transportation” later in this module.)
2. The appli cati on of
cocoa powder
Introduction
As far as is known, cocoa powder is con-
sumed in every country of the world.
While almost any cocoa powder can be
used in any food product, considerations
of taste, color, performance, legislation,
and cost mean that certain cocoa powders
are more effective than others, sometimes
significantly. ADM Cocoa recognizes that
it is important to optimally advise the
users of cocoa powder in their product
formulations. It is often the combination of
the type of cocoa powder, the appropriate
amount in the formula, and the manu-
facturing parameters that determine the
desired results.
In this section, consideration is given to
the most common applications of cocoa
powder. It does not, however, go into the
same detail as the numerous technical
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CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
information bulletins issued by ADM
Cocoa. It is these that represent the key and
comprehensive information source for the
cocoa powder user in a particular area.
ADM Cocoa has listed cocoa powder
applications by industrial food product
segment. Of course, this can only be done
on an arbitrary basis and is not exhaustive.
The listing should therefore be regarded
as informative only.
The industrial product applications can
be grouped as follows:
Dairy products
chocolate milk -
milk shakes -
custard -
mousse -
whipped toppings -
pudding -
fermented dairy products -
dairy premixes -
Ice cream and frozen desserts
ice cream -
frozen yogurt -
novelties -
ice cream premixes -
Bakery products
cakes -
pastries -
brownies -
doughnuts -
pies -
cookies -
wafers -
biscuits -
biscuit and wafer fillings -
frozen bakery products -
breakfast cereals -
bakery premixes -
Confectionery, coatings, and cocoa products
fudge -
frostings and icings -
fillings -
confectionery coatings -
ice cream coatings -
vermicelli/flakes -
spreads -
toppings -
syrups -
extracts -
coated cereals -
breakfast cocoa powder -
Instant products and premixes
dry - 2/3 component drinking mixes
vending mixes -
dairy premixes -
bakery premixes -
ice cream premixes -
Dairy products
Dairy products are those made primarily
from liquid milk. As there is a significant
risk of microbiological deterioration, they
must be pasteurized or sterilized. An enor-
mous variety of cocoa flavored milk-based
products is available to the consumer.
Chocolate milk, for example, is a very
effective way of imparting the cocoa flavor,
as the liquid character means almost instant
exposure of the flavor components.
The challenges of chocolate milk lie in
the stabilization of what is inherently an
unstable system. Only part of the cocoa
powder will dissolve in the milk, whereas
the majority of the particles will settle out
as sediment over a period of time. In order
to hold cocoa powder particles in suspen-
sion, a relatively high viscosity is required.
This can be achieved by using a stabilizer
such as K-carrageenan that will react with
milk proteins and cocoa particles to form a
three-dimensional network holding these
particles in suspension. The various stabi-
lization systems and production methods
of chocolate milk are discussed in ADM
Cocoa’s technical information bulletin
Chocolate Milk, a Complicated Product.
Puddings, mousses, and custards
are usually milk based. The addition of
stabilizers, sugar, emulsifiers, color, and
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flavor ingredients leads to products with a
specific flavor, color, viscosity, and texture.
Stabilizers and emulsifiers are of critical
importance for mouth-feel, whereas flavor
and color determine whether a dessert is
delicious and attractive to look at.
It is difficult to predict which cocoa
powder will give the optimal color and
flavor to a particular milk-based dessert.
Product formula and heat treatment are just
two of the factors that play a major role.
On the basis of defined criteria for what
the end product must comply with powder
types for a specific formulation can be
preselected. The ultimate choice, however,
will more often than not be the result of
practical and taste panel experience.
The desired texture and air content of a
dessert are significant in determining the
type and dosing of the cocoa powder to be
used. The lighter the texture and the higher
the air content, the more concentrated the
color and the flavor of the cocoa powder
should be.
The technical information bulletin
Chocolate Flavored Desserts gives extensive
details on the application of deZaan
TM

cocoa powders from ADM Cocoa in a
variety of popular desserts, including a
number of product recipes with processing
recommendations.
Ice cream and frozen desserts
The color and flavor of chocolate-flavored
ice cream come mainly from cocoa solids,
which can be introduced as a constituent
to the ice cream, a chocolate or compound
coating, or in a combination thereof. Ice
cream and desserts are made of similar
ingredients. The main component is water,
which serves as a solvent and will form
ice crystals. Sugars affect flavor and struc-
ture. Non-fat milk solids impart the milk
flavor, and fats impart the structure and
creamy effect so characteristic of ice cream.
Stabilizers increase the viscosity, create a
gel, stabilize the system, and prevent the
ice cream from melting too easily.
Legend
Cocoa
Cocoa with milk-
protein coating
Carrageenan
Micro-coagulated
particles
Interlinking of
stabilizer
Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3
Protein adheres to cocoa
Mixing, heating
Homogenization
The formulation of
micro-coagulated
particles
Pasteurization or
sterilization
Formation of the network
Cooling of the product
A simplified model of network formation in chocolate milk
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CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
Emulsifiers reduce the surface tension
between the fat and water phases and have
the effect of arranging the fat globules
around the air bubbles to form a homoge-
neous structure. All of these factors affect
the eating properties of the product, includ-
ing the mouth-feel, and can be influenced
by adjusting the product formulation and
the processing conditions.
ADM Cocoa’s technical information
bulletin Cocoa Powders and Ice Cream
specifically deals with the effect that cocoa
powder has on the manufacturing of ice
cream and frozen desserts.
Bakery products
This large product category covers many
types of cakes, biscuits, and cookies. These
are essentially dry in the sense that most
moisture has been removed in the baking
process.
Alkalization influences the pH, alkalin-
ity, ash content, flavor, and color of the
cocoa powder. The alkalinity of the cocoa
powder can affect baking properties in
the same way as baking soda. To select a
cocoa powder for a baking application, it
is therefore important to look not only at
the flavor and the color but also how it will
affect the baking process.
Cocoa powder readily absorbs moisture.
If, for example, a cake is baked and part of
the flour is replaced by cocoa powder, the
baker must raise the amount of water and
make a correction in the amount of baking
soda, as otherwise the cake would have a
volume too low and a texture too dry.
Medium to strongly alkalized cocoa
powders are generally used in bakery
products. As mentioned, the alkalinity of
the cocoa powder may have a significant
effect on the color of baked products such
as cakes and cookies. Excessive baking
soda (pH >8) will change the color of the
end product from yellowish-brown to
reddish-brown.
More so than in some other product
categories, the recipe instructions and
procedures for baked products containing
cocoa powders can be critically important
for achieving a satisfactory product. ADM
Cocoa has compiled a comprehensive tech-
nical information bulletin, Cocoa Powders in
Bakery Applications. This publication deals
with the effects of cocoa powder in relation
to other ingredients and the technology in
a number of bakery applications, including
a number of product formulas and recom-
mended processing methods.
Confectionery, coatings and cocoa
products
This product category comprises applica-
tions based on fat-sugar, water-sugar, and
water-fat-sugar systems.
Fat-sugar systems are those in which the
main ingredients are fat, sugar, and cocoa
powder, such as compound coatings and
fillings. Depending on the amount and
type of fat, a product will be soft or hard at
room temperature. For compound coatings
made from different vegetable fats, both
alkalized and non-alkalized cocoa powder
can be used. This is a matter of flavor and
color appreciation and of costs: The flavor/
color impact of a lower level of alkalized
cocoa powder may be stronger than that of
a higher level of natural cocoa powder.
Non-alkalized cocoa powders are lighter
in color than alkalized powders. If milk
solids are added or incorporated, the
difference in color between alkalized and
non-alkalized powders will become more
evident. The whitish milk powder func-
tions as a background that will emphasize
the color and its brilliance.
Cocoa powders with higher cocoa butter
contents can have an adverse effect on the
gloss stability of compound coatings made
with lauric fats.
For ice cream coatings, alkalized cocoa
powders are often used. The reason for this
is that the detection of the chocolate flavor
is dulled by the low temperature of ice
cream. The stronger flavor and darker color
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CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
of the alkalized powders render their full
impact in this application.
In the technical information bulletin
Cocoa Powder and Compound Coatings, a
detailed description is given as to the
behavior of cocoa powder in different fat
systems and the composition and manufac-
turing methods of a number of coatings.
Water-sugar and water-fat-sugar systems
include products such as syrups, fudges,
toppings, and frostings, where water forms
the continuous phase. This has the effect of
altering the rheology and mouth-feel of the
product to respond to the specific demands
of the application. Improved preservation
is partially obtained by the addition of
sugar and other preservative ingredients.
This means that the quantity of sugar
in these products is often higher than in
products of fat systems.
In these applications, in addition to
non-alkalized cocoa powders, strongly
alkalized powders are often used. This is
balanced by the high sugar content present
and its ability to mellow the sometimes
pronounced flavor of the strongly alkalized
cocoa powders.
When using water in relatively high
viscosity products, consideration must be
given to the total carbohydrate percentage
of the cocoa components. The starches,
sugar, and dietary fiber establish a bond
with the water, as a result of which a
thickening effect may occur over time, such
as in syrups.
It is important that with sugar syrups,
the correct proportions of the various types
of sugar are chosen. An incorrect choice of
sugars may lead to crystallization, which
in turn produces a change in viscosity. In
many cases, the cocoa powder is seen as the
cause of this, while it is more often caused
by problems in the area of the sugars used.
Instant products and premixes
Instant cocoa products are mixes that are
added generally to cold milk or water.
Just adding a regular cocoa powder to cold
milk and stirring will not create an attractive
looking product. The reasons for this are:
Cocoa powder contains cocoa butter, •
which behaves hydrophobically in cold
milk.
Cocoa powder is a fine powder and •
contains starch, which, by nature,
favors the creation of lumps of cocoa in
cold milk.
To prevent this, it is better to mix cocoa
powder with sugar first and then add cold
milk gradually while stirring. By making a
high-viscosity paste, the lumps of cocoa are
easily eliminated.
However, most consumers find it less
convenient to make chocolate milk in this
way. A ready-to-use mix to be added to
warm or cold milk or water naturally has
preference. For this reason, the so-called
instant products have been developed.
An instant product is generally a two- or
three-component mix:
Two-component mixes are mainly •
made of crystal sugar and cocoa
powder.
Three-component mixes are mainly •
made of cocoa powder, crystal sugar,
and milk powder.
Because milk consists largely of water,
it is important to change the hydrophobic
cocoa powder into a hydrophilic powder.
The cocoa manufacturer does this by
coating the cocoa powder particles with
an emulsifier such as lecithin. The lecithin
molecule is made up of hydrophobic and
hydrophilic parts. The hydrophobic part
anchors itself to the cocoa butter on the
cocoa solid particle. The hydrophilic part
of the lecithin molecule is directed to the
outside of the cocoa particle. In this way,
a cocoa particle is created with an outer
surface that has a hydrophilic character.
When this lecithinated cocoa particle is
added to cold milk or water, it is easily
dispersed.
However, if a dry mixture of sugar
crystals and lecithinated cocoa powder
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CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
is added to cold water, the sugar crystals
immediately fall to the bottom of the glass,
followed much more slowly by lecithinated
cocoa particles. This results in non-optimal
dispersion. To improve the dispersion, the
heavier sugar crystals are attached to the
cocoa powder by agglomeration. The sugar
crystals are moistened with water/steam.
The lecithinated cocoa particles adhere to
the wet sugar crystals, and the agglomer-
ated particles are then dried. This creates
sugar cocoa agglomerates that are easily
dispersed in cold milk.
Lightly alkalized lecithinated cocoa
powders are generally used in instant
products.
In vending machines, hot water is added
to a mix of cocoa powder, sugar, and milk
powder to produce hot chocolate.
Because the cocoa butter melts in the hot
water, the hydrophobic character of the
cocoa powder plays a less important role.
As a result, it is not recommended to
use lecithinated cocoa powder in vend-
ing mixes. The mix, however, should be
agglomerated to ensure good mixing with
the hot water.
In ADM Cocoa’s technical information
bulletin Cocoa Powder and Dry Mixes,
extensive information is made available on
this particular application of cocoa powder.
3. Packagi ng, storage
and transportati on
Packaging
Cocoa powder is a complex and vulnerable
product. It is not only very hygroscopic; it
also tends to quickly pick up foreign odors
from its surroundings. Therefore, the prod-
uct should be properly packed and stored.
The packaging itself must be able to endure
transportation over long distances and
varying handling conditions and should
be able to stand up to a prolonged storage
period. The powder itself is a product that
enjoys a long shelf life, provided that pack-
aging and storage conditions are adequate.
Depending on the geographical destina-
tion, the cocoa powder is usually packed in
paper bags of either 25 kg or 50 lbs.
These bags are made of multi-layer kraft
paper and a polyethylene moisture bar-
rier. The bags are stacked 30 (750 kg) or 40
(2,000 lbs.) to a wooden pallet. A cardboard
anti-slip sheet is placed on the pallet to
protect the bags at the bottom. A plastic foil
and wrapping is fitted around and over the
pallet to protect the bags from dirt, pests,
humidity, and damage (instability) during
handling and transportation.
The pallets can be lifted from four sides
and are single, one-way (nonreturnable)
transport units.
Coding
Each individual packaging unit of cocoa
products carries the identification of the
manufacturer and country of origin, the
product type, the product description, the
lot identification number, the net weight,
and a unique production code for verifica-
tion and identification (traceability).
Pertinent information in this code includes
the date of manufacture, the pallet number,
and the filling line/machine. Typically,
each packaging unit also includes transport
and storage instructions, e.g. keep cool and
dry.
For microbiological sampling and
analysis, a different lot definition is used:
a quantity of product produced and
handled under uniform conditions. See
Bacteriological Analytical Manual (FDA),
Food Sampling/Preparation of Sample
Homogenate, we are sampling according
Food Category I).
Transport and storage
Under incorrect transport and storage con-
ditions, certain changes in cocoa powder’s
physical characteristics can occur. For
instance, if cocoa powder is com pres sed
beyond a certain level, agglomeration
or lumping of the cocoa particles occurs.
Stacking beyond a certain height will give
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CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
rise to this pressure and must there fore be
avoided. It is not recommended to stack
more than 20 bags or two pallets high.
The air surrounding the pallets of
cocoa powder should preferably have an
RH <50%. But even with an RH <50%, care
must be taken that no sudden temperature
changes of the surrounding air occur.
Even under favorable conditions, this can
cause condensation on the inside of the
packaging that may lead to possible growth
of mold.
Also the cocoa butter present in the
cocoa powder is sensitive to temperature
changes. If it is subjected to a temperature
too high, it will melt. When the tem-
perature drops again, the cocoa butter will
re-crystallize, giving the cocoa powder a
gray discoloration. It will also cause the
particles to stick together.
Although these factors do not have an
influence on the intrinsic quality of the
cocoa powder, lump formation can make
the powder difficult to handle in further
processing.
Protection of cocoa powder against
rodents and insects is also essential. The
greatest danger comes from damaged bags
and unhygienic storage conditions. The
product must be stored in a clean, regular ly
inspected area. Rodents and other pests can
be controlled by traps or electric defense
mechanisms.
The following recommendations are
made for adequate transportation and
storage conditions:
Use only cool, dark, and dry foodgrade •
storage areas in which the temperature
is between 15°-20° C (55°-65° F) and
the RH is <50%.
Stack no higher than 20 bags or two •
pallets.
Position the pallets with sufficient •
space between them and the wall to
avoid local temperature variations
and pest infestation.
Keep the storage space clean and free •
of rodents, insects, birds, and other
pollutants.
As much as possible, prevent sudden •
temperature changes.
Avoid exposing cocoa powder to direct •
sunlight, hot lamps, or other direct
sources of heat.
Ensure the absence of strong smelling •
products in the vicinity, such as coffee,
tea, tobacco, spices, paints, chemicals,
and cleaning substances.
Even though the cocoa powder has a •
much longer shelf life, use up stocks
within 24 months.
Bulk and semi-bulk packaging
Packaging materials and handling technol-
ogy are developing very fast. New systems
are constantly coming onto the market.
However, transportation of cocoa powder
in bulk, in whatever way, is ultimately
going to be the only adequate solution to
this problem. Tank cars have already made
their entry, and the semi-bulk flexible
intermediate containers are rapidly gaining
in popularity. For users of large quantities
of cocoa powder, this bulk packaging from
ADM Cocoa reduces handling and logistics
costs significantly while protecting the
product’s integrity.
They carry between 800 and 1,000 kg (1,750
to 2,200 lbs.), depending on the type of
powder. For more information on this type
of packaging, please contact one of the sales
offices of ADM Cocoa listed on page 169.
4. Speci fi cati on of
cocoa powder
Introduction
Specifications are important for the user of
cocoa powder to formulate an end product,
set quality standards, and comply with
food legislation. Specifications relate to
consistency, quality, and safety and are
only meaningful when the correspond-
ing methods of analysis are indicated.
These methods of analysis can be found in
Module 3: Methods of Analysis.
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CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
Controllable and non-controllable factors
Defining specifications is particularly
challenging for products made from raw
materials with a natural origin. In the
manufacturing process of cocoa powder,
there are important production steps where
quality aspects can be influenced and
controlled. These are:
Alkalizing: allows control of color, •
flavor, and pH.
Sterilization allows control of •
microbiology
Roasting: allows control of flavor •
Pressing: allows control of fat content •
Grinding: allows control of fineness •
However, some characteristics can be
controlled only to a limited extent. These
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CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
are the natural constituents of cocoa, for
example: the content of starch, protein,
and theobromine or the cocoa butter
composition. The pH of the non-alkalized
cocoa powder is determined by the acidic
components of the beans used and can only
be controlled by the selection of the beans.
Many users of cocoa powder require
nutritional information on the product
for the calculation and declaration of the
nutritional value on their consumer pack-
ages. For different types of cocoa powders,
this nutritional information is given in
Module 6: Health and Nutritional Aspects.
Because cocoa beans naturally vary with
origin, season, and differences in process-
ing, this information is indicative only and
is not a part of our standard specifications.
Food safety aspects
ADM Cocoa is certainly aware of the essen-
tial character of safety in food products. A
working and certified HACCP program
ensures that food safety hazards are con-
tinuously monitored and controlled. Many
factors can influence cocoa product food
safety. A brief summary is given below.
Impurities
Impurities are defined as everything pres-
ent in cocoa powder that theoretically
should not be there. They can be sub-
divided into two categories:
Foreign matter relates to all items •
that are not intrinsic to the product
and that may have been introduced
during harvesting, transportation, and
processing of the raw material. These
non-indigenous materials, such as
pieces of wood, metal fragments, and
sand, must be removed and carefully
controlled.
Extraneous matter can be defined •
as material that is intrinsic to the
processed product and includes insect
fragments and cocoa shell. Its presence
is unavoidable but can be controlled
by applying Good Manufacturing
Practices (GMP) and adequate
processing. Tolerable levels of
extraneous matter are set in the Defect
Action Levels by the Food and Drug
Administration in the USA.
Metallic iron
The presence of metallic iron is inherent
to cocoa given growing, postharvest, and
manufacturing conditions. Good manufac-
turing practices and the use of powerful
magnets help control the levels of these
very fine particles.
Pesticides
Cocoa trees and their fruit are prone to
attack by microorganisms and insects. To
fight these pests, fungicides, insecticides,
and pesticides may be applied but mostly
on the cocoa pod and on the shell not on
the nibs themselves.
Heavy metals
As is true with most agricultural crops, trace
levels of heavy metals often found in the
soil may be found in cocoa. Because cocoa
beans from origin countries commonly come
into contact with soil, shell removal to the
levels specified under regulatory standards
is known to help limit the levels of these
naturally occurring metals.
Mycotoxins
Mold growth on cocoa beans occurs on
occasion. Some of these molds can produce
mycotoxins. This may occur at the farms
during harvesting, ripening, fermentation,
and drying. It is thus possible that myco-
toxins like aflatoxins and ochratoxine A are
present on cocoa beans. It is impossible to
remove every impurity from cocoa powder
during manufacturing. Regulatory authori-
ties have recognized this. However, careful
selection and handling of raw materials
and good manufacturing practices help
control the levels of such impurities.
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CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
Specification components
It is important to note regarding the com-
ponents of typical deZaan
TM
cocoa powder
specifications that ADM Cocoa operates a
number of cocoa processing plants around
the globe. The raw materials supplied and
the nature of processing may vary from
one plant and/or region to another. As a
result, the specific attributes and values in
specifications may differ simply due to the
raw materials in use and the specific nature
of the processing employed.
The final application for a specific cocoa
powder is best used as a guide to deter-
mine which component values, methods
of analysis, and other product features are
most important to that application.
Flavor and color
No matter how important various features
may be, cocoa powder is ultimately used
in the finished product for its flavor and
color. The food industry has every interest
in using cocoa powders with features that
are as optimal and consistent as possible.
That is why reliable methods are impor-
tant to determining whether a delivery
conforms to a reference sample in color
and flavor. These methods are outlined in
Module 3: Methods of Analysis. Further
information regarding sensory evaluation
can be found in Module 4: Flavor and
Flavor Development. Reference samples
are available from ADM Cocoa. With these,
customers can carry out their own checks.
Fat content
The food legislation of many countries
has divided cocoa powders into different
categories based on their fat contents.
Within the regulations in effect, industrial
customers select the fat content that is opti-
mal for their products. It is not technically
possible to press to an exact fat percentage;
some tolerance is necessary.
However, this specification should be as
narrow as possible. ADM Cocoa specifies
the fat content within a 2% range.
pH
The alkalization process increases the pH
value of the natural, lightly acidic cocoa.
The degree of alkalinity is determined
by the extent of alkalization and the
acidity of the cocoa beans. Controlled
processing results in definable pH ranges.
Non-alkalized (natural) cocoa powders
may have wider pH ranges caused by the
natural variation in the acidity of the cocoa
beans.
Fineness
A clear distinction must be made between
fineness determined by sieving of the dry
cocoa powder versus sieving the cocoa
powder in a water suspension. The fine-
ness of powder as such is not relevant
in most applications. Cocoa particles are
partly agglomerated and do not disintegrate
completely with dry sieving. However,
agglomerates will immediately disintegrate
when the powder is brought into suspen-
sion or when heat is applied. The wet sieve
test with warm water is, therefore, the best
determination of fineness. (See Module 3:
Methods of Analysis.)
Fineness is a characteristic for which dif-
ferent applications have various demands.
Manufacturers of chocolate milk will
immediately notice the presence of a slight
amount of coarse cocoa particles in their
products and may experience problems
with their homogenizers.
Moisture content
Some food laws allow a moisture content of
max. 9% for cocoa powder. In practice, this
percentage appears to be too high.
With rapid decreases in temperature dur-
ing storage or transport, condensation
inside the packaging can occur. With such
a high moisture content, mold can grow in
the product. Our experiences show that a
moisture content of a max. of 5% is best.
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Microbiological characteristics
It is important that limits be placed on the
microbiological quality of cocoa powder,
especially as related to specific applications.
The reasons for this are:
the increasing use of food prepared •
from instant products that are not
heated prior to consumption
the increasing availability of food •
from vending machines. Experts
have repeatedly pointed out that
the prescribed temperatures (<5° or
>50° C/<41° or >122° F) are not always
maintained in the vending machines.
the fact that many foods are being •
produced in increasingly larger pro-
duction units and are being distributed
over wider areas. Large amounts of
unsound food can then be quickly
distributed over a wide geographic
area.
The following types of microbiological
assessments are commonly found within
ADM Cocoa powder specifications:
Total plate count (or standard plate •
count) per gram
Molds and yeasts per gram •
Enterobacteriaceae • (or Coliform) in
1 gram
E. coli • in one gram
Salmonellae •
Fumigation or irradiation
ADM Cocoa does not fumigate or irradiate
its cocoa powders.
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Chocolate
1. Hi story of
Chocolate
Early 19th Century Cocoa liquor and sugar
was mixed with cocoa butter instead of
warm water and the resulting paste was
cast and hardened in a mold and with it,
eating chocolate was born. 1847 The first
manufacturer of chocolate in England
creates the first chocolate bars. Their shop
is called J. S. Fry & Sons. Cadbury exhibited
it at Bingly Hall, Birmingham, in 1849. 1868
John Cadbury mass-marketed the first
boxes of chocolate candies.
1875 In 1875 milk chocolate came of age.
After eight years of experimentation, the
Swiss manufacturer, Daniel Peters, used
the Van Houten process to successfully
combine chocolate with powdered milk to
produce the first milk chocolate to enter the
market.
1879 Chocolatier Rodolphe Lindt of
Berne, Switzerland, invented the conching
process. Conching involves heating and
rolling the chocolate to refine the flavor.
Initially, this step took approximately seven
days. Today after the conching process,
cocoa butter is added, resulting in the
chocolate taking on a unique flavor profile.
1894 Otto Scholenleber starts the
Ambrosia Chocolate Company in
Milwaukee, Wisconsin USA. Later he
switches to making bulk chocolate for large
companies.
1899 Rodolphe Lindt sold his secret
formula for making fondant chocolate
to David Sprüngli for 1.5 million Swiss
francs. He forms a new partnership and the
company becomes Lindt & Sprüngli.
1899 Jean Tobler begins a chocolate
company in Bern, Switzerland
1900 Switzerland took a leadership role
in the chocolate industry, and Spain became
the first producer of chocolate equipment
in Europe.
1900 Milton Hershey begins producing
milk chocolate in bars, wafers and other
shapes.
1911 Frank and Ethel Mars build a candy
company in Tacoma, Washington. Later it
becomes the Mars, Inc.
1912 Jean Neuhaus, Jr. invents the first
chocolate covered praline in Brussels,
Belgium. He fills the empty chocolate shell
with pralines invented by his father.
1912 The Whitman Company, located
in Philadelphia, PA, produces the boxed
assortments called Whitman’s Samplers.
This is the first company to have a draw-
ing of where the different chocolates are
located in the box.
1923 Family Herrmann and partner
found Schokinag in Mannheim, Germany
(Schokinag-Schokolade-Industrie
Herrmann GmbH & Co.)
1923 August Merckens arrives in Buffalo,
NY from Germany and starts a candy
shop eventually to grow into the Merckens
Chocolate Company.
1941 Forrest Mars (son of Frank Mars)
returns to the United States from England.
He goes into business with Bruce Murrie
(son of the president of Hershey Chocolate
Company). They name their company
M & M Ltd. Together they create the first
M&M’s.
1988 Nestlé’s acquisition of British choco-
late maker Rowntree makes it the largest
chocolate manufacturer in the world.
2000 Increasing attention in academic
and medical research on certain polyphe-
nolic compounds naturally present in
chocolate and their possible health benefits
to the consumer has integrated chocolate
into the same category with other “good
for you” food products to be included in a
person’s diet.
2004 A study funded partially by USDA
and ARS finds chocolate and milk choco-
10
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late to have among the highest antioxidant
capacity of any foods.
2006 The Zutphen Elderly Study
found that in elderly men, cocoa intake is
inversely associated with blood pressure
and 15 year cardiovascular disease and
all-cause mortality.
2008 A study funded in part by the
Finnish Government found that elderly
men preferring chocolate were associated
with better health, optimism and better
physiological well being.
2. Standards of
I denti ty
Standards of identity for food were estab-
lished for three primary reasons: first, to
preserve time honored recipes, secondly,
to avoid economic fraud and thirdly, to
prevent adulteration. They help to main-
tain the quality of a food, and allow for a
consumer to easily compare like products
or discern which products do not meet
a given standard. Standards of identity
establish the legal names for some commer-
cially available food products and set the
guidelines for what ingredients are allowed
in those standardized foods.
3. Process Flow
Chocolate Formulation
(Quality/ Cost Sensitive)

Pre-Refining Paste
Sweetener, cocoa liquor (cocoa mass),
milk powder, cocoa butter and dry flavors
plus enough of the cocoa butter to achieve
a paste consistency that is optimal for
refining.

Roll Refining (Quality/Cost Juncture)
Reduces the particle size of the ingredients
to the specifications for the particular recipe
which influences the mouth feel of the
chocolate

Conching (Quality/Cost Juncture)
Dynamic agitation of semi-dry ingredients
under high temperatures to volatilize
objectionable acids/flavors notes, develop
a desirable flavor profile (Maillard reac-
tion), decrease moisture content, reduce
viscosity, round particle edges, smooth
agglomerates

Liquefaction and Emulsification
Cocoa butter, lecithin, and/or other
emulsifiers are added to the conched paste
to reduce the viscosity. In conjunction with
the emulsifiers, continuous agitation will
distribute the cocoa butter over the par-
ticles to maximize the reduction in viscosity
and improve the rheological properties of
the coating

Batch Adjustment
The viscosity, total fat percentage and color
are standardized to the specifications for
a particular formulation. In addition, the
flavor of the chocolate is compared to the
control to assure its consistency over time.

Standardized Chocolate
Consists of several standardized batches
which are homogeneously mixed prior to
disposition.

Tempering Liquid Storage
 
Creating cocoa butter
crystals in the stable
form, size and quan-
tity for depositing
into solid chocolate.
Designated for bulk
shipments.
4. Raw Materi als
Nutritive Carbohydrate Sweeteners
Impart sweetness and taste appeal to the
chocolate and provide energy (calories),
usually as carbohydrates. Nutritive sweet-
eners include:
1. Monosaccharides (e.g. glucose, fructose)
2. Disaccharides (e.g. sucrose)
3. Some common nutritive carbohydrate
sweeteners are: sucrose, glucose, fruc-
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Table 1: Standards of Identity
Major
Ingredients
Defined for the
standards
Sweet
Chocolate
1
Bittersweet (Dark)
Chocolate
Milk Chocolate White Chocolate
%
USA
%
Codex
%
Canada
%
USA
%
Codex
%
EU
%
Canada
%
USA
%
Codex
%
EU
%
Canada
%
USA
%
Codex
%
EU
%
Canada
Nutritive
Carbohydrate
Sweeteners
Allows Allows Allows Allows Allows Allows Allows Allows Allows Allows Allows
55.0
Max.
Allows Allows Allows
Cocoa Liquor
2
15.0
Min.
N/A N/A
35.0
Min.
N/A N/A N/A
10.0
Min.
N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Total Dry Cocoa
Solids (Nonfat
Cocoa Solids
+ Cocoa Butter)
3
N/A
30.0
Min.
30.0
Min.
N/A
35.0
Min.
35.0
Min.
35.0
Min.
N/A
25.0
Min.
25.0
Min.
25.0
Min.
N/A N/A N/A N/A
Milk Solids
<12.0 <5 <12.0 <12.0 <5 <5 <5
12.0
Min.
12-14
Min.
14.0
Min.
12.0
Min.
14.0
Min.
14.0
Min.
14.0
Min.
14.0
Min.
Dry Non-fat
Cocoa Solids Min.
N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 2.5 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Butter Fat
Allows Allows Allows Allows Allows Allows Allows
3.39
Min.
2.5-3.5
Min.
3.5
Min.
3.39
Min.
3.5
Min.
2.5-3.5
Min.
3.5
Min.
3.5
Min.
Cocoa Butter
N/A
18.0
Min.
18.0
Min.
N/A
18.0
Min.
Variable
2
18.0
Min.
N/A N/A N/A
15.0
Min.
20.0
Min.
20.0
Min.
20.0
Min.
20.0
Min.
Cocoa Butter
+ Milk Fat
N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
25.0
Min.
N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Emulsifiers
6
1.0
Max.
1.5
Max.
1.5
Max.
1.0
Max.
1.5
Max.
1.5
Max.
1.5
Max.
1.0
Max.
1.5
Max.
1.5
Max.
1.5
Max.
1.5
Max.
1.5
Max.
1.5
Max.
1.5
Max.
Chocolate, Milk
or Butter Flavors
forbids N/A N/A forbids N/A N/A N/A forbids N/A N/A N/A forbids N/A N/A N/A
Chocolate and
Milk Flavors
N/A forbids forbids N/A forbids N/A forbids N/A forbids N/A forbids N/A forbids N/A forbids
Chocolate and
Milk Fat Flavors
N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A forbids N/A N/A N/A forbids N/A N/A N/A forbids N/A
Whey
forbids Allows forbids forbids Allows Allows forbids forbids Allows Allows <5.0 <5.0 Allows Allows <5.0
Antioxidants
forbids forbids forbids forbids forbids forbids forbids forbids forbids forbids forbids Allows Allows forbids
Veg. Fats
other than
Cocoa Butter
4
forbids
5.0
Max.
forbids forbids
5.0
Max.
5.0
Max.
forbids forbids
5.0
Max.
5.0
Max.
forbids forbids
5.0
Max.
5.0
Max.
forbids
Nomenciature
1
No Standard exists for Sweet Chocolate in the EU
2
See CFR 163.111 for definition of Chocolate Liquor
for U.S. Standards of Identity
3
See EU Standard
4
Vegetable fats are defined as illipe, palm, sal, shea,
kokum gurgi, and mango kernel processed under
certain conditions. For further information, please
refer to European Chocolate Directive 2000/36/
EC.
5
See the standards for the cocoa liquor
requirements for the particular chocolates for each
section.
6
See the standards for emulsifiers for the particular
chocolates for each section.
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tose, maltose, lactose, corn syrup, honey,
molasses, and brown sugar.
4. Sugar alcohols (polyols) are not
approved as nutritive carbohydrate
sweeteners in the Standards of Identity
for chocolate.
Cocoa Liquor
Cocoa liquor is the ingredient responsible
for the flavor, color and personality of a
chocolate. Cocoa Liquor is perhaps the
most widely used description around
the world but other synonyms are in use
including Chocolate Liquor, Cocoa Mass
and Cocoa Paste. Use of the word “liquor”
does not relate to any alcohol content.
In fact the term relates simply to cocoa
liquor’s flowable nature at temperatures
about the melting point of cocoa butter.
Cocoa liquor’s influence on the flavor, color
and quality of chocolate is dependent on
four very distinct and equally important
factors:
1. The origin, variety and quality of the
cocoa bean.
2. The flavor precursor development in the
bean during fermentation and drying.
3. The flavor formation during subsequent
processing (i.e. roasting).
4. The amount of the cocoa liquor used in
the formulation of a chocolate.
Milk Powder
Milk powder, as an ingredient in chocolate,
affects the flavor, color and sweetness. The
flavor attributes of milk powder are contin-
gent on the following:
1. Source (country of origin, regional
sources)
2. Milk composition or properties
3. Process (roller or spray dried, high or
low heat, variations in equipment and
ingredients, Maillard reactions)
4. Selection in formulation of chocolate
5. Processes for particular flavor traits
Lipase enzyme action for fermented •
milk flavor (cheesy, barnyard)
Milk crumb for caramelized flavor: •
Partially evaporated milk, sugar, cocoa
liquor cooked and dried (may have
various recipes). Can be manufactured
with or without cocoa liquor for milk
crumb or milk chocolate crumb.
Powder process for milky flavor •
6. Additional factors in down stream
processing influencing the milk flavor in
chocolate:
Milk type and amount in chocolate •
formulations
Other ingredients and quality in the •
chocolate formulation (natural and/or
artificial flavors)
Chocolate manufacturing process •
(conching – additional Maillard
reaction).
7. Common end milk related flavors in
chocolate:
Caramel •
Malt •
Milky •
Cooked •
Creamy •
Cocoa Butter
The primary function of added cocoa butter
in the manufacture of chocolate is to reduce
the viscosity. In addition, cocoa butter
influences:
1. Flavor: Ideally, cocoa butter should only
be “pure prime pressed” made from
sound, roasted, de-shelled cocoa beans or
nibs, and of a flavor suitable to the buyer.
2. Color: The color of the added cocoa but-
ter will have an effect on the final color of
the chocolate, especially white chocolate.
3. Performance: The source and composi-
tion of the cocoa butter can effect the
tempering and cooling profile of the
chocolate as well as the contraction, hard-
ness, gloss and shelf life.
Butter Oil
The formulation of a more bloom resistant
chocolate can include the replacement
of a portion of the added cocoa butter in
Bittersweet (Dark) Chocolate with butter oil
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(also may be described as anhydrous milk
fat). The amount of butter oil used typically
ranges between two and four percent of the
total coating weight.
As butter oil is increased as a replace-
ment for cocoa butter, three results are
noted: the chocolate becomes softer, bloom
resistance increases, and the flavor is
altered. However, while butter oil may
increase the “resistance” to fat bloom
formation, it does not “prevent” the devel-
opment of fat bloom. These coatings are
not fat bloom proof and will bloom under
poor storage conditions. Over-use not
only fails to continue further increasing fat
bloom resistance, but it makes the chocolate
coating too soft.
Added butter oil in Bittersweet (Dark) or
Milk Chocolates also affects the tempering
profile of the chocolates. Progressively
lower temperatures are used in the temper-
ing process as the ratio of butter oil to cocoa
butter increases.
As an example of other uses, additional
substitutions of butter oil for the added
cocoa butter can soften a chocolate to a
point where it can be successfully shaved in
“curls” without breaking for decorations.
Emulsifiers
A. Lecithin: Lecithin, most often commer-
cially derived from soybeans, is a mixture
of phospholipids whose primary purpose
in chocolate is to reduce the interfacial
tension between the cocoa butter and all
of the non-fat particles of sugar, cocoa
liquor and milk. The effect is to reduce the
amount of cocoa butter required to coat the
huge surface area of the solid particles, thus
”freeing” more of the cocoa butter to act as
the floating medium and hence reduce the
viscosity of the coating. There is, of course,
a limit to which lecithin will function in this
manner.
B. PGPR (polyglycerol polyricinoleate):
The flow behavior of chocolate can be
represented by a Casson plastic viscosity
and yield value. The yield value is the
amount of force that must be applied to
initiate flow of a fluid mass. The plastic
viscosity is the amount of force that must
be applied to maintain constant flow of a
fluid mass. PGPR (polyglycerol polyrici-
noleate), which is an emulsifier made from
castor oil, can reduce the yield value in
chocolates beyond that which is achievable
with lecithin alone. Its use is limited to a
maximum 0.3 percent in the U.S. and 0.5%
in the UK/EU in chocolate and is virtually
always paired with lecithin. It is primarily
used to reduce the total fat content required
in a chocolate, which can be a cost saving
measure for the commercial chocolate
industry, and secondarily, present process
related advantages in certain applications
such as enrobing, molding and panning.
C. Sorbitan Monostearate/
Polysorbate-60: Studies have shown that
fat bloom formation could be retarded by
a combination of sorbitan monostearate
and polysorbate -60. A 1.0 % level of a
60/40 blend of sorbitan monostearate and
polysorbate-60 can be added in an effort to
prevent or delay fat bloom. The addition
of these emulsifiers; however, inhibits or
retards the tempering or crystallization rate
of cocoa butter compared to the normal rate
of crystallization of cocoa butter without
their presence. Chocolate coatings contain-
ing these emulsifiers have a softer set in
the solid form which may cause smearing
during packaging and affect the shelf-life
during storage.
D. Ammonium Phosphatide
(Lecithin YN): Ammonium phosphatide is
considered to be an alternative to lecithin in
the manufacture of chocolate and vegetable
fat based coatings. Each is capable of
performing the same function by lowering
the plastic viscosity and yield value in
liquid coatings. Some advantages are that it
has non-GMO status and is flavor neutral.
Until recently, U.S. has not permitted the
use of this emulsifier for any food applica-
tions. The FDA (US FOOD and Drug
Administration) in June of 2007, published
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CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
a GRAS notification opening the use of
ammonium phosphatide as an emulsifier
in chocolate and vegetable fat coatings at a
level of up to 0.7%.
Flavors
A. Salt: The use of salt in chocolate is not to
impart the perception of saltiness but rather
to enhance the other flavors inherent to the
chocolate. Salt accents the clean crisp notes
and reduces bitterness. When used, levels
typically range between 0.06% and 0.12% of
the total weight of the coating.
B. Methyl and Ethyl Vanillin: Both of
these are artificial vanilla flavors added at
levels from 0.03% to 0.12% depending on
which flavor is used. Ethyl vanillin is three
times as strong as methyl vanillin, more
penetrating and more aromatic.
C. Vanilla: The most common flavor
addition is vanilla, either as in the form of
vanilla beans or extract. Natural vanilla
with its incomparable bouquet is used
for the highest class confectionery. For
maximum flavor development from vanilla
beans, aging the chocolate coating for three
to six months is sometimes preferred.
D. Other flavors used to impart
personal tastes to chocolate: These flavors
may be orange, berry flavors, mint, spices,
essential oils, nut meats, nutmeg, cin-
namon, and coffee.
Table 2: Bittersweet/Semisweet (Dark) Chocolates
Ingredients Gourmet High
Cacao
Popular Value
Conscious
% % % % % % %
Sugar 44.79 46.58 29.63 50.08 49.64 53.08 54.40
West African Cocoa Liquor 30.00 — 20.00 30.00 — 20.00 23.45
South American
Cocoa Liquor
— — 17.00 10.00 17.00 20.00 11.55
Flavor Grade Cocoa Liquors 15.00 5.00 33.00 — 16.00 — —
Alkalized Cocoa Liquor — 35.00 — — 10.00 — —
Prime Cocoa Butter 8.90 9.45 — 6.45 6.81 — —
Standard Cocoa Butter — — — — — 4.30 9.95
Butter oil — 3.00 — 3.00 — 2.00 —
Vanilla 1.00 0.50 — — — — —
Lecithin 0.25 0.35 0.25 0.35 0.40 0.50 0.50
Vanillin 0.06 0.06 0.12 0.06 0.09 0.06 0.09
Salt — 0.06 — 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06
% Total Fat 33.00 34.00 37.35 31.00 30.00 28.00 29.0
Particle Size 10-15μm 13-18μm 15-20μm 23-28μm 24-30μm 32-37μm 38-43μm
Dry Conche @80° C
(176° F) (hr)
8-12 8-12 4-6 2-5 2-5 0
1
0
1
Age @ 21.1° C (70° F)
(Weeks)
4-8 4-8 4-8 1-2 1-2 0 0
1
Even though these products are not “conched,” they still are put through a shearing,
dehumidification, and liquification process.
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5. Formulati ons
Bittersweet/Semisweet (Dark) Chocolates
See Table 2: Bittersweet/Semisweet (Dark)
Chocolates
Milk Chocolates/White Chocolates
See Table 3: Milk Chocolates/White
chocolates
6. Pre- Refi ni ng Mi x
At the mixing stage, cocoa liquor (or blends
of), granulated sugar, milk powder and
other dry ingredients that are coarse and do
not dissolve in fat are combined together
in quantities per formulation. Only part of
the total cocoa butter is added to produce
a heavy paste to facilitate roll refining. The
total fat content of the paste will generally
range from 23.0 – 27.0 % depending on the
particular formulation, ingredient particle
size, refining technique or process, and
particle size desired.
Mixing
The first step involves cocoa liquor being
introduced into the mixer along with the
dry component. Depending on the final
application, an amount of cocoa butter will
be added. In the case of milk chocolate,
milk powder and perhaps butter fat will be
added respectively. The mixing step takes
place in oversized mixers. At this stage, the
Table 3: Milk Chocolates/White Chocolates
Ingredients Gourmet High
Cacao
Popular Value
Conscious
% % % % % % %
Sugar
38.35 45.32 52.18 45.57 50.37 56.38 57.41
West African Cocoa Liquor
— — — 22.00 7.00 7.00 11.0
Flavor Grade Cocoa Liquors
19.00 12.00 — — 3.00 — —
South American
Cocoa Liquor
2.00 — — — 2.00 4.00 —
Spray Whole Milk Powder
24.00 — 22.00 16.00 — 13.00 13.00
Roller Whole Milk Powder
— 22.00 — — 18.00 — —
Sweet Whey Powder
— — 5.00 — — — —
Prime Cocoa Butter
15.53 19.97 20.23 — — — —
Standard Cocoa Butter
— — — 15.78 19.01 18.97 18.42
Lecithin
0.50 0.40 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.05
Vanilla
0.50 0.25 — — — — —
Salt
0.06 — — 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06
Vanillin
0.06 0.06 0.09 0.09 0.06 0.09 0.06
% Total Fat
34.0 33.0 26.8 32.5 31.0 29.0 28.0
Particle Size
8-12μm 8-12μm 15-27μm 19-25μm 19-25μm 28-36μm 28-40μm
Dry Conche @80° C
(176° F)
12 hr 10 hr 0 8 hr 8 hr 0
1
0
1
Age @ 21.1° C 70° F
(Weeks)
4-12 4-12 0-3 4-8 2-5 0 0
1
Even though these products are not “conched,” they still are put through a shearing,
dehumidification, and liquification process.
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CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
chocolate mass already contains some of
the flavor of the finished product; however,
the consistency has something of a “sandy”
feel on the tongue, as the individual par-
ticles are still too large in size.
Reasons for mixing
Allows coating of the surfaces of the •
solid particles with the liquid ingredi-
ents (Wetting the powders).
Initial phase of ingredient •
homogenization.
Reduces the moisture content. •
Prepares ingredients for refining. •
Mixing parameters
(As a general example; other parameters
are successfully used). The following
parameters affect desired quality.
Mixing all the ingredients, except •
additives (flavor / salt / lecithin) &
part of the fat.
Temperature (jacket) 40° C (104.4° F). •
Time typically 7-9 Minutes. •
Speed typically 12-14 rpm. •
Fat percent of the Mix typically 23-27%. •
The lower the particle size requirement •
of the finished product, the higher the
fat content needs to be in the mixer.
7. Refi ni ng
Stage #1
A common process for particle size reduc-
tion is the two-stage refining system. Two
stage refining is popular due to the ability
to utilize coarse granulated sugar in the
refining paste. Granulated sugar has a more
uniform particle size distribution than pre-
ground powdered sugar which contains a
substantial amount of fines. The increased
surface area of the powdered sugar in the
paste, due to the fines, requires additional
cocoa butter to wet the sugar particles prior
to refining resulting in a higher % total
fat after refining for a given viscosity in
the final chocolate. This equates to higher
costs. With less fines in the more uniform
granulated sugar in the pre-refining paste,
less cocoa butter is needed to coat the
sugar particles and consequently less cocoa
butter is necessary after refining to achieve
a desired viscosity in the final chocolate.
Since the paste containing the granulated
sugar is too coarse for five roll refiners to
reduce the particle size to coating specifica-
tions with one pass, the paste is pre-ground
(first stage) to a micron size that is manage-
able by the five roll refiners (≈100-150μm)
and then subsequently decreased in micron
size to the particle size target (second
stage). In addition to the particle size of the
paste after the first stage of refining, the
more important attributes of the paste for
the second stage refining are wettability
and consistency. Refining paste formulated
with powdered sugar, with the higher fat
content due to the fines, by-passes the first
stage refining and is delivered directly to
the second stage refiners without being
able to recapture the additional fat added
during mixing, thus contributing to higher
cost.
Stage #2
The mixture is typically further pressed
through five-roll refiners. The resultant
refined powder is commonly referred
to as “refiner flake”. This stage further
reduces the size of the particles. Such
refiners consist of five water cooled rolls
with differential speeds. Each steel roller
is placed one above the other and the
particles are crushed and sheared by the
pressure between the rolls applied by
hydraulic pressure in such a way that the
distances between the rollers becomes
smaller from the bottom roller to the top
roller of the refiner. The final micron target
is attained by adjusting and monitoring the
hydraulic pressure to the rollers. Particle
size reduction and homogenization during
refining also develops certain flavor and
flow characteristics of the chocolate. Finer
grinding will result in higher viscosity and
lighter color while coarser grinding will
result in a lower viscosity and darker color
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CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
at equal total fat contents. Smaller particle
size helps deliver greater flavor impact.
Too fine of a particle size can produce a
cloying effect in the mouth which can be
unpleasant. The refined chocolate flake is
then scraped from the last roller by a refiner
blade and deposited onto a conveyor which
delivers the flake to conches.
The required fineness of the mixture
depends on the application for the finished
chocolate, the recipe and the customer
preferences.
8. Conchi ng
There are many types of conches currently
in operation in the chocolate manufactur-
ing industry. Although the equipment may
differ, all operate under similar principles:
time, temperature, atmospheric aeration,
shear and agitation.
Generally, the chocolate paste should
be in a heavy form in the early stages of
a conching sequence. This paste is then
subjected to vigorous mixing and shearing,
heat and aeration for a specific time. This
is followed by liquefaction and coating
discharge.
Summary of the conching steps
1. Filling
High Mixing •
Dehumidification •
Degassing •
2. Conching
High Mixing •
High Shearing •
High Energy Input (Heat) •
Degassing •
Aromatization of Sugar •
Wetting of Particles •
Flavor Development by the Maillard •
Reaction
3. Liquefaction
High Mixing •
Addition of Emulsifiers and Fat •
4. Discharging
High Discharge Rate •
End of Cycle Time •
The conching process:
1. Rounds or blunts sharp edges of sugar
2. Reduces moisture content
3. Breaks up agglomerates
4. Removes volatile acids and flavors
5. Reduces bitterness
6. Develops flavor by the Maillard reac-
tion (caramelized or cooked notes may
develop)
7. Emulsifies refiner flake with fat and
emulsifiers
8. Reduces viscosity
Figure 1:
Flavour Development
during Conching
High
Volatiles
1
Short-Chain
Free Fat Acids
2
Caramelizing
Products
3
F
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o
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Relative Coching Time (%)
1
Aldehyde, Alcohols, Acetic Acid
2
e.g. Butyric Acid
3
e.g. Furyl- and Maltolderivates
100 0
Sensorical
Optimum
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CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
IioUni :
Bi++inswii+ Cnocoi.+i CoNcniNo
80
70
60
50
40
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Pre-dose
Lecithin and
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Quality Evaluation &
Standardization
Unloading
IioUni s
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(
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“Wet” Conching
2
nd
Fat Addition
Unloading
Cocoa Butter
Pre-dose
Lecithin and
Flavour Addition
Quality Evaluation &
Standardization
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
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CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
9. Standardi zati on
and Quali ty
Control
Rheology
A chocolate coating’s viscosity or how that
product flows is very important for a num-
ber of reasons including: proper weight
control, feet formation, and pattern holding
on enrobed pieces. For molded pieces
viscosity is critical for air bubble release
and mold filling, and is critical to chocolate
drop (chip) shape. Chocolate demonstrates
the Casson model for viscosity. Chocolate
viscosity is determined by measuring the
stress or resistance to flow the chocolate
exhibits at various shear rates. Then the
model is fit and plastic viscosity and yield
value can be determined. Fat content,
emulsifier content and type, grinding
conditions, particle size distribution, pro-
cessing conditions, and moisture content
play significant roles in the final viscosity.
Tempered chocolate viscosity is also highly
influenced by the degree of temper (how
much fat is pre-solidified).
Total fat (%)
The relationship between the formulation,
manufacturing process and procedures,
rheology and particle size must be coordi-
nated in order for the percent total fat to fall
within specified limits. Typically percent
total fat is determined when the viscosity
is somewhat higher than the specification
and the percent total fat is lower than the
specification. Cocoa butter is added until
both are within their desired ranges.
Particle size
The particle size is controlled during
refining. Measurements are taken by
micrometer as the paste is being refined
followed by pressure adjustments to the
roll refiners until the fineness is within
specifications. A final measurement of well
blended chocolate is taken prior to final
approval.
Color
Color is measured by instrumentation.
The range is typically established via a
validation process using historical data
to determine color ranges that take into
consideration the normal variances in
the color of cocoa liquors. This process is
completed and color values are specified
for individual formulations.
Flavor
Sensory evaluations are conducted on raw
materials, in-process materials and finished
products prior to disposition to ensure
that flavor is consistent and that there are
no foreign or off-flavors present. Formal
sensory evaluations are continuously con-
ducted to assure uniformity and consensus
regarding flavor.
10. Temperi ng
At this point in the chocolate process an
important procedure of controlled cooling
and reheating must be performed in order
for a chocolate in a fluid state to crystallize
into a stable crystal form. Developing the
proper crystalline matrix of solid cocoa but-
ter has dramatic impact upon the quality
of a finished solid chocolate piece includ-
ing: hardness, gloss, contraction, pace of
solidification, flavor release, resistance to
fat bloom, heat tolerance, and resistance to
foreign fat migration.
Cocoa butter exhibits polymorphism,
and more specifically it exhibits monotropic
polymorphism. This is the ability of the fat
to exist in more than one crystal structure.
Monotropic polymorphism means that
eventually all polymorphs or crystal types
transform to the most stable form. It is
this polymorphic nature which forces one
solidifying cocoa butter to develop proce-
dures to control the possibility of unstable
or undesirable crystal formation, while
optimizing development of the proper
type, size and amount of crystals.
Depending upon the temperature and
cooling rate, cocoa butter can solidify in
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CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
various crystal forms. Each polymorph is
distinguishable based on crystal structure
of triglyceride packing, melting point, and
latent heat of fusion. Cocoa butter is known
to exist in six different polymorphs (see the
table below).
In the most unstable forms—alpha and
gamma-- the polymorphs pack loosely,
melt at below 74 °F (23 °C), and show little
contraction because of the greater distance
between triglycerides. These typically do
not last very long during tempering proce-
dures; either melting out in the chocolate
mass as the chocolate mass temperature
may be greater than the melting point of
these crystals, or transforming into a more
stable beta prime or beta crystals.
Beta prime crystals pack more tightly
than alpha crystals, and because of this
increased density of the triglycerides, these
crystals show better contraction and a
higher melting point of 83 °F (28 °C). These
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1-3% Fat Crystals
Solidification
Melting all
crystals
Cooling
(no crystal
formation)
Form mix
of crystals
Heating
(polymorph
transformation and
melting of unstable
polymorphs)
Table 4: Cocoa Butter Polymorphs
Polymorph Type Latent heat kJ/g Melting point °C
Y I – 17.3
 II 86 23.3
b III 113 25.5
b IV 118 27.3
b V 137 33.8 (93° F)
b VI 148 36.3
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CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
crystals may persist during tempering as
temperatures of the chocolate mass will be
below the melting point of these crystals
for some period of time during tempering.
These crystals may also transform to more
stable beta crystals as well. Beta V crystals
illustrate the crystal form with the closest
distance between triglycerides, giving the
greatest contraction. These crystals also
melt at the highest temperatures even up
to 93 °F (34 °C). This is the crystal targeted
during tempering, and the protocol will be
established to target this form. In addition
to simply achieving this proper crystal
type, it will also be important to create
conditions that also control the amount and
size of these crystals following tempering.
There are many ways to temper
chocolate and different operations or uses
of chocolate may lend themselves to choos-
ing one over another. In both industrial
chocolate operations and small operations,
the tempering of chocolate mass is typically
accomplished through a complex cooling of
chocolate and subsequent reheating of the
mass under agitation. This can be done on
a very large scale in industrial tempering
units or on a small scale by hand. Both
methods follow the same general principles
of fat manipulation to achieve the desired
polymorph of cocoa butter.
The general process can be seen in figure
4 on page 152, chocolate is heated so no
solid fat remains, and it is then cooled
to the temperature range where solid fat
crystals form. At that point to speed up
the creation of many fat crystals, the mass
is cooled to temperatures where unstable
alpha and beta prime crystals may form.
The mass is then subsequently reheated to
temperatures above the melting points of
the unstable crystals so only beta-V crystals
may exist. Also during this reheat it is
possible for less stable crystals to transform
into the more stable forms. Following this
procedure only 1 to 3% of the total fat
should exist in a solid form and will serve
as the seed to help set the rest of the fat
in the proper form after the chocolate is
deposited or molded and cooled properly.
Many other factors affect how chocolate
is tempered. This means that different
chocolate formulations will affect tempera-
ture settings, residence times, and many
other factors. The most significant of these
factors is the inclusion of milk fat in the fat
phase of the chocolate. Milk fat will depress
the temperatures at which crystallization
occurs and therefore will depress the tem-
peratures at which the chocolate is handled
during tempering. Many other, minor fac-
tors affect tempering procedures. Some of
these factors are: minor lipid components,
such as lecithin or mono or diglycerides,
which influence crystallization, particle size
of the nonfat solids, and origin of cocoa
butter used. All of these factors should be
assessed and proper modifications made to
account for their significance.
Lastly, many of chocolates most distin-
guishable features are attributable to its
crystal form and the size of those crystals.
The tight packing and very small crystal
size allows for chocolate to have a charac-
teristic hard snap. It also gives chocolate a
more glossy appearance. Crystals on the
surface that pack tightly act well to reflect
light, larger crystals diffuse light giving
chocolate a more dull appearance. The
typical size of a crystal in well tempered
chocolate is 1 to 2 microns in size.
11. Appli cati on of
Vari ous Chocolate
Products
Hand dipping
A small pool of chocolate is cooled on a
marble slab by constant stirring and fold-
ing by hand or by a scraper. At the point
that the chocolate “mushes” or becomes
heavy (indicative of being seeded), a small
portion of previously melted chocolate is
added at 33.9° - 34.4° C (93°-94° F) to the
pool of seeded chocolate. Melted chocolate
will continue to be added in small amounts
until all of the chocolate becomes tempered.
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As chocolate is consumed by the dipped
centers, an equal amount of melted choco-
late will continue to be added and stirred
into the tempered chocolate. This will
replenish the pool with chocolate, temper
the newly added chocolate and maintain a
consistent viscosity for dipping.
Enrobing
Enrobing is a procedure in which con-
fectionery pieces are completely enveloped
in a chocolate coating by mechanical
means. There are many types of enrobers
employed in the confectionery industry.
Although they may be engineered and
designed differently, the basic principles for
the enrobing process remain the same.
The fundamentals of enrobing are as
follows:
Enrobers generally consist of a chocolate
reservoir tank, a chocolate pump or other
device to bring chocolate from the tank
to the flow pan or trough mounted above
the centers traveling along a wire belt. The
reservoir tanks are equipped with slowly
moving agitators and are heated or cooled
by means of a water jacket with heat or
cold being supplied by manually or auto-
matically controlled electric heaters. Pumps
to circulate the water within the jacket
are required to control tank temperature
rapidly and accurately.
Tempered chocolate reaches the centers
after being spread into one or more parallel
curtains by a flow pan with thickness of the
chocolate curtain and its height above the
wire belt being controllable.
Under the wire belt at the flow pan
position are rolls or plates to allow a build
up of chocolate to guarantee a satisfactory
deposit or bottoms of centers. Spaces
between plates may be varied to give
any degree of bottom flooding desired.
Bottoming rolls may also be installed in the
extension to further guarantee a suitable
film of chocolate on pieces. Extension
bottoming rolls can be varied in height
below the wire belt to control the thickness
of the chocolate puddle during the extra
bottoming.
To control thickness of coating, a blower
is a feature of all coaters. The height and
angle of the blower produces desired
results. Blower air temperature is best near
29.4° C (85° F).
As centers travel along the enrober wire
belt, under the flow pan and under the
blower, they next reach a shaker which
typically consists of a steel frame vibrating
a section of wire belt the width of the
machine. The shaker removes excess
coating and smoothes ripples caused by the
blower.
The centers then pass over a detailer
designed to whip small tails or strings of
chocolate hanging from pre-bottomed or
enrobed pieces.
The enrobed items are transferred to a
belt conveying them through a cooling
tunnel with controlled temperatures and air
flow. This will set or harden the chocolate
in a manner that will achieve the maximum
hardness and gloss for appearance and
shelf life.
Molding
The molding of chocolate is a process
by which liquid tempered chocolate is
deposited into molds, cooled and followed
by demolding. The most common types of
chocolate molding include:
1. Shell molding
The operation of a classic shell molding
plant consists of:
Shell formation by filling molds with •
tempered chocolate
Partially cooling the chocolate in the •
molds for a specific time to form the
thickness of the shell desired
Inverting the mold to remove the •
remaining liquid chocolate from the
mold leaving the solidified shell
Inverting the mold to the right-side-up •
position
Scraping the surface of the mold to •
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CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
remove the residual chocolate
Cooling •
Depositing the center into the shell •
Capping or sealing the top of the shell •
with tempered chocolate
Complete cooling of the shell and the •
sealing cap
Demolding •
2. Single shot injection molding
The single shot injection molding system
combines the process of shell forming,
center filling and bottom capping in one
deposit or step. It has two basic depositors
with concentric nozzles. One depositor
is for tempered chocolate and the other,
which has a “suck back” feature, is for the
center. The chocolate and the center are
deposited simultaneously. The chocolate
stream is on the exterior of the deposit
stream and the center is in the middle. The
“suck back” feature of the center depositor
retracts the center material at the end of the
deposit cycle allowing the chocolate to fill
the bottom of the mold. The molds are then
conveyed through a cooling tunnel for the
chocolate to solidify, followed by demold-
ing and packaging.
3. Solid Molding
This simply involves the depositing of
tempered chocolate into a flat mold, shak-
ing the mold to eliminate air bubbles and
evenly spread the chocolate across the
mold, cooling to solidify and demold for
packaging. The chocolate my contain inclu-
sions such as nuts, fruits, rice crisps, toffee
bits or other inclusions. The molds them-
selves may have patterns which impart
designs on the molded pieces.
4. Hollow molding
The basic progression in a hollow molding
operation is:
Deposit tempered liquid coating in •
one side of two-piece hinged molds.
These molds may have various designs
representing different figures
Close the mold •
Rotate the molds in a specific pattern •
and at a controlled speed within a cold
room
After the coating is completely •
solidified, remove the hollow chocolate
figures
Package •
Note: Alternate methods are also in use.
Panning
Chocolate covered items manufactured
by the panning process include all nuts,
raisins, malt balls, jellies, caramels, coffee
beans, cereals and other centers.
The simplified description of panning is
the controlled build-up and solidification of
successive layers of pre-coatings, chocolate,
polish and glaze. This is accomplished
by dribbling, pumping or spraying the
various ingredient components onto the
center which are set by applied cool air in a
revolving pan. In this manner, the different
layers are built up around the center to the
desired thickness and shape of the final
product. A polish and glaze are typically
applied as a last step. Unusually, panning
is one of the few chocolate processes
that does not rely on the chocolate being
tempered.
Chocolate inclusions
Chocolate product options have evolved
from the traditional tablet bar into many
forms. Inclusions such as chocolate chips
and chunks in bakery and frozen dessert
products are increasingly popular. For
baked goods such as cookies/biscuits or
muffins, chocolate chips ranging in size
from 1300 count/kg to 26,000 count/kg
find application. Bittersweet (dark/plain)
chocolate is most often chosen as it delivers
the most chocolate flavor impact. For more
indulgent recipes, chocolate chunks of
various sizes and shapes are also used in
combination with chips or as an alternative
to chips. Many times chocolate inclusions
intended for use in baking applications
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CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
is formulated with a small amount of
dextrose to provide heat stability and
reduce smearing of melted chocolate upon
exit from ovens.
In order for chocolate chips to hold a
defined shape, the chocolate drop paste
is high in yield value and relatively low
in total fat. A tempered chocolate paste is
deposited from a multiple depositor only a
metal band through various size nozzles in
the form of small pyramids with an overlap-
ping hook and a circular base. Following
passage through a cooling tunnel, the chips
are solidified and ready for removal.
Chocolate inclusions for frozen dessert
applications may include added butter oil
or vegetable fat to lower the melting point
and improve eating quality at very low
temperature.
12. Cooli ng
The cooling or solidification process for
chocolate products after enrobing is as
critical as the tempering phase. Improper
cooling conditions will result in poor gloss,
tackiness, minimum shrinkage and a short-
ened shelf-life.
Great care must be taken to prevent the
tempered chocolate on the centers from
being “shocked” when entering the cooling
tunnel. This occurs when the temperature
at the entrance or the entire tunnel is too
cold. Although the crystallization rate of
the part of the cocoa butter which is still in
the liquid state is proceeding very rapidly,
too cold of a tunnel can cause very rapid
crystallization and formation of Alpha
crystals. These unstable crystals will be
incorporated as part of the total crystalline
composition before the coated items exit
the tunnel. This will be evident upon
exiting the tunnel by poor gloss, tackiness
and minimum contraction. During storage,
the unstable crystals will transform to the
stable Beta crystal resulting in fat bloom on
the surface of the coating.
This “shocking” commonly occurs at
the start-up of the enrobing process when
the tunnel is very cold due to lack of
product load. The enrobed products will be
subjected to these colder conditions for a
short period of time until the temperature
of the tunnel rises from the heat of the
product load. This situation may be
avoided by activating the compressor just
prior to enrobing rather than having the
compressor cool the tunnel for a substantial
period of time.
At the entrance of the tunnel, the air
motion should be minimal with an air
temperature of 15.6° - 18.3 °C (60°-65° F) so
that hardening gradually progresses and
thus allows the maximum escape of sub-
surface heat before a fully hardened surface
layer forms and acts as an insulator.
Once the coating is dry on the surface,
and provided that hardening has been
properly started, crystallization has
progressed far enough that colder air
and increased convection can safely be
applied until the exit zone where warmer
temperatures must be employed to prevent
condensation.
Cooling methods and recommendations
for hand dipping and enrobing
A. For operations that do not utilize a
cooling tunnel, the coated centers can be
solidified on trays in a 18.3° - 20° C (65°-
68° F) room with a relative humidity of less
than 50% until they are dry.
B. The ideal cooling tunnel profile is to
utilize radiant cooling @ 15.6° - 18.3° C
(60° - 65° F) until an insulating skin has
been formed followed by convection cool-
ing @ 7.2° - 10° C. (45° - 50° F) with an exit
temperature of 12.8° - 15.6° C (55° - 60° F) to
prevent condensation.
C. General conditions and cooling
profiles for all convection cooling tunnels
for enrobed chocolate products are:
Tunnel Entrance: 15.6° - 18.3° C (60°- •
65° F)
Tunnel Center: 10° - 12.8° C (50°-55° F) •
Tunnel Exit: 12.8° - 15.6° C (55°-60° F) •
depending on the relative humidity of
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CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
the packing room.
Relative humidity in the tunnel: •
Less than 50.0%
Tunnel Time: 10-12 minutes depending •
on what is being enrobed.
D. Molding
The cooling conditions for molding
depend on numerous factors and must be
adjusted for the specific operation, product
and tunnel design. These factors include:
Mold design and material •
(metal, plastic) •
Size of mold •
Quantity of chocolate in the mold •
Hollow mold •
Solid mold •
Flat mold •
Shell molding •
Single shot injection molding •
13. Packagi ng, Storage
and Di stri buti on
Packing room temperatures are typically
controlled at a range of 18°-20° C (65°-68° F)
with a relative humidity of less than 50
% to avoid condensation on enrobed or
molded goods exiting the cooling tunnel.
Since about 25 % of the cocoa butter
in the coating after cooling is still in the
liquid form, it is preferable that products
are not packed directly as they come from
the tunnel, but are stored in a cool packing
room up to 24 hours to allow complete
dissipation of the latent heat of crystalliza-
tion and to allow solidification of the liquid
cocoa butter. Since this may be impractical
in most cases it is advisable to at least
pre-cool all packaging supplies by provid-
ing room for an advance supply to be kept
in the packaging room itself long enough to
cool to the temperature of the area.
Odors emanating from glue, printing
ink, flavors (mint, butterscotch, cinnamon,
etc.) or packaging material can easily be
absorbed by the chocolate. Care must be
taken to isolate chocolate products from
these foreign odors to prevent the acquisi-
tion of off-flavors. Areas must be well
ventilated. Product is best stored off the
floor, away from walls, out of sunlight and
away from other sources of heat.
As important as actual storage tem-
perature is the avoidance of temperature
vacillation. Temperature vacillation can
accelerate dullness and the formation of fat
bloom.
Chocolate goods may also be frozen
after 48 hour stabilization for extended
shelf life. Caution must be exercised when
returning the goods to room temperature.
Frozen product must be staged at progres-
sively higher temperatures and allowed to
equilibrate at each stage to avoid condensa-
tion until the product stabilizes to room
temperature.
After storage, chocolate products must be
shipped in temperature controlled vehicles
10°-15.6° C (50°-60° F) to avoid complete
de-tempering of the chocolate coating.
Common practice is to ship chocolate
product in refrigerated transport unless
prevailing outdoor temperatures are lower.
Quality changes observed during storage
Sugar bloom - This occurs when moisture
condenses on the surface of chocolate as a
result of the large temperature difference
between exit zone of cooling tunnel and
ambient room temperature. This difference
may result in condensation of atmospheric
moisture on the surface of the chocolate.
Sugar in the coating may dissolve into
such surface droplets. When the moisture
eventually evaporates, the sugar crystal-
lizes on the surface as a whitish film of
sugar crystals. Sugar bloom is therefore an
irreversible process
Fat bloom - This is a grayish discol-
oration on the surface of chocolate bars,
chocolate coated candies and chocolate nut
bars. Certainly fat bloom may be caused
by poor tempering. It may also be caused
by exposure to high temperatures and
return to ambient conditions. Chocolate
at 30-35° C (85-95° F) will melt and liquid
fat will appear on the surface. When sub-
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CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
sequently cooled, this fat crystallizes thus
causing a grayish appearance. Yet another
cause can be migration of incompatible fats
from centers or certain ingredients such as
nuts rich in oil. Fat bloom may also occur
after long periods of storage as cocoa butter
transforms into its most stable crystal form
which will appear as bloom on the surface
of a piece.
Cracking or leakage - This is caused by
lack of elasticity in the coating to expand
and contract during temperature changes
or minor changes in moisture content.
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Sustainable Cocoa
A Better Future for
Cocoa Communities
As one of the world’s largest cocoa and
chocolate manufacturers, ADM is com-
mitted to a sustainable future for cocoa
farming. While we are not growers of
cocoa, ADM works with others along
the cocoa supply chain to improve the
lives of cocoa farming families and their
communities.
Cocoa farmers around the world face
many challenges. An estimated one-third of
the global cocoa crop is destroyed by pests
and disease each year. Many cocoa farmers
have limited access to the latest agricultural
technologies, planting materials and mar-
ket information. And few have business
training to help them effectively market
their product and manage their operations.
Many cocoa farming communities
face challenges of poverty and disease.
Concerns about the safe use of farming
chemicals and child labor on West African
cocoa farms — the center of most of the
world’s cocoa harvest — are receiving
considerable attention from industry
groups, governments, non-government
organizations (NGOs) and interested
consumers worldwide.
ADM believes that, by working with
farmers, grower cooperatives, NGOs,
academic researchers, industry partners
and governments, we can help address
these complex issues and improve the lives
of cocoa farmers and their communities.
The following pages describe some of the
initiatives created or supported by ADM.
Addressing Child Labor:
ADM is working with the World Cocoa
Foundation, governments, NGOs and
labor experts to design and implement a
process to certify that efforts are in place
to measure and report on labor practices
and help those who may be in inappropri-
ate child labor or forced labor situations.
Holistic Sustainability
Programs
ADM Technical Training Program
Builds Cooperatives’ Capacity
Working through farmer cooperatives in
Côte d’Ivoire, the ADM Technical Training
Program educates cocoa growers about
labor practices, farm safety, HIV/AIDS
prevention, operational transparency, bean
quality and environmental stewardship.
The program also offers business training
to managers of farmer cooperatives.
In addition to its educational component,
the program offers farmers financial
support for cocoa marketing in the form of
seed money at the beginning of the grow-
ing season, and access to millions of dollars
in zero-interest revolving credit throughout
the year. At harvest, ADM pays premiums
to cooperatives that deliver products of
notably high quality.
ADM is working with the Sustainable
Tree Crops Program to expand the
Technical Training Program beyond the
11
An ADM Senior Agro-Economist in West
Africa gives a seminar on best farming prac-
tices, labor and quality requirements.
160
CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
more than 12,000 cooperative-member
attendees it has already reached.
The SERAP Program:
Encouraging Socially &
Environmentally Responsible Practices
In 2005, ADM launched the Socially &
Environmentally Responsible Agriculture
Practices (SERAP) Program, which rewards
select West African cooperatives committed
to implementing sustainable practices. By
providing incentives at the cooperative
level—at least half of which go directly to
individual farmers—SERAP seeks to foster
collaboration among growers as they work
to address social and environmental issues.
The program is based upon specific, trans-
parent criteria in such areas as:
Cooperative Management •
Fiscal responsibility & transparency -
Acceptance of SERAP and third- -
party audits
Overall adherence to SERAP values -
Product Quality Management •
Social Environment Management •
Responsible labor practices -
HIV/AIDS prevention efforts -
Training on safe & suitable chemical -
use
Respect for contract commitments -
Action plans for continued education -
Physical Environment Management •
Use of integrated pest management -
Forest protection -
Safe & effective use of insect control -
and crop nutrients
During the 2005-2006 growing year,
six cooperatives with about 6,000 farmer
members participated in SERAP, delivering
4,000 metric tons of cocoa under the pro-
gram. During the 2008-2009 growing year,
the number of participating co-ops grew to
24, representing more than 12,300 farmers
who together delivered more than 10,500
metric tons of sustainable SERAP cocoa.
At the beginning of each crop, ADM
organizes more than 50 sustainability semi-
nars on social norms and the environment.
In 2008-2009, nearly 5,000 farmers attended
these seminars and, based on a average of
10 people per farming household, the farm
population indirectly reached is estimated
at more than 50,000.
Cocoa Livelihoods Program: Partnership
with the Bill & Melinda Gates
Foundation
In 2009, ADM and several cocoa and
chocolate industry peers joined the Bill &
Melinda Gates Foundation to fund a $40
million program to improve the lives of
200,000 cocoa farmers and their families
throughout Africa. Managed by the World
Cocoa Foundation, the program is focusing
on enhancing farmer knowledge, improv-
ing farm productivity and crop quality,
and improving farmer marketing skills on
agriculturally diversified farms.
On- Farm Practi ces
Spreading the Word of Improved Farm
Practices: STCP Partnership
Farmer Field Schools operated by
the International Institute of Tropical
Agriculture’s Sustainable Tree Crops
Program (STCP) have educated thousands
of cocoa farmers in Cote d’Ivoire, Ghana,
Cameroon, Nigeria and Liberia about labor
standards, business practices and farming
methods. To help reach more farmers with
these important messages, ADM provides
opportunities for members of participating
cooperatives to attend STCP’s Train the
Trainer Field Schools. These schools pre-
pare farmer attendees to serve as technical
advisors who can disseminate information
among thousands more co-op members
upon their return home.
Future Generati ons
Nourishing Children’s Bodies & Minds:
School Meals Program
Political instability over the past several
years, disruptions in food supply and
access to public education throughout Côte
d’Ivoire have presented serious challenges.
161
CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
ADM works with the Friends of the
World Food Program, a nonprofit orga-
nization that focuses on building support
for the United Nations World Food
Programme by uniting organizations and
individuals committed to solving world
hunger. Through this partnership ADM
provides direct financial support to the
School Meals Program in Cote d’Ivoire.
Providing nutritious meals to students
in school encourages school attendance,
which in turn strengthens the future of
their families, communities and economies.
This program also fosters community
development by incorporating fresh veg-
etables from local gardens, employing local
cooks and teaching proper nutrition and
hygiene. Since its inception, the World
Food Programme has reached 11 million
school children in some 5,000 schools
across Africa.
Health
HIV/AIDS Program Focuses on
Prevention and Treatment
HIV/AIDS continues to have devastat-
ing consequences throughout Africa. To
help address this issue, ADM offers an
HIV/AIDS education, prevention and
treatment program in Côte d’Ivoire for all
full-time staff members, their families, day
laborers and retired employees.
Through the program, ADM employees
trained in HIV prevention tactics educate
colleagues on transmission and prevention.
For HIV-positive employees, doctors and
nurses provide confidential counseling and
treatment.
ADM works closely with Treichville
University Hospital Center’s Tropical and
Infectious Disease Service in the adminis-
tration of this program, which reaches more
than 1,400 full-time and seasonal ADM
employees and their families.
In Ghana, ADM works with Gesellschaft
für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) to
provide a comprehensive health program
to prevent and treat HIV, tuberculosis,
malaria and other infectious diseases.
For more sustainability information, visit:
World Cocoa Foundation •
www.worldcocoa.org
International Cocoa Initiative •
www.cocoainitiative.org
Sustainable Tree Crop Program •
www.treecrops.org
GTZ (Gesellschaft für Technische •
Zusammenarbeit)
www.gtz.de
As part of the School Meals Program, ADM
provides nourishing meals to thousands of
Ivorian school children to help encourage school
attendance.
162
CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
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THE ADM COCOA
GLOBAL ORGANIZATION
ADM Cocoa operates 14 industrial choco-
late and cocoa ingredients factories in 10
countries on 5 continents. It allows us to
integrate and implement technologies and
expertise from all of these units, and so to
benefit fully from the acknowledged opera-
tional and organizational know-how of our
parent company, Archer Daniels Midland
Company, one of the world’s leading food
processing companies.
ADM Cocoa is structured effectively to
help our customers worldwide to make the
most of chocolate and cocoa ingredients.
If you would like to know more about
ADM Cocoa, talk to your representative
or contact us at one of the locations listed.
ADM cocoa global operations
Buying stations
Singapore
Georgetown &
Mississauga ON
Milwaukee WI Mansfield MA
Hull
Hazleton PA
Glassboro NJ
Kumasi
Ghana
Ilhéus
Brazil
Douala
Cameroon
Abidjan & San Pedro
Côte d’Ivoire
Liverpool
Koog & Wormer,
The Netherlands
Manage, Belgium
Mannheim, Germany
169
CoCoa & ChoColate Manual
ADM INTERNATIONAL SARL
A one business Center
Z.A. Vers la piece – route de l’etraz
Ch-1180 rolle
SWITZerlAND
T: + 41 21 702 80 00
f: + 41 21 702 80 47
e: admcocoainternational@adm.com
ADM COCOA
12500 W. Carmen Avenue
Milwaukee, WI 53225
uSA
T: + 1 414 358 5700
f: + 1 414 358 5838
e: admcocoa@adm.com
ADM COCOA PTE, LTD.
342, Jalan boon lay, Jurong
Singapore 619527
SINgApore
T: + 65 6264 2611
f: + 65 6265 6126
e: AsiaCom@adm.com
ADM/JOANES INDUSTRIAL SA.
rodovia Ilheus – urucuca
KM 04 – Distrito Industrial
Ilheus – bahia – Cep 45658-335
brASIl
T: + 55 73 2101 2025
e: ilh.tarding@adm.com
ASIAN/PACIFIC SALES OFFICES
ADM Shanghai Trading Company Limited
room 1101, Aetna Tower, 107 Zun yi road
Changning District
Shanghai 200051
ChINA
T: + 8621 6237 5488
f: + 8621 6237 5539
e: ChinaCocoa@adm.com
ADM Far East Ltd
hosho bldg, 1-5-7 hong
bunkyo-ku,
Tokyo 113-0033
JApAN
T: + 813 5800 2323
f: + 813 5800 2327
e: Tokyo@adm.com
ADM Australia Pty Ltd
Suite 1003 level 10, 1 Newland Street
bondi Junction 2022
Sydney
AuSTrAlIA
T: + 612 9387 2255
f: + 612 9369 1170
e: wayne.cameron@adm.com
ADM COCOA INTERNATIONAL SARL
A One Business Center
Z.A. Vers de la Piece – Route de l’Etraz
CH-1180 Rolle
SWITZERLAND
T: + 41 21 702 80 00
F: + 41 21 702 80 47
E: admcocoainternational@adm.com
ADM COCOA
12500 W. Carmen Avenue
Milwaukee, WI 53225
USA
T: + 1 414 358 5700
F: + 1 414 358 5838
E: admcocoa@adm.com
ADM COCOA PTE, LTD.
342, Jalan Boon Lay, Jurong
Singapore 619527
SINGAPORE
T: + 65 6264 2611
F: + 65 6265 6126
E: AsiaCom@adm.com
ADM/JOANES INDUSTRIAL SA.
Rodovia Ilheus – Urucuca
KM 04 – Distrito Industrial
Ilheus – Bahia – Cep 45658-335
BRASIL
T: + 55 73 2101 2025
E: ilh.tarding@adm.com
©

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Ter nagedachtenis aan E.H. Meursing 3 maart 1924 – 7 juni 2008 De grondlegger van de De Zaan Cocoa Manual

The first edition of the De Zaan Cocoa Manual was published in 1969 by Dr. E.H. Meursing. The people of De Zaan are especially proud to share with you this 40th anniversary edition. From the very beginning, Dr. Meursing introduced each new edition by noting, “a product from De Zaan loses its identity as soon as it is incorporated in a customer’s product. From that moment on, it bears the name and reputation of this customer. The people of De Zaan are conscious of the confidence others place in our products and know their responsibility towards the customer.” We hope you find our new deZaan Chocolate and Cocoa Manual a useful addition to your library. This special 40th anniversary edition includes updated chapters along with new chapters covering chocolate and cocoa sustainability. We realize however that the information within is only a start to understanding the complexities of cocoa and chocolate and their use in countless food products around the globe. For this reason, we also conduct AdvantageTM Seminars at our Advantage Centers around the world or at our customer’s sites to provide more information, solutions, ideas and hands-on experience. We encourage you to contact us for the latest information regarding upcoming events. Today ADM Cocoa is the proud home of the deZaan global brand and highly regarded regional brands that include Ambrosia, Classic Couveture, Joanes, Merckens, Schokinag and Unicao. Together we hope to earn your trust as the preferred supplier of chocolate and cocoa solutions. This new edition is one example of our commitment to your success.

2009 ADM Cocoa All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form without written permission from ADM Cocoa International, Switzerland.

The information contained herein is correct as of the date of this document to the best of our knowledge. Any recommendations or suggestions are made without guarantee or representation as to results and are subject to change without notice. We suggest you evaluate any recommendations and suggestions independently. We DISClAIM ANy AND All WArrANTIeS, WheTher expreSS or IMplIeD, AND SpeCIfICAlly DISClAIM The IMplIeD WArrANTIeS of MerChANTAbIlITy, fITNeSS for A pArTICulAr purpoSe, AND NoN-INfrINgeMeNT. our responsibility for claims arising from any claim for breach of warranty, negligence, or otherwise shall not include consequential, special, or incidental damages, and is limited to the purchase price of material purchased from us. None of the statements made here shall be construed as a grant, either express or implied, of any license under any patent held by Archer Daniels Midland Company or other parties. Customers are responsible for obtaining any licenses or other rights that may be necessary to make, use, or sell products containing Archer Daniels Midland Company ingredients. deZaanTM is a registered trademark of Archer Daniels Midland Company.

Cocoa & Chocolate Manual .

Determination of mold and yeast count .Peroxide value .Introduction .Principles of quality assurance . Introduction 21 The raw material 21 .Bean blending .Sampling—general .Cocoa cake .Roasting . 2. Module 2 Cocoa Processing 1.Introduction .World’s cocoa products flow 1.Cocoa butter Process control 25 .Spread of the cocoa tree .Early processing and trade Cocoa today 12 .Major cocoa processing countries . 2.Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) . 4. 4 .Standards .Customer requirements The production process 23 .Cocoa powder .Saponification value .Moisture and volatile matter .Determination of fat content .Determination of moisture content Cocoa powder 36 . 5. 3.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual Table of Contents Module 1 History and Supply of Cocoa 1. E. A brief history of cocoa 9 .Blue value . 4.Determination of pH .Cleaning.Lovibond color .Iodine value by Wijs method .Extinction values .Pressing .Melting point .Instrumental color evaluation Cocoa butter 39 . .Selection The quality factor 22 . 3. 3.Cultivation of cocoa . 5.Sample preparation for total plate count (TPC).Production coding and sampling .Flavor evaluation . molds/yeasts and Enterobacteriaceae .Visual color evaluation .Flow sheet .Cortez . breaking and winnowing .Determination of total mesophilic aerobe plate count .Main cocoa growing areas .Sterilization and alkalization .Determination of sieve residue .Refractive index .Free fatty acid content Microbiological 48 .Reference samples Module 3 Methods of Analysis Introduction 29 Sampling procedure 29 .Qualitative determination of Enterobacteriaceae incl.Types of beans .Unsaponifiable matter .Harvesting and fermentation . coli .Determination for presence of Salmonella 2.Cocoa liquor .Physical cocoa versus cocoa futures .Quality and grading .Fluctuating bean characteristics 6.Nib grinding .Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) .Industry trends World demand for cocoa 18 .Sampling—bags or FIBCs Cocoa liquor/cocoa powder 31 .Definition .

Cocoa bean selection .Fat (cocoa butter) .Flavonoids .Visual judgment of color .Fat content .Proteins .Other applications Packaging.Cocoa off-flavor notes 53 2.Introduction .Flavor .Introduction . 93 94 Module 8 Cocoa Butter 1.Organic acids .Moisture . synergism.Introduction .Rheology .Flavor memory . Formation of cocoa flavor . texture.Flavor stability 97 Module 6 Health and Nutritional Aspects 1.Adaptation.Color differences Measuring color 69 .Color of cocoa butter Elements of color 68 . 92 3.Sensory evaluation in the food industry .Alkalization and color development .Precursors of the color component .Fineness .Alkalization .Sensory evaluation .The CIE color coordinates .Flavor characteristics . .Basic cocoa flavor notes .Difference (discrimination) tests . sound.Lipase activity and cocoa liquor The application of cocoa liquor .Chocolate . Functionality and attributes of cocoa butter . Introduction Manufacturer’s responsibility Indicative nutritional information 73 73 73 5 .Flavor . taste and smell .Flavor release .Descriptive tests . Formation of the cocoa color 65 . Functionality and attributes of cocoa liquor . 3.The source of light .Vitamins .The personality of chocolate .Fermentation and drying . 2.Methylxanthines .Energy Cocoa and allergies 80 Module 7 Cocoa Liquor 1.Cocoa bean variety .Roasting Chemistry of roasting Sensory evaluation of cocoa flavor .Color measuring . 3.Sugar and starch .Processing equipment .Dietary fiber .The three dimensions of color .Instrumental color measurement 2.Minerals . mouthfeel.Ash .Standard of identity .Color .Standard of identity . 3.Microbiology .Appearance.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual Module 4 Flavor and Flavor Development 1.Free fat . 4. storage and transportation Specification of cocoa liquor 83 Module 5 Color and Color Development 1.The reflecting surface of the sample . 2. 55 57 4. total impression and judgment .Maintenance cost .

Ice cream and frozen desserts .Cocoa butter .Chocolate production .Polymorphic crystallization properties .Cocoa liquor .Influence of deodorization .Packaging .The color essential .pH . storage and transportation 131 .Fumigation or irradiation Module 10 Chocolate 1. 4. History of Chocolate 139 Standards of Identity 140 Process Flow 140 .Influence of alkalization .Controllable and non-controllable factors .Confectionery.Heavy metals .Metallic iron .Under tempering .Fat content .Conching Raw Materials 140 .Color .Wettability and dispersibility The application of cocoa powder 126 .Methods to measure solidification characteristics .Fineness .Instant products and premixes Packaging.Shell content .Bulk and semi-bulk packaging Specification of cocoa powder 133 .Intrinsic color .Fineness .Food safety aspects .Milk powder .Specification components .Microbiological characteristics . 4.Hardness . 3.Confectionery fillings .Influence of cocoa color on the final product .Pesticides . 3.Dairy products .External (“dry”) color .Mycotoxins .Tempering—measured by means of a tempermeter .Coding .Emulsifiers 6 .Rheology .Appearance .Over tempering .Flavor .Rheology and water absorption .Solidification behavior .Butter oil . Functionality and attributes of cocoa powder 115 .Moisture content .Introduction . storage and transportation 110 Specification of cocoa butter 112 2. 2.Gloss and shelf-life stability The application of cocoa butter 109 . coatings and cocoa products . .Impurities . 3.Fat content .Transport and storage .Contraction .Guidance on tasting .Optimal tempering .Nutritive Carbohydrate Sweeteners .Range of cocoa flavors .Flavor and color .Flavor and consistency .CoCoa & ChoColate Manual 2.Bakery products . Module 9 Cocoa Powder 1.Other applications Packaging.Introduction . 4.pH and alkalinity .Color matching .Introduction .Refining .Standard of identity .Color and opacity .

Cocoa Livelihoods Program: Partnership with the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation On-Farm Practices 160 .Stage #1 .Stage #2 Conching 147 .ADM Technical Training Program Builds Cooperatives’ Capacity 7 .Color .Milk Chocolates/White Chocolates Pre-Refining Mix 145 .Particle size . 8. 10.Nourishing Children’s Bodies & Minds: School Meals Program Health 161 . .Addressing Child Labor Holistic Sustainability Programs 159 .Quality changes observed during storage .Sugar bloom .Fat bloom .Summary of the conching steps .The SERAP program: Encouraging Socially & Environmentally Responsible Practices .HIV/AIDS Program Focuses on Prevention and Treatment Bibliography The ADM Cocoa Global Organization 162 168 Module 11 Sustainable Cocoa A Better Future for Cocoa Communities 159 .Panning . 12.Chocolate inclusions Cooling 154 .Mixing Refining 146 .Enrobing . 13. 11.The conching process: Standardization and Quality Control 149 .Spreading The Word of Improved Farm Practices: STCP Partnership Future Generations 161 .Rheology .Flavors Formulations 145 .Total fat (%) .Flavor Tempering 149 Application of Various Chocolate Products 151 .Bittersweet/Semisweet (Dark) Chocolates . Storage and Distribution 155 .Cooling methods and recommendations for hand dipping and enrobing Packaging.Molding . 7.Cracking or leakage .CoCoa & ChoColate Manual 5. 9.Hand dipping . 6.

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Because of the Aztecs’ belief that Cortez was the reincarnation of their God Quetzalcoatl. It is a word that perhaps has the remarkable distinction of being one of the first ever to be adopted from one language and then applied on a truly global scale. many discoveries’ future significance to man were never fully appreciated at the time. The first time that people far from the areas of its origin were confronted with the cocoa bean was thanks to Columbus. the Aztec name for the bitter stimulant. that were made from the cocoa bean. left to ferment naturally. the Cacao tree was then exclusive to the Americas. including cocoa beans. He found that the Aztecs valued them so much that they used them both as means of payment and as the source of a beverage drunk at court and religious ceremonies. The resulting paste was then formed into cakes to cool and harden. drinkable or solid. The cocoa beans were then consumed primarily in the form of a drink known as xocolatl. a most significant patron of cocoa. Although its exact origins are not known. The kernels were then ground on a slightly concave stone called a metate using a cylindrical grinder. many of which are still not clearly explained. A b rie f h i s t o r y o f cocoa Introduction Throughout history. and a series of chance events then led to the discovery of its potential. Evidence suggests that the tree has been cultivated for more than 3. Little is known as to how the bean came to take on such a powerful role. the cakes would be broken up.000 years. and deshelled by hand. Its stimulating effects certainly offer clear reason for its traditional 9 . The attraction of this bitter drink clearly lay in the physiological effects it offered the drinker. sun dried. spices and herbs of various kinds. High ambient temperatures were clearly necessary for the development of the bean. Its name would later be applied to all products. The fact that cocoa is chemically very complex and that many of its components have not been fully identified confirms the complexity of this natural bean’s biochemistry. The beans would have first been collected. Now used for a wide range of foods and delicacies. the cocoa bean enriches the lives of us all. dissolved in water. he reportedly discovered a canoe off the Yucatan Peninsula laden with fruit and cocoa beans. roasted in earthen pots. The closest estimates put the area of origin in and around the valleys of the Amazon and Orinoco Rivers. At this point. he was showered with gifts and honors. Cortez arrived in Mexico and met Montezuma II. That is to say. On his fourth voyage to America. including vanilla. 1 Cortez In 1519. Recipes for xocolatl were rarely recorded and probably varied by location. might have been added to improve the taste. and beaten to a foamy consistency. The tributes requested by Montezuma from his subject people were in part taken in the form of supplies of cocoa beans. The cocoa bean is such a discovery. But it was only years later at the beginning of the 16th century that Cortez confirmed the remarkable value assigned to the cocoa beans. One can imagine that the realization of its potential occurred in much the same way as wine.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual History and Supply of Cocoa 1. For consumption. a natural product was accidentally left in storage and subjected to the forces of nature.

Though it was actually known to people other than the Spanish. the Spaniards transplanted one of the main types of cocoa beans from Mexico to Trinidad. drinking cocoa had become so popular in Europe that it was serving as a source of tax revenue for governments. the secret passed into Italy. the cocoa tree was planted throughout many islands and countries of the Caribbean and later to other continents. and on to northern Europe. Cortez was instructed never to divulge its origin. In 1525. (See also Module 6: Health and Nutritional Aspects). where the Dutch encouraged and later came to dominate cocoa trade. By the end of the 17th century. through a diplomat. not without frustration. The popularity of the bean conquered the court of Spain. attempts were initiated to reduce dependence on a single source of the bean. for example. The secrets of cocoa took almost 140 years to filter out of Spain. no one invested the effort to research it further. Cultivation across all of their colonized territories was encouraged. Over time. Eventually.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual use in medicine. The popularity of the cocoa drink at the Spanish royal court was such that still in the 16th century. a sure sign that consumption was spreading beyond the small elitist groups that initiated its success. as the cocoa trees were strangely susceptible to disease. then to Austria and France. 10 . cocoa was declared a state secret by decree from King Charles V of Spain. Cocoa tree with ripe fruit Spread of the cocoa tree As the first main colonizing power. As imports grew. it was the Spaniards who ruled in this region of the Americas. where it flourished until being completely wiped out in an epidemic. Cocoa was to remain a Spanish possession. all areas that offered the ideal climatic and soil conditions for successful cultivation. although only under close and direct supervision of the Spanish royal court.

the Dutch also became more involved in research into cocoa processing. cocoa butter would come into its own: Originally used as a simple household fat. In 1847. to reduce the fattiness of the chocolate drink. most processing was in the hands of the Spanish. especially in West Africa and Southeast Asia. taste and color were also changed. Another process developed by van Houten was alkalization. would become one of the world’s great commodities. Some years later. an important discovery was made by John Fry in England. when eaten. where it was later transferred to the mainland. By adding cocoa butter to a mixture of liquor and sugar. This was originally done in order to improve the solubility. Cocoa processing developed during the 18th century in the Netherlands. In the 16th and 17th centuries. It was found that at the same time. cocoa powders with different tastes and colors became widely used as flavor and color ingredients in the food industry. They brought the bean to the West African island of Fernando Po. Main cocoa growing areas The spread of the cocoa bean across the world was a long and frequently interrupted journey. alkali. the result of grinding the roasted beans into a fatty fraction (cocoa butter) and a partially defatted fraction (cocoa cake or powder). or the “Dutch process. from Brazil and Mexico in the 15th century across Central America and the Caribbean islands in the 16th. The great growth of cocoa trade in the 19th century saw its expansion across many other countries. it is a product that. Coenraad Johannes van Houten developed a mechanical pressing process to fractionate the cocoa liquor. until the 18th century. releases its flavors in an optimal manner. as it is known by its scientific classification. Early processing and trade The Dutch were the first to actively trade the commodity and. dominated the world trade in cocoa. Because of this. even though they bought most of their beans from Amsterdam or the Dutch port of Zeeland. In 1825. Pests and disease frustrated many attempts to transplant the tree. Meanwhile.” a procedure of treating cocoa with 11 . This is not only an easily handled product. Thus. The tree first spread out in regions close to its origins. it would pave the way for the creation of chocolate. Its successful cultivation required specific climatic conditions. but it is solid at room temperature and melts just below body temperature. one of the confectionery industry’s greatest discoveries. By 1560.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual The Food of the Gods. the Spaniards had introduced it to some of the Indonesian islands. or Theobroma cacao L. chocolate was created..

After fermentation and drying.6 Central/South America West Indies Asia & Oceania Total world production 542 32. soils must be well aerated. Criollos are commonly known as lighter in color with a mild.418 56. nutty character. The greater part of the world’s cocoa crop has 12 . The pod contains some 40 seeds or beans.010 59.000 mt and %) 1980/81 1990/91 1.6 million hectares. one pod produces some 40 g of beans. It will grow from sea level up to a maximum of some 1.4 2008/09 2. although most of the world’s crop grows at an altitude of less than 300 meters. more strongly flavored.8 5. only a small number matures into fruits or pods. cocoa trees are cultivated in more than 40 countries around the world. producing an annual crop of more than 3.000 mm. there have been two main types of cocoa described: Criollo and Forastero.9 53 1.4 383 11.467 2.857 3. vary considerably in beans of different origins. with a minimum of 1. Types of beans Typical attributes of the bean. and pests and diseases must be carefully controlled.500 kg on the most efficient farms.696 2.7 51 1. one bean typically weighing around 1 gram.1 2000/01 1.1 590 17. These can be found on the tree at all seasons of the year. The original cocoa tree grew to a height of ±10 meters at maturity and preferred the shade of other larger trees.5 Africa 1.0 602 16. Forastero cocoas are characterized as darker brown. Today. although typically two crops are harvested each year. Temperatures must generally lie within the band of 18°-30° C (65°-86° F).9 487 17. The fruits grow directly from the trunk of the tree and the thicker branches. C ocoa t o day Cultivation of cocoa The successful cultivation of cocoa requires a special climate that is mostly found within the area bounded by the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn.948 68. slightly bitter.506 2.0 million tons of dried beans ready for processing.9 2007/08 2. while in the past six to seven years was common. across an estimated area of 3.4 53 2. such as bean size. flowers and fruits begin to appear in modest amounts. While there may be several thousand flowers on a mature tree. Traditionally.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual Major Cocoa Bean Producing Areas (× 1. and as having a higher fat content.0 1. These take some six months to grow from a fertilized flower.442 70.2 369 12. The trees must be protected from strong winds (the root system is not robust). color.735 3.0 52 1.0 47 97 2.6 611 24. Rainfall must be well distributed across the year. When the evergreen cocoa tree reaches its bearing age.682 71. Certain cocoa trees become productive in three to four years. Yields per hectare have risen over time from around 350 kg to more than 1.000 meters. measure 10-15 cm at the center. Modern breeding methods have led to the development of trees of a standard ±3 meters tall to allow for easy hand harvesting. and are 15-25 cm long.7 487 16. The majority of the world’s crop is now grown within 10° North and South of the equator. flavor. and chemical composition of the fat.8 400 10.

the world’s largest cocoa growing area. soil status. The results suggest. and allow 13 . and drying. whatever its origin. cover them with layers of leaves (often banana). Nanay. is significantly affected by weather conditions during growing. The Criollo are known for flavor characteristics. Criollo. the different stages of fermentation are essential in the creation of the complex organic components essential to the final taste and enjoyment of cocoa. A third type is has also been described as “Trinitario”. more specifically a sub-type known as Amelonado. Beans are then extracted and directly subjected to fermentation. Amelonado. is simple: Farmers place the pulp-covered beans on the ground. long been considered to be of the Forastero type. Curaray. Parts of Ecuador boast a very specific type of cocoa. Purús. Contamana. The ultimate quality of cocoa. Mostly they are harvested by hand using long-handled cutting tools and broken open to reveal the beans and the white pulp surrounding them. Storage conditions are also important in preventing deterioration of the quality. It would be wrong to claim that certain natural varieties of cocoa are better than others. Each has its own specific chemical and physical characteristics that are taken into careful consideration when beans are blended. Cacao Nacional or Arriba. enhance flavor and improve crop yield. The pods grow directly from the trunk of the tree. Harvesting and fermentation A cocoa pod contains some 40 seeds. as researchers now Although nearly 500 years have passed since Cortez first witnessed the making of hot cocoa by the Aztecs. essentially a hybrid of Criollo and Forastero crosses. the basic methodology for processing cocoa beans has remained much the same. In 2008 a large study of genetic and geographic differentiation of Theobroma cacao was completed in Latin America. Iquitos. This new classification is said to reflect much more accurately the genetic diversity of cacao and should act to support new mating schemes targeted to increase disease resistance. fermentation. a new classification of cacao germplasm into ten major groups: Marañon. Nacional and Gulana. Clearly. while the Forastero plant are most commonly known for their ability to withstand more severe climatic conditions.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual recommend. While a vast amount of research has been undertaken to speed up the cocoa bean fermentation process. there has been little success. The traditional process in West Africa.

Fermentation of beans under banana leaves 14 . After the fermentation process is completed. The flower is very susceptible to rain and temperature conditions during its development. during which the white pulp is totally degraded. It is preferable to mix the heap every two days so that the bean mix ferments evenly. In Malaysia widespread use is made of mechanical rotary driers. although there are still many unknowns as to the exact processes occurring.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual the heap to remain for four to seven days. the beans are bagged and made ready for transport to buying stations and regional warehouses. Because of the high rainfall and cloud cover in Brazil and Malaysia. the cocoa beans have to be dried. The fermentation is critical for the future development of color and flavor of the cocoa. depending on the variety of the bean. Development of aroma precursors is essential to the eventual creation of flavors. other techniques are more popular. A more industrial fermentation uses three to five stepwise-positioned boxes: the highest box is filled with pulp-covered beans. In four to six days. Quality and grading Cocoa is a natural product and suffers all the risks inherent to that. a process which is repeated until the lowest box is reached. this box fermentation can reach the result of the traditional heap process. After drying. The pod can be attacked by a variety of molds. insects. and hot air is used to dry them. In the event of rain. a roof can be slid across the mats. In Africa the traditional method is to spread the beans out on mats or in trays in the open air to dry in the sun. and after one to two days the content is mixed and transferred to the lower box. In Brazil the beans are typically laid out on broad mats on stilts above ground level to dry.

Offflavors can also be caused by the proximity of another strong-smelling product during storage and shipping. Shells should be whole but loose. This depends on the type of bean and its handling. broken beans. the amount of foreign matter.) A key criterion is flavor.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual Drying of cocoa beans on mats and rodents. An expert panel grades a consignment. the higher the chances of mold development. smoky taints may come about during drying. The fat content. 15 . neither conducive to a good yield. The quality of beans is assessed under various headings: • degree of fermentation • number of defects • number of broken beans • bean count (number per 100 g) • flavor • color • fat content • fat quality • shell content • moisture content • uniformity • insect and rodent infestation • certain chemical residues The bean cut test is used to evaluate defects and the degree of fermentation. Beans should also be uniform in size because variable-sized beans are harder to break and deshell. The higher the moisture content. Bean size is important because small beans have a proportionately lower amount of nib and a higher shell content. Asian beans typically have a higher shell content than African beans. Moldy off-flavors come from molds. (See also Module 4: Flavor and Flavor Development. acidic off-flavors are due to excessive acid created during fermentation or improper drying. The shell percentage is dependent on the type of bean. The yield of a consignment of cocoa beans is the usable proportion—the cocoa nib (the kernel without shell). and the shell may be contaminated microbiologically. seeking to identify off-flavors.

At the buying station. the collection. color. the cocoa beans are collected and finally arrive at the nearest port of embarkation or are delivered to local processing plants. grading. Cocoa brokers can be intermediaries who have expertise on crops and trade and who advise and act for both buyers and sellers. traded according to a uniform description and lot tonnages. Cocoa traded on the terminal or futures market is paper cocoa. In the past. In West Africa cocoa is traded through government-controlled marketing boards (Ghana) as well as by local exporters and cocoa processors (Ivory Coast. delivery time. insect damage. From the buying stations. cocoa bean marketing in origin countries was mainly government controlled (purchasing from farmers. and price. and Nigeria). foreign ownership of cocoa farms in West Africa is not allowed. selling. and other features. and other such factors may negatively influence the true value of the beans for the user. Sales are made to licensed traders and cocoa merchants or directly to cocoa processors. bought and sold according to its actual quality. but today free marketing systems more often prevail. The level of trade regulations and taxes levied on cocoa usually reflects the importance of cocoa for the national economy.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual Cocoa beans vary in size. 16 . The cocoa butter should be low in free fatty acids and show specific melting and solidification characteristics. and financing of the crop can be rather complex. and setting prices). Price discounts/premiums can be made for poor/good quality. Generally speaking. inspected. shape. Physical cocoa versus cocoa futures Physical cocoa is real cocoa. where the cocoa trade has been privatized albeit with certain significant regulatory limitations. tonnage. a farmer’s crop is weighed. with price and delivery period as the only variables. and paid the current market (or government set) price. When the beans are grown on very small farms. place. Cameroon.

the futures market allows manufacturers to purchase for future requirements at a known price. Major ports of entry are Amsterdam. Paris. do not necessarily reflect the values of the specific types of beans. These distinct characteristics can play a significant role in the pricing. leading to a highly efficient bulk transportation system. cocoa beans are today a major commodity. such as Central and South America and Asia. resulting in greater transparency of the cocoa trade. Kuala Lumpur. Philadelphia. Industry trends Bulk shipment of cocoa beans has made its entrance in Europe since 1995. As a commodity exposed to oversupply by bumper harvests. notably those in West Africa. or to shortage caused by weather or disease. Geneva. This is because the market recognizes that each bean origin has a particular demand due to its specific characteristics. Hamburg. London. With more than 3. Instead of receiving the beans in traditional jute bags. Philadelphia. were developed and implemented both at the loading and discharging points. Cocoa is thus traded openly. in bulk in containers or directly in vessel holds. and Singapore. there is a trend to grind a larger part of their cocoa bean output into semi-finished products and export cocoa liquor. In the countries of origin. as well as innovative quality control procedures. cocoa is freely traded and exported. sustained by government incentives to promote industrialization.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual In other major producing areas. and cocoa butter properties. and Hamburg. Cocoa does not play as dominant a role in these economies. such as flavor.0 million tons consumed annually (2002/2003). however. selling at a premium above the terminal price or at a discount below it. San Salvador. butter. Farming in some countries like Brazil may be done on a much larger scale than in Africa or Indonesia. The main cocoa exchanges are London and New York. and powder instead of raw beans. cocoa may now be shipped to a large extent 17 . Each cocoa bean origin will have its own price. New handling technology. color. The physical traders of cocoa are located in many other cities such as Amsterdam. the price of cocoa naturally varies. while various bean grading systems control the quality of the beans shipped to the consuming countries. Liberalization of the cocoa trade and industry in the countries of origin. Terminal prices. In that way. will continue. Everyone can see what is happening. the prices of beans and intermediate products are based on the market’s perception of the current and future supply and demand. Amsterdam receives about 20% of the world crop. As with other commodities.

7 4. and cocoa powder—are initially made from cocoa beans.4 7.000 mt and %) 1980/81 1990/91 268 11.8 1.3 0.3 2. All beans.5 110 150 260 88 110 3. the supply fluctuates from year to year.6 118 145 71 78 83 32 5.5 355 10. 18 .4 385 10.2 374 10. Combining cocoa liquor and cocoa butter (with sugar and possibly milk powders) creates chocolate.3 7.4 2000/01 452 14. Worl d d e m a n d f or coc oa World’s cocoa products flow Major cocoa processing countries The world demand for cocoa beans has steadily increased over recent decades as a direct result of increased world demand for chocolate and chocolate-flavored products.8 1. roasted.515 Source: International Cocoa Organization Quarterly Bulletin 3.9 4.3 3.758 3. For example.1 730 46.9 974 41. cocoa butter.0 3.6 60 80 48 7 114 13 3.1 3. a larger quantity of liquor and butter will be required to satisfy that increase in demand. Three products—cocoa liquor (also called cocoa paste or cocoa mass).9 5. For example.6 1.1 335 9.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual Major Cocoa Processing Countries (based on bean grind) (× 1. On the other hand.5 294 12.5 3.0 186 11.5 Netherlands USA Germany Ivory Coast United Kingdom France Malaysia Former USSR Indonesia Others Total world grindings 140 9.331 3.9 1.6 4. deshelled. and ground.3 4. because cocoa is an agricultural product subject to the influences of nature. in the case of an increase in chocolate consumption.035 33.0 108 160 331 96 160 2.4 9. the world’s largest cocoa bean processor.1 3.192 33. Consequently. after having been cleaned. a larger volume of cocoa powder will become available to the market.9 4.1 4.7 456 14. Any change in the supply position of one product has an effect on the availability of the others.8 440 12.9 227 285 151 145 125 102 87 7.9 180 11.2 3. almost the entire quantity of beans is processed by the cocoa press industry into intermediate cocoa products rather than directly into cocoa consumer products like chocolate.1 0.1 391 10. are first processed into cocoa liquor.065 3.3 8.3 2008/09 475 13.262 33.558 2.8 2007/08 491 13. which may not necessarily coincide with a simultaneous increase in the demand for cocoa powder.8 2.5 268 11.1 6. The bean grinding quantities do not indicate what is actually made from cocoa.4 2.6 1. in the Netherlands.

as usual. Worth mentioning though. this substitution has a quantitative and adverse effect on the supply and demand positions of cocoa butter and cocoa powder. Whatever the extent of the individual effects of these two aspects. but also on their relative pricing against the raw material: the cocoa bean. This book basically deals with the functional aspects of the three intermediate products (cocoa liquor. an adjustment will then clearly have to occur. Competitive market forces.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual Diagram of World’s Cocoa Products Flow Cocoa powder 1. cocoa butter. allowing up to 5% of six specific vegetable fats other than cocoa butter to be used in chocolate. 19 .800 CHOCOLATE INDUSTRY Cocoa liquor 1. is the new Cocoa and Chocolate Directive of the European Union (2000/36/EC). by means of a price adjustment (a lower butter price must lead to a higher powder price). and powder not only has a direct influence on their physical supply and demand positions. the combination causes an imbalance in the product flow. or through a combination thereof. This interlocking relationship between liquor. The price of cocoa butter relative to the cocoa bean also remains under pressure.000 (estimate) Shell 675 Sugar Milk It is estimated that some 65% of the world grind is pressed into about 55% of cake (powder) and about 45% of butter. will ultimately lead to the most practical solution. The other 35% is processed into cocoa liquor and almost entirely used directly for the manufacture of chocolate.000 Cocoa butter 800 Cocoa beans 3.025 Chocolate 5. This can be quantitative (less butter produced leads to less powder available).825 PRESS INDUSTRY Cocoa liquor 1. To dwell extensively on issues of commercial or legislative considerations would go beyond its purpose.500 Cocoa nibs 2. and cocoa powder) and chocolate in their respective applications. butter. As no cocoa butter can be made without obtaining a similar quantity of cocoa powder (and vice versa).

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cocoa butter.< 7. determines the ultimate characteristics of the end products.5% • Smoky or foreign odors . the free fatty acids and the crystallization behavior of the fat present in the bean are of great 21 . applied in the various grading systems in the countries of origin.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual Cocoa Processing 1.should be as defined (if applicable) These standard characteristics. A distinction must be made between those characteristics of significance to quantity or yield. this module focuses on those elements of the production process most likely to be relevant to users of such products. In this module. Today. For cocoa butter. and standard contracts define a number of quality requirements. For the cocoa processing industry. we deal with cocoa processing into the three products that are highlighted in this book: cocoa liquor. harvested. for example. the beans are still cleaned. capital intensive. moldy. or flat beans. violet. In t roduct i o n Module 1: History and Supply of Cocoa gives a brief account as to where and how cocoa is grown. are generally limited to those that can be observed by the eye or nose (insect infestation. however. like percentage of shell. bag quality. cocoa product manufacturing has also become a highly automated. other characteristics have to be taken into account. and several aspects have to be taken into account. Finally. and fat. Before describing the basic features of cocoa processing. which is subsequently pressed into butter and cake.< 2% • Moisture content . Particularly the knowledge and expertise with regard to controlling the intrinsic potential of the raw material have expanded significantly in the past decades. the role of the raw material in that process must first be discussed. then ground into cocoa liquor. An average shipment of cocoa should comply with the following: • Fermentation .reasonably uniform • Packing weight. and sometimes alkalized. slaty. Cocoa is traded on terminal markets around the world. and characteristics that are significant to the quality of the products finally obtained from the beans. over time mechanical efficiency and the quality and risk management have vastly improved.absent • Bean size uniformity . moisture. For them it is important to know what stages of the process are critical in view of the key features of the cocoa products that they buy as ingredients for application in their products. and shipped from the major cocoa growing areas. Of course. As the prime purpose of the deZaanTM Cocoa Manual is to be a practical guide to the user of cocoa products. off-flavors) and to characteristics that can be defined with simple equipment (number of beans per 100 g. The r aw mater i a l Standards Certainly the condition of the starting material. and marking . Basically the principle of processing cocoa beans into cocoa products has not changed in the past 150 years. high-tech industry. Like many other food processing industries. and cocoa powder. deshelled. the cocoa bean.nil • Waste . Close scrutiny of the raw material is essential. the cake is pulverized into powder.adequately fermented (if fermented) • Foreign matter . 2 2 . moisture content). roasted.

Close to the ideal. every individual employee is involved as well. user support. overall value. below the ideal. the flavor and color potential are essential. This is of particular importance in respect to bulk shipment of cocoa. In the manufacturing world. of course. post-harvesting. is discussed in Module 4: Flavor and Flavor Development and in Module 5: Color and Color Development. like any agricultural commodity. based on mutually defined functional specifications with accompanying services to the worldwide market at competitive prices. Because quality is subject to individual judgment. However. natural variability of an agricultural commodity. which today is more and more the standard method of bean transportation. as well as the further development of color and flavor during the alkalization and roasting steps in the manufacture of cocoa powder. and some bacteria are acti. ADM Cocoa concentrates on the specific wishes of its industrial customers. This extension of the meaning of quality has brought changes within food manufacturing organizations. bean parcels are selected and analyzed by ADM Cocoa prior to shipment from the country of origin. whereby customers are: • creating more new products with cocoa ingredients • requesting more data on the properties and applications of products • becoming more critical. the beans.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual importance. and follow-up and bringing solutions 22 . The importance of bean selection with regard to the ultimately desired flavor profile of cocoa liquor. The fermentation and drying processes usually take place in the open air on the farms. Once released from the pod. not only in terms of product safety and attributes but also in such areas as delivery reliability. Not only are all departments involved. the disciplined management of quality standards is essential. Th e qua l i t y fac t o r Definition At ADM Cocoa. causing a bacterial load to build up. the quality of a product or service was considered good. Our standards and internal control procedures are upgraded and adapted constantly. we strive to supply cocoa products. the concept of quality has long been understood and defined as the way a physical product compared to some defined ideal. The concept of the quality factor today is how an organization like ADM Cocoa is able to respond to customer demands. after-sales service. are subject to contamination with filth and foreign matter. unavoidable. asking for ever-stricter product consistency • asking for more non-material added value. then quality was poor. bearing in mind the given. and collection.vated to form spores. Subsequent drying of the beans does not lead to a microbial improvement. ADM Cocoa realizes that just like its own business. ADM Cocoa takes customers’ current and anticipated requirements into account. covers many disciplines. For liquor and powder. and involves many individuals of an organization. consistent in their attributes. cocoa beans are subjected to a spontaneous fermentation process. 3. which means attention. service. During harvesting. today the concept of quality has expanded to mean the way a product or service responds to the expectations of clients. To maintain its position of leadership in the supply of cocoa ingredients. the businesses of its customers are constantly evolving. and. Customer requirements Selection Whenever possible. Quality tended to be restricted solely to physical attributes.

Their objective is to obtain clean. stones. fluctuating characteristics can be reduced or evened out before the beans are further processed. be it on product specifications or any other aspect. twigs. and foreign matter such as bamboo. breaking. demanding speedy and flexible just in time deliveries • trying to eliminate dependence on product inspection of incoming materials In practice. the beans are sieved. breaking and winnowing 4. an optimal blend is prepared. An alternate approach is to process specific lots of beans and blend the resulting cocoa liquors.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual • asking for support in rationalizing the number of cocoa products required for their growing businesses • becoming oriented toward keeping low stocks. Bean blending On the basis of the analysis of the individual bean lots. the product is sieved into a number of fractions to reach optimal separation during winnowing. These fractions then go to the winnowing cabinets where the “lighter. deshelled kernels (nibs). The clean beans are then broken to loosen the shells from the nibs. Th e p rodu c t i o n proce s s Flow sheet Cocoa processing at ADM Cocoa is described in the simplified diagram below. this often means that identifying particular requirements. First. and magnetic materials is removed. becomes a matter of close cooperation with the customer that ultimately leads to jointly defining these requirements.” broken shell is removed by a Production Flow Sheet Beans Precleaning Storage Blending (optional) Nibs Breaking & winnowing Sterilization Alkalizing (optional) Roasting Liquor Liquor grinding Pressing Cake Breaking Cake blending Pulverization Cooling Packaging Blending Filtering Butter Deodorization (optional) Liquor Powder Butter 23 . The breaking process takes place in multiple steps to avoid an excess of fine particles. and winnowing. In this way. string. The various production steps and critical control points are then discussed. After the breaking step. Cleaning. These kernels must be as uniform in size as possible in order to achieve constant quality. broken. The actual production process starts with the following three steps: cleaning.

ADM Cocoa does not carry out post process sterilization by means of fumigation or irradiation at the end of the production process. Alkalizing or Dutching consists of treating the cocoa nibs with an alkali solution such as potassium or sodium carbonate. which is not eliminated by postprocess sterilization. After sterilization. see Module 4 and Module 5. equipment. from its shell. as it combines optimal flavor and color development with minimal alkali usage. Roasting is particularly important to the final flavor because the nib’s flavor is formed from the precursors that developed during fermentation. for the effects of alkalization on the formation of flavor and color of cocoa products. The breaking and winnowing steps separate the essential ingredient of the cocoa bean. Depending on the stage at which alkalization takes place. and liquor) with stringent microbiological specifications. Sterilization and alkalization The microbiologically contaminated nib is sterilized in a batch or a continuous process by wetting and heating with steam: the Total Plate Count (TPC) is normally reduced to less than 500 per gram. This is due to the high fat content of the bean: About half of the nib is fat. different results will be obtained. and pathogenic bacteria are killed. It is practiced primarily to modify the color and flavor of cocoa powder or cocoa liquor. and the end product required. A low level of those organisms after sterilization and roasting is essential for ultimately obtaining excellent food-grade products (cocoa powder. butter. Cocoa liquor Roasting The roasting process has the objectives of reducing the water content and further developing flavor. most often described as the nib. as post-process sterilization often serves to hide poor hygienic process conditions and contamination with foreign matter. the cocoa liquor. The nib may then be stored. awaiting further processing. the nib can be roasted directly (natural process) or can be alkalized first (Dutch process). The separated shell is often sold to agricultural mulch or fertilizer producers. Pressing Cocoa butter constitutes about half the weight of the cocoa nib. the kernel. the broken kernels change from a solid to a fluid mass of cocoa particles suspended in cocoa butter. and irradiation may cause an undesired change in the flavor (oxidation). ing on the process. During grinding. or it can be shipped and used by chocolate manufacturers for further processing into chocolate. This finely ground fluid mass. Nib alkalization is often preferred. Alkalization can be conducted at various points in the production process. (See Module 4: Flavor and Flavor Development). Further fumigation may leave residues.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual stream of air. Strong magnets remove magnetic foreign matter from the nib. Roasting temperatures range from 95-145° C (200-295° F) depend- After the last stage of the grinding process. the mass is passed through sieves and over strong magnets to remove any remaining coarse cocoa or metal particles. This fat is partially removed from the cocoa liquor by means of hydraulic presses applying pressures as 24 . Nib grinding The roasted nib is typically ground in a multi-stage process. type of nib processed. can either be stored in tanks to await pressing. Exposure of the nib to such temperatures during roasting causes an additional reduction in the number of microorganisms. Grinding breaks up the cell structure of the cocoa nibs and releases the cocoa butter.

CoCoa & ChoColate Manual

high as 450 kg/cm2. Depending upon the pressing time and the setting of the press, the resulting cakes may have a fat content of 10 to 24%.

5 . P ro c ess c o ntro l
Fluctuating bean characteristics
Cocoa is a natural product with considerable quality variations from year to year, from country to country, and from lot to lot. Sometimes certain types of cocoa may not be available at all. As customers expect to receive a consistent final product, fluctuation of quality characteristics of our end-products has to be eliminated or reduced. So the bean mix and the processing conditions can be adapted based on experience, technological expertise, and knowledge of the properties of the raw material. Therefore, the critical points in processing of cocoa beans into wholesome, safe, and consistent cocoa ingredients are: • the quality of the cocoa beans; they should be ideally well-fermented and clean. • the production process; the process must be carried out according to the specified norms, with strict hygienic standards. Assessing the quality of the cocoa beans has been described on page 21 under “The raw material.” Further in the process, the roasting and alkalization stages can be adapted to the specific characteristics of the particular cocoa bean mix. In Module 7 and Module 9, the influence of these stages of the production process with respect to the desired flavor and color development of cocoa liquor and cocoa powder is extensively discussed. Variations, for example in color, flavor, and pH of cocoa powder, can be reduced. Blending of different cocoa cakes or powders may control the characteristics of the resultant cocoa powder. In this way, ADM Cocoa is able to supply each type of cocoa powder within the specifications, every time.

Cocoa cake

After pressing, the cakes are broken into kibbled cake. The pressing operation is microbiologically vulnerable, as this is the only part of the process when the product is not in a closed system and is thus exposed to the surroundings. Hygienic procedures are therefore of particular importance in the pressing department. Kibbled cake is typically stored by fat content and degree of alkalization and may be blended before pulverization to obtain the desired type of cocoa powder. The cocoa butter is filtered and stored in tanks.

Cocoa powder

The powder grinding lines pulverize cocoa cake particles into the defined fineness levels. After pulverization, the powder is cooled so that the fat of the cocoa powder crystallizes into its stable form. This prevents any discoloring (fat bloom) and lump forming in the bags later, a phenomenon that is caused by insufficient crystallization of the fat at the moment of filling. Next, the free-flowing powder is passed through sieves and over magnets prior to packing in paper bags or in bulk containers.

Cocoa butter

The cocoa butter from the presses is filtered and stored. Upon request, the butter can be partly or wholly deodorized. Delivery of the various types of cocoa butter can be either in liquid form or in solid form (plastic-lined cardboard boxes). Storage and packaging of cocoa products are discussed further in Modules 7-9 for Cocoa Liquor, Cocoa Butter, and Cocoa Powder.

Principles of quality assurance

Part of ADM Cocoa’s quality assurance is based on supplying the necessary informa-

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CoCoa & ChoColate Manual

tion regarding the production process and the way in which quality control is achieved. One of the most important objectives of ADM Cocoa is to transform the naturally fermented cocoa beans into wholesome cocoa products with suitable bacteriological specifications. To this end, bean quality is constantly being assessed and controlled.

Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP)

Although the influence of the raw cocoa beans as a source of contamination is greatly diminished by the procedure described above, it is essential to prevent contamination after the roasting step. For this reason, processing in accordance with the principles of Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) is indispensable. These rules are of a preventative nature: They rely not so much on the checking of the finished product but concentrate efforts on the production process itself. They call for careful processing and use of specific checks throughout the production process. This principle was introduced by the Food and Drug Administration in the USA and adopted by the Codex (Code of Practice from 1997) and by the European Union (REGULATION (EC) No 178/2002).

hazards are determined. For each CCP, critical limits, procedures for monitoring, and corrective actions in case of deviations are established and continuously monitored. Within HACCP, special attention is given to prevention of contamination with Salmonella after the roasting process. The International Confectionery Association (ICA) offers the industry a code of hygienic practice based on HACCP for the prevention of Salmonella contamination in cocoa, chocolate, and confectionery products.

Production coding and sampling

Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP)

Later, the concept of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) was developed, a comprehensive, step-by-step quality assurance program. This goes beyond the hygienic aspects of quality assurance and is a step-by-step outline for the entire production process. Assessments of hazards associated with raw materials, processing, and transport are made. At ADM Cocoa, the microbiological, chemical, and physical influences of the processing are considered in relation to food safety and quality. After hazard assessment, the Critical Control Points (CCP’s) required to control the identified

ADM Cocoa’s production is planned according to deliveries defined as a quantity of product that possesses a high degree of homogeneity because it is made at the same production unit without significant changes in process conditions and raw material composition. Such a delivery may consist of several homogeneous batches. Each delivery is given a unique lot identification code that is printed on the individual packing or, in the case of liquid, tank car shipments, indicated on the accompanying documents. Traceability for packaging (bag or carton) is obtained with a production code. When the food manufacturer wishes to control incoming ingredients, e.g. cocoa products, it is important to ensure that representative samples are taken and examined. It is essential that the manufacturer of the ingredient is able to demonstrate the homogeneity of the delivered quantity. With this in mind, ADM Cocoa welcomes its customers to audit its production facilities in order to assess the confidence that can be placed in the adopted control systems, procedures, standards, and norms. If the homogeneity of incoming shipments can be assured, then a somewhat simplified random check can be used on the incoming lots. See also the sampling procedure described in Module 3: Methods of Analysis.

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CoCoa & ChoColate Manual

Reference samples

Should a customer wish to check, for example, the color and flavor of a powder, a reference sample of the type in question is needed; delivery samples can be checked against such reference samples. Such samples should be packed in a well sealed container and kept cool and dry. They should also be replaced twice a year. To this end, the expiration date is shown on the reference sample label.

Please note

The preceding information has been given for use as a basis on which customers can make important decisions with regard to the extent cocoa ingredients are examined before use. Based on the delivery history, audits, and additional information from ADM Cocoa staff, the customer may make simplifications in checking deliveries of ADM Cocoa products.

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or at www. accurate results. The latter always have to be calibrated and checked against 3 the often more time-consuming official methods. this assures consensus on the results and no analytical bias caused by using different methods. cocoa products. or is reassurance (reanalysis) necessary? Good Laboratory Practices (GLP) are essential for validation of data. chromatography. Belgium.caobisco.formerly known as IOCCC). ADM Cocoa often uses classic analytical methodology. These methods are by definition related to the specification parameters. In addition to our own methodology. These methods can be ordered at the ICA-Secretariat. but the sample always has to be representative for the product or lot. Analytical data are never absolute but have a “natural” uncertainty or variation. S a mpli ng pro c edu r e Sampling—general Correct sampling procedures are essential for obtaining good and reliable analytical results. AOAC. 2 . In this Module the analytical methods advised by ADM Cocoa for the analysis of specification parameters of cocoa liquor. However. and the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). acidity (free fatty acid) by titration. IUPAC. In t roduct i o n Good methods of analysis are not only essential for upholding the quality specifications and customer requirements but also for process control purposes. developed and approved about 50 analytical methods specifically for cocoa.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual Methods of Analysis 1. ADM Cocoa uses the official analytical methods as well as simplified. a trained analyst should be able to perform the analyses and obtain reliable. Non-sterile conditions are sufficient for such analyses as fat or moisture content. B-1050 Brussels. Always. Analytical and microbiological experts from the cocoa and chocolate industries. many modern instrumental and automated techniques. it is necessary to define and describe the methods of analysis clearly and in detail. The sampling and sampling conditions may depend on the type of analysis to be carried out. and cocoa butter are described.com under ICA-publications. organized in the International Confectionery Association (ICA. but especially for specifications and requirements. Rue Defacqz 1. cocoa powder. Are the results as expected. like spectroscopy. are used for obtaining results faster and for additional information on the products. The analyst has to check and evaluate each analysis and each result using his experience and knowledge. analysis of control or check samples must be carried out to evaluate the performance of the methods and the analysis. The quality of the sampling is often more important for a reliable result than the analysis itself. moisture content by oven drying. etc. ICA). however sterile conditions are essential 29 . the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). and chocolate. however accuracy and precision of analytical methods for process control and finished goods analysis have to be known and evaluated regularly. such as fat content by extraction. many analytical textbooks also have chapters on the analysis of cocoa products. and densitometry. References are given to official methods (ISO. instrumental methods. we refer to the methods of international analytical and standard organizations like the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). On a regular basis. faster.

inert containers/ bags of suitable size and shape. The “bulk” sample can be sub-sampled to give the laboratory or test sample. taking a sample of 5-10 cm under the surface and subsequently closing the filling tube. Solid deliveries can be sampled by taking primary samples from a number of pallets with cartons or bags. or pH. Deliveries of ADM Cocoa products can be in liquid (tank containers) and solid (bags or cartons) forms. • Close the bag and then the wrap with adhesive tape. no change in color (by temperature variation or effect of light). • Take a sample of 50-250 g with a sterile sampling spoon (penetrating 5-10 cm into the bag). no effect on flavor (too high temperature and influence of air and light). Primary sampling of a bag of cocoa powder from a pallet is as follows: • Make an inverted U-shaped cut in the shrink-wrap or foil wrap. the knife used to cut open the bag. and the sampling spoon must first be cleaned and disinfected. lot number. • Place the sample in a plastic bag or sterile container. fat content. This process is intended to assure that all units on a pallet (with the same production code) represent the same homogeneous product. etc. This will protect the product from any change in the relevant parameters for as long as the sample is needed for analysis or as evidence (counter samples). the following procedure is advised.g. Samples for microbiological analysis must be taken aseptically: The bag surface. Sampling—bags or FIBCs For cocoa powder. production code.and air-tight. for instance.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual when the samples have to be analyzed microbiologically. so when the delivery is not well stirred many samples have to be taken and recombined (e. The solids in liquid cocoa liquor may partly sediment. This includes no increase in moisture (cocoa powder is very hygroscopic). the customer can evaluate its consistency. By comparing primary samples of a delivery. moisture content. Check the dry (external) color immediately. other parameters can be determined. based on one sample per pallet or flexible intermediate bulk containers. • Make a similar but smaller cut in the bag. • Primary sampling of the flexible intermediate bulk container is done by opening the filling tube. In commercial scale plant processing the sampling is preferably done automatically and in line by taking (and combining) portions of the product stream at regular intervals with automatic samplers (available for liquids as well as solids). Close carefully and label with product type. The size of a primary sample has to be at least 50 g to be representative for the pallet and to allow the necessary analyses. Liquid deliveries should preferably be sampled at regular intervals during unloading of the tank. Microbiological analysis is generally carried out separately. Only a limited color variation both from sample to sample as well as between samples and reference is allowed. and be labeled with the product and sample information. sampling date. preferably be stored in a cool and dark place. In general the sampling procedure can be divided into two steps: • primary sampling of the production lot and preparation of the “bulk” sample • secondary sampling or preparation of the laboratory or test sample from the “bulk” sample Samples should ideally be packed in moisture. and name of sampler. Secondary (sub) sampling depends on customer requirements: 30 . for analysis of fat content and fineness). such that the bag can easily be resealed with tape. Next.

and again the reference. thermometer (0°-100° C/32-212° F) • hot plates • balance. 5. Add 200 ml of tap water at 58° C (136° F) and stir to a homogeneous suspension. and disturbances should be excluded. 4. Clear written instructions are supplied to each panel member. rinsing the mouth with lukewarm water each time before tasting. 55° C (131° F) • beakers. The sample is then spit out. 400 ml • disposable cups. The flavor of the reference is tested. and again the reference. glass. PROCEDURE Sample preparation 1. (odor free) • stirrers. 4. TASTE PANEL ROOM The test conditions require a special and separate taste panel room for concentrated. PANEL MEMBERS Panel members are selected and trained to discriminate between basic tastes and essential cocoa flavors and off-flavors. The nature and intensity of any differences perceived are recorded on the test form supplied. and test conditions must be standardized. general test guidelines should be present. Weigh 15 g of liquid cocoa liquor or 12 g of the cocoa powder to be tested and 15 g of sugar into a 400 ml glass beaker. measuring cylinders. Before starting an evaluation: The mouth is rinsed with lukewarm water. 0.1 g accuracy GENERAL TEST CONDITIONS For effective flavor evaluation. At each sample booth. 1. EQUIPMENT/MATERIALS • sugar. It must be possible to spit out the sample and rinse the mouth with warm tap water.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual • Composite samples can be prepared by taking and blending identical quantities of the primary samples. • Single primary samples may be sub-sampled and analyzed for specific parameters. then the sample. The following basic rules apply to taste panel members: • no tasting when feeling unwell • no smoking. 2. sounds. granulated and powdered • tap water. eating. 3. In addition. then the sample. and unobserved testing under comfortable sitting conditions with good lighting and temperature. separately judging different aspects of odor and flavor. 2. TESTING TECHNIQUE Each panel member evaluates a sample against the reference. Cocoa l iq u o r / cocoa p ow d e r Flavor evaluation DEFINITION The flavor of cocoa liquor and cocoa powder is evaluated by trained panel members under standard conditions. 3. panel member performance is evaluated regularly by flavor analysis supervisors. Smells. a trained panel of five to eight members is necessary. 31 . Repeat these steps with the reference sample (see remarks). Pour about 50 ml of the suspension into each of the six cups (150 ml) and close with a lid. with lid. Place the samples on hot plates to keep the contents at 50° C (122° F). after swirling in the mouth for 5-10 seconds to evaluate and memorize the different flavor aspects. The odor of the reference is judged first. 30 ml and 150 ml. undisturbed. or drinking for half an hour before tasting • no tasting on an empty stomach 3. using a standard sample as a reference. approx.

4. kept under cool (15° C/59° F). Dimroth with NS 45 and Call2. and place the assembly on the heating plate. 32 . and the forms are interpreted to obtain an overall impression of the differences against the reference. length 10 cm PROCEDURE 1. Weigh approx. 0. the members are interviewed further if necessary. Dry the flask with the residue under vacuum in the drying oven at 80° C (176° F). and dry (relative humidity below 50%) storage conditions and not be more than six months old.tube • Erlenmeyer flasks. Fill the thimble with a solid wad of cotton wool and place the thimble in the Soxhlet extractor. Let the flask cool in the desiccator for 30 minutes.1 mg (M1 in g). dark. 9. round filters (Ø 15 cm) cotton wool and boiling stones (see Remark 1) • residue-free petroleum ether (p. Add slowly more p. 6. Place a dry and clean Erlenmeyer flask with a few boiling stones for 30 minutes in the drying oven. Connect the condenser to the extractor. (about 100 ml) to the extractor until the solvent starts to siphon (see Remark 3). Disconnect the Erlenmeyer flask and distill off the p. bp. 10. NS 29 at the bottom and NS 45 at the top • condensors.e. acid-washed at 60° C (140° F) • glass stirring rod.). 8. and mix the liquor and sand homogeneously with the stirring rod. Bring about 10 g of sand into an extraction thimble with a stirring rod.e. RESULTS The panel members’ evaluation forms are collected. extraction thimbles. The nature and intensity of any differences perceived are noted on the test form. REFERENCE ICA method 6/1963 (formerly 2/1963). 40°-60° C/104-140° F (see Remark 1) • analytical balance. The overall impression is reported. 3. Add about 50 ml of p. Weigh the tare weight of the flask to the nearest 0. Extract the powder/liquor plus sand in the thimble for at least eight hours with 10-15 siphonings per hour (see Remark 4). to the tared Erlenmeyer flask.e.e. 5 g of cocoa powder to the nearest 1 mg (M2 in g). and connect this flask to the extractor. siphon capacity about 100 ml. 11.). 7. in a numerical way for purposes of historical comparison. and transfer the powder into an extraction thimble weighted down with glass beads in which a round filter has been folded to form a bag inside the thimble wall (see Remark 2). 250 ml with NS 29 • hot plate for flasks (fire-safe) • desiccator with desiccant • vacuum drying oven set at 80° C/176° F • defatted glass beads. or 5. if possible.e.1 mg accuracy • sand.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual 5. weigh approx. EQUIPMENT/MATERIALS • Soxhlet extractors. 3 g of well-mixed liquid cocoa liquor to the nearest mg (M2 in g) into the thimble. Determination of fat content DEFINITION The fat content of cocoa liquor and cocoa powder according to the Soxhlet extraction method is the percentage by mass of fat and other components extractable with petroleum ether (p. for the first 15 minutes at REMARKS Reference samples should be carefully selected. 2.

passing through the thimble into the flask and adding to the residue. 2. RESULTS 1.4% with 22% fat.01 pH unit • thermometer. should have an evaporation residue of less than 1 mg per 150 ml. 0. Materials and solvent have to be residue free.00. followed by one hour at less than 10 mm Hg.e. Calibrate one pH meter at 20° C (68° F) using buffers of pH 4. cooling. During extraction the quantity of solvent in the flask should always be at least 50 ml. 2. 0. and 9. Weigh 10. prepared and measured according to this method.00 • distilled or demineralized water. each of them effectively emptying the extractor. the cause of this increase should be investigated.05% fat in the sample). For the complete extraction of the fat.01 g accuracy REMARKS 1. 13. when the residue is larger than 2. Repeat the drying. and 1. a complete blank extraction without cocoa liquor/powder should be performed regularly. Determination of pH DEFINITION The pH of cocoa liquor and cocoa powder is the pH (negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration) of a suspension of these products in water. 0°-100° C (32-212° F) with 1° C graduation • buffer solutions of pH 4. The p.00 g cocoa powder to the nearest 0.00 and 9.2% with 10% fat. and weighing until the difference between two successive weighings is less than 1 mg (M3 in g). after two to three hours or 20-40 siphonings the residue after evaporation and drying should be less than 1 mg. It also prevents very small particles from PROCEDURE 1. 12. carbon dioxide free on hot plate • glass beakers (150 ml) and measuring cylinder (100 ml) • balance.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual 400 mm Hg.00.5 mg (0. The round filter folded to the shape of a bag around a clean rod permits the repeated use of the extraction thimble. 4. Cool the flask in the desiccator for 30 minutes and weigh the flask. REFERENCE ICA method 37/1990 (formerly 115/1990).00.1% with 55% fat). 3. Repeatability The difference between the results of two independent determinations should not exceed 2% of the fat content (0. at least 80 siphonings are needed. EQUIPMENT/MATERIALS • pH meters with combined glass electrodes readable to 0.5 mg.00 and 7.01 g into a 150 ml glass beaker. 2. Calculation The fat content of the cocoa liquor/powder sample is: M3–M1 × 100% (m/m) M2 Where: M1 = mass in g of Erlenmeyer flask (tare) M2 = mass in g of the cocoa liquor/ powder sample M3 = mass in g of the Erlenmeyer flask with residue The result should be expressed to two decimal places.00 and another pH meter at 20° C (68° F) using buffers of pH 7. 33 . and the residue should be less than 2. Completeness of the extraction can be checked by an additional extraction with fresh solvent in a new flask. 7.

diameter about 8 cm • squeeze bottles of 500 ml (for hot water) and 250 ml (for acetone) • graduated cylinders of 25 ml and 250 ml • analytical balance (accuracy 0. Weigh a dried. Measure the pH with both pH meters. mechanical stirrer • watch glasses. Add 280 ml of hot water and stir mechanically for 2 minutes without producing a vortex and with the propeller near the bottom of the beaker. Weigh the sieve and residue and watch glass to the nearest 0.5 l of hot water until no more particles pass the sieve. stirrer. cool the sieve and glass in the desiccator for 45 minutes. 4. 90 ml of boiling hot distilled (or demineralized) water with a measuring cylinder. stirring occasionally. set at 103°-105° C (217-221° F) • desiccator with desiccant • glass beakers (400 ml). Leave to cool to 20°-25° C (68-77° F). 7. meanwhile moving and swirling the sieve in a circular manner over the sink (see Remark 3). while stirring. The “wet” sieve residue (or “coarseness”) of cocoa liquor and cocoa powder is defined as the mass percentage of the product that does not pass a plate sieve with apertures of 75μm × 75μm according to this method. 10 g of well-mixed cocoa liquor or cocoa powder to the nearest 0. stir the mixture with a stirring rod until all lumps have disappeared. 5. and rod into the sieve.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual 3. e. and use the pH reading nearest to the buffer range. The difference between the results of two independent determinations should not exceed 0.01 g) • hot water 75° C (167° F) ±5° and acetone (water free) • detergent (surface active agent— concentrated) PROCEDURE 1. Rinse the sieve and residue with 15-25 ml of acetone to remove water and fat residues. 2. diameter 6 cm. RESULTS The results should be expressed to two decimal places. and rinse the sieve with up to 1. 3. EQUIPMENT/MATERIALS • plate sieves with apertures of 75μm × 75μm ± 2μm (200 mesh). Pour the hot suspension slowly through the sieve.1 mg (M3 in g). height 7 cm. Determination of sieve residue DEFINITION 1. 5.1 mg (M1 in g). Add 20 ml hot water (see Remark 2). The fineness of cocoa liquor and cocoa powder is expressed as 100% minus the % sieve residue (the fraction remaining on the sieve).1 mg) RESULTS 1. in a cold water bath.1 pH unit. Add with cocoa liquor 2 g of detergent or with cocoa powder 1 g of detergent. open area 25-40% (see Remark 1) • drying oven. Slowly add. well ventilated.1 g in a glass beaker (M2 in g). 8. 4. REFERENCE ICA method 15/1972 (formerly 9/1972). 9. 2. glass stirring rod. and weighing balance (accuracy 0. 6. Calculation The “wet” sieve residue (or “coarseness”) of the cocoa liquor or the cocoa powder sample is: M2–M3 × 100% (m/m) M2 34 . clean sieve (75μm) on a dry watch glass to the nearest 0. Rinse the beaker. 10. Weigh approx.g. Place the sieve on the watch glass in the oven for 45 minutes (see Remark 4).

set at 103°-105° C (217-221° F) 35 . tap the side of the sieve gently. ashed at 600° C (1112° F) • ethanol p. Weigh to the nearest 1 mg approx. The watch glass collects cocoa particles passing through the sieve on drying. 7. always with ground glass stopper. Ø 70 mm • glass stirring rod. 2. REFERENCES ICA method 38/1990 (formerly 116/1990). 4. Dry a clean and empty weighing dish or flask with stopper side by side in the drying oven for 60 minutes at 103°-105° C (217-221° F) 2.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual Where: M1 = mass in g of the dried sieve + watch glass M2 = mass in g of the sample M3 = mass in g of the dried sieve + residue + watch glass The result should be expressed to two decimal places. Sieves should be inspected regularly for damage with a magnifying glass. well ventilated. Determination of moisture content DEFINITION The moisture content of cocoa liquor or cocoa powder is the percentage of mass lost drying for 4 hours at 105° C (221° F). Plate sieves are very delicate. • desiccator with desiccant • glass weighing flask for cocoa powder. Dry the dish/flask with stopper beside it in the oven for four hours at 103°-105° C (217-221° F). Weigh to the nearest 1 mg. not even with a brush. accuracy 1 mg PROCEDURE 1. Calculation The moisture content of the sample is: M2–M3 × 100% (m/m) M2–M1 Where: M1 = mass in g of the empty stoppered dish/flask (tare) EQUIPMENT/MATERIALS • drying oven. 5 g of wellmixed liquid cocoa liquor into the tared dish (M2 in g). Let the dish/flask cool in the desiccator for 30 minutes.04% on a 75μm sieve. they may not be touched. cooling. When the sieve becomes clogged. Weigh the tare weight of the dish/flask to the nearest 1 mg (M1 in g). 20 g of sand into the alumina dish with lid and weigh the tare weight of the dish plus sand to the nearest 1 mg (M1 in g). 3. RESULTS 1. Let cool and weigh as described above (M3 in g). or 5. Ø 50 mm (see Remark 1) • alumina weighing dish with lid for cocoa liquor. and mix the sand homogeneously with the liquor using a stirring rod. 3. The fineness percentage is: { 1–M3–M2 } × 100% (m/m) M1 2. 6. length 10 cm • sand. 4. Repeatability The difference between the results of two independent determinations should not exceed 0. • analytical balance. 8. and weighing. saturate the sand with ethanol. REMARKS 1.a. The detergent dissolves the fat of the cocoa liquor or the cocoa powder. Add approx. Dirty sieves can be cleaned with a detergent solution in an ultrasonic bath. Then remove and place the stopper on the dish/flask (see Remark 3). 5 g of well-mixed cocoa powder into the tared flask (M2 in g) (see Remark 2).

EQUIPMENT/MATERIALS • beakers. Color (intrinsic) in milk 1. The flask should always be weighed with the stopper (on or beside it) and only after conditioning in the desiccator. With more than four flasks. REFERENCE ICA method 1/1952 (formerly 3/1952). Add 45 ml of milk. 2. 2. Weigh 1. Put a grease-proof paper over the samples and flatten them by gently stroking the sheet with a flat hand until they touch each other. 3. clear glass with flat sides and screw tops. 2. Place approx.001 g accuracy PROCEDURE 1. 5. using the methods below.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual M2 = mass in g of the stoppered dish/flask with sample M3 = mass in g of the stoppered dish/flask with dried sample The result should be expressed to one decimal place.2%. the lab sample has to be stored in an airand moisture-tight container. 4. 15 cm • grease-proof paper sheets. 4. Place one or more reference cocoa powder(s) in a similar way beside or around the sample to be evaluated. and the oven should not be opened during this period. Remove the sheet carefully. and the sample transfer has to be carried out rapidly and carefully. 3. Repeatability The difference between the results of two independent determinations should not exceed 0. 4. The correct weighing practices have to be adhered to. 0. Stir thoroughly and fill a color evaluation flask with the suspension. 5. Drying should last exactly four hours. Place the suspension to be evaluated between the reference suspensions. filling two flasks with the suspension. Add 5 ml of pasteurized milk and mix until a homogeneous paste is achieved.01 g. Repeat the above steps twice using the reference cocoa powder. the cooling time should be 45 minutes instead of 30 minutes. with daylight lamp of 6500° K (see Remark 3) • hot plates • balance. REMARKS 1. Evaluate the color under standard light conditions in the cabinet with two or more persons (see Remarks 1 and 2). length approx. Cocoa powder is very hygroscopic. 2. 2. 8. 3. Dry (extrinsic) color 1. C ocoa p o w d e r Visual color evaluation DEFINITION The color of cocoa powder can be evaluated as such (the dry or extrinsic color) or as suspension in milk or water (the intrinsic color) against reference and other samples. • pasteurized milk • color evaluation flasks of colorless. 0.5 g of the cocoa powder on the table surface of the cabinet. glass • spoon • stirring rod. heated to about 60° C (140° F). Close the three flasks properly and shake them prior to the evaluation (see Remark 4). Evaluate the color difference(s) with two or more persons (see Remarks 1 and 2). 20 × 12 cm 36 . 100 ml and 150 ml.20 g of cocoa powder to be evaluated in a 100 ml beaker to the nearest 0. 6. 45 ml • color evaluation cabinet with standard light. 7.

Color (intrinsic) in milk. using the reference cocoa powder. a lower value indicates more redness. There should be unanimity about the terminology used for the evaluation of the colors: expressions such as “too light. the S. 2. indicating brightness. with +b* indicating yellow and –b* indicating blue C* value – the chroma coordinate. 7. a*-.Add 10 ml of pasteurized milk and stir the contents to a paste with a stirring rod. 20 g of sugar. the following modifications can be used: .” “redder. Fill one color evaluation flask with the suspension. 4. The lamps of the color evaluation cabinet should be replaced regularly to ensure the consistency of the standard light conditions. and fill two flasks with the suspension.20 g of the cocoa powder to be evaluated in a 150 ml beaker to the nearest 0. 4. Ishihara test). C*-.20 g of cocoa powder. and h-values measured with a color meter. and b*-values are calculated from the CIE X-. Evaluate the color under standard light conditions in the cabinet with two or more persons (see Remarks 1 and 2). a low value indicates a dark color. EQUIPMENT / MATERIALS • Datacolor Spectraflash SF 450 × color spectrophotometer (or equivalent) .” “too dark. . a higher value indicates a brighter color h value – the hue angle. 60° C (140° F).CoCoa & ChoColate Manual 3.” etc. The visual evaluation of the color should be carried out by people who have successfully passed an eye test (e. and 0. Close the three flasks properly and shake them prior to the evaluation.” “greyer.and h-values are calculated from the a*. with +a* indicating red and –a* indicating green b* value – the yellow/blue coordinate. 5. To prevent the rapid sedimentation of the suspension.illuminant D65 • observer angle 10° • quartz cuvette • tubing pump system • magnetic stirrer • beakers. a high value indicates a light color a* value – the red/green coordinate.01 g. Repeat the above steps twice.Proceed as described in 2. a higher value indicates more yellowness REMARKS 1.and b*-values according to the following: C*=Ï (a*2+b*2) h = arcig (b*/a*) L* value – the lightness/darkness coordinate. Place the suspension to be evaluated between the reference suspensions. 3. 8. and Z-values using the CIE 1976 equations. The L*-.035 g of the gelling agent carrageenan E407 in a 100 ml beaker. Weigh 1. Add 100 ml of water and bring it to a boil on a hot plate. stirring the suspension with a stirring rod. . Allow to boil for a moment. 2. glass 37 . .g.Weigh 1.Add 40 ml of pasteurized milk heated to approx. Y-. should have the same meaning for all evaluators.specular excluded . 400 ml. 6. Color (intrinsic) in water 1. Instrumental color evaluation DEFINITION The instrumental color evaluation of cocoa powder as such or as a slurry in water is expressed in L*-.measuring geometrics d/8 . C*. 3.

C*-. It is then advisable to sieve the cocoa powder through a 500μm sieve and carefully break down the lumps. while stirring. ing the dry color. Clydesdale: “The measurement of color. Compare the values found with those of a standard sample. 2. 5. EQUIPMENT / MATERIALS • water bath. Instruction manual: Datacolor Spectraflash SF 450 × Colour spectrophotometer.g.” (Bureau Central de la CIE. Schulze: “Farbelehre und Farbemessung. C o c oa bu tter Refractive index DEFINITION This method describes the determination of the refractive index of cocoa butter. thermostatically controlled at 40° C (104° F) ± 0. 4. 16-22. Fill a cuvette 3/4 full with the cocoa powder sample and tamp the powder down carefully.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual • balance. 6. Mix the powder thoroughly. Continue stirring for at least 1 minute. Add 50 ml demineralized water at room temperature. REFERENCES 1. 6. 2. the surface will be irregular when evaluat- 38 . Bring the prisms of the refractometer to 40° C (104° F) by connecting the refractometer to a water bath. colour difference equations. Paris). Recommendations on uniform colour spaces. Read and record the L*-. 3.5 ± 0. DataFacts Technical bulletin nr. connected to the water bath • light source (sodium vapor light) PROCEDURE 1.” Food Technology 23 (1969).05 g of cocoa powder in a 400 ml beaker. CIE. 7. Berlin). Continue stirring using a magnetic stirrer for 10 minutes. If the cocoa powder is lumpy. Abbe type. 5. Weigh 7. Level the powder evenly by using the edge of a spatula with tapping movements. 2. 7. Read and record the L*-. 4. Then add cocoa powder until it is heaped above the rim. The refractive index is expressed as nD (40° C/104° F). Dry (extrinsic) color 1. Place the cuvette carefully against the illuminated window of the calibrated meter. and h-values. 5. 2. 3. Remove the surplus powder carefully with the spatula to produce a flat surface in line with the rim (see Remarks). e.5° and with a circulation pump • refractometer.” 1966 (Springer-Verlag. 3. Add 100 ml demineralized water of 50° C (122° F) and stir with a stirring rod until a smooth slurry is obtained without lumps. 4. filtered cocoa butter on the surface of the prisms and close the prisms. and h-values with a calibrated color spectrophotometer. Intrinsic color measurement 1. 2. 1978: “International Commission of Illumination. 5. Pump the suspension through the quartz flow cuvette. REMARKS The flow rate during pumping of the water/cocoa powder suspension should be so that settlement of cocoa particles is prevented. psychometric colour terms.1 g accuracy • demineralized water PROCEDURE 1. 004-96 from Datacolor International. C*-. Place a drop of clear. 0.

Introduce the thermometer with the U-tube into the inner water bath of the melting point equipment. graduation of 0. 2. Adjust the refractometer in such a way that a clear contrast line can be read where it crosses the scale. Note: Seeding crystals (grated cocoa butter) should in no case be added. Subsequently. 6th Edition.0001. 3. immerse the glass beaker into a water bath that is thermostatically controlled at 32°-33° C (90-91° F). and filter through a fluted filter. range 0°-50° C (32122° F). IUPAC Standard Methods of the Analysis of Oils. 3. This takes about 30 minutes. Pretreatment of cocoa butter 1. 2. 4. Cool the butter while constantly stirring until it assumes a pasty consistency. PROCEDURE 1. Prevent the inclusion of air bubbles.5 cm high. The water level of the inner water bath has to be 1 cm below the level of the exterior water bath. and make sure that the bend of the tube is on the same level as the bulb of the thermometer.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual 3. Wait a few seconds to allow the butter to obtain the temperature of the prisms. The melting point of cocoa butter 1. 5. Fincke • thermometer for exterior water bath. 4. Melting point DEFINITION This method describes the determination of the melting point of cocoa butter. 5.Determination of Refractive Index. Slowly heat the exterior water bath while constantly stirring by means REMARKS The prisms should be handled with care. EQUIPMENT / MATERIALS • magnetic stirrer with hot plate • stirring bars • exterior water bath • inner water bath • plate with two holes: one for fixation of the inner water bath • movable rubber ring for adjusting the inner water bath • rubber plate to cover the inner bath • thermometer. 3. The melting point is expressed as Slip Point (the butter starts to melt) and/or as Clear Point (the butter is fully liquid/molten). Read the refractometer at the nearest 0. 6. 2. 5. which has a level of about 9. Continue to stir until the butter has come to the same temperature. Use a very fine metal rod to push the column of cocoa butter down to 1 cm before the bend of the tube. Pour the cocoa butter into a metal tray and allow to stand for at least two hours at room temperature (20°22° C/68-72° F).5° • water baths thermostatically controlled at 25° C (77° F) and 32°-33° C (90-91° F) 39 .102. Method 2. Fats and Derivatives. Heat >50 g of cocoa butter to 50°-60° C (122-140° F). Ø 15 cm. Whatman no. REFERENCES 1. ISO 6320:1995 . Pour 50 g of this filtered butter into a glass beaker of 100 ml and immerse the glass beaker in a water bath. Fix the shorter side to the thermometer (0°-50° C/32-122° F) by means of the rubber ring. 4. which is thermostatically controlled at 25° C (77° F). 2. graduation of 0.Animal and Vegetable Fats and Oils . Press a 1 cm column of pretreated cocoa butter into the longer side of the U-tube.1° • U-tubes for melting point according to H.

Any higher extinction value could.Determination of Color . 2. The absorbance of conjugated trienes can be measured at approx. Red. Extinction values DEFINITION This method describes the determination of the extinction values of cocoa butter before and after washing with alkali. if necessary. Give the temperature of both the Slip Point and the Clear Point in °C (or °F) and to one decimal place. 8. 3. 5. Read also the temperature when the column of cocoa butter is completely molten (clear).2° per minute. Blue until the combination of color glasses matches the color of the cocoa butter. Up to 30° C (86° F). 2. 40° C (104° F). ISO 6321: Animal and Vegetable Fats Determination of Melting Point in Open Capillary Tubes (Slip Point). If a color cannot be matched by means of the color glasses. type 1A with two identical lamps of 60W (to be replaced after 100 burning hours or after three years) • magnesium carbonate blocks as standard white (clean surface by rubbing the cubes together) • 1-inch glass cuvette for the Tintometer • set of Yellow.14). Switch the lamps on and fill a 1-inch cuvette with clear-filtered cocoa butter of approx. 4. Measurement of the absorbance of dienes can take place at around 232 nm and that of diketones can be measured at 268 nm. During oxidation of cocoa butter. 7. and Blue Lovibond color glasses (clean regularly with lens paper) • neutrally hued filter (Grey) PRINCIPLE The cocoa butter extinction values are indicative of the degree of contamination and aging of cocoa butter. 40 . this is the Clear Point. the increase in temperature may not exceed 0. Red. Lovibond color DEFINITION This method describes the determination of the color of liquid cocoa butter with the Lovibond Tintometer and Yellow. Read the temperature when the column of solid cocoa butter moves (slips) down.Tintometer Method. Place the cuvette against the opening at the rear side of the color compartment in the Tintometer. PROCEDURE 1. Pure prime pressed cocoa butter is containing very low amounts of dienes (extinction max 0. REFERENCES ISO 15305: Animal and Vegetable Fats and Oils . then use the neutrally hued filter (Grey). The color is expressed in a sum of units and tenths used from the Yellow.0 Yellow and add Red (units and tenths) and. REFERENCES 1. for example. Red. the maximum increase in temperature of the inner water bath may be 1° per minute. 270 nm.5) and trienes (extinction max 0. 6. this is the Slip Point. ICA Method 4/1962: Determination of the Melting Point of Cocoa Butter (formerly 8b/1962). Over 30° C (86° F). and Blue color glasses. covering the entire opening. products such as conjugated dienes and diketones are formed. EQUIPMENT / MATERIALS • Lovibond Tintometer.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual of the magnetic stirrer. and Blue color glasses. Compare the color of the cocoa butter with Lovibond color glasses: start with 40.

g.” CALCULATION Calculate the extinction values with the following formulas: E270 = Ext at 270 nm 20 x G E325 = Ext at 325 nm 20 x G Express the extinction values with two decimal places. 41 . Pour the solution into a separating funnel of 100 ml. 5. Continue to wash out (five times on average) until the water layer has become alkali free. 12. Weigh about 2 g of cocoa butter into a 100 ml glass beaker. Add 5 ml of diethyl ether and mix. 7. Add about 2 g of anhydrous sodium sulfate and allow to dry for about one hour.Determination of UV Absorbance. S&S no. 4. Check by means of the indicator paper. Proceed by carrying out steps 1-6 as described in “Measurement of the extinction values. 4. Filter through a fluted filter (Ø 7 cm) into a glass beaker of 25 ml and completely evaporate the ether on a water bath. Rinse the glass beaker with 5 ml of diethyl ether and pour into the separating funnel. 597) • water bath • pH-indicator paper • quartz-cells (1 cm) • UV spectrophotometer • glass beakers PROCEDURE Measurement of the extinction values: 1. 3. REFERENCES 1. 5. ICA method 18 and 19. 3. Read the extinction values at 270 nm and 325 nm. Add 3 ml of potassium hydroxide (4 N) and shake for 2 minutes. ISO 3656: Animal and Vegetable Fats and Oils . e. 11. 270 nm several peaks are observed. 8. Add 5 ml of diethyl ether and draw off the solution into a 25 ml Erlenmeyer flask with stopper. 2. 9. Use cyclohexane as blank (reference). 10. Draw off the alkali layer and thoroughly wash out the ether layer by means of 3 ml of distilled water. Weigh 0. 1973: UV Extinction Values for Cocoa Butter (formerly 8d + 8c/1973). Add 5 ml of cyclohexane by means of a pipette and mix. 6. If at approx.1 mg into a 25 ml Erlenmeyer flask (weight: g in g).CoCoa & ChoColate Manual be an indication of a blend with refined cocoa butter or expeller butter.a. Register the UV curve by means of a recorder. 6. Alkali washing and measurement of the extinction values: 1. 2. 2.) • potassium hydroxide solution (4 N) • sodium sulfate (anhydrous) • pipette (5 ml) • graduated measuring cylinder • separating funnels (100 ml) • Erlenmeyer flasks (25 ml with groundglass stopper) • fluted filters (Ø 7 cm. Fill a 1 cm quartz-cell and scan the UV spectrum between 220 nm and 290 nm by means of the UV spectrophotometer. EQUIPMENT / MATERIALS • cyclohexane (for spectroscopy) • diethyl ether (p.1 g cocoa butter to the nearest 0. this would mean that the cocoa butter has been treated with bleaching earth.

Add some boiling stones and attach the reflux condenser to the Erlenmeyer flask. The I. Weigh about 2 g of cocoa butter to the nearest 1 mg into a 200 ml (NS 29) Erlenmeyer flask.V. 3.5 N) determination V2 = ml hydrochloric acid (0. 7. stored in a brown glass bottle with a rubber or Teflon stopper) • 0. The S. Express the result with one decimal place.) of cocoa butter by the Wijs method. weigh also 0. The I. EQUIPMENT/MATERIALS • 0.V.1 × N (V2 – V1) G Where: N = normality (0. 5.5 N hydrochloric acid until the color changes to colorless (V1 in ml).CoCoa & ChoColate Manual Saponification value DEFINITION This method describes the determination of the saponification value (S. Place the flask on the hot plate and gently boil for 60 minutes.5 N KOH in ethanol (clear. 6.5 N hydrochloric acid (accurately standardized) • phenolphthalein.5 N) hydrochloric acid EQUIPMENT / MATERIALS • equipment has to be clean and dry • Erlenmeyer flasks of 300-500 ml with • NS29 and ground stoppers • burette. colorless solution. 42 . Calculate the saponification value with the following formula: 56. Method 2.38 g of the reference sample into an Erlenmeyer flask (m in g).1 ml • pipette. graduated in 0.2 N • glacial acetic acid/cyclohexane solution. of a fat is the number of grams of halogen absorbed by 100 g of fat and expressed as the weight of iodine. 1% w/v solution in 95% ethanol • Erlenmeyer flask. PROCEDURE 1. is a measure of the degree of unsaturation of fat.V. carry out a blank (without cocoa butter) determination (V2 in ml). Add 1 ml of phenolphthalein to the hot soap solution and titrate with 0. V1 = ml hydrochloric acid (0. Iodine value by Wijs method DEFINITION This method describes the determination of the iodine value (I. Weigh 0.320.202.0 ml of ethanolic KOH solution by means of a pipette. and Derivatives. 2. Fats. Add 25.V. is the number of mg of potassium hydroxide required to saponify 1 g of fat. free from iodine or iodate • starch solution in water • reference sample of cocoa butter PROCEDURE 1.5 N) of the blank G = cocoa butter weight in g.38 g of the cocoa butter to be analyzed to the nearest 1 mg into an Erlenmeyer flask. 6th Edition. 4.) of cocoa butter.V. ratio 1:1 • potassium iodide (KI) solution in water. 25 ml • demineralized water • N sodium thiosulfate solution (standardized) • Wijs solution 0. At the same time.32-0. NS 29 • spiral reflux condenser NS 29 • volumetric pipette • boiling stones chips • hot plate REFERENCES IUPAC Standard Methods for the Analysis of Oils.

with the formula: I. is still soluble in a non-polar solvent. Fats. by an automatic titration often gives better reproducibility and repeatability than manual titration.5 hours (exclusion of daylight is essential). Dose 15 ml of the glacial acetic acid/ cyclohexane solution into the flasks. = 12.p. 3. 4.a. stopper. (free from residue) • ethanol 96% • ethanol/water mixture 1:1 (v/v) • Erlenmeyer flask of 200 ml NS 29 with reflux condenser • Erlenmeyer flask of 100 ml • separating funnel 500 ml • oven 103° C/217° F (± 3°) • heating bath—fireproof and spark-free • desiccator with blue silica gel • fume cupboard • phenolphthalein solution.3%. Place the flasks in the dark for at least one hour but not more than 1. 6. after saponification. 43 . Titrate the free iodine in the contents of the flasks with the sodium thiosulfate solution (Normality T) from the 50 ml burette. 2. add 5 ml of starch solution (indicator) at the end of the titration and continue the titration under vigorous shaking till the blue color just disappears (V2 in ml).V. 6th Edition. REFERENCES 1. of the cocoa butter samples EQUIPMENT/MATERIALS • KOH p.) b. and hydrocarbons. When the unsaponifiable matter is >0. 40°-60° C (104140° F). The unsaponifiable matter consists of lipids of natural origin present in press butter.69 × T × (V2 – V1) m Where: V1 = ml of standardized sodium thiosulfate solution used for the blank determination V2 = ml of standardized sodium thiosulfate solution used for the cocoa butter samples T = the exact Normality of the sodium thiosulfate solution used m = the mass.2 N Wijs solution into the flasks. and dissolve the cocoa butter.a.3% in pure prime press cocoa butter.V. Pipette 25.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual 2. the butter is contaminated with nonvolatile (at 103° C/217° F) organic matter foreign to press butter (for example mineral oils or shell fat).205.e. PRINCIPLE The unsaponifiable matter is that part of the cocoa butter which.1996: Animal and Vegetable Fats and Oils . The % of these substances is <0. 5. 7. such as sterols. Unsaponifiable matter DEFINITION This method describes the determination of the % of unsaponifiable matter of cocoa butter. and mix carefully. The reference sample is used to check the performance of the methodology.Determination of Iodine Value. and Derivatives. p. 1% (w/v) in ethanol REMARKS Determination of the I. stopper the flasks. in g.V.0 ml of 0. Carry out a blank test simultaneously under the same conditions and without cocoa butter (V1 in ml). Add after this time 20 ml of KI solution and 150 ml of demineralized water. • petrol ether (p. IUPAC Standard Methods for the Analysis of Oils. Method 2. alcohols. EXPRESSION OF RESULTS Calculate the I. ISO 3961 .

5 g of cocoa butter to the nearest 10 mg into an Erlenmeyer flask of 200 ml (NS29) (G1 in g). Check this by means of a drop of phenolphthalein. 19. 6th Edition. each time with 50 ml of the ethanol/water mixture (1:1). 5. quantitatively into the Erlenmeyer flask and rinse the separating funnel with small amounts of p.0 mg (G3 in g).e.V. 24.V.05 is indicative of a too high % of shell in the nibs from which the cocoa butter is obtained. 3. each time with 50 ml of p. 18. 12.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual PROCEDURE 1.1 mg (G2 in g).e.e. part 2: rapid method using hexane extraction.e. Allow to stand until there is complete separation of the two phases. Transfer the contents of the flask into a separating funnel of 500 ml. Fats. Shake the separating funnel vigorously for 1 minute. Blue value DEFINITION This method describes the quantitative determination of the blue value (B. a B. Rinse the flask several times with a total of 50 ml of p. on the heating bath in the fume cupboard. 4. 30 minutes and weigh the flask to the nearest 0. Wash out the p. Calculate the % of unsaponifiable matter with the following formula: % unsaponifiable matter = 100 (G3-G2) / G1 REFERENCES 1.Determination of Unsaponifiable Matter. 3. Evaporate the p. of cocoa butter is the extinction of a blue-colored solution that is formed after oxidation of the reaction product of behenic acid tryptamide with p-dimethyl 44 . IUPAC Standards Methods for the Analysis of Oils. Method 2. 11.V. 23. ICA method 23/1988: Determination of Unsaponifiable Matter in Cocoa Butter (formerly 102/1988).e. Draw off the soap solution into the original Erlenmeyer flask. The flask must previously be dried and tare weighed to the nearest 0. 20. 9. completely in the heating bath. Evaporate the p. Transfer the remainder of the p. placing the flask in a horizontal position.e. Dry 100 ml flask with residue in an oven at 103° C (217° F) for 15 minutes. PRINCIPLE The B.401. into an Erlenmeyer flask of 100 ml with boiling stones.e.e. 10. until the ethanol/water mixture reacts neutral. Draw off the soap solution (the lower layer) into a second separating funnel of 500 ml. Transfer part of the p. rinsings into the separating funnel. 16. Add 50 ml of distilled water through the top of the condenser. 2. ISO 3596-2: Animal and Vegetable Fats and Oils . layers in the first separating funnel. Add small amounts of ethanol (96%) or concentrated potassium hydroxide solution if an emulsion has formed that must be broken.1 mg. and Derivatives. Mix and cool down.) of cocoa butter.e. Collect the three p. Transfer these p. 17.5 g of potassium hydroxide and 50 ml of ethanol. Add approx. 7. Weigh approx. of >0.e. Repeat the drying for successive 15 minute periods until the weight loss between two successive weighings is less than 2. 21. 13. 2. Cool in a desiccator for approx. 14. 8. Extract the soap solution twice more. 5. 6. 15. 22. Attach the Erlenmeyer flask to a reflux condenser and boil gently in a heating bath for one hour. at least three times.

EQUIPMENT / MATERIALS • carbon tetrachloride (p. Weigh approx. If tetrahydrofuran is used instead of pentanol-2. Heat. with the formula: 0.a. dissolve the cocoa butter. Dissolve 0. Add 0.a.5% hydrogen peroxide solution.) • demineralized water • volumetric flasks (10 ml) • water bath (40° C/104° F ±1°) • spectrophotometer • cuvette (3 cm) • graduated pipette (1 ml) REMARKS 1. Also carry out a blank determination (steps 4-8). Behenic acid tryptamide is only found in the shell of cocoa beans. Although tetrahydrofuran has a higher M. 625.1 mg in a volumetric flask of 10 ml (G in g). 4.. in the water bath of 40° C (104° F) for another 3 minutes. 8.a. 3. 630.a. the extinction must be measured at 510. For the B. The reaction takes place under acid conditions.A.V. 100 ml • thermometer 100°-150° C (212-302° F) • hot plate • balance (accuracy 1 mg) • watch glass 45 . EQUIPMENT / MATERIALS • boiling stones • glass beaker with flat bottom.4[E630 – (E500 + E680)/2] 3G Where: E500 = measured extinction at 500 nm E630 = measured extinction at 630 nm E680 = measured extinction at 680 nm G = weight of the cocoa butter in g Express the result in two decimal places. Calculate the B. Both liquids are poisonous.) • p-dimethyl aminobenzaldehyde (p. 9. value than pentanol-2. PROCEDURE 1. 2. 11. the latter is preferred because of its low vapor pressure. under continuous shaking. and successively add 0.C. the extinction is converted into that of a 2% solution (2 g in 100 ml) measured in a cuvette of 2 cm.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual aminobenzaldehyde.) • hydrochloric acid (32% p. and 675 nm. Moisture and volatile matter DEFINITION This method describes the determination of the moisture and volatile matter in cocoa butter by heating the butter at 125° C (225° F). 0.2 g of liquid cocoa butter to the nearest 0.) • hydrogen peroxide (30% p. 7.05 ml (one or two drops) of 0.2 g of p-dimethyl aminobenzaldehyde in 20 ml of carbon tetrachloride (1% solution). Measure the extinction of the pentanol-2 solution in a cuvette of 3 cm REFERENCES ICA method 29/1988: Method for Determination of the “Blue Value” (formerly 108/1988).V. 6. Add 1 ml of carbon tetrachloride. and 680 nm. compared to the blank sample (step 9) at 500. 5.a.) • pentanol-2 (p.5% solution). Add 1 ml of hydrogen peroxide (30%) to 60 ml of demineralized water (0. Mix and shake the volumetric flask in a water bath of 40° C (104° F) continuously for 5 minutes.5 ml of p-dimethyl aminobenzaldehyde solution and 0.05 ml (1 or 2 drops) of 32% hydrochloric acid. 10. 2. Make up the volumetric flask with pentanol-2 to 10 ml and mix.

3. which has been weighed together with the beaker glass and the butter.a.000 × V × N) / G REFERENCES 1. 4.002 N. Homogenize the liquid cocoa butter by stirring without introducing air.Determination of Moisture and Volatile Matter Content. during which no iodine may be released. Peroxide value DEFINITION This method describes the determination of the peroxide value (P. Add 75 ml of distilled water and 3 ml of starch solution. Add 15 ml of glacial acetic acid and. Titrate. Raise the temperature to 125° C (225° F) and keep at this temperature until there is no vapor escaping anymore. so the flask has to be stoppered as much as possible or nitrogen can be introduced into the flask regularly. 6th Edition. ISO 662 . Direct daylight also must be prevented. 4. (V in ml). subsequently. 8.5% • Erlenmeyer flask (200 ml) with NS29 and glass stopper. freshly prepared from a 0. During heating. continuously stir the fat with a thermometer. subsequently. relates to the oxidative stability (rancidity) of the fat. Shake for 1 minute and allow the Erlenmeyer flask to stand in the dark at room temperature for 5 minutes. 2. Method 2. Add 10 ml of chloroform and dissolve the cocoa butter by shaking.V. The P. of a fat is the number of m. Normality thiosulfite = N. 9. • saturated KI solution in water (140 g/100 ml of water). The P. Check this by covering the beaker with a cold watch glass. add 20 g of butter to the nearest 1 mg. = (1. 6. If this is not possible. REMARKS 1.eq of active oxygen (peroxides) per kg of fat.2-2.a. 46 . clean and dry • micro-burette according to Bang 5 ml with 0. 5. • glacial acetic acid. Calculate the peroxide value with the formula: P. Allow the beaker to cool down and weigh again to the nearest 1 mg (G3 in g). It is essential to reduce presence of air (oxygen) during steps 1-7 of the procedure. 6. 1 ml of KI solution.V.002 N. At the same time. free of iodine and iodates • sodium thiosulfate 0.V. 7. and Derivatives. Heat the beaker on a hot plate. IUPAC Standard Methods for the Analysis of Oils. 5.601. while shaking vigorously. 2. The glass may not steam up. 2. carry out a blank determination.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual PROCEDURE 1.0 g of cocoa butter to the nearest 1 mg into an Erlenmeyer flask of 200 ml (weight g in g). 3.) of cocoa butter. the EQUIPMENT / MATERIALS • chloroform. The weighed amount of butter is G1 in g. the P.01 ml graduations PROCEDURE 1. Put some boiling stones into a beaker and.Animal and Vegetable Fats and Oils . the released iodine with the sodium thiosulfate solution 0. the weight of the glass beaker plus butter is G2 in g. p. p.V.V. Fats. Calculate the percentage of water and other volatile constituents with the help of the following formula: (G2 – G3) / G1 × 100% Express the value obtained in two decimal places.1 N stock solution • starch solution 0. 7. 2. Weigh 1. must be determined as quickly as possible.

Method 2. Fats. EQUIPMENT / MATERIALS • Erlenmeyer flasks of 250 ml • burette of 25 ml.201. • KOH solution in water. and Derivatives. Add 50 ml of the diethylether-ethanol mixture and dissolve the cocoa butter by swirling. REFERENCES 1. Fats.1 N.501.V. The ffa can be recalculated into Acid Degree (m. RESULTS The ffa. 3. ISO 660 . graduated in 0.1 N KOH (Normality T) to the end point. neutralized before use with KOH solution against phenolphthalein • phenolphthalein solution. 6th Edition. Add a few drops of phenolphthalein solution and titrate with 0. 2. expressed as oleic acid.mol/kg (Lea value) mg/kg multiply the P.a. 2.mol or mg of active oxygen per kg. approx. ISO 3960: Animal and Vegetable Fats and Oils . Register ml KOH used (V in ml). IUPAC Standard Methods for the Analysis of Oils.5 8 PROCEDURE 1. 6 . 96%) • diethylether p. IUPAC Standard Methods for the Analysis of Oils.Determination of Peroxide Value.eq KOH required to neutralize 100 g of cocoa butter) or into Acid Value (mg KOH required to neutralize the ffa in 1 g of cocoa butter).) 4. (The pink color persists for at least 10 seconds.a. 6th Edition. • accurately standardized • diethylether-ethanol (3:2) mixture. Method 2. The P.1 × T × V / m The Acidity can be calculated with the formula: Acidity = 100 × T × V / m Free fatty acid content DEFINITION This method describes the determination of the percentage of free fatty acid (ffa) of cocoa butter. expressed as % oleic acid (then also called acidity). is calculated with the formula: ffa = 28.2 × T × V / m Where: T = the Normality of the standardized KOH solution V = ml of the standardized KOH solution m = the mass (g) of the cocoa butter sample The Acid Value can be calculated with the formula: Acid Value = 56. Weigh 5-10 g of liquid cocoa butter to the nearest 1 mg into a 250 ml Erlenmeyer flask (m in g). M i c ro bi o lo g i c a l Introduction The microbiological specifications are based on the IOCCC methodology: method 39/1990 (formerly 118/1990). Conversion factors m. and Derivatives. 2. 1% in ethanol REFERENCES 1.Animal and Vegetable Fats and Oils . with 1 0.eq/kg m.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual sample must be stored in a cool and dark place.1 ml • ethanol (p. can be expressed in m. 3. which is the 47 .Determination of Acid Value and Acidity. 0.V.eq as well as in m.

3. Incubate the petri dishes bottom up at 30° C (86° F) ± 1° For 48 hours. sterilize for 15 minutes at 121° C (250° F). commercially available) with 1. • Determination of total plate count (TPC). Sample preparation for total plate count (TPC). Determination of total mesophilic aerobe plate count DEFINITION The TPC or total number of viable mesophilic aerobe microorganisms is defined as the number of microorganisms per grams of product that develop into colonies on a non-selective agar medium by incubation at 30° C (86° F) ± 1° For 48 hours. Special methodology has been developed and optimized for efficiency and rapid availability of the results. add 18 ml of lactose broth or 10 g of cocoa butter or liquor in 90 ml of lactose broth. large numbers of samples have to be analyzed per day. 3.HACCP). • Plate Count Agar (PCA) (commercially available): Mix 8-13 g of PCA (depending upon supplier) with 500 ml of demineralized water. MEDIA • (LB): see sample preparation. 6. Mix the suspension with the PCA in the dish and allow the mixture to solidify (cool). 7. 4. Mix 13 g of lactose broth (LB. 9. Weigh 2 g of cocoa powder in a sterile (glass) flask. 5. molds/yeasts and Enterobacteriaceae 1. Close the bottle and shake well. Add about 15 ml of liquid PCA (about 48° C/118° F).9 ± 0.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual reference method used for arbitration and calibration of other methods. Pipette 2 ml of this suspension into a sterile test-tube with 8 ml of LB (1:50 dilution). 6.500 g of product per production day in sterilized skimmed milk. 5.1). Let the suspension stand for about 30 minutes and continue with method TPC. and cool to about 48° C (118° F).000 ml of demineralized water in a glass bottle. These samples could be composed of 15 × 25 g samples or bigger samples from automatic sampling. Allow to cool to about 45° C (113° F) and check the pH (6. Count the number of colonies and multiply this by 50. Pipette in each of two petri dishes 1 ml of the 1:50 dilution. and mix. method Molds/Yeasts. PROCEDURE 1. For the microbiological control of finished goods and process samples (microbiological . 8. 2. • Salmonella determination starts with pre-enrichment of 4 × 375 g = 1. Calculate the average of the two petri dishes per sample. 4. and Enterobacteriaceae starts from the same sample suspension in lactose broth (1:10 dilution). molds/yeasts. For the blank LB samples no dilution has to be made. or method Enterobacteriaceae. Take the sample suspension (1:10 dilution) and shake. 48 . 2. Always carry out the same analysis with a blank sample containing lactose broth only. Check the sterility of the PCA by pouring the last remains of each bottle into a petri dish. Sterilize the broth in an autoclave at 121° C (250° F) for 30 minutes.

coli. • Rose-Bengal Chloramphenicol Agar (RBC) (commercially available): Mix 16. Multiply the count by 10 and calculate the average of the two petri dishes per sample. 4.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual Determination of mold and yeast count DEFINITION The number of molds and yeasts is defined as the number of molds and yeasts per g product that develop into colonies on selective agar media by incubation at 25° C (77° F) ± 1° For three days (72 hours). Add about 15 ml of liquid RBC (about 48° C/118° F). 1. while gas formation may also cause the agar to lighten. 6. 2. Positive readings have to be confirmed and tested for the presence (quantitative) of E. E.5 g of TW (commercially available) with 500 ml of demineralized water.5 ml liquid should fully immerse the Durham tube) and sterilize for 15 minutes at 121° C (250° F). Incubate this suspension and a blank LB sample at 37° C (99° F) ± 1° For 20-24 hours. 2. A sample is considered positive when the whole VRBG agar has become turbid and colored purple-red to yellow. • Violet Red Bile glucose agar (VRBG) (commercially available): Mix 17-21 g of VRBG (depending on supplier) with 500 ml demineralized water. 3. and cool to about 48° C (118° F). coli DEFINITION Enterobacteriaceae and/or Escherichia coli are considered to be present if microorganisms develop on selective media and show positive responses according to a specific pattern of reactions. • Brilliant Green Bile Lactose Broth (BGL): Mix 20 g of BGL (commercially available) with 500 ml of demineralized water. 5.6 g sample in about 16 ml LB) and shake. Shake the sample suspension (1:10 dilution). PROCEDURE 1. MEDIA • LB: see sample preparation. • Kovacs’ reagent. pour into reagent tubes with Durham tubes (about 6. mix the suspension with the RBC in the dish. pour 6 ml into test tube and sterilize for 15 minutes at 121° C (250° F). Take the remaining sample suspension (1. Inoculate from the positive VRBG tube into: • a TW-tube (indol formation) Qualitative determination of Enterobacteriaceae incl. Pipette 1 ml of this suspension into each of two petri dishes. sterilize for 15 minutes at 121° C (250° F). 3. PROCEDURE 1. Inoculate a VRBD tube from the incubated suspension by stabbing with an inoculation wire down the center to the bottom of the tube. Incubate the VRBG tube at 37° C (99° F) ± 1° For 24 hours. Incubate the petri dishes bottom up at 25° C (77° F) ± 1° (for 72 hours). 7. and allow the mixture to solidify (cool). MEDIA • (LB): see sample preparation. 5. Count the numbers of mold and yeast colonies. • Tryptone water (TW): Mix 7. Check the sterility of the RBC medium by pouring the last remains of each bottle in a petri dish.1 g of RBC with 500 ml of demineralized water. 4. 49 . and also analyze the blank LB. heat to boiling and pour 6 ml into sterile tubes and cool to room temperature.

E. . 3.000 ml of demineralized water. allow to solidify and dry the plates overnight in an incubator at 37° C (99° F) upside down. 3. Incubate both tubes at 42° C (108° F) ± 1° For 24 hours. TPA. Keep the plates for one hour at room temperature and store them at 3°-7° C (37-45° F).000 ml demineralized water. • Xylose Lysine Desoxycholate agar (XLD) (commercially available): Dissolve 151-178 g of XLD agar (depending on supplier) into 3. 5. VPII. James reagent.Novobiocin solution (2%). 2. . pour plates. and sterilize for 15 minutes at 121° C (250° F). Selective enrichment medium • Rappaport-Vassiliadis Broth (RV) (commercially available): Mix 30-43 g of RV broth (depending on supplier) with 1. Pre-enrichment medium • Sterilized milk. allow to solidify and dry the plates overnight in an incubator at 37° C (99° F) upside down. . which allows for a negative detection within 48 hours. . heat to boiling. McConkey-agar (commercially available): Dissolve 136-163 g of McConkeyagar (depending on supplier) into 3. add 1 ml 2% solution Novobiocin. keep them at 3°-7° C (37-45° F). Biochemical identification consisting of: API 20E-strips. (In case of a positive motility. • Mannitol Lysine Crystalviolet Brilliant Green Agar (MLCB): Dissolve 147 g of MLCB in 3.Bring to boil to sterilize (do not autoclave). dissolve 200 mg of Novobiocin into 10 ml demineralized water. heat to boiling. Add Kovacs’ reagent to the TW-tube: Formation of a red ring indicates the presence of indol. CONFIRMATION 1.000 ml demineralized water. VPI.000 ml of the milk.000 ml of demineralized water. cool to about 50° C (122° F) and pour plates. Add 4 ml of 0.6 g of the MSRV agar into 1. pour into 10 ml tubes. sterile water (5 ml). Selective media • Modified semi-solid RappaportVassiliadis medium (MSRV). the determination has to be repeated with 1 g of cocoa powder in 10 ml of LB. cool to about 50° C (122° F). Determination for presence of Salmonella DEFINITION Salmonellae are considered to be present if microorganisms develop on the selective media and show positive responses to a specific number of tests (biochemical and serological). pre-heated to 35-38° C (95-100° F). REMARKS In case of a positive reaction.Dissolve 31.Cool to 50° C (122° F). This method includes the motility test. A gas bubble in the Durham tube indicates a positive BGL.) MEDIA 1. Keep them for 1 hour at room temperature and store them at 3°-7° C (37-45° F).CoCoa & ChoColate Manual • a BLG-tube (lactose formation) 2.000 ml demineralized water. 4. preheated to 37°± 1° C (99° F) 2. allow them to solidify and dry the plates overnight in an oven at 37° C (99° F) upside down. 50 . pour plates. sterilize for 15 minutes at 121° C (250° F) and cool to about 50° C (122° F). coli was present in the VRBG tube when the indol (TW) as well as the lactose BGL-tests were positive. test isolation and confirmation have to take place.5% Brilliant Green solution (BG) to 1.

CoCoa & ChoColate Manual

PROCEDURE
Pre-enrichment 1. Weigh 375 g of product and mix with 1,375 ml of sterilized milk at 37° C (99° F) in a 5 l stainless steel beaker. 2. Add a further 2,000 ml of sterilized milk heated to 37° C (99° F) and mix. 3. Resuscitate for one hour at room temperature. 4. Add 13.5 ml BG solution (0.5%) and mix. 5. Incubate the suspension at 37° C (99° F) ± 1° for 16-20 hours. Selected enrichment 1. Pipette 0.1 ml of incubated suspension into a 10 ml RV-tube and incubate at 42° C (108° F) ± 1 for one day. 2. Also bring three drops (about 0.1 ml) of the incubated suspension onto an MSRVplate and incubate the plate at 42° C (108° F) ± 0.5° for one day. Isolation 1. Check the MSRV-plate for suspected growth. 2. From the RV-tube streak an oculation eye from the edge of the surface onto XLD and MLCB agar, and also bring three drops (about 0.1 ml) of the incubated suspension onto an MSRV-plate. Suspect XLD: Pink to red colonies with/ without black centers, black colonies, yellow colonies with/ without center MLCB: purple-black colonies, mauve-grey colonies with cratered MSRV: Growth, with a clear, milk-white Non suspect White colonies

3. Incubate the XLD- and MLCB-plates for one day at 37° C (99° F) ±1°. 4. Incubate the MSRV-plate for one day at 42° C (108° F) ±0.5°. 5. Check the three plates for suspected growth. All above typical and suspected colonies have to be streaked onto McConkey plates and brought onto an API 20E strip for confirmation.

CONFIRMATION
If the colonies on the McConkeys are pure, then read the API 20E strip, non pure colonies give false results. Biochemical identification with API 20E: see instructions from the supplier.

REMARKS
If the API 20E-strip identifies the microorganism as Salmonella, serological confirmation has to give the definitive typing.

No growth

No growth

51

CoCoa & ChoColate Manual

Flavor and Flavor Development
Research into the flavor of cocoa has been a fruitful topic in the past decades. Modern analytical techniques have contributed to a better understanding of the composition and the formation of the cocoa flavor components. However, even with all of the new and additional information recently gathered, we still do not know exactly what constitutes cocoa flavor. More than 480 different volatile components divided among some 20 different chemical classes have, to date, been identified in roasted cocoa, making it one of the most complex flavors known to mankind.

4

1. Form at io n o f c o c oa fl avor
The most important factors in the formation of the cocoa flavor are: • cocoa bean variety • fermentation and drying • alkalization • roasting

Cocoa bean variety

In Module 1: History and Supply of Cocoa, we mentioned the major cocoa bean growing countries of today. Not all countries produce the same variety or type of cocoa. It is very important to distinguish between the various types with regard to their differing flavor formation characteristics. The oldest-known type is the Criollo, which means “native.” This variety was already cultivated by the Aztecs and Mayans in Central and South America. Later, new varieties from the Amazon region were imported, called Forastero, which means “foreign.” These were appreciated particularly for their greater resistance to diseases and pests. Therefore, it was chiefly the Forastero type that was exported to other parts of the tropics in West Africa and East Asia.

However, the flavor of the Forastero was less appreciated by chocolate manufacturers. In trying to combine the advantages of the Forastero and the fine flavor of the Criollo, new hybrids were cultivated. These are known under the variety name of Trinitario. More recently, hybrids have been cultivated by crossing Trinitario and newly collected varieties from the upper Amazon, which give higher yields and are more resistant and faster growing. Each bean variety has its own specific potential flavor profile. However, growing conditions like climate, amount and time of sunshine and rainfall, soil conditions, ripening, time of harvesting, and the time between harvesting and fermentation of the beans all contribute to the flavor formation. Differing conditions may lead to significantly different flavor profiles. A good example is the difference in flavor profile between cocoa produced from beans growing in Ghana and Malaysia. Although the variety cultivated in Malaysia was originally imported from Ghana, their flavors are completely different.

Fermentation and drying

During fermentation, enzymatic reactions play a principal role in the formation of the cocoa flavor precursors. Peptides and amino acids are generated by proteolytic enzymatic breakdown of proteins. Sugar from the pulp is split into glucose and fructose. The peptides and amino acids and reducing sugars are the precursors for the formation of the volatile flavor components formed by Maillard reactions during the later stages of the processing of the cocoa beans. Enzymes are also responsible for the conversion of monomeric flavonoids into tannins, leading to a decrease in astringency of the cocoa and changing the

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Also at this stage. these peptides are converted by carboxypeptidases into hydrophilic peptides and free amino acids. Later. which permits the mixing of substrate and enzymes leading to the reactions that produce the precursors of the cocoa and chocolate flavor. In the first phase the conditions are more or less anaerobic. The chemical processes involved in fermentation are complex and not completely understood. the Maillard reaction starts and creates conditions supporting further Maillard browning during subsequent processing steps. The conversion of the flavonoids by polyphenol-oxidases into tannins takes place during the aerobic stage of the fermentation as oxygen is needed for the reaction. by enzymatic hydrolysis. violet Unfermented. The pulp sugars are converted into alcohols by yeasts. and lactic acid bacteria and pectins are broken down by pectinases. The combination of acid and heat kills the germinal force of the bean. which results in liquefaction of the pulp. Acetic acid bacteria take over and the temperature in the mass is increased to about 50° C (122° F). The liquefied pulp drains from the mass and allows aeration of the mass. during the fermentation at a pH >5. In the first stage.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual original purple color of the fresh beans into the typical brown color of cocoa. The proteins in the beans are broken down in two stages. both reducing sugars. early in the fermentation at a pH <4. Two phases can be distinguished. Good fermented Unfermented. the proteins are split into hydrophobic peptides by proteases. which starts the second aerobic phase of fermentation. At that stage. the saccharose from the pulp penetrates into the bean and is broken down into the reducing sugars by enzymatic hydrolysis. slaty 54 . sucrose is cleaved into fructose and glucose. During sun drying after fermentation at moisture contents below 12%. This is accompanied by the loss of cellular integrity.

By adapting the roasting conditions. It is assumed The roasting process is of great importance for the ultimate flavor profile of the endproduct. Alkalization can take place in the cocoa nib (preferably) or in the cocoa cake/powder. 2 .CoCoa & ChoColate Manual All these reactions have to take place for the ultimate development of a good cocoa flavor. Overfermented beans lead to a hammy off-flavor. In this test. The beans are then very dark colored and brittle. ratio of the active ingredients. a variety of flavor profiles can be obtained for cocoa liquor. The Maillard reactions play a major part in all food preparations in which the flavor is developed by a heating process like 55 . the polyphenolic components are converted into phenoxides. the type and quantity of alkali used. In this case. Flavor aspects like typical cocoa and bouquet are enhanced and intensified. They are reaction products of flavonoids with amino acids. which easily oxidize into quinones. and violet beans are incompletely fermented. Chemi str y o f roa sti ng Most of the various compounds found in the flavor of cocoa are generated by the Maillard reactions. which are condensation products of amino acids and reducing sugars like fructose. A direct correlation has been demonstrated between these compounds and the formation of the volatile cocoa flavor components. However. In an alkaline medium. To qualify as being “good fermented. A number of different alkalis are permitted and the process conditions can vary considerably. that further reactions take place as were earlier described during fermentation. and temperature. Cocoa beans can also be overfermented. Literature reveals little of the numerous and complicated chemical reactions taking place during alkalization. very dark pigments are formed. alkalization has a number of distinct benefits. The degree of fermentation of the cocoa bean is therefore considered of paramount importance. The active role of the polyphenolic components during alkalization is demonstrated by analysis of the components before and after alkalization. and the color of the interior of the bean is assessed by counting the percentage of slate-colored and violet-colored beans. the Amadori compounds.” the percentage of slaty beans should not be more than 5%. are considered to be important for the character of cocoa flavor. Roasting Alkalization Alkalization is not a common step in the manufacture of chocolate. Slaty beans are not fermented. During the drying after fermentation. the base flavor component for chocolate and cocoa powder. During this process. the cocoa is treated with an alkaline solution. Among other criteria are the kinds of beans. each bean out of a sample of 300 beans is bisected. It will influence both the color and the flavor of the end product. time. Non-fermented beans do not lead to cocoa flavor development. the beans begin to decompose. The cut test is used to determine the degree of fermentation of the bean. Alkalization reduces the acidity of the flavor of cocoa as well as its astringency. In the alkalization process. The aldehydes and pyrazines in particular. the Maillard reactions cause the first meta-stable components to be formed. and the pH rises sharply as proteins in the beans start to break down. The roasting step is also important because it allows the manufacturer to influence the flavor development to a significant degree. The lowering of the astringency is caused by a further polymerization of the flavonoids during the alkali treatment. in the manufacture of cocoa powder.

a large part of the Maillard reactions already take place during sun drying after fermentation. or protein. some free water should be available in order to make contact between the various reactants. the so-called Strecker Degradation is considered to be very important for the development of the cocoa flavor. the Amadori compounds are formed. 1989) Component Number Aliphatic. peptide. particularly in the first stages. the Amadori compounds are converted into dicarboxylic compounds by further removal of H2O molecules. they can only take place in a rather dry medium and at higher temperatures. In cocoa. Therefore. frying.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual Formation of an Amadori Compound from a Reducing Sugar and an Amino Acid H– C = O + H2N – R1 H– C–OH R Reducing sugar + amino acid (–H2O) ¢ H– C = N – R1 H– C–OH R (Intermediate) ¢ H– C – | | C=O | | | – R1 | | R Amadori compound | baking. Initially the aldose group reacts with the amino-group by removal of a molecule of H2O. The Amadori compounds are reacting further in different ways depending on the reaction conditions. this is usually an amino acid. and in the first stage of roasting. In food. it is quite apparent that the formation (and removal) of water is the driving force in these reactions. From these mechanisms. First. or roasting. and during further dehydration. the heterocyclic components like pyrazines are formed. For cocoa. Compounds Found in Cocoa Flavor (Flamant. It is essentially a reaction between a reducing sugar like glucose or fructose with an aldose-group and a compound with an amino-group. However. Alicyclic Hydrocarbons Organic acids Amines Alcohols Aldehydes Ketones Esters Lactones Ethers Sulfides Phenols Heterocyclic Furans Thiazols Thiophenes Pyridines Pyrroles Oxazoles Pyrazines Total 19 8 1 12 18 15 95 463 39 51 45 25 22 24 58 7 8 10 6 56 . These compounds reduce the -amino acids into aldehydes.

The product temperature at the end of the roasting process should not exceed 110°120° C (230°-248° F). They are already present in the fermented cocoa beans before roasting. methods. S enso r y eva luati o n of c o c oa flav o r Introduction People have a flavor memory that allows both instantaneous judgment as well as comparison with experiences from the 57 . the others are not. and citric acid. they are easily removed during roasting. In general. During roasting. For cocoa. Another important reaction during roasting is the change in the organic acid composition. Because these esters are rather volatile. the content of lactic acid is usually higher. lactic acid is not removed. Differences in roasting conditions have a distinct effect on the flavor development. and the final moisture content should be between 1 and 2%. in Malaysian and South American beans. the pH increases due to the removal of acetic acid. Therefore. then the more volatile components like aldehydes. which might explain the higher acidity of cocoa made from these beans. If the roasting is continued for too long. This results in a burnt flavor. which contributes to fruity wine-like flavor top notes. esters. these beans should be subjected to a very light roast in order to keep these bouquet flavors in the cocoa. lactic. During roasting. The beans from Venezuela and Ecuador contain a relatively high amount of esters. 3 . and conditions for roasting cocoa. and low molecular acids like butyric acid will be removed. Acetic acid is volatile. Also. the roasting conditions are rather mild. expressed as bouquet. The chocolate and cocoa industries use a wide assortment of equipment. leaving only the pyrazines and the non-volatile acids. cocoa products made from Malaysian beans have a more acidic flavor compared to products made from Africantype beans.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual Maillard Reactions: Strecker Degradation Maillard Reactions: Strecker Degradation H–C = O R2–C = O (–H2O) H–C = N–CH–COOH R2–C = O R1 H–C–N = C–COOH (–CO2) 2× R2–C–OH R1 (+H2O) R2–C OH (–2×H2O)  N N H–C R2–C N C–R2 C–H R2– (O2) N Pyrazine –R2 R2–C O H–C + H2N–CH–COOH R1 NH2 H–C + R1 Aldehyde NH2 O = C–H The roasting process is required to further develop the desired flavor. The major acids in cocoa are acetic.

as the intensity of the color will initiate a corresponding flavor expectation. by the physical and chemical properties of the flavor itself. each having a different time-intensity curve. Flavor release is the perceived intensity of a certain aspect of the flavor as a function of time. the flavor release is relatively fast. shape. by the location in the mouth and the nose where the flavor is perceived as well as by the texture and the temperature of the product in which the flavor is incorporated. Contact with saliva is also essential. Flavor release One of the most important factors to be considered when judging the properties of a flavor is how it ultimately manifests or releases itself in the final product during consumption. mouth-feel. and trigeminal nerve sensations such as touch. for example. In this context.” the word “flavor” is often used. it must be transformed into an objective assessment to be of use to a food manufacturer in the areas of new product creation or improvement and quality control. Recent development of flavor selective sensors. In many products. for example. Sensory evaluation can. Sensory evaluation is. touch. product development. and color are the most important contributing characteristics. sound. allowing a variety of different flavors. In the case of cocoa. provide the answer to the question of whether a change in raw material or process conditions results in a flavor change in the end-product. in the first place.” could be helpful in increasing the number of discriminatory tests. sound. Sound can also play a crucial role. Sensory evaluation may be defined as analysis performed using the senses: taste. an individual’s judgment of a taste or smell of a food product. the concept of “taste” should be interpreted in a much wider sense than the direct impression on the tasting sense when eating. Because it is largely a subjective process. this is even more obvious. as the fat must first melt before the flavor becomes available. In such products. the amount of fat and its melting point and melting behavior are important for the flavor release. It is determined. also called “electronic noses. Size. and chemical irritants (giving a heat or cooling response) obtained when eating a product. Sensory evaluation is used in quality control. With some products. pain. flavor evaluation is a tool with which a food processor is able to convert the subjective judgment of consumers into measurable data from which an objective analysis can be made. taste and smell The importance of products’ appearance is evident. smell.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual past. For a full flavor evaluation. In essence. To avoid confusion between the wider and the narrower concepts of “taste. temperature. to be expressed in unique ways. it is important to keep the product in one’s mouth for some time before it is swallowed. Packaging also serves to enhance the expectations for a food item. and consumer tests. Appearance. texture. when the product is sensorially evaluated. weight. the sound generated during consumption can lead to a more positive or negative judgment. fat is an important transmission medium for flavor. With cocoa butter melting rapidly at body temperature (in the mouth). and sight. The consumer’s sensory evaluation of foods is a process that can offer information often difficult to obtain from an instrument and is critical in the assessment of a food product’s acceptability. but the calibration and internal control of such equipment will always require a panel of flavor experts. “Flavor” encompasses the total impression of taste (gustation). This is one of the reasons why the cocoa flavor in different end-products shows a different flavor profile. Consider the “crunch” 58 . smell (olfaction).

The olfactory organ lies out of the direct stream of air that we inhale when we breathe. In the meantime. waxy. Odoriferous molecules (stimulants) can reach the olfactory organ either via the normal respiratory passages or in a retronasal manner.) High up in the nose. or sour tastes can be detected. The olfactory organ is lined with a mucous membrane. though sickness or ill health may temporarily delay this. paste. The mouth-feel of a product is determined by its texture. and behavior during the (often short) period of residence time in the mouth. sweet. umami.000 for the same substance. The taste buds (2. or solid. about 2-5 cm2. sweet. or dry. Sensitivity differs considerably per substance and per person. the flavor of a food is primarily perceived in the retronasal manner. associated with monosodium glutamate (MSG). a fifth sensation. chocolate flavored products. mostly touch. No other flavors of a food can be perceived. e. only the sensitivity (threshold value) varies for the types of papillae or position on the tongue. where the filiform papillae only have a tactile function) each contain 50-150 taste cells that respond to all taste stimuli. caused by drugs or medication. The nose can detect the most ephemeral of sensory messages. sour. It has been established that elderly people develop a preference for more bitter and stronger. Taste is appreciated by taste receptor cells present mainly on the tongue and soft palate. The ability to taste declines slightly as people age. greasy. About 150-200 odor qualities containing about 10. This is primarily due to the fact that their threshold for bitter compounds is higher and. bitter. texture. This is of particular importance to the cocoa flavor as it releases comparatively little volatile flavor components by itself. The role of saliva is very important for tasting as the nonvolatile taste stimuli have to be dissolved before they can contact the taste pores of the taste buds. The four classical taste sensations are salt. so damage is repaired.000 different odors can be recognized by trained persons. powdery. 59 . If the nose is pinched closed while eating. but less sweet. A “dry” mouth or reduced saliva flow. regenerating about every 50 days. especially for males. which has to be penetrated by the volatile odor molecules in order for them to be perceived by the olfactory receptor cells. half liquid.000-5. The melting behavior of the fat phase can be of influence also. the texture of the food is evaluated. against the nasal wall. temperature.g. therefore. results in loss of taste.000) situated in papillae on the tongue (except in the middle. and the basic salt. the flavor of a product can be appreciated to its fullest extent. As a result. smooth. is getting acceptance. lies the olfactory organ. viscosity. Individuals can display differences in olfactory sensitivity by factors up to 1. (Smell forms about 75% of the flavor impression. and bitter.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual of a fresh apple or the “snap” of a good chocolate bar—both are necessary for a positive valuation. watery. Only 2% of the air we breathe reaches the receptors. as does. Chewing refines the product. During eating. A product can be liquid. to a larger extent the ability to detect smells. they perceive the bitterness less in foods. and its temperature is adapted to that of the mouth. It creates the desired particle size and allows the release of the less volatile components of a food. crunchy. The receptor cells in the taste buds regenerate about every 10 days. This can be described in such terms as hard. all forms in which cocoa-flavored products are available to the consumer. while terms like metallic and astringent are also named.

Does it taste good? Flavor memory The brain has a powerful memory for flavor. it should be reasonably close to a familiar and trusted flavor impression. It is this opinion that is critically important for the food technologist to be aware of. so a mixture with sub-threshold levels of its components will produce a strong taste sensation. samples 60 . touch. the sensitivity to a certain stimulant declines as a result of previous exposure to that stimulant.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual Adaptation.” For evaluation purposes. Moreover. Inhibition or mixture suppression is the opposite effect. taste. notably on the product lines that carry and represent their own particular house flavor. And this opinion is very clearly a function of what happens after that initial tasting. Synergism is the enhanced impression of taste. the sensitivity to the stimulant involved is completely lost. It is important to realize that sensory sensitivity and capability differ strongly between individuals. sound. When we evaluate a food product. or fatigue. and smell. the reduction of sensitivity is caused by exposure to another stimulant. It is the taste impression above that or different from two individual components. The process by which a consumer makes a judgment on a food involves three separate phases. In creating new formulations. and confectionery industries. The number of measurement methods for sensory research has increased over the past years. the expectation of the consumer should be confirmed in the actual tasting experience. The first is the input phase to the brain. total impression and judgment Adaptation. The second is the comparison of the input with what exists in the flavor memory. the “non-tasters” and persons with taste or smell defects (temporarily or definite) have to be excluded from panels by adequate screening and training sessions. The information is gathered and integrated into a total sensory picture or impression by the brain. The memory contains details of thousands of flavors that range from delicious to unpalatable. The third is the output presented in the form of an opinion. and it can be neutralized by removing the stimulant (rinsing with fresh air or clean. Methods for analytical sensory evaluation can be divided into two groups: difference tests and descriptive tests. partly due to the opportunities that computers offer to process complex data. It is unknown. This is where the acceptability of a new formulation will first be visible. In cross adaptation. Almost all food companies carry out sensory evaluation. This is very much the case in the cocoa. warm water). where taste sensations are reduced or changed in a mixture of stimulants. synergism. is the decrease in response with constant stimulation and is observed both with smell and taste (and with many other senses). The flavor of cocoa is well known and has proven to be immensely successful. emphasis is often placed on adapting known and trusted flavors rather than creating completely new ones. It is this flavor memory that represents the reference against which a new flavor is compared. So. chocolate. Adaptation is time dependent (a few minutes). Sensory evaluation Sensory evaluation as we know it today was developed after World War II. retaining the most subtle features of a flavor with amazing accuracy. it runs a high risk of rejection. In difference or discrimination tests. For a new flavor to be successful. each of our five senses are used: sight. The population consists of about 25% “supertasters” and 25% “non-tasters. This judgment process is immediate and is the way in which the brain interprets this impression. Experience has taught that if a product offers a totally new sensory picture. At complete adaptation.

” 61 . They also need regular retraining to keep the variations in individual judgments within narrow limits. unlike descriptive techniques. ADM Cocoa uses a combination of a descriptive test (the QDA test) and a difference test (the paired comparison test). Paired Comparison Test. the aspects to be tested are jointly determined by all members. requires a systematic approach. Ranking Test. and for a long time the only. and Two-Out-of-Five Test. can be related to results obtained from instruments. Eight to 10 panel members perform the testing. Its evaluation work must be independent and totally free from interference. It involves the following three steps: • creating a glossary of terms used to describe different sensory aspects (cocoa flavor and flavor notes) • training panels to judge and rate those aspects • evaluating the ratings The methodology for the sensory evaluation of cocoa powder can be found in Module 3: Methods of Analysis under “Flavor Evaluation. A QDA variant is Free Choice Profiling (FCP). and the cumulative results will indicate whether or not there is a significant difference between the samples. These indicate only whether or not there is a significant difference between samples. Therefore. can be stored for future reference. Sensory evaluation in the food industry Difference (discrimination) tests Some well-known methods are the Triangle Test. usually with four to five panel members. The principal component analysis (PCA) is a methodology that is further described in Module 7: Cocoa Liquor under “Flavor. Descriptive tests The first. Current findings suggest strongly that Descriptive Analysis Tests provide the best information. the nature of the difference is not always established.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual are always judged in comparison with another sample or a standard. as a management tool to improve a company’s operations. which tells investigators what they want to know. panel members individually indicate only those aspects they want to test. a sample is examined on its own to determine its sensory qualities and the intensities of these qualities. Some of the activities to which systematic sensory evaluation can contribute include: • quality control • quality assurance • shelf-life determination • product reformulation • new product development . However. The panel leader would determine the aspects of the samples to be tested. and can be collected systematically. descriptive method was the Flavor Profile Method (FPM). in descriptive tests. In this method.R&D • marketing • evaluating competitive products Sensory evaluation contributions to company operations can best be made through a team of specially trained personnel — the Sensory Evaluation Panel.” Sensory evaluation. In this method. Difference tests are easy to carry out. it is not surprising that difference tests are often used. A disadvantage is that the panel members have to undergo fairly intensive and lengthy training before they can participate. It must provide an objective testing medium and should communicate adequately with all company departments that are going to use the information obtained. The ’70s saw the development of the Quantitative Descriptive Analysis test (QDA). It is not necessary for the members of the test panel to have intensive training.

described as puckering or drying. and ground cocoa bean Earthy/Moldy Stale. roasted. elicited with tannins or alum (ASTM) Acrid A burnt. smoke. Bouquet General term covering all flavor elements over and above the cocoa character. and fruity notes Cardboard A note suggestive of paper or cardboard Baggy / Raw Acid (Sour) A note suggestive of raw beans and/or burlap bags One of the four basic tastes perceived on the tongue. which is derived from a good fermented. deshelled. It indicates the “overall” or total flavor intensity of the product. aromatic taste often associated with burnt wood. associated with acids (ASTM) like citric acid Astringent The chemical feeling factor perceived on the tongue and other oral surfaces. and other alkaloids (ASTM) Rich or Full Metallic Rancid A note suggestive of iron and copper A flavor suggestive of oxidized butter or oil A full-flavor intensity contrasting with watery. harsh. when tasted it gives a sensation of dryness 62 . panel members can use the following as the glossary of terms for cocoa products: Cocoa off-flavor notes Burnt Tar-like flavor Cocoa The basic cocoa note. floral. quinine. e.g. a flavor suggestive of a badly ventilated cellar Bitter Hammy Smoky A flavor suggestive of smoked bacon/ham A burnt wood note One of the four basic tastes perceived most sensitively at the back of the tongue. or roasted beans (ASTM) or a pungently bitter note often associated with astringency and acidity. aromatic. stimulated by solutions of caffeine.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual Basic cocoa flavor notes As part of the flavor evaluation.

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The color of the beans arriving from their countries of origin is beyond the immediate control of the manufacturer. cocoa is the most popular food flavor in the Western hemisphere. The quinones are reactive agents and behave as oxidizing agents. In many cases. Users of cocoa products like liquor Precursors of the color component Flavonoids. react themselves. In practice. fulfills two primary functions in foods: as a colorant and as a flavor ingredient. are the primary precursors of the pigment in cocoa. Quinones react with amino acids and proteins. however. blending. It is the combination of expertise in bean selection. Depending on the process conditions and the alkali used. as protective agents against disease. they form various strongly colored pigments. During fermentation. and as disinfectants when a plant is wounded. in turn. and successful management of the production process that offers the cocoa products buyer the confidence of a product that will fulfill the requirements of both the manufacturer and the final consumer. They also react with other flavonoids. is reached after further processing of the beans. the flavor function dominates. This process is largely determined by the bean varieties.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual Color and Color Development After vanilla. The purple color in fresh. can set their own standards in purchasing specifications. The ultimate color of cocoa. Cocoa. as it is here that the characteristic brown color of cocoa is formed. These are esters of anthocyanidines and sugars. They occur widely in the plant kingdom and have a variety of functions: as pigments. The free antho. where alkalization is the critical step. this double role has led to a wide range of cocoa powders adapted to applications in a very large range of foods.and procyanidine molecules are then oxidized by enzymes to quinones. 5 and powder. unfermented beans is due to anthocyanines. however. which is very important for providing the raw material for a consistent product. The only direct control the cocoa powder producer exercises is at the stage of bean selection and blending. This is a very important phase. If the molecular weight of the 65 . Procyanidines are present in cocoa as dimers through decamers of epicatechin. Form at io n o f t h e cocoa col o r The formation of the color of cocoa passes through a number of stages. Controlling the influence of the various stages of production on the color development of cocoa powders is complicated and difficult. It starts with the formation of precursors by biochemical processes that take place in the cocoa beans during the growth and ripening of the fruit on the tree. disease stress and the climatic conditions during growth. 1. which. a sub-group of polyphenols. The next stage takes place subsequent to harvesting during fermentation and drying of the beans. Their concentration in fresh. the initial yellowish-brown color develops into a variety of hues from light brown to red or even black. however. forming high-molecular weight condensed tannins. oxidizing other organic molecules. The anthocyanidines and proanthocyanidines are flavonoids of particular interest as color precursors. In this way. unfermented cocoa beans may be approximately 12-18% on a dry bean basis. the sugar esters are hydrolyzed by enzymes. They are also found in the form of sugar ester derivatives. forming covalently bonded complexes.

these color precursors are probably the controlling factor in this enzymatic browning. ratio of the active ingredients. Although alkalization in itself appears to be essentially a simple process. freeing the enzymes to react with the phenols. When a consignment of beans is of good quality. non-fermented cocoa bean in half. the reactions take place during the second oxidative stage of fermentation and during sun drying of the beans. At ADM Cocoa. and temperature are all of influence. in practice the greatest challenge is to consistently keep the color and flavor within a desired range. resulting in a wide range of end-products with consistent colors. Therefore. Color of cocoa butter Flavonoid-based pigments are insoluble in cocoa butter. In particular.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual Stereostructure of an Anthocyanin Glycoside (Goto et al. and many aspects influence the color of the final product. In a few seconds. The cells on the surface are destroyed. only a small percentage of the beans will show these defects. type and quantity of alkali used.000. It is practiced in many different ways by different producers. such as the Criollo. The color of cocoa butter 66 . the color of the surface turns from deep purple to brown. The conversion of flavonoids into brown tannins can be demonstrated easily by cutting a fresh. The result is a brown pigment that is stable and insoluble in water. the production of dark and red cocoa powders without the sacrifice of flavor demands great skill and advanced technology. They are not so important for the color formation but may indicate that insufficient or suboptimum flavor will develop on roasting. As mentioned above. The concentration of anthocyanidins and epicatechin are lowered during fermentation because the anthocyanins (the purple pigment) react. the color is used to assess the quality of the bean. the kind of beans. Alkalization and color development Reactions taking place during the alkalization process are complex. In the cut test. time. and after fermentation the beans are still very lightly colored. the available technological expertise allows the alkalization process to be easily adapted to the differences in the various types of cocoa beans. In certain Theobroma cacao species. it forms complexes with proteins by hydrogen bonding. As oxidation is involved. The color range varies from light brown to reddish brown to very dark brown tints. the beans do not contain this purple pigment. 1978) OH 3' 2' 8 4' 5' 6' 3 OH OH HO H H H OH H 6 7 O+ 1 2 5 4 1' H 3 5 O HO O 1 HO O H O H 2 OH 6 H 4 O OH O H HO HO H H H H H H H OH tannin is above 3. and the purple color almost vanishes.

The foundation for the color theory was laid out by Browning During Fermentation Polyphenol-oxydase enzyme OH O (enzyme) OH R O2 R O Polyphenol Secondary Reactions Oxidation Complexation Polymerization Quinone : Quinone + RH 2 Phenol + R : Quinone + Amino Acid/Protein Complexes : Quinone + Phenol+ O 2 Tannins Tannin + Protein Complexes 67 . depending on the amount. the butter will have a more or less yellow-orange.and Polymers OH HO OH O HO OH OH OH OH HO OH OH O OH OH O OH OH Epicatechin is a result of another group of natural pigments called carotenoids. Pure prime pressed cocoa butters are not bleached and therefore retain their typical ivory color.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual Structure of Flavonoids in Cocoa Mono. The amount of ß-carotene in cocoa butter can vary and. transparent color. E lements o f c o lo r The three dimensions of color A quantitative and accurate definition of color is a recent development. 2 . Vitamin A is one example of this group of compounds. The carotenoids are then removed. Procyanidin B Refining and bleaching are applied to cocoa butters with high free fatty acid contents. This natural coloring occurs in such products as carrots. These butters are usually extracted from waste material and second-grade cocoa beans. rendering the butter colorless.

the XYZ coordinate system still had difficulties with the color differences calculated. with which all colors can be expressed with positive figures.07211 b*= 200 × (Y%1/3 – Z%1/3) Z% = Z/106. which can be calculated from X. Standard Illuminant D65) Color differences The CIE color coordinates A next step in the color theory was the quantification of colors that would enable color calculations.847 Z) b= ÏY A number of transformed coordinate systems are still in use. A calculated identical color difference in the dark area was therefore experienced as greater than in the light area. or blue. or tristimuli. These do not exist in reality but are derived mathematically from the original R. Munsell.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual A. This meant that by comparing an object with one of the color areas in the atlas. The translation of X. The L coordinate is consistent with the Value of Lightness then introduced by Munsell. However. so no universal agreement has been reached. and Z values to L*. The lower the l value. L*= 116 × Y%1/3 – 16 Y% = Y/100 a*= 500 × (X%1/3 – Y%1/3) X% = X/98. corresponding with the three types of cones in the retina of the eye. Hue (H): Color in daily speech.8921 (1 2° Standard Observer. The disadvantage of this system was that certain colors had to be indicated with negative figures. such as red. The higher the C value. Y. and B primaries.0 (Y–0. and from the a and b coordinates. a low H value indicates a red color. a. and b. and Z as follows: L = 10 ÏY a = 17. and b* values according to the CIE system can be expressed as follows: Although a mathematical description of the spectral colors was now available. the brighter the powder will be. with coordinates L. For cocoa powders. the Chroma and Hue can be calculated as follows: C = Ï(a2+b2) H = arctg(b/a) 68 . These did not correspond to visual observation. a*. the darker the cocoa powder will appear. G. yellow.5 (1. Attempts to overcome this transformed the XYZ coordinate system with the help of conversion factors. He was the first to describe color by means of three parameters. This development was based on the idea that colors are made by mixing the additive primary colors: red (R). none of them is completely satisfactory.H. Y. colors and color differences could objectively be described. Chroma (C): The intensity of a color by which one distinguishes a bright or gray color. Y. and blue (B). green (G). and a high H value indicates a brown color.02 X–Y) ÏY 7. This is why the Commission Internationale d’Eclairage (CIE) created three primaries. Lightness (L): The light or dark aspect of a color. indicated with the letters X. An example is the Hunter color system. Munsell classified all colors and shades on maps with color areas in an atlas according to the coordinates above. The human eye is less sensitive to color differences in the light area than in the dark area. This is why it is always necessary to determine which coordinate system is being used when discussing color. and Z.

Of course. light is absorbed and re-emitted. much light will be reflected. Instrumental color measurement Color meters can be distinguished by their two measurement principles: Tristimulus colorimeter The diffuse reflected light that passes through four filters is measured with a The reflecting surface of the sample Reflection is largely determined by the morphology of the sample. partly absorbed. certain standard conditions have to be met: • the light source. Reflection is then minimized. color cabinets are mostly used with standard light sources. Me as urin g c o l o r The source of light The spectral color is the result of the source of light and the reflecting surface. Then. preferably at an angle of 45° to each other • the background of the sample. this should always be stated with the measurement. When using color meters.” so that the light is directed onto the subject from all sides from the interior surface of a white sphere. When a surface is smooth. and partly reflected. When a light beam strikes a surface. the measurement can be susceptible to the orientation of the sample relative to the light source. it is essential that the source of light is standardized. “source” has to be as close to “illuminant” as possible In practice. there are two ways in which the light should be directed onto the surface of the sample to minimize reflection: • by means of a focused light source at an angle of 45° to the sample 69 . surface. an electric bulb (source A) • an illuminant that defines the theoretically defined division of spectral energy of the source of light. uniform and preferably gray • the distance between the eyes and the sample • the size of the sample In practice.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual 3.e. light is still reflected. colors are still frequently judged only visually. The CIE has defined four standard sources: Source A: Incandescent light Source B: Simulated noon sunlight Source C: Simulated overcast sky daylight Source D65: Daylight A distinction is made between the following concepts: • a source that defines the physical source of light. for instance. To be able to do this in a reproducible manner. i. In practice. the color measurement is not dependent on the position of the sample relative to the light source. So for a good reproducible measurement of color. Certain surface effects can result in differences in measurements. Visual judgment of color Because of the natural human tendency to trust only one’s own eyes. preferably one of the earlier mentioned CIE standards • the position of the sample relative to the light source. this can be eliminated by making a hole in the sphere at the place where this light is reflected most. Because the color measured depends on the light source used. • by means of an “integrating sphere. However. This is an index of numbers as a function of the wavelength. “A” and “D65” are mainly employed as the light sources. it is partly passed through. With a rough surface. Color measuring There are two basic approaches for measuring color. However. and it is diffused at an angle of 45°. Light reflects at an angle of incidence of 90°. the light will mainly be diffused.

70 . (These have to meet very high standards and are very hard to manufacture. and Z color coordinates directly.) • The color with different light sources can be calculated from the measured spectrum. Y and Z color coordinates are calculated by combining the measured spectrum and the theoretical spectra of the Standard Observer (CIE). Color spectrophotometer Using this principle. The filters are made in such a way that they come as close to the spectral distribution of the Standard Observer as possible. The fourth filter is used to account for the correction in the second filter between 400 and 500 nm.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual photometer. The X. the whole visible spectrum can be measured. One can then read the X. These instruments are linked to a computer. The spectrophotometer has a number of advantages: • No filters are required. Color measurement is dealt with in Module 3: Methods of Analysis. From the spectra of the individual components. one can calculate the color of a mixture. The color differences between samples and standards in one of the other coordinate systems can be calculated as desired. Y.

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This awareness has resulted in many countries creating legislation that holds manufacturers legally responsible for the safety of their products. ADM Cocoa is very much aware of its responsibility to its customers. In this respect. Air. cocoa butter (Table 2 on page 74). and cocoa powder (Table 3 on page 75) are provided. stimulates the spirits. Cocoa Processing. When cocoa initially became popular in Europe. Man ufact u r e r ’ s r e s p on s ib i l i t y The increasing awareness of the relationship between the quality of the food we eat and the effects that food may have on our health understandably means that increasing demands are being placed on the food manufacturer to provide assurances that the products offered to the consumer are of high quality. This chapter gives an overview of the current state of affairs with regard to the health and nutritional aspects of cocoa and cocoa products. 6 In Module 2. exercised their beneficial influence on humans. but first and foremost a magical medicine. Fire. 2. and Earth. we indicate how this responsibility is realized. For example. it was also attributed quite a few beneficial factors. A clear distinction is made between facts and fiction on one of the most popular foods known to mankind. It should be kept in mind that the values are indicative. a German physician recommended cocoa as a product that: “strengthens the stomach. It cannot be recommended enough both as a food and as a medicine. and one that would not be acceptable today without elaborate support from scientific facts. 3 .CoCoa & ChoColate Manual Health and Nutritional Aspects 1. 73 . It stimulates the working of the brain and eases pain. From that moment on. Water. they bear the name and reputation of that customer. I nd i c ati v e nutritional info r mati o n The nutritional data on cocoa liquor (Table 1 on page 74). In t roduct i o n To the Aztecs. Our products lose their identity as soon as they are incorporated in a customer’s final product. through which the properties of the four elements. They may occasionally show significant variations due to natural fluctuations in the raw material.” Quite a broad statement. cocoa was not only a stimulant. in 1717.

1 mg .CoCoa & ChoColate Manual Table 1: Indicative Nutritional Information on Cocoa Liquor Main components per 100 g Table 2: Indicative Nutritional Information on Cocoa Butter Main components per 100 g fat moisture crude protein theobromine caffeine sugars starch total dietary fiber organic acids ash Minerals 55.0 mg 90 Iu 32 Iu/100g 835 3.E (tocopherol) 17.B2 (riboflavin) 1.2% 0.1 mg .0 g 1.1 g 1000 mg 10 mg 80 mg 300 mg 400 mg <10 mg 18 mg 4 mg 2 mg total fat moisture Fatty acids (%) 99.5 g 6.E (tocopherol): Energy (Atwater system) Energy (Atwater system) kcal kJ kcal from fat kJ from fat Various kcal kJ kcal from fat kJ from fat Various 521 2.9 g 0.7 mg cholesterol cholesterol 74 .A (retinol) 0.u.1 g 0.495 835 3.5% 26./100 mg .01 mg 0.0% 34.9 g 1.925 1.C (ascorbic acid) .0 g 11.5 I.25 mg 0.5 mg 25.495 approx.5 g 16.0% 0.B1 (thiamine) 0.3% 34.180 460 1.5% 3.0% 3. .1 g 3.3 mg .05 mg 0.5% 0.u.6 g 2.5% 35.A (retinol) .1 mg .0 mg saturated monounsaturated polyunsaturated Fatty acid composition (%) potassium sodium calcium magnesium phosphorus chloride iron zinc copper Vitamins palmitic (C16:0) stearic (C18:0) arachidic (C20:0) palmitoleic (C16:1) oleic (C18:1) linoleic (C18:2) others Minerals calcium copper iron magnesium phosphorus potassium Vitamins <50 I.0 mg 20.1 g 61. 3.B3 (niacin) 2.1 g 0.Vitamin B5 <0.5% 1.0 mg .

0 mg <50 Iu 0.0 mg <50 Iu 0.2 g 1g 11.5 mg 201 841 92 384 <1 mg 11 g 4g 22 g 2.0 mg <50 Iu 0.0 mg 4.5g 32.5 Iu 1.0 mg 4.B1 (thiamine) .0 mg <0.1 g 0.0 g 4g 12 g 5000 mg 30 mg 150 mg 550 mg 700 mg 10 mg 35 mg 7.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual Table 3: Indicative Nutritional Information on Various Cocoa Powder Types Non-alkalized Lightly alkalized Strongly alkalized Main components per 100 g per 100 g per 100 g fat moisture crude protein theobromine caffeine sugars starch (complex CHO) total dietary fiber organic acids ash Minerals 11 g 4g 23 g 2.5 Iu 1.0 g 4g 9g 3000 mg 30 mg 150 mg 550 mg 700 mg 10 mg 35 mg 7.0 g 4g 6g 2000 mg 20 mg 150 mg 550 mg 700 mg 10 mg 35 mg 7.5 Iu 4.3 mg 2.1 mg 3.C (ascorbic acid) .1 mg 3.2 g 1g 12.1 mg 0.2 g 1g 11.5 g 32.1 g 0.1 mg 0.E (tocopherol) .A (retinol) .0 mg 206 862 92 384 <1 mg 11 g 4g 22g 2.5 mg 2.5 g 32.1 mg 0.3 mg 2.pantothenic acid Energy (Atwater system) kcal kJ kcal from fat kJ from fat Various cholesterol 75 .1 mg 3.0 mg <0.0 mg 4.B2 (riboflavin) .0 mg <0.B3 (niacin) .1 g 0.5 mg 197 824 92 384 <1 mg potassium sodium calcium magnesium phosphorus chloride iron zinc copper Vitamins .

3% 34.5% 3. good packaging and storage conditions are essential to preventing the take-up of moisture. Proteins are of great nutritional value and have numerous physiological functions. and Transportation of Cocoa Powder. An indicative amino acid pattern of cocoa protein is shown in Table 5. studies including cocoa butter and even chocolate have demonstrated similar neutral effects on blood cholesterol levels. provided the product is stored under proper conditions. (A factor based on the average nitrogen content of vegetable proteins. Proteins Even though about 60% of the fatty acids present in cocoa butter (stearic + palmitic) are characterized as saturated fatty acids. and oleic acid. only traces of cholesterol (approx. proteins are built from amino acids as basic building blocks. Moisture Cocoa powder is hygroscopic. Because cocoa powder is hygroscopic. probably because it forms a complex with certain polyhydroxyphenols (condensed tannins). The fatty acid composition (Table 4) shows that cocoa butter is rich in stearic. palmitic.0% 0. and.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual Fat (cocoa butter) Most commercially available cocoa powders contain between 10 and 24% fat while the 10-12% fat range is the most frequently used.5% against other components that easily evaporate (such as certain organic acids) and disappear from the cocoa powder during the procedure. (See also Module 9: Packaging. In the tables. The method of analysis used to determine the moisture content does not discriminate Proteins are essential constituents of all living cells. The crude protein is calculated from the nitrogen content. do not function the same as other saturated fats in vivo. Stearic acid consumption has not led to increasing levels of blood cholesterol and therefore is characterized as having a neutral effect. and the result is multiplied by 6. 3.5% 34. If a cocoa powder has an excessive level of moisture.) The effect of the alkalization is illustrated by the difference in the indicative amino acid profile of proteins for a natural process and an alkalized cocoa powder. ADM Cocoa’s production and packaging technology ensures that the moisture content of their cocoa powders is typically below 5%. In fact.) Cocoa powder is safe at a moisture content of up to 5%. as a vegetable fat.5% 35% 3. a number of clinical research studies suggest cocoa butter.25. Storage.0 mg/100 g). the total nitrogen as well as the nitrogen originating from the so-called crude proteins and alkaloids are given for cocoa liquor and cocoa powder. Cocoa butter contains specific flavor ingredients. The actual moisture content of cocoa powders is lower than the moisture content found by analysis.5% 61.2% 1. The Kjeldahl method is used to establish the total nitrogen content from which the nitrogen originating from the alkaloids is then subtracted from the total. 76 . antioxidants. Biochemically. (Significant differences in amino acid patterns exist depending on the origin of the cocoa.0% 0. and stearic acid in particular. flavor may deteriorate.) The protein from cocoa powder is low in digestibility. Table 4: Indicative Fatty Acid Composition (%) of Cocoa Butter palmitic acid (C16:0) palmitoleic acid (C16:1) stearic acid (C18:0) oleic acid (C18:1) linoleic acid (C18:2) arachidic acid (C20:0) others saturated monounsaturated polyunsaturated 26.

65 0.05 Sugar and starch Sugars are commonly occurring carbohydrates characterized by the presence of the saccharide group. They play an important role in color formation and 77 .26 0. • It is the official method of the United States Food & Drug Administration (FDA) and the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC).93 0.17 1.75 1.45 0. vegetables.and disaccharides. These are complex aromatic compounds widely found in nature as pigments in flowers.26 1. are the form in which carbohydrates are stored in plants.93 isoleucine leucine lysine methionine cystine phenylalanine tyrosine threonine tryptophan valine arginine histidine alanine aspartic acid glutamic acid glycine proline serine 0. Whenever cocoa products are manufactured from good fermented cocoa beans that are roasted in the correct manner.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual Table 5: Indicative Amino Acid Profile of Cocoa Powder Protein (in g/100 g cocoa powder) Amino acid Non-alkalized Alkalized 0. The quantities of dietary fiber found in a product are largely dependent on the analytical method chosen to determine them.70 0.77 1.77 0.29 0. The starch in cocoa liquor and powder consists of approx. They are a primary source of energy for the human body. and bark.85 0. mono.22 0.lignin Non-structural polysaccharides . During fermentation. Flavonoids Dietary fiber Dietary fiber in cocoa products is the collective term for the structural parts of plant From a nutritional standpoint. They are broken down during digestion.gums .and oligomeric-catechins may be partially polymerized into tannins.32 0. roasting.85 0. and alkalization of the cocoa. Cocoa products consist of a relatively high percentage of these important components.mucilages From the various analytical methods that are published for the determination of dietary fiber. • The method is relatively simple.79 0.pectic substances Structural non-carbohydrate .24 1.94 0. 36% amylose and 64% amylopectin. Starches.cellulose .28 0. In theory.61 0.70 1. It is the modern term for what used to be referred to as “roughage” or “bulk.32 0. it has been established that a diet high in fiber is recommended. Dietary fiber has been found to reduce the risk of cancer in the digestive tract.28 0. tissues that are not or only partly digested.34 0.85 0. ADM Cocoa uses the method developed by Prosky et al.96 3.hemicellulose .83 0.89 1.17 0. they will contain only traces of mono. the most interesting components of cocoa powder are possibly the flavonoids.13 0. as complex polysaccharides.86 1.08 0. fruits. for the following reasons: • It gives an optimal picture of the dietary fiber.10 1.84 3. dietary fiber consists of the following components: Structural polysaccharides .” In recent decades.

It fulfills a role in the synthesis of proteins and the formation of glycogen in the human body. Of those mentioned. this number may rise to 5%. potassium and sodium are of primary importance. sodium hydroxide is often used.) Minerals Methylxanthines Cocoa products contain theobromine. When the ash content of cocoa powder is determined. For instance. This may help explain the long shelf life of cocoa powder and chocolate products. 78 . in cocoa powders in which these darker components are incorporated. In literature.0% to 0. This is important for certain applications. In the U. Depending on the degree of fermentation and the type of cocoa powder. During further processing. In the manufacture of dark brown powders.110 states that 3% of potassium carbonate may be added to cocoa nibs for alkalization.5% respectively. Ash The ash content of cocoa products is the residue after the organic matter has been subject to incineration. the theobromine and caffeine contents will vary from 1. the CFR 163. flavonoids are known to possess antioxidative properties in vitro. in baking. 2%. It indicates a measure of the presence of the inorganic salts in the original material. (The pH of alkalized cocoa powder may drop during storage.5-3. but they represent some 2% of cocoa liquor and 4% of cocoa powder (in non-alkalized cocoa powder as the acids in alkalized cocoa powders as salts). and traces of theophylline. In addition. Despite its close chemical resemblance. reactivity with proteins and peptides increases.5% on fat-free dry matter. organic acids such as acetic and lactic acid are formed. 0. Organic acids In the natural fermentation process of cocoa beans.01% to more than 2%. it is frequently combined with the determination of the alkalinity of the ash. In addition to acetic acid.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual partly influence flavor. 7% potassium carbonate (or equivalent on fat-free dry basis) to be added for alkalization. these are partially converted or volatilized. lactic acid. This can raise the natural sodium content of 0. The natural potassium content of cocoa powder is relatively high at approx. Moreover.S.0% of the fat-free dry material. and citric acid. The EU directive 95/2/EC on food additives other than colors and sweeteners allows max. an increased sodium content may be present.1-0. The minerals shown in the tables on pages 76 and 77 are those for which the greatest interest exists. caffeine. The latter can easily be influenced and is dependent on the production process but also the age. complexes that reduce the digestibility of the protein are created. So. it does have an effect on the characteristics of certain baked products and is a better and more objective parameter than pH.6. cocoa contains a small quantity of oxalic acid (approx. particularly when moisture has been picked up. with the increase of molecular weight. As a result of alkalization with potassium carbonate. As a result. research carried out in connection with the function of cocoa flavanols suggests certain potential preventive effects against a number of chronic conditions including cancer and cardiovascular disease.) The natural ash content of non-alkalized cocoa powder is approx. theobromine does not possess the stimulant effect caffeine has on the human nervous system. The ash content in alkalized cocoa powder is affected by the type and quantity of alkalis that are used in the alkalization process itself. Potassium is generally regarded as beneficial for humans..

• Heat of combustion (H. vitamin A.C. is used as the basis for calculating carbohydrate by difference. then the determination of the carbohydrate content is made according to the following difference method: 100 – (crude protein + fat + insoluble fiber + ash + moisture) (Because insoluble dietary fiber is not digestible. FDA methods for caloric calculations such as Atwater food factors or the general factors: 4 for protein. calculated from total N × 6. Cocoa products are not an important source of vitamins.42 (D.) = % fat × 8.63 (Merrill and Watt)). etc.S.C.83 + % carbohydrate × 1.C. digestive juices. Considering the fact that bomb calorimetry 79 . for example. 4 for carbohydrate. and the B-group vitamins are also low and decline further in alkalized cocoa powder as a result of the alkalizing process. and 9) are used for calculating the caloric value. such as the lining of the intestinal tract. vitamin A is negligible.32 (D. Energy Interest in the caloric value of food products is currently high because of consumers’ sensitivity to diet.) The protein content is.16 (H. In the application of Atwater factors. It is measured as the difference between intake and fecal output. With allowances made for materials not oxidized in the body.) × 4.35 (H.C. of course. The caloric value of cocoa powder is also intrinsically low.) This is the energy released by the complete combustion or oxidation of a food.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual Vitamins Vitamins are naturally occurring organic substances that are essential in very small quantities for the normal functioning of living cells. The caloric values for cocoa liquor and cocoa butter are.37 + % protein × 1. Cocoa powder thus contributes little to a product’s total caloric value and thus has minimal effects on total energy intake. as described by Merrill and Watt. the values are used to indicate energy availability. in this case. with an allowance made for that part of the output not derived from undigested food residues. not crude protein but total nitrogenous matter (obtained by multiplying total nitrogen by 5.C.C. the following should be considered: • Digestibility Coefficient (D.) The digestibility coefficient is a measure of the proportion of a food absorbed into the bloodstream. the following calculation of caloric value is used: % fat × 0. in cocoa butter is an exception.) × 4. As shown. and 9 for fat in calories per gram. There are various methods available to calculate the caloric value of cocoa powder. 4. If the general factors (4.9 (Digestibility Coefficient) × 9. correspondingly higher. the quantity of vitamin C is very low. ADM Cocoa follows accepted U.3 (Heat of Combustion) + % protein × 0. The presence of vitamin E (tocopherol) and to a lesser extent. The amount of cocoa powder in a product is generally low in comparison to.) + % carbohydrate × 0.33 = caloric value In this.25. sugars and fats. • Carbohydrate The proportion of carbohydrate is obtained by means of the so-called difference method: 100 – (crude protein + fat + ash + moisture) • Protein In order to not overestimate the content of carbohydrate. This last calculation leads to higher energy values than the Atwater approach.

Food allergy is caused by an overreaction of the immune system. a wide range of different raw materials is used in an almost endless variety of consumer products.g. as an antigen. many children seem to outgrow their hypersensitivity. it was concluded that chocolate allergy is rare in adults. eczema. this figure is about 5%. It is of paramount importance that the food manufacturer properly labels the products (e. C ocoa a n d al l e rgi e s Food allergy is a phenomenon vastly misunderstood by the general public. however. even 80 . In some cases. the American Academy of Allergy. More often than not. the Atwater system for the energy values are shown in Tables 1-3 on pages 74 and 75. and taking into account recently published information on the lower digestibility of fat-free dry cocoa components. Nevertheless. Clinical tests have been carried out on a group of adults suspected of allergic reactions to chocolate. Asthma. It identifies a harmless substance. For example. whereas in reality. In chocolate and cocoa-flavored products. To fend off the “invader. Chocolate is often mentioned as being allergenic. and Immunology has found that as many as one-third of American adults believe they are allergic to at least one food.” antibodies are produced that ultimately lead to symptoms of allergic diseases like asthma. For children. From the test results. in trace amounts) to give the consumer the opportunity to select a food on the basis of the presence of possible allergens. food allergies must have the undivided attention of the food and confectionery industries. the reactions can be very serious and even life threatening. the presence of nuts. it must be seen in the light of the above-mentioned gap between perception and reality. and hay fever. less than 2% of Americans actually have a true food allergy. often a particular protein. 4.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual measurements compare well with the results of the Atwater calculations.

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This is the case with cocoa liquor. From country to country. In the U..111 as the solid or semi-plastic food prepared by grinding cocoa nibs (which can be alkalized). Although cocoa liquor is sometimes used as a flavoring component in other food products. sometimes cocoa paste. it is referred to as unsweetened chocolate. Within the scope of this chapter. and in the United States. It is also often called cocoa mass. but in Codex Standard 141-1983. Legislators have left it up to the 83 . the definition may vary somewhat. 1-2001. while others are mentioned Most countries provide a definition of cocoa liquor in their food laws. It was the cocoa press industry that introduced the name “cocoa liquor.” The European Directive 2000/36/EC relating to cocoa and chocolate products does not contain a definition of cocoa liquor.” As this industry today supplies the bulk of this raw material to the merchant market. cocoa liquor is described in CFR 163. cocoa mass or liquor is described as “the product obtained from cocoa nib from cocoa beans of merchantable quality which have been cleaned and freed from shell as thoroughly as is technically possible (with/without roasting and with/without removal of or addition of any of its constituents). However. A number of these attributes are highlighted as they relate to quality aspects of the end-product. Rev. whereas in milk chocolate. Typical Chocolate Recipes Dark chocolate Milk chocolate 45% 10% 25% 20% 7 because they are important to the user of liquor in the chocolate production process itself. chocolate liquor. In the context of this book. Dark chocolate is basically a mixture of liquor.” Sugar Cocoa liquor Cocoa butter Full cream milk powder 50% 45% 5% - Standard of identity In combination with the chocolate manufacturing process. It is not uncommon to use different words for the same product or raw material. each of these components has a specific influence on the final characteristics of the chocolate product. we believe that the name “cocoa liquor” has become more familiar to the cocoa and chocolate industry as compared to other industries.75% shell based on alkalifree nibs and containing 50-60% cocoa fat content. It is also the base raw material for making chocolate. we have chosen to refer to this product as “cocoa liquor” or simply “liquor. No other ingredient in the chocolate formula has such an impact on the ultimate outcome of the product as cocoa liquor. milk powder has also been added. cocoa liquor is always the dominant factor in determining the chocolate experience of the consumer. and cocoa butter. or simply chocolate. Fu n c t i o na l i t y a n d at t rib ut e s o f c o c oa li quor Introduction Cocoa liquor is the product from which cocoa butter and cocoa powder are made.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual Cocoa Liquor 1. allowing a maximum of 1. we focus particularly on the attributes of cocoa liquor as a raw material for chocolate. its principal use is as an ingredient in the manufacturing of chocolate.S. sugar.

can result in a whole range of flavors. and unique house flavor. the subject of how the flavor in cocoa liquor is developed. which retains the natural fat content of the cocoa nib. and crop management. Cocoa bean selection In Module 1. Grenada. Costa Rica. Ecuador. max. Cocoa beans from the following countries are designated as fine or flavor beans: Dominican Republic. Indonesia (Java). the age of the trees. Whole bean roasting. In addition. In some countries. Among the short-term effects are climatological aspects and crop handling. Obviously. as both short. Some chocolate manufacturers emphasize to the consumer that their products are made of a particular cocoa bean origin. soil conditions.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual chocolate maker to decide in what stage of the production process the roasting takes place. aiming at a special market position. Surinam. nib roasting. Sri Lanka. it is almost inevitable to directly deal with its prime application: the making of chocolate. mechanically processed to a paste. the cocoa liquor determines the personality of the chocolate. Jamaica. Therefore. Vincent. During recent years we have seen significant changes in the availability of certain types of cocoa beans. and Trinidad & Tobago. recognizable. choosing a particular type of bean to be used for cocoa liquor is of paramount importance. Samoa. Lucia. and Venezuela. 5% shell and max. In short. The flavor of cocoa liquor is dependent on three very distinct and equally important factors: • the type of cocoa bean used (generic background and growing conditions) • the flavor precursor development in the bean during fermentation and drying. Papua New Guinea. St. thereby tailoring to the specific flavor needs of each individual customer. St. It plays such a predominant role in determining the ultimate flavor of the chocolate that it is justified to extensively dwell on 84 . Madagascar. the final product may be called fine grade chocolate (Edelschokolade in German). However. an important aspect in the marketing of chocolate is that if a certain percentage of the cocoa liquor used is made from so-called fine or flavor beans. that specific flavor has to be reproduced time and again to assure that the customer receives what is expected: that typical. The Federation of Cocoa Commerce (FCC) defines cocoa mass or liquor as obtained from cocoa nib (roasted or unroasted. or liquor roasting can be used. 10% ash. in combination with proper processing. Differing cocoa bean types and beans from different origins each have their own flavor potential. both on a fat-free dry basis). selection of sound and well-fermented beans of most origins. Sao Tomé & Principe. the various types of beans with their specific characteristics were discussed. This does not mean simply specifying the origin of the bean. Industrial The personality of chocolate When discussing cocoa liquor. Longer-term factors are the genetic history of the bean. as well as the first steps in further handling • the flavor formation during subsequent processing Bean type and bean quality are major factors in determining the flavor characteristics of the final product.and long-term influences have an impact on the flavor potential. Subsequent processing can be further influenced by the choice of equipment and by varying the processing conditions. all of which must be taken into account. The International Cocoa Organization (ICCO) listed in the International Cocoa Agreement of 1993 certain cocoa bean origins as flavor beans (Edelkakao in German). in particular fermentation and subsequent drying of the beans. from the following countries only a portion of the cocoa export may be called fine or flavor beans: Colombia.

If subsequently the cocoa liquor is subjected to a thin film treatment. there are fewer and fewer true Arriba-yielding trees. Nib contact roasters and whole bean roasters are recommended for processing the fine flavor beans and for low and medium roasting of West African beans. Malaysian bean production rose rapidly in the late ‘80s. the privatization of the cocoa trade in some countries of origin). and adequately dried cocoa beans will lead to good quality cocoa liquor. The two most commonly used roasters are: • contact roaster. an air nib roaster is the better system. Similar examples can be found in other cocoa growing areas. from whole bean roasting to nib roasting. if full-bodied chocolate flavors with pronounced cocoa and bitter notes and lower acidity and astringency are required. They will ultimately come to their full flavor during roasting. in which batches of cocoa nibs are heated in a large rotating drum • continuous air roasters. and thin film techniques for even better homogenous roasting. resulting in quite different types of liquor. producer of the unrivaled Arriba beans.g. as well as direct control over bean quality. only ripened. Even the best starting material will fail to deliver its potential if it has not been treated correctly. Processing equipment Cocoa processing has progressively developed over the years. a process whereby the astringent and acid notes are significantly reduced. special steps to reduce the overall plate count. The initial stages of pretreatment of the beans prior to roasting. good fermented. Having resources and an actual presence in the major cocoa growing areas not only assures that ADM Cocoa is able to procure the cocoa needed to produce the desired products. Many production systems are available. This can be even further accentuated by pretreatment of the nibs. Both methods are very adequate and can produce similar but also distinctly different types of cocoa liquor. 85 . will influence the precursor formation as well. moisture content. Nib contact roasters and whole bean roasters are particularly suitable for delicate top-note flavors that mark the bouquet and richness of cocoa. but the flavor potential of the beans coming from the various regions is vastly different. Obviously. whereby cocoa beans or nibs are roasted by direct contact with hot air Some prefer liquor from whole bean roasting. during which they are wetted and heat treated to reduce the plate count. At the same time. others prefer nib-roasted liquor.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual processors have had to adjust to a 50% drop in the supply of Brazilian cocoa. making direct control over the selection of beans even more important. the flavor precursors are developed. as a substantial part is unfermented. only to fall back again in the ‘90s. They are being replaced by hybrids that yield a far higher bean production per acre but lack the unique flavor of the original Arriba cocoa. Air roasters are excellent for West African cocoas that require full development of their typical cocoa and bitter potential (See Figures 1-4). During fermentation and subsequent drying of the cocoa beans. ADM Cocoa has established itself on every cocoa-growing continent. as discussed in Module 4. the conching time of the chocolate can also be reduced considerably (See Figure 5). Temperature. For that reason. The Ivory Coast has increased its output to more than 40% of the total world crop. the cocoa trade itself has experienced important changes (e. Crop management is another factor: In Ecuador. but also enables participation in rapidly changing local cocoa environments. and air throughput are very different in both types of equipment. Indonesia has shown a tremendous increase in cocoa production. On the other hand.

The ultimately desired chocolate flavor may vary considerably.5 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 53 0 Time (minutes) Moisture Temperature Figure 2 T  F I D A R  N Flavor Index (–) 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Figure 4 T  F I D C R  N Flavor Index (–) 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 5 10 12. the conching process allows some of the natural volatile flavoring components that do not have a favorable effect on the taste of the chocolate to escape. Flavor To be able to determine the flavor profile of a cocoa liquor. earthy. and less favorable ones such as astringency and acidity. Off-notes are classified separately under descriptors like burnt.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual In the manufacturing of chocolate. with and without subsequent thin film treatment. the best can be brought out of each of the different bean origins and particular bean blends. ADM Cocoa produces a range of liquors. bouquet.5 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 53 Temperature (˚C) 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 40 Temperature (˚C) 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Time (minutes) Flavor Index Temperature Air temperature 125°C Time (minutes) Flavor Index Temperature 86 . By combining them in the appropriate manner. smoky. six different descriptors have been defined: favorable ones like cocoa. hammy. bitterness. Each of the different types of equipment has specific features. not only from manufacturer to manufacturer but also regionally. and richness/ body. Some consumers prefer a Figure 1 T  M C D A R  N Moisture (%) 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Figure 3 T  M C D C R  N Moisture (%) 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Temperature (˚C) 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 40 Temperature (˚C) 120 100 80 60 40 20 Time (minutes) Moisture Temperature Air temperature 125°C 0 5 0 1 12. and woody. moldy.

a Cocoa Liquor Processing Methods Cocoa Beans Whole Bean Roasting Breaking and Winnowing Grinding Breaking and Winnowing Nib Roasting Grinding Thin Layer Treatment Liquor Liquor Thin Layer Treatment Treated Liquor Treated Liquor 87 . Principle Component Analysis uses biplots to determine the flavor profile. based on four differently processed cocoa liquors made from the same blend of West African main crop cocoa beans. An example. By means of these groups of variables (dimensions). whereas others prefer a mild flavor like that of milk chocolate. The information contained in the variables is reduced by grouping the most important variables on the basis of their inter-related connection. is given in Figure 6.5 2 1.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual Figure 5 F I  M C D T F T  L Flavor Index (–) 25 20 15 10 5 0 Input After After 1st homogenizing column After 2nd column Moisture (%) 2.5 1 0. Principle Component Analysis is a method used to easily gain insight into the complex connections between many variables. such as in the case of a sensoric analysis.5 0 After 3rd column Flavor Index Moisture Content robust flavor.

3 1.Medium roast Type 3 . whereas the length of the line indicates the significance of the variable. known for its unique bouquet. In Figure 7.full roast + thin film treatment Type 4 .3 Astringency Type 1 Type 4 Bitterness -0. the rich palette of different flavor characteristics can be enlarged.3 Full/Rich 0. The variables in the graph are indicated as lines.9 horizon axis: Component 1 Vertical axis: Component 2 Type 1 . Clearly. The angle between two lines indicates the degree to which the variables are inter-related.3 Acidity Type 2 1.7 Cocoa Flavor Type 3 Bouquet -1. each produced under similar conditions and made from cocoa from the same source.3 2.7 0. very different flavor profiles can be obtained to meet the needs of the individual chocolate maker.7 -2. and nutty top notes Figure 6: Principle Component Analysis of Four Cocoa Liquor Types Based on the Same Bean Blend of West African Origin 2. with flowery. The placing of the products in the graph emphasizes the variables applicable to that product. the flavor profiles for four different cocoa liquors are shown. As can be deduced from the biplot. from low roast. thin to fully roasted cocoas.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual graph can be drawn to show the essential information of all the data. In order to be meaningful. however.7 -1.3 2. honey.full roast 88 .7 . the two dimensions shown in the graph must explain the greater part of the variation. the typical flavor aspects come forward: • Arriba. When using different cocoa bean sources.low roast + thin film treatment Type 2 .0.

but this difference mostly disappears after roasting.4 -0.6 -1. known for its full chocolate flavor Color The roasting process of good fermented beans renders a characteristic brown color to the cocoa liquor. with its characteristic cheesy.9 0.1 2. A low-roasted liquor will have a slightly lighter color compared to a highroasted liquor.4 *Sumatra Astringency Bitterness *Venezuela *Ghana Cocoa Flavor Full/Rich Acidity Bouquet *Arriba 1. Some bean types.4 1 0.4 -0. The color of Criollo beans is somewhat lighter than the Forasteros’ color. these color differences will not be very distinctive. and they not only enable the manufacturer to produce a chocolate with typical value-added top flavor and color notes. are substantially lighter in color compared to others.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual F : P C A  V C 1. 89 .6 horizon axis: Component 1 Horizontal axis: Component Vertical axis: Component 2 Vertical axis: Component 2 • Venezuela. nutty bitterness • Sumatra. both the applied technology and the chocolate formula make it possible to influence the color of the end-product.9 1. with its extreme acidity and astringency • Ghana.4 0. however.6 2. the so-called light breaking beans such as from Java and from Madagascar. Cocoa liquor contributes a significant amount of cocoa butter to the chocolate formula.1 -0. Thus. In chocolate.6 1. Both of these bean types are classified as fine flavor beans. Fat content Usually. but they may also call their chocolate fine-grade chocolate (Edelschokolade) in the European Union. so using cocoa liquor favorably affects the total raw material cost of the chocolate. Differing roasting conditions may lead to color differentiation in the liquor. cocoa butter is the most expensive ingredient in the chocolate recipe.

an optimum fineness and particle size distribution of the cocoa liquor. and the physical form of the product. In Figure 8. the fat is released. Significant fluctuations in fat content will lead to differences in the consistency of the chocolate mass. is changed into a paste. later on. This will cause problems with respect to the particle size distribution after refining. Fiber material is difficult to disintegrate. usually on a five-roller refiner. requiring continuous adjustment of the roller refiners. The same goes for Asian types such as Java beans. however. increasing the specific surface of the fat free matter exponentially. the influence of the fineness on the viscosity of a West African cocoa liquor is demonstrated. thereby creating the opposite result. Criollos such as Ecuadorian and Venezuelan beans usually have a somewhat lower fat content. still be released during the refining stage of the process. Seasonal effects. in the chocolate. Fineness Cocoa liquor as an ingredient is ground again during the production of chocolate. further disintegration of the particles will take place on the roller refining equipment. the fineness of the cocoa liquor itself is of paramount importance in the production of chocolate: • the availability of free fat • the maintenance cost of roller refiners 90 . In particular. it also causes significant wear on equipment. the cocoa butter is encapsulated in the plant cells. the fat content of the nib usually varies between 50 and 57%. The fat can. Cocoa liquor made from good quality main crop bulk beans from West African countries such as Ghana. problems may arise during chocolate production. If the fat content of the liquor fluctuates too much. and Nigeria have a cocoa butter content higher than 54% of the dry matter. Maintenance cost The fat-free dry matter of cocoa liquor consists mostly of fibrous material. Repair or maintenance of such refiners is costly. Ivory Coast. may cause the fat content to fluctuate. The resulting liquor should normally have a butter content of 50%. but this may lead to extra slip of the upper rollers. Therefore. then to undesirable extra fine particles in the chocolate. as the result of which the desired viscosity of the chocolate is not reached. It is therefore necessary to keep the fat content of the cocoa liquor as constant as possible. If too many very fine particles are present. During the grinding of the nib into cocoa liquor. above 35° C (95° F). such as the amount of rainfall. the viscosity of the liquor would increase as well. the five-roller refiner is subjected to this wear. Small beans contain proportionately less fat and more shell compared to large beans. the fat will not be released and thus will not be available to participate in the continuous phase in the cocoa liquor and. It should be noted that adverse climatic and growing conditions have a direct negative influence on the butter content of the bean. the impression could mistakenly arise that the fineness of cocoa liquor is of secondary importance. and main crop beans have a higher fat content than mid-crop beans. For two reasons. Free fat In the nib. There is.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual Depending on the bean origin and its quality. of course. In cases where the cocoa liquor being processed is too coarse. leading to excessive wear. In case the plant cells remain intact. It would be optimal if all of the cocoa butter in the liquor were already present as free fat in the kneader. The difference between an adequate and an insufficient fineness of cocoa liquor can lead to a difference in terms of downtime of the refiner of a factor 4 to 5. The grinding of cocoa liquor demands not only a vast amount of energy.

000 2. and the shear forces to which the liquor is subjected during production. are also of importance. However.95 99.000 5. regardless of whether these ingredients will be subjected to an adequate reduction of microorganisms 91 . with minimal fat content.S 8.000 1. these particles will appear in the chocolate as separate specks.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual Figure 8: Influence of the Fineness on the Viscosity of a West African Cocoa Liquor Viscosity in mPa. this can only be done if the cocoa liquor is sufficiently fine.000 6.0% 97. the time and intensity of processing. Other factors. part of the liquor has to be added in the conching stage. Certainly.73% 99.000 0 90.000 7.97% 99. all ingredients to be used in food products should be of excellent microbiological quality.95% 99. as the total fat content would be too high to pass through the refiners without causing problems.99% Fineness in % through 75µm Furthermore. one can safely conclude that the lower the viscosity of the cocoa liquor. both the fat content and the fineness of the cocoa liquor have a direct influence on the viscosity of the product. the better the rheological properties in the chocolate.73% 99. From this. If the cocoa liquor contains too many coarse particles. however.000 3. such as the moisture content. in chocolate recipes with very high liquor contents.000 4. Rheology Microbiology Obviously.

however. This normally will not occur in cocoa liquor and chocolate. part of the cocoa liquor must be directly added to the Lipase activity and cocoa liquor Enzyme activity forms an integral part of live seeds. it is important to adhere strictly to specified maximum plate counts and understand the end product applications involved. Furthermore. this mass can no longer be fed over the roller refiners. the harsher flavor components. A chocolate product that is perceived as too bitter can be corrected by using cocoa liquor with a milder flavor. strong rancid notes will become apparent. it is worth noting that short chain fatty acids in particular produce strong off-flavors at very low concentrations. if lipase catalyzes the hydrolysis of butter fat. Hydrolization of fats (triglycerides) produces free fatty acids and di. Quite a large number of spices and herbs have been described in literature as enhancing the overall chocolate flavor. In coarser material (>25μm). pathogenic organisms such as Salmonellae can survive in the fat medium of both these products. Relatively small variations may have a significant influence on that balance. For instance. when lipase is introduced to lauric fats such as coconut oil and sufficient water is available. Similarly. can be used in combination with other products in which microbial growth conditions are favorable. the lighter its color will be. chocolate with a high liquor content is very finely ground. to a large extent. When the high amount of cocoa liquor causes the fat content of the chocolate mass to become too high. The fineness of chocolate is an important factor in both the color and the flavor of the product. In such a case. Supporting flavor ingredients such as vanillin are often instrumental in rounding off the total flavor impression. The resulting soapy flavor is caused by the lauric acids formed. but in products such as ice cream coatings and filled chocolates (bonbons). the fatty acid liberating lipase enzyme is undesirable in most food products. As a rule. 92 . saponification may occur. Although not prominent in cocoa fat. and the chocolate made from that liquor. can often also be achieved by merely increasing the sweetness of the product. Thus. conditions may be appropriate for enzymatic activity. The degree of roasting as well as the origin of the cocoa can change the perception of the bitterness of the cocoa liquor substantially. The water activity of cocoa liquor and chocolate is usually too low to permit growth of microorganisms. In particular. when lauric fats are associated with chocolate product formulations. Therefore.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual during further processing into a finished product. In a similar way. a chocolate product that is found to be too sweet can be harmoniously balanced without having to reduce the sugar content by adding a somewhat stronger-flavored cocoa liquor. like bitterness. The flavor experience of such a product will also be more rounded and more harmonious. lipase-free ingredients should be used. cocoa liquor. The finer the chocolate. will come forward in a more pronounced manner.and monoglycerides. the result of a balance between the sweetness of sugar and the bitterness of the cocoa liquor. it is no longer sufficient for a supplier to specify only a maximum plate count for a particular food ingredient. Such a correction. and the cocoa bean is no exception to this. The a ppli c ati o n o f cocoa liquor Chocolate The overall taste perception of chocolate is. On the other hand. 2. Similarly. This is particularly true for chocolate with a median particle size (<18μm).

but at the point of discharge. The conditions to which the liquor is subjected during the press operation lead to a certain loss of the typical chocolate flavor notes in the resulting cocoa powder. 3. a tank has to be cleaned. it is also not necessary to clean them. it is then a matter of weighing the chocolate flavor against the flavor of cocoa powder. Notably. s t o r ag e and t ran s p o r tat i o n Cocoa liquor as a rule is used in liquid form. They need not be made of stainless steel. This can only be done if the liquor has a sufficient fineness. an intermittent scraping/stirring device is installed to keep the liquor moving during the entire storage time and protect it from overheating and settling. Adding a proportionate amount of cocoa butter to cocoa powder will not provide a comparable flavor to the flavor produced from cocoa liquor. though only in modest amounts. the use of cocoa liquor is sometimes preferred over that of cocoa powder. the temperature should not be below 45° C (113° F). the alternative ingredient could instead be the thin film pre-treated cocoa liquor. depending on the distance. the quicker this will happen). This may especially occur near the manhole or the lid of the tank. Still. Steam heating should be avoided. dry tanks that are exclusively used for food-grade products and that have proper insulation. Usually. cocoa liquor is also used in other applications. If cocoa powder is not able to give an adequate chocolate flavor in a particular end-product. and desserts.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual conching equipment. for whatever reason. Packagin g . During transport. and consequently. the temperature of the liquor may drop somewhat. chocolate drinks. the inside must be completely dried and rinsed with cocoa butter before it is put in use again. In order to avoid settling on the bottom part of the tank and prevent the liquor from separating. Cocoa liquor is a very stable product. Cocoa liquor is a dispersion of very fine particles in cocoa butter. 93 . in Europe. In other parts of the world. for prolonged optimal storage in liquid form. Usually. under stirring. When it is stored in tanks. these particles will settle to the bottom of the tank (the lower the viscosity. chocolate must indeed be the ingredient used. between 40°-45° C (104°-113° F). odor-free. then either chocolate or cocoa liquor can replace it. If. it is advisable to keep the temperature of the product. Transportation must take place in clean. Other applications Apart from chocolate. Special care must also be taken to prevent condensation in the storage tank. by a jacket. These should be properly insulated or traced. which resembles the flavor of a liquor that has been subjected to a conching treatment. or by an internal hot water spiral. it is necessary to stir the liquor regularly. it can be supplied in cartons in solid blocks of 25 kg or in kibbled form in bags of 25 kg. As long as the tanks are used properly and regularly. In that case. the use of the word “chocolate” seems to be of lesser importance. Large users accept the product in tank trucks in liquid form as soon as this is logistically feasible. Designating tanks for the exclusive storage of cocoa liquor is recommended. causing after-roasting. as this may raise the contact temperatures too high. ice cream coatings. labeling a product “made with real chocolate” is a strong consumer marketing tool. When cocoa liquor cannot be received in liquid form. bakery products. Loading temperature of the cocoa liquor should be between 55°-65° C (131°-149° F). Storage tanks can be heated by hot air in a hot room where the tank is located. In ice cream.

use warm water rather than steam. the liquor must be protected against direct sunlight and other heat radiation sources during transportation. coli in 1 g Salmonellae up to standard 50-51% or 52-54% or 54-56% 5. 5. determined with the company’s standard methods of analysis (shown in Module 3). Standard Specification Flavor Fat content. During melting of the liquor. Temperature fluctuations should be avoided. extraction with petroleum ether pH Fineness (%).0 min. (or up to 25. Cocoa liquor is a product with a high fat content—about 50% of it is cocoa butter. 4.000 max. In the spirals of the melting tank. S p e c i f i c at i o n f o r cocoa li q u o r The standard specification of a natural-process (non-alkalized) cocoa liquor is based on West African cocoa beans and applies to an average sample of a consignment leaving the production plant. as the product will quickly absorb these.3-6. as this would raise the contact temperature too high. negative negative negative 94 . Like all high fat products. dry (RH <50%).000 max. 75μm sieve. water-suspension Moisture content (%) Standard plate count Molds per g Yeasts per g Molds and yeast per g Enterobacteriaceae (Coliforms in the US) in 1g E. be sure no undesirable odors are directly exposed to the cocoa liquor.5 max. 100 max. Store in cool (15°-20° C/59°-68° F). During storage. cocoa liquor easily absorbs foreign odors.) 50 max. 50 max. (or micrometer fineness 10-12) 1.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual In solid form. it is best if temperature does not exceed 60° C (140° F). dark conditions.0 99.

CoCoa & ChoColate Manual 95 .

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75% on alkali-free nibs). Rev. resulting in max. Particularly. often with whole beans or nibs with high shell content and only subjected to further processing similar to Press Cocoa Butter Press Cocoa Butter Other Types of Cocoa Butter • Refined Cocoa Butter. The Codex Standard (Codex Stan 86-81.75% of free fatty acids (FFA) • reduction of shell content in the cocoa nibs (max. cocoa cake. 97 . 8 but it is described in CFR 163. or cocoa dust. for instance. In 1847. but some legislators have gone one step further by stipulating that cocoa butter can only be made from cocoa beans. right from the beginning. recognize four defined types or quality grades of cocoa butter: • Press Cocoa Butter. It seems logical that cocoa butter is made from cocoa beans. • 0. degumming and/ or deodorizing. 1-2001) and the European Directive 2000/36/EC.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual Cocoa Butter 1. 0. define the standard of cocoa butter in almost identical wording. 1. and bleaching Based on these factors. it is debatable whether chocolate as we know it today would ever have come into existence. of the Federation of Cocoa Commerce (FCC). Fu n c t i o na l i t y a n d at t rib ut e s o f c o c oa bu t t e r Introduction If it had not been for John Fry. cocoa nibs.35% unsaponifiables in press cocoa butter but in max. cocoa liquor.g. Current legal definitions around the world are very similar. and it was here to stay. In other words: from nothing else. obtained by means of mechanical pressing of cleaned and ground cocoa nibs and subsequently only filtered/centrifuged and degummed and/or deodorized • Expeller Cocoa Butter. obtained by expelling or pressing. Probably no other edible fat available at the time would have produced a consumer product that. obtained by the expeller process. e.112 as the cocoa fat removed from ground cocoa nibs. the functional properties of cocoa butter in the initial recipe made it possible to formulate the chocolate into a product with the specific characteristics that it still has today. Therefore. cocoa butter is not separately defined. some legislation and several trade contracts on cocoa butter. This module deals with the functionalities and attributes of cocoa butter in its almost sole application: the manufacture of chocolate. proved to possess such commercial staying power globally. subjected to the same Standard of identity Cocoa butter is one of the most expensive commodity-based vegetable fats available. Relevant factors for cocoa butter and its production are: • use of sound cocoa beans to obtain cocoa butter with max. his discovery seems like a relatively simple matter today. he discovered one of the confectionery industry’s greatest inventions by adding cocoa butter to a mixture of cocoa liquor and sugar. Chocolate was born. 1. it is not surprising that over the years legislators have been very particular in defining its standard of identity. In the USA. Cocoa butter was the key to John Fry’s chocolate invention.7% unsaponifiables in expeller and refined cocoa butter (larger portion of shell) • processing like filtering and/or centrifuging. neutralization. Like many inventions.

we will exclusively deal with the standard of the press cocoa butter. the less volatile flavor components of cocoa 98 . Flavor The flavor of cocoa butter should be investigated from two different angles: its own typical flavor characteristics and its flavor stability. the term “natural cocoa butter” is used for cocoa butter that has not been subjected to a deodorization step. creamy flavor. This is defined as fat obtained in any way from part of the cocoa bean that does not necessarily conform to one of the above definitions. fully deodorized butter might be used. so it has the full cocoa butter flavor. By far. mostly because they are often made from subgrade cocoa beans or extracted from cocoa waste material. Flavor characteristics After the roasting and alkalizing steps. fully deodorized cocoa butter is often used. However. therefore. the flavor contribution of cocoa butter is acceptable. depending on flavor profile target and customer preferences. cocoa butter intrinsically incorporates all of the typical cocoa flavor elements. which contains much smaller quantities of cocoa liquor in combination with higher quantities of cocoa butter and has a flavor profile that usually avoids strong and bitter notes. have a distinct cocoa flavor. A taste panel can help establish to what degree of deodorization the cocoa butter should be subjected in order to obtain the desired flavor profile. and neutralized and bleached (refined) Analytical criteria have been defined for the various types of cocoa butter: Cocoa Fat forms a separate category. cocoa butter can be fully or partially deodorized. The flavor intensity of cocoa butter can be managed by subjecting it to a deodorizing treatment. The Rostagno Aroma Index can be used as an instrumental aid in establishing the extent of deodorization. partially or nondeodorized butter may be preferred. For adults. most cocoa butter today is made from alkalized cocoa liquor. • In creamy milk chocolate. Cocoa butter made from alkalized liquor has a somewhat stronger flavor than butter obtained from non-alkalized liquor. Sometimes the term “natural cocoa butter” describes the cocoa butter from non-alkalized (natural) cocoa liquor. Fully deodorized butter has hardly any cocoa flavor of its own. who expect a cocoa flavor experience. The other types are generally considered to be somewhat lower standard.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual treatments as Expeller Cocoa Butter. the bitter and specific cocoa flavor components are accentuated in this type of cocoa butter. Depending on the required flavor intensity. who expect a smooth. and usually press cocoa butter is set as the standard. It will. Most often. In this module. whereas nondeodorized butter absorbs the cocoa flavor components released during the roasting process. which contains a relatively high amount of cocoa liquor and a proportionately lower amount of cocoa butter. • In white chocolate. The chocolate industry is almost the sole user of cocoa butter. cocoa butter is deodorized by means of a light treatment with steam under vacuum. Particularly. The degree of deodorizing is determined by the flavor intensity the cocoa butter user requires: • In dark chocolate. fully or partially deodorized cocoa butter is normally used. which contains no cocoa liquor at all. As this treatment is very mild. In contrast with other refined oils and fats. Both aspects are dealt with in this module. the type of cocoa butter will heavily depend on flavor profile and customer targets. For children.

In addition. More stringent conditions could trigger interesterification of the butter. Fat oxidation leads to a variety of offflavors which. By far. In the food industry. Too-stringent deodorization reduces the tocopherol level. Under “Hardness” on page 103. with the larger part (170 mg/kg) consisting of gamma tocopherol and the remainder being alpha and delta tocopherol (15 mg/ kg each). Table 1: Rancimat Test at 100° C (212° F) Cocoa Butter Vegetable Oils 50 6 20 29 11 180 174 43 45 17 3 Canola Oil Olive Oil Peanut Oil Soybean Oil Vegetable Fats Coconut Oil Hydrogenated Soybean Oil Palm Oil Palm Kernel Oil Animal Fats Butter Oil Lard The reason for the high stability is twofold: • By nature. which allows for structural protection. the Rancimat test is often used for establishing the oxidation stability of oils and fats. almost all unsaturated fatty acids are located on the 2.and 3. In Table 1. • Cocoa is a rich source of antioxidants. although cocoa butter is one of the most stable lipids in comparison with other fats and oils. would be lost due to interesterification.position and the saturated fatty acid on the 1. are not removed. This is detrimental to the hardness and the crystallization properties of the cocoa butter. cocoa is rich in flavonoids.position of the triacylglycerides. Just over one-third of all fatty acids present in the triacylglycerols are unsaturated. the composition and structure of cocoa butter give it outstanding protection. Only about 10% of the unsaturated fatty acids is polyunsaturated linoleic acid. These substances have attracted attention 99 . The well-known tocopherols are found in cocoa butter. A typical analysis shows that cocoa butter contains about 200 mg/kg tocopherols. The longer the incubation time the more stable the product will be. The sensitivity for oxidation can be measured in several ways. are usually referred to as rancidity. Flavor stability Like any fat.positions. a comparison is given for a Rancimat test carried out at 100° C (212° F) on a number of natural and processed oils and fats.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual butter can still be detected even if it is fully deodorized. which are sensitive issues for cocoa butter users. the natural antioxidants present in the cocoa butter. cocoa butter can deteriorate. This can also happen to cocoa butter. The main reason for a mild steam treatment lies in the need to maintain the optimal functional properties of the cocoa butter. the largest part is oleic acid. in combination. whereas the very unstable linolenic acid is virtually absent. with the unsaturated oleic acid on the 2. we discuss this subject in more detail. tocopherols. causing the fatty acids to be more randomly distributed. The unique triacylglycerol composition of the butter. Also. In addition. resulting in reduced stability.

6. the oxidation can also be sensorically detected (rancidity). normally the red color is measured. In contrast with most other vegetable and animal fats. These are present in cocoa butter (chlorophyll derivatives) as well as in the milk constituents (riboflavines).CoCoa & ChoColate Manual lately because of their radical quenching properties and their effectiveness in retarding the oxidation process. will remain mainly in the solid phase (cocoa powder). however. In order to establish oxidative deterioration.and 3-positions of the glycerol molecule. quickly becomes softer when the temperature is raised. its color should be clear and may not contain any solid particles. Because cocoa butter is made up of about 80% of these three molecules. When white chocolate is exposed to UV light. either in suspended form or as a sediment. For white chocolate. (See Module 3: Methods of Analysis. and in this respect the color influence from the butter is negligible. and POP (P=palmitic acid. Turbidity of fat may be caused by contamination with moisture. It is important that liquid cocoa butter is completely clear and shows no particles. as otherwise the chocolate tends to become too dark yellow. It is therefore important to protect cocoa butter and white chocolate from direct UV sources such as sunlight. As the color gradually disappears and the bleaching effect becomes noticeable. however. SOS. perhaps because of their polar character. the peroxide value determination is sometimes used. (See Module 3: Methods of Analysis. 100 . the yellow color will disappear. this should immediately be corrected to avoid problems in the production process. with the unsaturated oleic acid mainly located on the 2-position and the saturated palmitic and stearic acid on the 1. However. cocoa butter is a unique fat.5° F). its behavior at a phase transition resembles that of a pure chemical substance: The fat is almost entirely solid up to 27. one exception: white chocolate. Color and opacity Cocoa butter has an ivory color in solid form and is yellowish in liquid form. S=stearic acid). as many oxidative products such as n-hexanal show a much lower detection level than those that can be determined. There is. the color of cocoa butter does have its impact as well. Flavonoids.) This test. and their positive influence is hardly conveyed to the cocoa butter. O=oleic acid. Although here the color of the milk components is dominant. The brown color of the fat-free dry cocoa constituents determines the color of the chocolate. cocoa butter consists of mainly three triacylglycerol molecules: POS. An experienced taste panel proves to be a very reliable means to detect taste and flavor deviations and is often much more sensitive to these deviations than existing instrumental techniques. Color is usually measured by means of a Lovibond tintometer. The uniqueness of these three molecules is that they strongly resemble each other. however.5° C (81. The red color varies between 1 and 3. In the manufacturing of chocolate. and is entirely liquid above 34° C (93° F). Hardness Due to its typical chemical composition. after having standardized the yellow color on 40 in a 1-inch cell. it is an indication as to whether proper processing conditions have been applied. In liquid form. Clearness of the cocoa butter is of no significance for chocolate.) For cocoa butter. it is desirable to limit the red color to a maximum of 1. In most cases the color of cocoa butter is not relevant with regard to the color of the chocolate made from it. This bleaching effect occurs due to photooxidation of the photo-sensibilizers. often lacks accuracy.

monounsaturated = SUS/SSU. and Table 3 illustrates the differences and variations in monounsaturated (SUS/SSU) triacylglycerols by country of origin. Penetration and snap tests on chocolate confirm these differences between the various origins. for example.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual The group of symmetric triacylglycerols is often indicated with the letters SUS. From the aforementioned chemical (triacylglycerol) differences. Table 2 shows the different types of triacylglycerols (trisaturated = SSS. Table 5 shows the differences and variations in amounts (content) of solid fats (SFC) found in cocoa butters from the same bean origin. From these data. the variation in iodine values between the various cocoa bean origins is indicated. proves to be an effective parameter for the hardness of cocoa butter. Unsaturated fatty acids in fats can be determined by means of the Iodine Value. the physical T  O C B  C  T Malaysia Ivory Coast Ghana Cameroon Brazil 0 20 sss sus 40 ssu suu 60 usu 80 uuu 100 Contents (%) 101 . measured at 30° C (86° F).) In Table 4. Methods of Analysis. meaning saturated-unsaturated-saturated triacylglycerol. disaturated = SUU/USU and triunsaturated = UUU) in cocoa butters from various origins. This indirect method. it can be concluded that butter from Malaysian beans is harder than butter from Brazil and that butter from West African beans is somewhere in between these two. Amore direct method for determining the hardness is to determine the amount of solid fats present in the cocoa butter. (See Module 3. The variations that can be observed for Brazilian beans are mainly due to the significant fluctuations in temperature between the summer and winter seasons in this region. These tables show that Malaysian cocoa butter contains substantially lower quantities of unsaturated triacylglycerol molecules (SUU/UUU) and much higher quantities of monounsaturated molecules (SUS). defining the Iodine Value. This explains why cocoa butter made from Malaysian beans is much harder than cocoa butter made from Brazilian beans.

CoCoa & ChoColate Manual T  O C B  M T Malaysia Ivory Coast Ghana Cameroon Brazil 60 70 80 SUS (%) 90 100 Average Low High T  O C B  I V Malaysia Ivory Coast Ghana Cameroon Brazil 30 35 Iodine Value Average Low High 40 45 102 .

cocoa butter with a low Iodine Value does not necessarily lead to a harder chocolate. With this method. and the temperature of the chocolate is registered with a temperature sensor. There are two important reasons for this: • It is essential that the cocoa butter is brought into the correct and stable crystal structure. (See page 107 under “Solidification behavior. Understanding what type of softening is occurring and how to overcome or cope with it. These can have a major influence on the ultimate hardness and handling characteristics of the chocolate. can be measured by means of a tempermeter. the chocolate starts to solidify. indicating the quantity of stable crystals that have been formed. When the temperature is low enough. Due to the crystallization heat. compared to butter with a medium Iodine Value.”) An example of the effects of the various tempering methods on the hardness of chocolate is given in Table 6. Initially. like dairy fat and possibly oils from added hazelnuts or almonds. a certain amount of liquid chocolate is cooled under specific conditions. T  O C B  S F C Malaysia Ivory Coast Ghana Cameroon Brazil 20% 40% 30% 50% SFC (%) at 30° C (86° F) 60% 70% Average Low High 103 . can be an important product performance consideration. fats other than cocoa butter. • In chocolate recipes.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual differences in the hardness of cocoa butter have been explained. The degree of tempering. the temperature will drop linearly. However. Tempering—measured by means of a tempermeter The tempering process is one of the most important steps in the manufacturing of chocolate. the temperature of the chocolate will change. are often introduced.

3° F) Soft Brazil 104 .0 Ivory Coast Malaysia Origin of Cocoa Butter Optimal tempering When chocolate is tempered properly. As a substantial part of the phase transition (from liquid to solid) has taken place before the chocolate reaches the mold. thus making fewer stable seeding crystals available. Over tempering Chocolate can also contain too many stable seeding crystals.5° C (79. A distinct increase in temperature can be observed at the beginning of the crystallization. leading to demolding problems at the end of the process. in turn.7° F) Tempering 27.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual T  H  M C E  C B  T 1. as more liquid fat has to be transformed into the solid form. Only when the liquid cocoa butter is transformed into solid crystals will the temperature of the chocolate drop further. The higher the re-crystallization speed.8 0. Crystallization is a process whereby time and temperature are important factors. more crystallization heat will develop during cooling. and it often leads to demolding and fat bloom problems because insufficient stable crystals were present during the cooling of the end-product. the smaller the crystals will become. It will decline again after reaching a maximum.4 0. and more crystals will be formed.0 0.6 0. less contraction will occur in the mold. Under tempering If the chocolate is insufficiently tempered or not tempered at all.6 1. This will be perceptible in the rheology of the chocolate. This phenomenon is called under-tempered chocolate. The number of crystals is. important for the speed with which Hardness at 18° C (64° F) (MN/M2) Tempering 26. They are determinants with regard to the speed of crystallization.4° C (81. less liquid fat is available for pumping the product.2 1.4 1. its temperature will remain more or less constant for some time during cooling. This type of chocolate will release little crystallization heat during cooling. rendering a rather flat cooling curve. Because a significant part of the liquid fat has been withdrawn from the continuous phase of the chocolate and is now transformed to the solid form.2 0. The released crystallization heat is then balanced by an equal amount of cooling energy.

3 148. The density in which the fat crystals are packed and the ultimate crystallization form vary by crystal type. By maintaining the temperature below the melting point of the stable crystal form. This is referred to as polymorphism. All cocoa butters. the triacylglycerols can freely rotate around their axis.9) 27. the product (chocolate) is being seeded with stable crystals. These are the basis of the crystal structure that will be formed during subsequent cooling. regardless of origin. usually by means of a scraped surface heat exchanger. but a part will re-crystallize into the stable form. The completely liquefied chocolate is cooled.3 (63.0) 36. so that part of the fat crystallizes into unstable crystals.9 (93. the temperature is raised. In the case of cocoa butter. are given. Between the forms I + II and V + VI lie the metastable forms III and IV. To be able to make stable end-products. so that most of these crystals will liquefy again. This can be achieved by a process called tempering. the cocoa butter must assume the crystalline form V. The conversion from liquid into solid form is a critical step in the chocolate production process that not only determines the quality and the shelf life of the end-product but also requires capital investments in tempering and cooling equipment.7 the chocolate will solidify. demonstrate this polymorphic behavior.5 (81.0 137. This form requires the most heat to convert from the solid to the liquid form and is indicated for cocoa butter as forms V and VI.5) 33. In their least-stable form.9) 25.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual Table 7: Polymorphy of Crystals of Cocoa Butter Form X-Ray Pattern Heat of Fusion kJ/mol Melting Point °C (°F) 17. Very little heat is required to bring them back to their liquid form.3 (73. Small crystals are preferred. In Table 7. The most stable form is the one where the fat molecules are most densely packed and structured in such a way that the least space exists between them.3) double double double double triple triple Chain Packing I II III IV V VI Y  b' b' b b unknown 85. Subsequently.0 118. on the basis of the characterization of Wille and Luton (1966). the six forms. Solidification behavior For the application of cocoa butter in chocolate.3 (97.1) 23. resulting in poor packing of the crystals.5 113. 105 .5 (77. whereas the size of the crystals influences the final gloss and hardness of the endproduct. at least six crystal forms (I-VI) can be distinguished. the solidification behavior of cocoa butter is its most important functional property. A number of factors have to be taken into account with regard to the solidification behavior of cocoa butter: • the polymorphic crystallization properties • influence of the cocoa bean origin • influence of alkalization • influence of deodorization Polymorphic crystallization properties Some fats can solidify in various crystal forms that have different melting points.

the -crystals start to form. In general. it can therefore be said that the mild alkalization process. Cocoa butter is cooled to 25° C (77° F). and roasted/alkalized cocoa have been compared. When the line reaches its minimum. Other methods. In Table 8 on page 107. Influence of deodorization The effect of deodorization on the flavor of cocoa butter has already been discussed. can give a good indication of that transition. Due to the released crystallization heat. roasted. The increase in temperature between the minimum and the maximum temperature in degrees Celsius. has no negative impact on the properties and characteristics of the cocoa butter. In Figure 1. the analytical results are given. like the viscosimetric cooling curve. When the line deviates from the cooling line at a temperature of about 20° C (68° F). Though slight differences can be noticed in the analytical data. The impact of alkalization on cocoa butter has been demonstrated in a study in which raw. The required time to reach a certain viscosity is a good indication for the crystallization behavior. divided by the time in minutes between both points (T/t). Influence of alkalization Alkalization of cocoa is an important step in influencing both flavor and color of the solid parts of the cocoa bean: cocoa powder. At this stage a lot of crystallization heat is generated. whereby recrystallization occurs into the more stable crystal modifications. if properly carried out. and subsequently the increase in viscosity in the fat over time is followed at that temperature. the -crystals re-crystallize into the more stable b'-modifications. the curve clearly demonstrates when the cocoa butter begins to crystallize. these differences appear to be of minor influence.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual F  S C C  C B 35 30 25 20 15 5 Temperature (° C) dT/dt 25 45 65 85 105 125 145 165 Time (Minutes) Methods to measure solidification characteristics The Shukoff test is often used to determine the solidification characteristics of cocoa butter. the temperature increases to a maximum. 106 . allows such a curve to be expressed in a number. comparing cocoa butters from a single bean origin.

20 40.60 40. higher volume compared to its solidified form.0 39.0 Shukoff DT/Dt Viscosimetric (min. the amount of fat available determines the ultimate rheology Table 9: Cocoa Butters Effect of Deodorization Before After 1.0 % ffa % Diglycerides Oxyd.21 39.position.60 41.28 0. However.18 51.or 3.) Melting Curve 0. a stronger deodorization might be necessary.19 43.0 0.0 % SFC (pNMR) 30° C (86˚ F) 39.0 % ffa % Diglycerides % Sat. Because fat is the continuous phase.0 Shukoff DT/Dt Viscosimetric (min. The crystal modification is also of importance: The stable b-crystal form in cocoa butter has 1.Effect of Alkalization and Roasting Raw Beans Roasted Beans 1.0 39.Stab. Its principle is based on the fact that liquefied fat has a 39. The characteristics of cocoa butter before and after deodorizing have been investigated and are shown in Table 9.29 0. Fatty Acids 2 pos. at 120°C/248˚F) Cooling Curves 1. If the symmetric molecule triacylglycerol is transformed into an asymmetric molecule with the unsaturated fatty acid on the 1. the crystallization behavior and the hardness of the cocoa butter have hardly changed.5 times more contraction property as compared to the α-form.Stab. (hrs.12 1. other than the flavor.) Melting curve % SFC (pNMR) 30°C (86˚F) 0. with potential impact on color and crystallization behavior.0 0.8 107 .98 1.0 Contraction Contraction is an important parameter in the manufacture of chocolate.7 39.90 41.95 39. at 120°C/248˚F) Cooling Curves 1.93 41. Rheology In the processing of chocolate.18 39.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual Table 8: Cocoa Butters .23 0. when processing high-ffa cocoa beans.03 1. (hrs. It can therefore safely be assumed that deodorization carried out under controlled conditions has no negative influence on the properties of cocoa butter. notably when demolding the product. rheology plays an important role.95 1. the hardness and the crystallization behavior of the cocoa butter can be significantly influenced.6 It was also mentioned that a possible negative influence could be expected due to acyl migration.0 Alkalized and Roasted 1. A minimal decrease in ffa (free fatty acids) can be noticed. Oxyd.0 0.18 0. However.

Light is then very well reflected. Gloss and shelf-life stability Cocoa butter. larger crystals will be formed.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual of the chocolate in liquid form. is very visible. uncontrolled re-crystallization • fat migration due to other oils and fats. The dispersed dry matter in chocolate—sugar. and butter from one particular origin is not better or worse than butter from another origin. In addition. because of the dark background. When fat crystals re-crystallize under uncontrolled conditions. A picture of a bloomed chocolate surface is shown on page 109. Gloss stability depends on the degree to which the fat crystals are stable.and α'-crystals into large α-crystals • melting of stable α-crystals followed by slow. or any other fat in liquid form. is largely responsible for the gloss of the end-product. the phenomenon of fat bloom occurs. Cocoa butter crystallizes into very small (1-2μm) crystals. Gloss on white chocolate is therefore hardly noticeable. from nuts or from the enrobed Electron scan microscopy of smooth chocolate 108 . the quantity of cocoa butter used is minimized and adapted to a required rheology. resulting in a smooth surface. behaves similarly. due to slow re-crystallization of still present α. e. The type of cocoa butter has no influence on the rheology. These cause the background color against which the gloss is visible. If these crystals are large enough that they can be seen with the naked eye. or the fat phase in chocolate. contact with the smooth surface of the mold enhances the gloss impression even more. whereas the gloss on dark chocolate.g. which is usually a slow process. Cocoa butter. and dry fat-free milk solids—do not contribute to the gloss. Fat bloom can be caused by: • inadequate tempering. As cocoa butter is usually the most expensive ingredient in the chocolate recipe. dry fat-free cocoa constituents.

The lowest overall fat content 109 . When mistakes are made in moisture management. It should be noted that certain forms of fat bloom seem to manifest themselves easier and faster in very hard fat systems as compared to softer fat systems. The unattractive. only a limited quantity of cocoa butter is added. The a ppli c ati o n o f cocoa butter Chocolate production There are two ways in which cocoa butter finds its way into chocolate: as a raw material and as part of the cocoa liquor. the added butter quantity forms the main part of the overall fat content. sugar bloom can occur: re-crystallization of sugar crystals at the surface of the chocolate. the ultimate application of the chocolate itself dictates the rheological requirements. The amount of butter used in the chocolate recipe depends on the sensory requirements. One wellknown contributing factor is storage under fluctuating temperatures. notably the fineness and the desired flavor. This means that in dark chocolate. whereas in milk chocolate. When a chocolate product shows fat bloom. it is often thought that its quality has deteriorated due to mold growth.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual Electron scan microscopy of bloomed chocolate center migrating to the surface of the chocolate It is beyond the scope of this module to dwell extensively on this subject. not all bloom is fat bloom. grayish discoloration contributes to this perception. 2 . for example. Particularly. About half of the cocoa liquor consists of cocoa butter. Finally. however. The occurrence of fat bloom. as well as on the rheology needed during processing of the chocolate. cocoa butter has nothing to do with this. the quality of the product is not affected. Apart from the unattractive appearance. is likely due to the causes described. Obviously.

Today. the use of cocoa butter in suppositories has diminished. Also its high oxidative stability makes the use of cocoa butter favorable. that is. Cocoa butter is a product of nature with its own unique properties. Chocolate for shell products.7° F). Cocoa butter is defined in several pharmacopoeia under descriptions like cocoa butter (USP 1990. Usually. more and more synthetic glycerides are used in this application. also the fat from the added milk constituents. Typical fat contents for products like panning centers. enrobing. Pac k ag i ng . It should be kept in mind that total fat contents are mentioned here. cocoa butter competes with other vegetable oils and fats that are usually lower priced. Because the pharmaceutical industry requires different melting behavior. the total of the added cocoa butter. and the quantities involved are limited. liquid texture that can easily migrate through the chocolate enrobing. properly insulated tank containers or tank cars in liquid form. fat contents of between 40 and 50% are used. Administering a medicine rectally provides an alternative to oral and intravenous options. chips. Usually.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual is found in extruded and molded chocolate. For a long time. sto r ag e a nd tr a nspo r tati o n Cocoa butter is mostly stored in tanks and transported in special. For very thin enrobing purposes and coatings for dipping ice cream bars. JAP 1991). soap. the temperature should not have fallen below 40° C (104° F). the texture may be regulated from soft to cuttable or extrudable. the fat from nuts like hazelnuts or almonds should be taken into account. PhNed 8). At the point of discharge. reducing eutectics and other problems to a minimum. even higher fat contents are required. and fat migration may be diminished. depending on the destination and the transition time. 1992. cocoa butter has been used in suppositories. and panning has an intermediate fat content between 30 and 40%. a range of crystallization times. including unavoidable. The oil from the nuts gives the filling a very soft.6° C (99. Cocoa butter is very well suited for this purpose as it liquefies evenly and completely within 15 minutes at a body temperature of 37. In addition. and absorption of water-soluble medicines. Other applications Confectionery fillings In the chocolate and confectionery industry. 110 . and for spraying applications. The advantage of cocoa butter is its complete compatibility with the chocolate that surrounds the filling. and shampoo should largely be seen as a marketing tool. the butter is loaded at temperatures from 60°-75° C (140°-167° F). During transport the temperature will drop about 2°-5° C (4°-9° F) per day depending on the outside temperature. In the application of fillings. and chunks vary between 24 and 28% and for solid chocolate bars between 27 and 31%. 3. This limits the use of cocoa butter in this application to only products that are catered to the higher-priced market segment. The use of cocoa butter in skin creams. natural fluctuations. and Theobroma Oil (BRIT 1998). refined cocoa butter is used for these applications. Cacao oleum (DAB 10. Usually. and in the case of milk and white chocolate. the cocoa butter from the cocoa liquor. rather than an actual functional property. including cocoa and milk products. roasted nuts like almonds and hazelnuts are ground and blended with sugar and other ingredients. quite a tradition exists for high-quality fillings. By adding cocoa butter. This limits the transport time to about one week.

chemicals. Care should be taken that no air is trapped in the cocoa butter due to malfunctioning pumps. for example. it is important that the product is not subjected to excessive heat. usually in cartons of 25kg (55 lbs. The 111 .45 1. They must only be used for food-grade products. the shelf life is at least 12 months.15 0. If cocoa butter is stored under dry (RH 40-70%). Fats are known to quickly pick up volatile matters like odors from their surroundings. herbs. the cocoa butter is packed in solid form.30 1. cleaning agents. Steam heating is not to be advised because of its high contact temperature. Stainless steel melting grids. Liquid butter should be kept at temperatures of 40°-45° C (104°-113° F). If bulk shipping is not possible.00 0. Vertical storage tanks are therefore preferred over horizontal ones. are recommended.50 1. heated by water up to 90° C (194° F).10 0. cool (<20° C/<68° F). Paint. The cartons are stacked on a pallet and shrink wrapped.35 1. and other flavoring substances should not be stored in the direct vicinity of cocoa butter. high contact temperatures should be avoided.40 1.) that contain a polyethylene inner bag. preferably in a stainless steel or coated tank. When liquefying solid cocoa butter.25 Free fatty acids regression Peroxide value (meq/kg) Free Fatty Acid Content (%) Peroxide Value (meq 02/kg) Free fatty acids (%) 0. The tank can best be heated by means of a warm water spiral or jacket. as are piping and an adequate thermostat tracing system. spices.20 Moisture Content (%) Tank cars should be operated under very strict conditions. and a certificate should indicate that the tanker has been cleaned and properly dried prior to loading. and dark conditions. Heating by means of hot air in the tank storage room is also an option. During transportation.55 1.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual F :2: Effect M  C Butter During Storage Figure E of Moisture on Cocoa B D S F F Acid Content and Peroxide Value After 42 Days at 80° C Free Fatty A C  P V A  D  ° C 1. Exposure to air or oxygen should be avoided as much as possible.05 0. It is therefore very important that both during transport and subsequent storage cocoa butter does not come into contact with strong-smelling products.

). If cocoa butter is kept in storage for too long. which have a catalytic effect.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual tanks can best be filled from underneath. after washing with alkali Saponification Value Peroxide Value Color (yellow + red) 1. rather than letting the butter fall from the top. care should be taken that fresh cocoa butter is not continuously being added to butter that has been stored for some time. must be excluded from the processing equipment (piping.75 max. Metals and alloys like copper and bronze. Therefore. it is good practice to completely empty the tank on a regular basis. a first-grade inert gas free from oxygen is used. when blanketing.35 max. liquid cocoa butter can withstand a storage time of two months without any problem. 0. Finally. This is why it is important that. seals. pumps.05 max 0. This specification applies to an average sample of a consignment leaving the production plant. Furthermore. determined with the company’s standard methods of analysis shown in Module 3. etc. This will drive out the oxygen. 33-40 1. Specification of Typical deZaan TM Pure Prime Pressed Cocoa Butter Acidity (%) Iodine Value Refractive Index nD(40° C/104˚ F) Clear Point (°C/˚F) Blue Value Unsaponifiables (%) Absorbance (270 nm). air contact can be diminished by leaking an inert gas like nitrogen through the cocoa butter.0/max. creating optimal storage conditions for cocoa butter. 40 + 1.0 112 . catalytic reactions can deteriorate the quality of the tank.14 max. min. 40 + 2. Spec i fi c ati o n o f c o c oa bu tter The specification of a typical deZaanTM pure prime pressed cocoa butter based on West African cocoa beans is shown below. 192-197 4 max. 4.458 32-35/90-95 0.456-1. The cocoa butters are available as deodorized or partly deodorized butters with controlled flavor strength. Under optimal conditions as described above. Even small amounts of oxygen can initiate the oxidation process.

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CoCoa & ChoColate Manual

Cocoa Powder
1. Fu n c t i o na l i t y a n d at t rib ut e s o f c o c oa po w de r
Introduction
The two most prominent attributes of cocoa powder are its abilities to give color and flavor to a wide variety of food products. In many instances, the consumer will directly associate brown color with chocolate flavor, and the darker the color, the stronger the flavor expectation will be. These two attributes of cocoa powder in a food product formulation are only part of the story. Other aspects such as fineness, fat content, pH, and alkalinity may have an important functional impact on the endproduct in which the powder is used. Manufacturing parameters and other ingredients in the formula may distinctly influence the overall performance of cocoa powder in the final product as well. The structure of a cake, the smoothness of a pudding, the whipability of a cream, and the viscosity of a syrup may in part be determined by the type of cocoa powder used. In addition, cocoa powder may function as an antioxidative agent in many product recipes, thereby having a positive effect on the shelf life of these products. The advantage of cocoa powder as a flavoring and coloring agent is that many types are available, differing not only in color shades and flavor profiles, but also in other aspects that make them suitable for use in just about any food system, including foods with virtually no fat content. So when choosing a cocoa powder for a specific product application, it is important to carefully determine which functionalities and attributes of the cocoa powder are to be priorities. A dark-colored, lightly flavored chocolate pudding is bound to disappoint the consumer, as will a homemade brownie

9
that does not have the right texture or a chocolate milk beverage in which the cocoa powder has formed a difficult-to-disperse sediment on the bottom of the container. In the next paragraphs a number of these functional aspects of cocoa powder will be discussed.

Standard of identity

Many countries have defined cocoa powder in their food laws. Depending on when these food laws were initiated and the prevailing chemical and physical analytical capabilities, as well as the process and technical advancements, these laws may differ on essential elements. In many instances, a differentiation exists between the product definition of cocoa powder and the legal specification of the product. At the beginning of the 20th century, it was not technically possible to mechanically press the cocoa liquor into cocoa cake with a fat content below 20%. Hence, the standard of identity for cocoa powder in some countries indicates that the name “cocoa powder” is exclusively reserved for a product containing a minimum of 20% cocoa butter. Any powder with a lower fat content must be declared as low-fat cocoa, strongly reduced-fat cocoa, or a similar description. And some countries specify the fat content to be calculated on dry matter, whereas others require it to be calculated on the basis of a maximum moisture content.

115

In Figure 1. and acridity. It goes beyond the scope of this module to discuss the multitude of differences in the various existing food laws. the flavor profile can be described as ranging from mild chocolate-like to a very pronounced. • Non-alkalized cocoa powders have an acidic. also called Dutch-process. are indicated. the differences in flavor. Many of the acids naturally present in the cocoa bean are still present in the powder after processing. and even packaging. Descriptions such as “chocolate” or “chocolate-flavored” are in many countries reserved for products that actually contain chocolate. in combination with the roasting process. extraneous matter. somewhat astringent flavor with a typical chocolate note. Depending on the degree of alkalization. Flavor is a characteristic that is very difficult to describe.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual Relevant Regulations Form Low-fat cocoa powder Reduced-fat cocoa powder < 20% fat <10% fat <10% fat 10-<20% fat Cocoa 20% fat or more 10-<22 % fat 20% fat or more Breakfast cocoa EU: Directive 2000/36/EC USA: 21 CFR 163 Codex Stan. Alkalization. These two types have their own very specific flavor profiles. The use of cocoa powder as an ingredient in a consumer product may also have an influence on how that product may or may not be labeled. disregarding whether or not these descriptions comply with the food laws of a particular country with respect to the fat content of the product. • In alkalized cocoa powders. Rev. the raw materials used. It is a precisely defined treatment of the cocoa solids with an alkaline solution such as potassium carbonate. whereas in others these terms are allowed to be used for products made with cocoa powder containing a certain minimum percentage of cocoa butter. strong cocoa flavor. into two basic types: non-alkalized or natural-process cocoa powders and alkalized. the product specifications and labeling requirements. powders. allows the cocoa manufacturer to directly influence both the flavor and the color of the final product.1-2001 22% fat or more In this module we will use the descriptions “cocoa powder” as well as “high-fat” and “low-fat” for practical purposes only. This illustrates the complexity of only one aspect of the standard of identity of cocoa powder: the matter of the fat content. cocoa. 1051981. Roasting is the principle step in the production process that can influence the development of the final flavor. expressed in acidity. bitterness. alkalization partially neutralizes the acids present in cocoa and reduces the astringency. Many more rules and regulations exist in different countries concerning the permitted production processes. The descriptions used in this book can best be read when Flavor Range of cocoa flavors The range of deZaanTM cocoa powders available from ADM Cocoa can be divided 116 .

the following should be kept in mind. Flavor and Flavor Development. a human being can only participate in sensory evaluation adequately when the circumstances are 117 . Today’s consumer is probably more responsive to the flavor of food than ever before.) Flavor and consistency Because the consumer expects a specific product with consistent flavor characteristics. As the flavor of cocoa powder is one of the primary reasons for its use in confectionery and other food products and is judged and defined by a person’s capacity for sensing flavors. • When cocoa powders in chocolate milk drinks are compared.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual 6 5 4 3 2 1 F : F P C P  D A D Acidity Cocoa Bitterness Acridity 0 Nonalkalized Lightly alkalized Medium alkalized Strongly alkalized “red” Strongly alkalized “black” comparing and contrasting them with each other. a cocoa powder meant for ice cream should be tested in ice cream. The circumstances in which sensory evaluation should be carried out can be compared with those for a musical instrument: Just like an instrument can only function at its best when the circumstances are also at their best. texture affects the taste perception. • Cocoa powders meant for cakes should be tested in cakes because other ingredients can interact with the cocoa powder. Because the medium in which a cocoa powder is tasted has a substantial effect on the final flavor. Here. the drinks should have equal viscosity. it is wise to carry out comparative sensory tests on the effects of a powder on a newly formulated food product itself. consistency in flavor is one of the most important aspects. Also. The food manufacturer has therefore never been more dependent on the consumer’s flavor preference. the raw materials supplier seeks to deliver ingredients that are able to provide this to the manufacturer. For example: • The temperature at which a final product is consumed affects its flavor. (See Module 4. In this respect. the sensory evaluation process plays a critical role in today’s food manufacturing. Testing should always be carried out at the eating temperature of the product. as a drink’s viscosity has great influence on the taste perception. In other words. the sensory evaluation process plays a key role. Guidance on tasting When testing cocoa powders for a new product or reformulating an existing product.

N-11-N 100-NP-11 130-SP-11 200-DP-11 D-11-DQ D-11-GR D-11-A 250-DP-11 D-11-V D-11-MC D-11-MR D-11-S 300-DP-11 D-11-DL D-11-CK 350-DP-11 354-DP-11 420-DP-11 D-11-CE 490-DP-11 D-11-SB 500-DP-11 Color Matrix 118 . therefore. ADM Cocoa has developed the technology and has the expertise to limit such variations. The development of cocoa flavor is dealt with in Module 4. Because most consumers can detect very slight differences in color in the red-brown sector of the visible spectrum. and fluctuations in flavor are. However. The flavor of cocoa powder is the primary reason the product is used in confectionery and foodstuffs. unavoidable.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual right. It carries a whole range of conscious and subconscious associations that affect sensory perception and thus appreciation. This means allowing for complete concentration by the sensory evaluation participants without risks of distraction or external influences. Color is one of the first messages the brain receives in making a sensory judgment on a consumer product. Cocoa is a product of nature. Flavor and Flavor Development. Color The color essential The color of food products is a factor of critical importance to consumers and thus to food manufacturers. differences in the color of cocoa-flavored and chocolate products can be easily detected.

The consistency of a product’s color is also important to a food manufacturer. which. This is strongly influenced by an optical effect in which the fat on the solid particles affects the light absorption. Appearance Cocoa powder contains naturally occurring colorants. while intrinsically almost colorless. does not affect 119 .CoCoa & ChoColate Manual The sample on the left contains 11% less fat as compared to the sample of the same powder type on the right. Non-alkalized cocoa powders usually have a light brown color. Cocoa powder is one of the primary colorants used in the food industry today. When cocoa powder is subjected to temperature fluctuations. nevertheless affects the color of the powder. most of which have been influenced in the alkalizing and roasting stages of the production process. This can be achieved by rapid cooling and tempering. Dark colors suggest a strong flavor. When evaluating the color of cocoa powder it is therefore important to distinguish the two ways in which color manifests itself: external color and intrinsic color. Color variation between batches may create the impression of inconsistent production and quality control. discoloration will occur due to a change in the crystalline form of the cocoa butter. External (“dry”) color The color of cocoa powder as such is the socalled external or dry color. The crystallization form of the cocoa butter in the solid particles determines the strength of this optical effect. This discoloration. Light colors suggest a mellow or bland flavor. whereas alkalized powders may vary from light reddishbrown to very dark red-brown. The color of a product containing cocoa has always been an indicator of taste due to the relationship between color. The higher the fat content of the powder. Precise control of alkalizing and roasting allows optimum hue and color intensity of the powder to be obtained after grinding the nib and pressing. and the consequent flavor modifications. however. Slow cooling or rapid cooling without tempering will result in larger crystals that impart a greyish hue to the cocoa powder. cocoa powder also contains a certain amount of cocoa butter. (See Color Matrix. the quantity of cocoa.) However. The crystals should be small and in the stable form. because it reinforces the image of constant product quality. the degree of alkalization. the darker the external color will appear to be.

CoCoa & ChoColate Manual 120 .

the external color of the powder is only of importance when the final product is used as powder. to light and dark brown to almost black. while the vertical axis represents the lightness or intensity of the colors. The cocoa powder Color Matrix gives an idea of the color range of powders available from ADM Cocoa. This is the reason why deZaanTM cocoa powders are standardized on intrinsic color. In most finished products. The matrix only includes types with a fat content of 10-12% and is based on the colors of the powders in dry form. it is possible to perfectly match client color requirements. The Color Matrix (see page 118) depicts only a limited number of cocoa powder types. They are part of the wide range of the De Zaan cocoa powders available from ADM Cocoa. Coatings based on lauric fats. Therefore. for instance. products with a low concentration of cocoa powder are lighter in color. For example. the desired final color of the food product. such as flavor or texture. For such cases. the external color of cocoa powder no longer plays a role. each required tint can be consistently produced. is seen. A very dark lauric coating could be 121 .CoCoa & ChoColate Manual the quality of the product nor the intrinsic color in any way. A powder is selected by formulators and recipe experts according to the application requirements and naturally. should contain only a limited concentration of cocoa butter in order to prevent fat bloom. The color of the food product depends not only on the type of cocoa powder used. and only the true color. the color range of the matrix is only indicative. but also on certain other factors: • The other ingredients that are present in addition to cocoa powder also influence the color. • The higher the concentration of cocoa powder. milk powder tends to “dilute” a brown cocoa color. It is not possible to reproduce in print the true brilliance of cocoa powders. Another phenomenon: Chocolate milk made with skim milk has a darker color than with whole milk. Obviously. In some circumstances. Their decision is also a function of the other qualities they wish to impart to a product. a darker cocoa can be used to change or intensify the flavor as well. The color of chocolate milk is clearly influenced by the presence of milk fat. Color matching The production processes at ADM Cocoa are designed so that within the limits from light brown and red-brown to very dark brown. like in the case of truffles. The horizontal axis depicts the actual color changes from red to brown. Utilizing powders as color boosters. Influence of cocoa color on the final product The deZaanTM powders cover a range of colors from red-brown to yellow-brown. a light cocoa powder can be replaced by a darker powder without increasing its concentration. A product that contains cocoa together with milk powder has a lighter color than the same product without milk powder. As such. the more intense the color of the final product will be. • There are also technical reasons that might favor low concentrations of cocoa powder. Intrinsic color The intrinsic color of cocoa powder is the color that the product made with the powder will ultimately have. Different pulverizing and tempering equipment and conditions (within or between locations) may also result in more external color variation. The selection of a cocoa powder for its coloring capabilities should be based on evaluation of the color of the final product. the dry color may also be specified. the intrinsic color. As a result of this great flexibility in the process.

Factors that have an influence on such products include: • The particle size of the other ingredients. Depending on the pressing time and the setting of the press. the dry. • The method and extent of agglomeration. The above applies to all products in which the intrinsic color of cocoa is important.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual made with a high percentage of light cocoa powder but with the risk of fat bloom. the flavor of cocoa butter can have a significant effect. a correction should be made for the difference in fat-free dry cocoa matter between the two. However. it does contain specific flavor ingredients. there are other factors that are important for defining color in dry products.”) This can be of particular interest for applications such as truffles and dry mixes in which the dry color is of importance. This has an obvious effect on processed sugar products. A cocoa-containing product that has been whipped so that it contains trapped air has a lighter color than a product that has not been aerated. while the 10-12% fat range is the most widely used. There are various systems available to agglomerate cocoacontaining powders. On the other hand. softer flavor. However. therefore some tolerance is necessary. • The structure of the product. It is technically not possible to press exactly to a specific percentage of cocoa butter. the resulting cocoa cake may have a fat content varying between 8 and 24%. Cocoa butter constitutes about half the weight of the cocoa nib. Both affect the surface of the dry matter in particular. therefore. The latter. (See page 124 under “Color. both the colors of the other ingredients and the concentration of the cocoa powder determine the color of the final product. Crystal sugar has a different surface structure than finely ground sugar. appears whiter than the former. Fat content 122 . as cocoa powder does. The importance of the fat content of cocoa powder with regard to its dry color has already been mentioned. while in white chocolate and milk chocolate. The indicative composition that high-fat cocoa powder contains fewer coloring and flavoring constituents on an equal weight basis. Partly dissolved sugars as well as emulsifiers can play an important role in the agglomeration process. Fat also masks both the bitter element of cocoa as well as the sour element. It contributes to an overall rich mouthfeel in a number of products such as mousse and ice cream. An alternative would be to use a darker cocoa powder at a lower concentration. A product in which cocoa powder has been mixed with a finely ground ingredient made of small particles will have a different coloration from one containing a more coarsely ground ingredient. causing the external color to be darker. this should be as narrow as possible and it is generally specified with a margin of ±1. Examples include ice cream and mousse.0%. This fat is partially removed from the cocoa liquor by means of mechanical pressure as high as 450 kg/cm2. • The surface structure of a component such as sugar. rendering a more chocolate-like. and also in part to powder products in which the dry color of the cocoa powder is evident. if the color and flavor intensity of the end product should remain the same. When low-fat and high-fat powders are exchanged in a formula. Although cocoa butter has hardly any flavor of itself. external color of high-fat powder is substantially darker and more brilliant compared to low-fat cocoa powders. For dry products. Most commercially available cocoa powders contain 10-24% fat.

as a higher cocoa butter content has a negative influence on the gloss retention of these coatings. proper tempering of the cocoa powder is an important processing step.0 and 6. Due to the lower fat content. Higher pH levels may also decompose some vitamins. Fine powders also show less tendency to settle out in liquid products. as well as on the viscosity of products such as syrups.0. This may have an effect on the product in which the powder is used. of course. both for the dry color and for avoiding lump formation. but also for products in which the presence of fat should be avoided for technical reasons. is higher at a low pH. and it can be observed that this slight acidity contributes to the typical chocolate. The added alkalis not only influence the pH of the cocoa powder but also raise its alkalinity and ash content. such as aerated products like a meringue or an angel food cake. very finely ground cocoa powder has a positive effect on the color intensity of the end-product. the 10-12% fat powders are less susceptible to lumping and are more free flowing. Also. which suggests the recommendation of low pH powders if foam development is an important feature of the final product such as in milk shakes. In some specific cases. a Complicated Product. In some product formulas it is desirable to keep the fat content as low as possible. the smaller the individual particles and the greater the surface area of the powder will be. The products in which it is processed mostly have a buffering capacity. These powders are therefore better suited for products like vending mixes. The stability of foam. The variation in pH can be controlled to a certain extent by blending certain types of cocoa beans. for low calorie diet products. but cake grinding can also have an effect. For many applications. In most applications the fineness of cocoa powder is of major importance. In our technical information bulletins Cocoa Powders in Bakery Applications. The finer the powder. This is particularly the The fineness of cocoa powder is usually determined in the liquor grinding phase of the production process. however. Fineness pH and alkalinity The pH of non-alkalized cocoa powder is dependent on the acidic components of the cocoa beans from which the powder has been made.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual Indicative Composition of Cocoa Powder (22-24%) High fat 23% 72% 5% (10-12%) 11% 84% 5% Low fat Cocoa butter Fat-free dry cocoa Moisture Low-fat powders are recommended for use in compound coatings that contain lauric fats. This holds true in particular for high-fat cocoa powders. This goes. Chocolate Milk. This can affect both flavor development and mouth-feel of a finished product. a small change in pH can adversely affect the outcome of a product. In general the pH of non-alkalized cocoa powders ranges between 5. case with bakery products (affects leavening) and dairy-based products (affects milk protein stability). 123 . for instance. It can be said that the pH of cocoa powder usually has limited influence on the ultimate pH of the final product because the amounts of cocoa powder used in the product formulas are comparatively small. somewhat fruity flavor of these powders. and Chocolate Flavored Desserts this matter is further discussed. The pH of alkalized cocoa powders is largely determined by the amount and type of alkalis used during production.

In addition. Shell content Shell does not contribute to cocoa flavor and cocoa color and has to be removed from the cocoa nibs as required by standards. wear and tear on equipment such as roller refiners and homogenizers by the hard cocoa shell particles is reduced. for instance. In chocolate milk or milk-based desserts. When considering the fineness of a cocoa powder. They can be seen against the white background of the milk as brown specks and can adversely affect the smooth mouth-feel of the product. fineness of powder has an effect on the water absorption in the dough phase and thus on formulation and handling characteristics. In the U. However. Figure 2 illus- trates the typical particle size distribution of selected deZaanTM cocoa powders. With removal of most of the shell. a distinction has to be made between the average fineness and the particle size distribution. Many of the methods of analysis used for this purpose are unsatisfactory.23 (1990). Determining the shell content of cocoa powder is not a simple matter. their nature.S. The tails of the curve do not influence the average fineness of the powder. it is the percentage of the coarse particles in the right tail. cookies. and their size that may have an effect on the end-product. However. in bakery products. the presence of a small amount of coarse particles can easily be noticed. the more quickly its effect becomes evident in the mouth and the less the powder can be detected as an ingredient by itself.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual Figure 2: Typical particle size distribution deZaan TM cocoa powder Furthermore. In biscuits. or cake mixes. the FDA requires the shell content to be analyzed with AOAC method 970. 124 . the fineness is a less sensitive factor. as the particular character of the powder is lost in the overall flavor appreciation of the final product due to its texture. the finer the powder.. the microbiological status is improved.

desserts. and a moisture content of 14%. chocolate. In food products containing a high quantity of moisture. but not entirely. the cocoa butter. In syrups and other sugar-rich products such as toppings. Therefore. A three-dimensional network is developed that results in a higher viscosity. This is caused by an interaction between cocoa particles and the sugar in the syrup. Here. Flour has a much higher water activity. and fillings on fat basis). is distributed in small fat globules. toppings. and chocolate beverages) or in products where fat forms the continuous phase (compound coatings. a balance in water activity will be established between the various ingredients. avoids settling of the cocoa particles. cocoa powder also has an effect on the rheology of the ultimate product. the richer and more viscous the end-product will be.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual Rheology and water absorption Cocoa powder has an important effect on rheology and water absorption in many of the products in which it is used. In water-based systems. the product loses its initial viscosity and will quickly become thin fluid.55. namely 0. the water activity amounts to about 0. the network will recover itself. When this network is disturbed by shearing forces. This means that in dry mixes. For example. A distinction can be made in food systems where water is the continuous phase (dough for bakery products. the powder will show a distinct 125 . In comparison. stiffer dough and dryer bakery products with more breakage will occur if no moisture correction is made when flour is partially replaced by cocoa powder. it can be said that 40% of the weight of the cocoa powder has to be added as extra moisture in order to obtain an optimal result. This phenomenon is called hysteresis. After it has come to rest again. Cocoa powder is very finely ground. As a consequence of the strong water absorbing capacity of cocoa powder in bakery mixes. a Complicated Product. The fat content of cocoa powder influences the rheology as well. At first. giving it a very large specific surface. As a guideline. In ADM Cocoa’s technical information bulletin Cocoa Powders in Bakery Applications this subject is extensively discussed. high fat cocoa powder gives chocolate milk not only a richer flavor. Alkalized cocoa powders have a positive effect on retarding after-thickening during storage and are therefore recommended for these applications. the fat is the continuous and the powder the discontinuous phase. It is a good indication of the degree to which the product is sensitive to settling of the non-soluble cocoa particles. Cocoa powder in almost moisture-free systems like chocolate and compound coatings manifests itself as a dispersion in the fat or oil present in the product. In the toppings. Aggregation and sedimentation of solid particles and sugar crystallization lead to undesirable after-thickening effects. cocoa powder forms a network with the stabilizer and the milk proteins. The water activity of cocoa powder is low: With a moisture content of 5%. These subjects are further discussed in ADM Cocoa’s technical information bulletin Chocolate Milk. To avoid this. flour can absorb moisture up to 60% of its own weight. a balance will therefore be established between all the ingredients.3. but it also makes the product more viscous. in chocolate milk. Whenever moisture is available. In bakery mixes. that to a large extent. The more fat available. It can take in moisture up to 100% of its own weight. cocoa powder will compete with other ingredients to absorb it. the rheology of the end product is not stable during storage. like oil in a water emulsion. the moisture content in cocoa powder-containing dough must be adjusted. it is triggered by a slow crystallization of the sugar.

(See also ADM Cocoa’s brochure Sol Lecithinated Cocoa Powders. cocoa powder is consumed in every country of the world. When cocoa powder is added to cold water or cold milk. the appropriate amount in the formula. Cocoa powder should preferably be stored under cool (15°-20° C/59°-68° F). Manufacturers of instant products especially have to address this phenomenon. Another phenomenon in compounds is the effect of moisture in the sugar-rich environment. in its original protective packaging. the powder tends to float on the surface because of its poor wettability. This processing step is therefore of great importance for the rheology of the end product. which repels water and prevents the wetting of the powder particles. By its nature. ADM Cocoa recognizes that it is important to optimally advise the users of cocoa powder in their product formulations. it is very hygroscopic. Wettability and dispersibility can be significantly improved by blending the cocoa powder with lecithin. In fact the problem refers not just to solubility (about 30% for cocoa powder). go into the same detail as the numerous technical 126 . performance. it will immediately attract moisture. considerations of taste. a substantial part of the fat is freed up for the continuous phase. which may lead to bacteriological spoilage due to mold growth. consideration is given to the most common applications of cocoa powder. with its maximum of 5% moisture. This subject is further dealt with in ADM Cocoa’s technical information bulletin Cocoa Powder and Compound Coatings. This is primarily due to the cocoa butter present in the powder.and three-component instant cocoa beverages. and then the viscosity drops sharply. As an emulsifying agent. and cost mean that certain cocoa powders are more effective than others. and transportation” later in this module. It is often the combination of the type of cocoa powder. is an important source of moisture in the recipe. Cocoa powder. dark. Wettability and dispersibility One of the problems confronting a user of cocoa powder is slow dispersibility in an aqueous system. In this section. and the hydrophilic (wateraffinity) part of the molecule attracts the water in the solution. cocoa powder is not inclined to disperse but to float on the surface of a liquid. It does not. sometimes significantly. The development of shearing forces and the evaporation of moisture take place during the conching. but rather to the whole complex of wettability and dispersibility of cocoa powder as such.) Notwithstanding the fact that cocoa powder has poor wettability. and the manufacturing parameters that determine the desired results. storage. The a ppli c ati o n o f c o c oa po wd er Introduction As far as is known. an important increase in the liquid chocolate or compound coating can be observed. legislation. (See also “Packaging. It is recommended to use lecithinated cocoa powders rather than adding the lecithin separately during the agglomeration process of products such as two. and dry (RH <50%) conditions.) 2.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual fat-absorbing tendency. When exposed to a humid environment. While almost any cocoa powder can be used in any food product. At very low concentrations (1% and higher). lecithin is a mixture of phosphatides that is surface active. When one tries to disperse the cocoa powder in a liquid by stirring. however. color. but as a result of shearing forces during processing. the still insufficiently wetted powder particles will partially remain in and on the surface of the liquid as small lumps. The lipophilic (fat-affinity) part of the molecule attaches to the cocoa butter present in the cocoa powder.

pudding . and custards are usually milk based. An enormous variety of cocoa flavored milk-based products is available to the consumer.confectionery coatings - ice cream coatings vermicelli/flakes spreads toppings syrups extracts coated cereals breakfast cocoa powder Instant products and premixes . Puddings.biscuit and wafer fillings .ice cream premixes Dairy products Dairy products are those made primarily from liquid milk. color.fudge .breakfast cereals .ice cream .chocolate milk .fillings . sugar. for example.bakery premixes Confectionery. a Complicated Product. The industrial product applications can be grouped as follows: Dairy products . they must be pasteurized or sterilized. this can only be done on an arbitrary basis and is not exhaustive.whipped toppings .dairy premixes Ice cream and frozen desserts .milk shakes . and cocoa products .dairy premixes . The challenges of chocolate milk lie in the stabilization of what is inherently an unstable system. The addition of stabilizers.frostings and icings . whereas the majority of the particles will settle out as sediment over a period of time.doughnuts .frozen yogurt . Of course. As there is a significant risk of microbiological deterioration. as the liquid character means almost instant exposure of the flavor components. The listing should therefore be regarded as informative only. a relatively high viscosity is required.frozen bakery products . emulsifiers.cakes .dry 2/3 component drinking mixes .cookies . coatings.wafers . In order to hold cocoa powder particles in suspension.custard .novelties .mousse .biscuits . This can be achieved by using a stabilizer such as K-carrageenan that will react with milk proteins and cocoa particles to form a three-dimensional network holding these particles in suspension. is a very effective way of imparting the cocoa flavor. The various stabilization systems and production methods of chocolate milk are discussed in ADM Cocoa’s technical information bulletin Chocolate Milk.vending mixes . It is these that represent the key and comprehensive information source for the cocoa powder user in a particular area. and 127 .CoCoa & ChoColate Manual information bulletins issued by ADM Cocoa.pastries . ADM Cocoa has listed cocoa powder applications by industrial food product segment. mousses.bakery premixes .pies . Chocolate milk. Only part of the cocoa powder will dissolve in the milk.ice cream premixes Bakery products .fermented dairy products .brownies .

It is difficult to predict which cocoa powder will give the optimal color and flavor to a particular milk-based dessert. Non-fat milk solids impart the milk flavor.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual Legend Cocoa Cocoa with milkprotein coating Carrageenan Micro-coagulated particles Interlinking of stabilizer Stage 1 Protein adheres to cocoa Mixing. create a gel. will more often than not be the result of practical and taste panel experience. which can be introduced as a constituent to the ice cream. heating Homogenization Stage 2 The formulation of micro-coagulated particles Pasteurization or sterilization Stage 3 Formation of the network Cooling of the product A simplified model of network formation in chocolate milk flavor ingredients leads to products with a specific flavor. The main component is water. The ultimate choice. and prevent the ice cream from melting too easily. stabilize the system. The technical information bulletin Chocolate Flavored Desserts gives extensive details on the application of deZaanTM cocoa powders from ADM Cocoa in a variety of popular desserts. On the basis of defined criteria for what the end product must comply with powder types for a specific formulation can be preselected. viscosity. Ice cream and desserts are made of similar ingredients. The desired texture and air content of a dessert are significant in determining the type and dosing of the cocoa powder to be used. Product formula and heat treatment are just two of the factors that play a major role. Ice cream and frozen desserts The color and flavor of chocolate-flavored ice cream come mainly from cocoa solids. a chocolate or compound coating. including a number of product recipes with processing recommendations. however. Sugars affect flavor and structure. or in a combination thereof. Stabilizers and emulsifiers are of critical importance for mouth-feel. color. and texture. The lighter the texture and the higher the air content. and fats impart the structure and creamy effect so characteristic of ice cream. 128 . whereas flavor and color determine whether a dessert is delicious and attractive to look at. the more concentrated the color and the flavor of the cocoa powder should be. which serves as a solvent and will form ice crystals. Stabilizers increase the viscosity.

Cocoa Powders in Bakery Applications. coatings and cocoa products Bakery products This large product category covers many types of cakes. Cocoa powders with higher cocoa butter contents can have an adverse effect on the gloss stability of compound coatings made with lauric fats. biscuits. water-sugar. ADM Cocoa has compiled a comprehensive technical information bulletin. Excessive baking soda (pH >8) will change the color of the end product from yellowish-brown to reddish-brown. The whitish milk powder functions as a background that will emphasize the color and its brilliance. alkalized cocoa powders are often used. For ice cream coatings. the alkalinity of the cocoa powder may have a significant effect on the color of baked products such as cakes and cookies. the difference in color between alkalized and non-alkalized powders will become more evident. As mentioned. the recipe instructions and This product category comprises applications based on fat-sugar. The reason for this is that the detection of the chocolate flavor is dulled by the low temperature of ice cream. both alkalized and non-alkalized cocoa powder can be used. the baker must raise the amount of water and make a correction in the amount of baking soda. and water-fat-sugar systems. The alkalinity of the cocoa powder can affect baking properties in the same way as baking soda. for example. Depending on the amount and type of fat. This publication deals with the effects of cocoa powder in relation to other ingredients and the technology in a number of bakery applications. All of these factors affect the eating properties of the product. ash content. procedures for baked products containing cocoa powders can be critically important for achieving a satisfactory product. ADM Cocoa’s technical information bulletin Cocoa Powders and Ice Cream specifically deals with the effect that cocoa powder has on the manufacturing of ice cream and frozen desserts.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual Emulsifiers reduce the surface tension between the fat and water phases and have the effect of arranging the fat globules around the air bubbles to form a homogeneous structure. Confectionery. a product will be soft or hard at room temperature. Cocoa powder readily absorbs moisture. as otherwise the cake would have a volume too low and a texture too dry. and cookies. flavor. including the mouth-feel. such as compound coatings and fillings. These are essentially dry in the sense that most moisture has been removed in the baking process. To select a cocoa powder for a baking application. For compound coatings made from different vegetable fats. If milk solids are added or incorporated. it is therefore important to look not only at the flavor and the color but also how it will affect the baking process. If. Alkalization influences the pH. and color of the cocoa powder. Medium to strongly alkalized cocoa powders are generally used in bakery products. and can be influenced by adjusting the product formulation and the processing conditions. sugar. More so than in some other product categories. Fat-sugar systems are those in which the main ingredients are fat. This is a matter of flavor and color appreciation and of costs: The flavor/ color impact of a lower level of alkalized cocoa powder may be stronger than that of a higher level of natural cocoa powder. a cake is baked and part of the flour is replaced by cocoa powder. Non-alkalized cocoa powders are lighter in color than alkalized powders. alkalinity. and cocoa powder. including a number of product formulas and recommended processing methods. The stronger flavor and darker color 129 .

It is important that with sugar syrups. consideration must be given to the total carbohydrate percentage of the cocoa components. and dietary fiber establish a bond with the water. a detailed description is given as to the behavior of cocoa powder in different fat systems and the composition and manufacturing methods of a number of coatings. a cocoa particle is created with an outer surface that has a hydrophilic character. and milk powder. Improved preservation is partially obtained by the addition of sugar and other preservative ingredients. the cocoa powder is seen as the cause of this. such as in syrups. For this reason. the lumps of cocoa are easily eliminated. which in turn produces a change in viscosity. However. most consumers find it less convenient to make chocolate milk in this way. The lecithin molecule is made up of hydrophobic and hydrophilic parts. Water-sugar and water-fat-sugar systems include products such as syrups. if a dry mixture of sugar crystals and lecithinated cocoa powder 130 . as a result of which a thickening effect may occur over time. sugar. When using water in relatively high viscosity products. Just adding a regular cocoa powder to cold milk and stirring will not create an attractive looking product.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual of the alkalized powders render their full impact in this application. The reasons for this are: • Cocoa powder contains cocoa butter. • Three-component mixes are mainly made of cocoa powder. An incorrect choice of sugars may lead to crystallization. it is better to mix cocoa powder with sugar first and then add cold milk gradually while stirring. where water forms the continuous phase. favors the creation of lumps of cocoa in cold milk. strongly alkalized powders are often used. it is easily dispersed. The starches. • Cocoa powder is a fine powder and contains starch. This has the effect of altering the rheology and mouth-feel of the product to respond to the specific demands of the application. In many cases. This is balanced by the high sugar content present and its ability to mellow the sometimes pronounced flavor of the strongly alkalized cocoa powders. by nature. and frostings. the so-called instant products have been developed. crystal sugar. it is important to change the hydrophobic cocoa powder into a hydrophilic powder. which behaves hydrophobically in cold milk. which. toppings. To prevent this. However. The hydrophilic part of the lecithin molecule is directed to the outside of the cocoa particle. Because milk consists largely of water. in addition to non-alkalized cocoa powders. By making a high-viscosity paste. fudges.or three-component mix: • Two-component mixes are mainly made of crystal sugar and cocoa powder. This means that the quantity of sugar in these products is often higher than in products of fat systems. A ready-to-use mix to be added to warm or cold milk or water naturally has preference. the correct proportions of the various types of sugar are chosen. The hydrophobic part anchors itself to the cocoa butter on the cocoa solid particle. An instant product is generally a two. In these applications. In this way. The cocoa manufacturer does this by coating the cocoa powder particles with an emulsifier such as lecithin. while it is more often caused by problems in the area of the sugars used. When this lecithinated cocoa particle is added to cold milk or water. Instant products and premixes Instant cocoa products are mixes that are added generally to cold milk or water. In the technical information bulletin Cocoa Powder and Compound Coatings.

the pallet number. the product should be properly packed and stored. extensive information is made available on this particular application of cocoa powder. humidity. Depending on the geographical destination. Pertinent information in this code includes the date of manufacture. the net weight. The sugar crystals are moistened with water/steam. it is not recommended to use lecithinated cocoa powder in vending mixes.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual is added to cold water. Lightly alkalized lecithinated cocoa powders are generally used in instant products. however. In ADM Cocoa’s technical information bulletin Cocoa Powder and Dry Mixes. should be agglomerated to ensure good mixing with the hot water. See Bacteriological Analytical Manual (FDA). and milk powder to produce hot chocolate. A plastic foil and wrapping is fitted around and over the pallet to protect the bags from dirt. This results in non-optimal dispersion. For microbiological sampling and analysis.g.) to a wooden pallet. if cocoa powder is compressed beyond a certain level. The packaging itself must be able to endure transportation over long distances and varying handling conditions and should be able to stand up to a prolonged storage period. e. As a result. The lecithinated cocoa particles adhere to the wet sugar crystals. hot water is added to a mix of cocoa powder. and a unique production code for verification and identification (traceability). Coding 3. the product type. Because the cocoa butter melts in the hot water. it also tends to quickly pick up foreign odors from its surroundings. The powder itself is a product that enjoys a long shelf life. For instance. the hydrophobic character of the cocoa powder plays a less important role. and the agglomerated particles are then dried. the lot identification number. Stacking beyond a certain height will give 131 . In vending machines. a different lot definition is used: a quantity of product produced and handled under uniform conditions. Food Sampling/Preparation of Sample Homogenate. provided that packaging and storage conditions are adequate.000 lbs. keep cool and dry. followed much more slowly by lecithinated cocoa particles. It is not only very hygroscopic. one-way (nonreturnable) transport units. we are sampling according Food Category I). The bags are stacked 30 (750 kg) or 40 (2. This creates sugar cocoa agglomerates that are easily dispersed in cold milk. To improve the dispersion. agglomeration or lumping of the cocoa particles occurs. The pallets can be lifted from four sides and are single. A cardboard anti-slip sheet is placed on the pallet to protect the bags at the bottom. the cocoa powder is usually packed in paper bags of either 25 kg or 50 lbs. certain changes in cocoa powder’s physical characteristics can occur. Therefore. Typically. the product description. The mix. the sugar crystals immediately fall to the bottom of the glass. These bags are made of multi-layer kraft paper and a polyethylene moisture barrier. Packagin g . s t o r ag e and t ran s p o r tat i o n Packaging Cocoa powder is a complex and vulnerable product. sugar. pests. Transport and storage Under incorrect transport and storage conditions. and the filling line/machine. and damage (instability) during handling and transportation. each packaging unit also includes transport and storage instructions. Each individual packaging unit of cocoa products carries the identification of the manufacturer and country of origin. the heavier sugar crystals are attached to the cocoa powder by agglomeration.

birds. regularly inspected area.200 lbs. Even under favorable conditions. spices. • Position the pallets with sufficient space between them and the wall to avoid local temperature variations and pest infestation. the cocoa butter will re-crystallize. chemicals. • Stack no higher than 20 bags or two pallets. The following recommendations are made for adequate transportation and storage conditions: • Use only cool. These methods of analysis can be found in Module 3: Methods of Analysis. • Even though the cocoa powder has a much longer shelf life. and the semi-bulk flexible intermediate containers are rapidly gaining in popularity. • Keep the storage space clean and free of rodents.). transportation of cocoa powder in bulk. Spec i fi c ati o n o f cocoa powder Introduction Specifications are important for the user of cocoa powder to formulate an end product. For more information on this type of packaging. Specifications relate to consistency.750 to 2. • Avoid exposing cocoa powder to direct sunlight. New systems are constantly coming onto the market. When the temperature drops again. is ultimately going to be the only adequate solution to this problem. • Ensure the absence of strong smelling products in the vicinity. this bulk packaging from ADM Cocoa reduces handling and logistics costs significantly while protecting the product’s integrity. 4. 132 . They carry between 800 and 1. Although these factors do not have an influence on the intrinsic quality of the cocoa powder. lump formation can make the powder difficult to handle in further processing. it will melt. If it is subjected to a temperature too high. quality. Rodents and other pests can be controlled by traps or electric defense mechanisms. please contact one of the sales offices of ADM Cocoa listed on page 169. this can cause condensation on the inside of the packaging that may lead to possible growth of mold. care must be taken that no sudden temperature changes of the surrounding air occur. or other direct sources of heat. giving the cocoa powder a gray discoloration. tobacco. paints. prevent sudden temperature changes. It will also cause the particles to stick together. However. set quality standards. in whatever way. Bulk and semi-bulk packaging Packaging materials and handling technology are developing very fast. use up stocks within 24 months. and safety and are only meaningful when the corresponding methods of analysis are indicated. Tank cars have already made their entry. • As much as possible. For users of large quantities of cocoa powder. depending on the type of powder. and cleaning substances. and comply with food legislation. and dry foodgrade storage areas in which the temperature is between 15°-20° C (55°-65° F) and the RH is <50%. such as coffee. The product must be stored in a clean. The air surrounding the pallets of cocoa powder should preferably have an RH <50%. Protection of cocoa powder against rodents and insects is also essential.000 kg (1. But even with an RH <50%. hot lamps. Also the cocoa butter present in the cocoa powder is sensitive to temperature changes. insects. dark. It is not recommended to stack more than 20 bags or two pallets high.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual rise to this pressure and must therefore be avoided. tea. The greatest danger comes from damaged bags and unhygienic storage conditions. and other pollutants.

In the manufacturing process of cocoa powder. there are important production steps where quality aspects can be influenced and controlled.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual Controllable and non-controllable factors Defining specifications is particularly challenging for products made from raw materials with a natural origin. • Sterilization allows control of microbiology • Roasting: allows control of flavor • Pressing: allows control of fat content • Grinding: allows control of fineness However. flavor. These are: • Alkalizing: allows control of color. some characteristics can be controlled only to a limited extent. and pH. These 133 .

and theobromine or the cocoa butter composition. Regulatory authorities have recognized this. metal fragments. Some of these molds can produce mycotoxins. such as pieces of wood. must be removed and carefully controlled. Mycotoxins Mold growth on cocoa beans occurs on occasion. for example: the content of starch. careful selection and handling of raw materials and good manufacturing practices help control the levels of such impurities. and pesticides may be applied but mostly on the cocoa pod and on the shell not on the nibs themselves. and drying. postharvest. trace levels of heavy metals often found in the soil may be found in cocoa. ripening. A working and certified HACCP program ensures that food safety hazards are continuously monitored and controlled. fermentation. To fight these pests. These non-indigenous materials. This may occur at the farms during harvesting. However. protein. Food safety aspects ADM Cocoa is certainly aware of the essential character of safety in food products. Tolerable levels of extraneous matter are set in the Defect Action Levels by the Food and Drug Administration in the USA. season. shell removal to the levels specified under regulatory standards is known to help limit the levels of these naturally occurring metals. Many users of cocoa powder require nutritional information on the product for the calculation and declaration of the nutritional value on their consumer packages. Metallic iron The presence of metallic iron is inherent to cocoa given growing. Good manufacturing practices and the use of powerful magnets help control the levels of these very fine particles. The pH of the non-alkalized cocoa powder is determined by the acidic components of the beans used and can only be controlled by the selection of the beans. this information is indicative only and is not a part of our standard specifications. Practices (GMP) and adequate processing. fungicides. Its presence is unavoidable but can be controlled by applying Good Manufacturing 134 . It is thus possible that mycotoxins like aflatoxins and ochratoxine A are present on cocoa beans. Many factors can influence cocoa product food safety. Impurities Impurities are defined as everything present in cocoa powder that theoretically should not be there. Because cocoa beans from origin countries commonly come into contact with soil. A brief summary is given below. Because cocoa beans naturally vary with origin. transportation. • Extraneous matter can be defined as material that is intrinsic to the processed product and includes insect fragments and cocoa shell. and manufacturing conditions. Heavy metals As is true with most agricultural crops. Pesticides Cocoa trees and their fruit are prone to attack by microorganisms and insects. and processing of the raw material.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual are the natural constituents of cocoa. this nutritional information is given in Module 6: Health and Nutritional Aspects. and differences in processing. They can be subdivided into two categories: • Foreign matter relates to all items that are not intrinsic to the product and that may have been introduced during harvesting. It is impossible to remove every impurity from cocoa powder during manufacturing. For different types of cocoa powders. insecticides. and sand.

industrial customers select the fat content that is optimal for their products. customers can carry out their own checks. this specification should be as narrow as possible. therefore. this percentage appears to be too high. With these. These methods are outlined in Module 3: Methods of Analysis. It is not technically possible to press to an exact fat percentage. Within the regulations in effect. In practice. ADM Cocoa specifies the fat content within a 2% range. Fineness A clear distinction must be made between fineness determined by sieving of the dry cocoa powder versus sieving the cocoa powder in a water suspension. However. mold can grow in the product. cocoa powder is ultimately used in the finished product for its flavor and color. Manufacturers of chocolate milk will immediately notice the presence of a slight amount of coarse cocoa particles in their products and may experience problems with their homogenizers. With such a high moisture content. The final application for a specific cocoa powder is best used as a guide to determine which component values. With rapid decreases in temperature during storage or transport. of 5% is best. As a result. methods of analysis. condensation inside the packaging can occur. Fat content The food legislation of many countries has divided cocoa powders into different categories based on their fat contents. and other product features are most important to that application. Further information regarding sensory evaluation can be found in Module 4: Flavor and Flavor Development. 135 .) Fineness is a characteristic for which different applications have various demands. (See Module 3: Methods of Analysis. the best determination of fineness. Flavor and color No matter how important various features may be. lightly acidic cocoa. The degree of alkalinity is determined by the extent of alkalization and the acidity of the cocoa beans. Cocoa particles are partly agglomerated and do not disintegrate completely with dry sieving. 9% for cocoa powder. pH The alkalization process increases the pH value of the natural. However. The fineness of powder as such is not relevant in most applications. Reference samples are available from ADM Cocoa. The wet sieve test with warm water is. the specific attributes and values in specifications may differ simply due to the raw materials in use and the specific nature of the processing employed. The food industry has every interest in using cocoa powders with features that are as optimal and consistent as possible. some tolerance is necessary. That is why reliable methods are important to determining whether a delivery conforms to a reference sample in color and flavor. Non-alkalized (natural) cocoa powders may have wider pH ranges caused by the natural variation in the acidity of the cocoa beans. Controlled processing results in definable pH ranges. agglomerates will immediately disintegrate when the powder is brought into suspension or when heat is applied. The raw materials supplied and the nature of processing may vary from one plant and/or region to another.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual Specification components It is important to note regarding the components of typical deZaanTM cocoa powder specifications that ADM Cocoa operates a number of cocoa processing plants around the globe. Moisture content Some food laws allow a moisture content of max. Our experiences show that a moisture content of a max.

136 . The following types of microbiological assessments are commonly found within ADM Cocoa powder specifications: • Total plate count (or standard plate count) per gram • Molds and yeasts per gram • Enterobacteriaceae (or Coliform) in 1 gram • E. especially as related to specific applications. coli in one gram • Salmonellae Fumigation or irradiation ADM Cocoa does not fumigate or irradiate its cocoa powders. • the fact that many foods are being produced in increasingly larger production units and are being distributed over wider areas. Experts have repeatedly pointed out that the prescribed temperatures (<5° or >50° C/<41° or >122° F) are not always maintained in the vending machines. The reasons for this are: • the increasing use of food prepared from instant products that are not heated prior to consumption • the increasing availability of food from vending machines. Large amounts of unsound food can then be quickly distributed over a wide geographic area.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual Microbiological characteristics It is important that limits be placed on the microbiological quality of cocoa powder.

CoCoa & ChoColate Manual 137 .

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produces the boxed assortments called Whitman’s Samplers. 2000 Increasing attention in academic and medical research on certain polyphenolic compounds naturally present in chocolate and their possible health benefits to the consumer has integrated chocolate into the same category with other “good for you” food products to be included in a person’s diet. invents the first chocolate covered praline in Brussels. 1912 The Whitman Company. They name their company M & M Ltd. the Swiss manufacturer. He forms a new partnership and the company becomes Lindt & Sprüngli. NY from Germany and starts a candy shop eventually to grow into the Merckens Chocolate Company. Today after the conching process. Washington. Inc.) 1923 August Merckens arrives in Buffalo. Wisconsin USA. Daniel Peters. invented the conching process.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual Chocolate 1. this step took approximately seven days. Belgium. Together they create the first M&M’s. Initially. in 1849. Cadbury exhibited it at Bingly Hall. He goes into business with Bruce Murrie (son of the president of Hershey Chocolate Company). 1912 Jean Neuhaus. used the Van Houten process to successfully combine chocolate with powdered milk to produce the first milk chocolate to enter the market. 10 1900 Milton Hershey begins producing milk chocolate in bars. Conching involves heating and rolling the chocolate to refine the flavor. wafers and other shapes. Later he switches to making bulk chocolate for large companies. His t ory o f Ch ocol at e Early 19th Century Cocoa liquor and sugar was mixed with cocoa butter instead of warm water and the resulting paste was cast and hardened in a mold and with it. located in Philadelphia. eating chocolate was born. Switzerland 1900 Switzerland took a leadership role in the chocolate industry. resulting in the chocolate taking on a unique flavor profile. This is the first company to have a drawing of where the different chocolates are located in the box. Later it becomes the Mars. He fills the empty chocolate shell with pralines invented by his father. 1988 Nestlé’s acquisition of British chocolate maker Rowntree makes it the largest chocolate manufacturer in the world. 1875 In 1875 milk chocolate came of age. 1894 Otto Scholenleber starts the Ambrosia Chocolate Company in Milwaukee. Birmingham. Jr. Switzerland. and Spain became the first producer of chocolate equipment in Europe. 1868 John Cadbury mass-marketed the first boxes of chocolate candies. Germany (Schokinag-Schokolade-Industrie Herrmann GmbH & Co. 1847 The first manufacturer of chocolate in England creates the first chocolate bars. PA. Fry & Sons. 1941 Forrest Mars (son of Frank Mars) returns to the United States from England. 1899 Rodolphe Lindt sold his secret formula for making fondant chocolate to David Sprüngli for 1. cocoa butter is added. 1923 Family Herrmann and partner found Schokinag in Mannheim. 1899 Jean Tobler begins a chocolate company in Bern. After eight years of experimentation.5 million Swiss francs. 1911 Frank and Ethel Mars build a candy company in Tacoma. 2004 A study funded partially by USDA and ARS finds chocolate and milk choco- 139 . 1879 Chocolatier Rodolphe Lindt of Berne. S. Their shop is called J.

Some common nutritive carbohydrate sweeteners are: sucrose.  Roll Refining (Quality/Cost Juncture) Reduces the particle size of the ingredients to the specifications for the particular recipe which influences the mouth feel of the chocolate  Conching (Quality/Cost Juncture) Dynamic agitation of semi-dry ingredients under high temperatures to volatilize objectionable acids/flavors notes. 2006 The Zutphen Elderly Study found that in elderly men. smooth agglomerates  Liquefaction and Emulsification Cocoa butter. round particle edges. glucose. glucose. In conjunction with the emulsifiers. decrease moisture content. develop a desirable flavor profile (Maillard reaction).  Standardized Chocolate Consists of several standardized batches which are homogeneously mixed prior to disposition. 4. cocoa liquor (cocoa mass). cocoa intake is inversely associated with blood pressure and 15 year cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. fruc- 140 . and allow for a consumer to easily compare like products or discern which products do not meet a given standard. R aw Mater i a ls Nutritive Carbohydrate Sweeteners Impart sweetness and taste appeal to the chocolate and provide energy (calories). In addition.g. fructose) 2. They help to maintain the quality of a food. Disaccharides (e. and/or other emulsifiers are added to the conched paste to reduce the viscosity. Monosaccharides (e. cocoa butter and dry flavors plus enough of the cocoa butter to achieve a paste consistency that is optimal for refining. to prevent adulteration. lecithin. to preserve time honored recipes. usually as carbohydrates. Nutritive sweeteners include: 1. optimism and better physiological well being. P roce s s F l o w Chocolate Formulation (Quality/Cost Sensitive)  Pre-Refining Paste Sweetener.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual late to have among the highest antioxidant capacity of any foods. 2. Standards of identity establish the legal names for some commercially available food products and set the guidelines for what ingredients are allowed in those standardized foods. size and quantity for depositing into solid chocolate. total fat percentage and color are standardized to the specifications for a particular formulation. secondly. 2008 A study funded in part by the Finnish Government found that elderly men preferring chocolate were associated with better health. to avoid economic fraud and thirdly. reduce viscosity. S tan da r d s o f Ide n t it y Standards of identity for food were established for three primary reasons: first.g. the flavor of the chocolate is compared to the control to assure its consistency over time. 3.  Tempering Liquid Storage   Creating cocoa butter Designated for bulk crystals in the stable shipments. sucrose) 3. continuous agitation will distribute the cocoa butter over the particles to maximize the reduction in viscosity and improve the rheological properties of the coating  Batch Adjustment The viscosity. milk powder. form.

0 Min.0 5. N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 30. Min.0 Min.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual Table 1: Standards of Identity Major Ingredients Defined for the standards Sweet Chocolate1 % USA Bittersweet (Dark) Chocolate % Codex % EU Milk Chocolate % Codex % EU White Chocolate % Codex % EU % Canada % % % Codex Canada USA % % Canada USA % % Canada USA Nutritive Carbohydrate Sweeteners Cocoa Liquor2 Total Dry Cocoa Solids (Nonfat Cocoa Solids + Cocoa Butter)3 Milk Solids Dry Non-fat Cocoa Solids Min. Max. Min.5 1. Min. Max.5 N/A 3.0 1.0 Allows Allows <5. N/A N/A N/A N/A 3.0 <5 <12.0 Min. kokum gurgi. 1 2 3 4 No Standard exists for Sweet Chocolate in the EU See CFR 163. sal.5 1. Min. Milk or Butter Flavors Chocolate and Milk Flavors Chocolate and Milk Fat Flavors Whey Antioxidants Veg. please 5 6 refer to European Chocolate Directive 2000/36/ EC. shea.39 2.0 20.5 1. Max.0 Min. Max. Min. Max.5 2. Max.0 25. See the standards for the cocoa liquor requirements for the particular chocolates for each section.0 5.0 5.5 1.0 18.5 1. For further information. Max.39 Min.0 14. Min.0 1.0 Min.5 1.5 1.0 14. Fats other than Cocoa Butter4 Nomenciature Allows Allows Allows Allows Allows Allows Allows Allows Allows Allows Allows 15. Min. N/A N/A N/A N/A <12. 15.5-3. palm.5 Max. Max. Allows Allows Allows Allows Allows Allows Allows N/A N/A 18. Max.0 14.0 35. N/A N/A 2. Min. Butter Fat Cocoa Butter Cocoa Butter + Milk Fat Emulsifiers6 Chocolate. 10. N/A 25. N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 25.5 Min. Max. Max. Max. Min.0 18. Max.5 1. Min.0 Min.0 Variable2 Min.S. 35. N/A N/A N/A N/A 18.0 12-14 14. Min. Min. Min.5 Min. Min. Min. Max. Max.111 for definition of Chocolate Liquor for U.0 5.0 14. N/A 35. Max.5-3.0 5.5 1.0 5.5 Min.0 forbids forbids forbids forbids forbids forbids forbids Max.0 <12.0 20. Standards of Identity See EU Standard Vegetable fats are defined as illipe. forbids N/A N/A forbids N/A N/A N/A forbids N/A N/A N/A forbids N/A N/A N/A N/A forbids forbids N/A forbids N/A forbids N/A forbids N/A forbids N/A forbids N/A forbids N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A forbids N/A N/A N/A forbids N/A N/A N/A forbids N/A forbids Allows forbids forbids Allows Allows forbids forbids Allows Allows <5. Max.0 Min. Min. Min.0 20.0 Allows Allows Allows Max.0 Min. Min.5 3. Max. See the standards for emulsifiers for the particular chocolates for each section. Min.0 25. N/A N/A N/A 3. 3. Max. and mango kernel processed under certain conditions.0 <5.0 Min. Min.0 Min.0 forbids forbids forbids forbids forbids forbids forbids forbids forbids forbids forbids Allows forbids Allows forbids 5.0 30.5 1. Min.0 35. Min.5 1. Max. 55. 141 .0 20.0 <5 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A <5 N/A <5 N/A 12.5 3. N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 1.0 1.0 12.

high or low heat. sugar. 4. The origin. Source (country of origin. maltose. 2. hardness. color and sweetness. honey. The flavor precursor development in the bean during fermentation and drying. Cocoa Liquor Cocoa liquor is the ingredient responsible for the flavor. Flavor: Ideally.e. The flavor formation during subsequent processing (i. Color: The color of the added cocoa butter will have an effect on the final color of the chocolate. Cocoa Liquor is perhaps the most widely used description around the world but other synonyms are in use including Chocolate Liquor. Maillard reactions) 4. and of a flavor suitable to the buyer. Cocoa Mass and Cocoa Paste. lactose. Additional factors in down stream processing influencing the milk flavor in chocolate: • Milk type and amount in chocolate formulations • Other ingredients and quality in the chocolate formulation (natural and/or artificial flavors) • Chocolate manufacturing process (conching – additional Maillard reaction). affects the flavor. as an ingredient in chocolate. In addition. Process (roller or spray dried. Partially evaporated milk. 4. 3. color and personality of a chocolate. de-shelled cocoa beans or nibs. variations in equipment and ingredients. cocoa liquor cooked and dried (may have various recipes). variety and quality of the cocoa bean. Milk composition or properties 3. barnyard) • Milk crumb for caramelized flavor: The primary function of added cocoa butter in the manufacture of chocolate is to reduce the viscosity. and brown sugar. • Powder process for milky flavor 6. Processes for particular flavor traits • Lipase enzyme action for fermented milk flavor (cheesy. Common end milk related flavors in chocolate: • Caramel • Malt • Milky • Cooked • Creamy Cocoa Butter Milk Powder Milk powder. regional sources) 2. In fact the term relates simply to cocoa liquor’s flowable nature at temperatures about the melting point of cocoa butter. corn syrup. especially white chocolate. Selection in formulation of chocolate 5. Use of the word “liquor” does not relate to any alcohol content. roasting). color and quality of chocolate is dependent on four very distinct and equally important factors: 1. Can be manufactured with or without cocoa liquor for milk crumb or milk chocolate crumb. molasses. Cocoa liquor’s influence on the flavor. 7. gloss and shelf life. The flavor attributes of milk powder are contingent on the following: 1. Sugar alcohols (polyols) are not approved as nutritive carbohydrate sweeteners in the Standards of Identity for chocolate. cocoa butter influences: 1. roasted. Butter Oil The formulation of a more bloom resistant chocolate can include the replacement of a portion of the added cocoa butter in Bittersweet (Dark) Chocolate with butter oil 142 . Performance: The source and composition of the cocoa butter can effect the tempering and cooling profile of the chocolate as well as the contraction. 2.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual tose. 3. The amount of the cocoa liquor used in the formulation of a chocolate. cocoa butter should only be “pure prime pressed” made from sound.

Its use is limited to a maximum 0. C. cocoa liquor and milk. The effect is to reduce the amount of cocoa butter required to coat the huge surface area of the solid particles. The addition of these emulsifiers. additional substitutions of butter oil for the added cocoa butter can soften a chocolate to a point where it can be successfully shaved in “curls” without breaking for decorations. of course. and 0. These coatings are not fat bloom proof and will bloom under poor storage conditions. Progressively lower temperatures are used in the tempering process as the ratio of butter oil to cocoa butter increases. Ammonium Phosphatide (Lecithin YN): Ammonium phosphatide is considered to be an alternative to lecithin in the manufacture of chocolate and vegetable fat based coatings. As butter oil is increased as a replacement for cocoa butter. D. Over-use not only fails to continue further increasing fat bloom resistance. The plastic viscosity is the amount of force that must be applied to maintain constant flow of a fluid mass. Added butter oil in Bittersweet (Dark) or Milk Chocolates also affects the tempering profile of the chocolates.3 percent in the U. has not permitted the use of this emulsifier for any food applications. U. present process related advantages in certain applications such as enrobing. most often commercially derived from soybeans. while butter oil may increase the “resistance” to fat bloom formation. The yield value is the amount of force that must be applied to initiate flow of a fluid mass. is a mixture of phospholipids whose primary purpose in chocolate is to reduce the interfacial tension between the cocoa butter and all of the non-fat particles of sugar. Each is capable of performing the same function by lowering the plastic viscosity and yield value in liquid coatings.S. Some advantages are that it has non-GMO status and is flavor neutral. Emulsifiers A.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual (also may be described as anhydrous milk fat). It is primarily used to reduce the total fat content required in a chocolate. bloom resistance increases. Sorbitan Monostearate/ Polysorbate-60: Studies have shown that fat bloom formation could be retarded by a combination of sorbitan monostearate and polysorbate -60.0 % level of a 60/40 blend of sorbitan monostearate and polysorbate-60 can be added in an effort to prevent or delay fat bloom. A 1. B. As an example of other uses. PGPR (polyglycerol polyricinoleate): The flow behavior of chocolate can be represented by a Casson plastic viscosity and yield value. The amount of butter oil used typically ranges between two and four percent of the total coating weight. molding and panning. and the flavor is altered. which is an emulsifier made from castor oil. but it makes the chocolate coating too soft. a limit to which lecithin will function in this manner. published 143 . inhibits or retards the tempering or crystallization rate of cocoa butter compared to the normal rate of crystallization of cocoa butter without their presence. Chocolate coatings containing these emulsifiers have a softer set in the solid form which may cause smearing during packaging and affect the shelf-life during storage. it does not “prevent” the development of fat bloom. can reduce the yield value in chocolates beyond that which is achievable with lecithin alone. The FDA (US FOOD and Drug Administration) in June of 2007. and secondarily. However. however. Until recently.S.5% in the UK/EU in chocolate and is virtually always paired with lecithin. thus ”freeing” more of the cocoa butter to act as the floating medium and hence reduce the viscosity of the coating. three results are noted: the chocolate becomes softer. which can be a cost saving measure for the commercial chocolate industry. PGPR (polyglycerol polyricinoleate). There is. Lecithin: Lecithin.

Ethyl vanillin is three times as strong as methyl vanillin.79 30. levels typically range between 0.12 — 37.81 — — — 0.06 — 33. Natural vanilla with its incomparable bouquet is used for the highest class confectionery.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual a GRAS notification opening the use of ammonium phosphatide as an emulsifier in chocolate and vegetable fat coatings at a level of up to 0.64 — 17.00 0. spices.0 Sugar West African Cocoa Liquor South American Cocoa Liquor Flavor Grade Cocoa Liquors Alkalized Cocoa Liquor Prime Cocoa Butter Standard Cocoa Butter Butter oil Vanilla Lecithin Vanillin Salt % Total Fat Dry Conche @80° C (176° F) (hr) Age @ 21.45 — 3. D. B.06 0. nut meats.00 — — 6.00 17.25 0. dehumidification.50 0. more penetrating and more aromatic. Methyl and Ethyl Vanillin: Both of these are artificial vanilla flavors added at levels from 0.09 0. For maximum flavor development from vanilla beans.00 % 49.00 — 0.00 16. Flavors A. and liquification process.00 10.90 — — 1.00 — — — 4.25 0.35 0.06 34. aging the chocolate coating for three to six months is sometimes preferred.06 31.00 — 15.50 0.” they still are put through a shearing.45 — 3. C. cinnamon.06 0. 144 .06 30.35 Popular % 50. Salt: The use of salt in chocolate is not to impart the perception of saltiness but rather to enhance the other flavors inherent to the chocolate.00 Particle Size 10-15μm 13-18μm 15-20μm 23-28μm 24-30μm 32-37μm 38-43μm 8-12 4-8 8-12 4-8 4-6 4-8 2-5 1-2 2-5 1-2 01 0 01 0 Even though these products are not “conched.06% and 0.00 — 0.00 9.35 0.1° C (70° F) (Weeks) 1 44. Table 2: Bittersweet/Semisweet (Dark) Chocolates Ingredients Gourmet % % 46. Salt accents the clean crisp notes and reduces bitterness.08 20.08 30.00 6.00 10.00 — — — — — 0.06 29.7%.58 — — 5.95 — — 0.09 0. essential oils.45 11. mint.40 0.63 20.12% depending on which flavor is used.06 0. Other flavors used to impart personal tastes to chocolate: These flavors may be orange.00 Value Conscious % 53.00 20.00 35.12% of the total weight of the coating.30 2. and coffee. berry flavors.00 % 54. nutmeg.03% to 0.55 — — — 9. When used.50 0.00 High Cacao % 29.06 28.00 — 8.40 23. Vanilla: The most common flavor addition is vanilla.00 0. either as in the form of vanilla beans or extract.00 33.

09 32.37 7.06 31.25 — 0.00 — — 15.0 — — 13.50 — — 0.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual 5. 145 .00 — — 22.41 11.” they still are put through a shearing.00 — — — 15.06 34. the Table 3: Milk Chocolates/White Chocolates Ingredients Gourmet % % 45. P re -Re f in i n g M i x At the mixing stage.78 0. Depending on the final application.0 – 27.97 0.35 — 19. and liquification process.05 — 0.00 2.57 22.00 — — 19. In the case of milk chocolate.97 — 0.0 % Total Fat Particle Size 8-12μm 15-27μm 19-25μm 19-25μm 28-36μm 28-40μm 0 0-3 8 hr 4-8 8 hr 2-5 01 0 01 0 Dry Conche @80° C (176° F) Age @ 21.8 Popular % 45.00 13.00 24. an amount of cocoa butter will be added. Only part of the total cocoa butter is added to produce The first step involves cocoa liquor being introduced into the mixer along with the dry component.00 2. Mixing 6. The total fat content of the paste will generally range from 23.00 — 4.23 — 0.42 0. milk powder and other dry ingredients that are coarse and do not dissolve in fat are combined together in quantities per formulation.0 8-12μm 10 hr 4-12 High Cacao % 52.06 0.1° C 70° F (Weeks) 12 hr 4-12 1 Even though these products are not “conched. Form ul at i o n s Bittersweet/Semisweet (Dark) Chocolates See Table 2: Bittersweet/Semisweet (Dark) Chocolates Milk Chocolates/White Chocolates See Table 3: Milk Chocolates/White chocolates a heavy paste to facilitate roll refining. and particle size desired.00 — 5.01 0. ingredient particle size.00 — — — 18. cocoa liquor (or blends of).32 — 12.06 0.38 7.00 — 19.5 Value Conscious % 56.18 — — — 22.50 0.50 — 0.09 29. refining technique or process.40 0.06 0.06 33.53 — 0. milk powder and perhaps butter fat will be added respectively.00 — 18. At this stage.06 28.00 — — 16.06 0.06 0. The mixing step takes place in oversized mixers.0 % 50.0 % 57.50 — 0. dehumidification.00 20.50 0.09 26.0 Sugar West African Cocoa Liquor Flavor Grade Cocoa Liquors South American Cocoa Liquor Spray Whole Milk Powder Roller Whole Milk Powder Sweet Whey Powder Prime Cocoa Butter Standard Cocoa Butter Lecithin Vanilla Salt Vanillin 38. granulated sugar.00 — — — 18.50 — 0.0 % depending on the particular formulation.00 3.

The following parameters affect desired quality. • Temperature (jacket) 40° C (104. Each steel roller is placed one above the other and the particles are crushed and sheared by the pressure between the rolls applied by hydraulic pressure in such a way that the distances between the rollers becomes smaller from the bottom roller to the top roller of the refiner. the higher the fat content needs to be in the mixer. R e f in in g Stage #1 A common process for particle size reduction is the two-stage refining system. This equates to higher costs. with the higher fat content due to the fines.4° F). The increased surface area of the powdered sugar in the paste. Granulated sugar has a more uniform particle size distribution than preground powdered sugar which contains a substantial amount of fines. requires additional cocoa butter to wet the sugar particles prior to refining resulting in a higher % total fat after refining for a given viscosity in the final chocolate. Particle size reduction and homogenization during refining also develops certain flavor and flow characteristics of the chocolate. the consistency has something of a “sandy” feel on the tongue. other parameters are successfully used). The mixture is typically further pressed through five-roll refiners. In addition to the particle size of the paste after the first stage of refining. • Time typically 7-9 Minutes. the paste is pre-ground (first stage) to a micron size that is manageable by the five roll refiners (≈100-150μm) and then subsequently decreased in micron size to the particle size target (second stage). • Reduces the moisture content. • Fat percent of the Mix typically 23-27%. due to the fines. Stage #2 7. • Speed typically 12-14 rpm. less cocoa butter is needed to coat the sugar particles and consequently less cocoa butter is necessary after refining to achieve a desired viscosity in the final chocolate. The resultant refined powder is commonly referred to as “refiner flake”. The final micron target is attained by adjusting and monitoring the hydraulic pressure to the rollers. • Prepares ingredients for refining. • Initial phase of ingredient homogenization. as the individual particles are still too large in size. Finer grinding will result in higher viscosity and lighter color while coarser grinding will result in a lower viscosity and darker color 146 . Reasons for mixing • Allows coating of the surfaces of the solid particles with the liquid ingredients (Wetting the powders). This stage further reduces the size of the particles. Two stage refining is popular due to the ability to utilize coarse granulated sugar in the refining paste. however. Refining paste formulated with powdered sugar. except additives (flavor / salt / lecithin) & part of the fat. by-passes the first stage refining and is delivered directly to the second stage refiners without being able to recapture the additional fat added during mixing. thus contributing to higher cost. the more important attributes of the paste for the second stage refining are wettability and consistency. • The lower the particle size requirement of the finished product. • Mixing all the ingredients. Mixing parameters (As a general example. Such refiners consist of five water cooled rolls with differential speeds.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual chocolate mass already contains some of the flavor of the finished product. Since the paste containing the granulated sugar is too coarse for five roll refiners to reduce the particle size to coating specifications with one pass. With less fines in the more uniform granulated sugar in the pre-refining paste.

This is followed by liquefaction and coating discharge. the chocolate paste should be in a heavy form in the early stages of a conching sequence. Develops flavor by the Maillard reaction (caramelized or cooked notes may develop) 7. 4. Too fine of a particle size can produce a cloying effect in the mouth which can be unpleasant. the recipe and the customer preferences. Breaks up agglomerates 4. Conching • High Mixing • High Shearing • High Energy Input (Heat) • Degassing • Aromatization of Sugar • Wetting of Particles • Flavor Development by the Maillard Reaction 3. Generally. Reduces viscosity Figure 1: Flavour Development during Conching Flavour Concentration High Volatiles1 Sensorical Optimum Summary of the conching steps 1. This paste is then subjected to vigorous mixing and shearing. Rounds or blunts sharp edges of sugar 2. Butyric Acid e. The required fineness of the mixture depends on the application for the finished chocolate. 1.and Maltolderivates 147 . temperature. Liquefaction • High Mixing • Addition of Emulsifiers and Fat 3 Aldehyde. Acetic Acid e.g. Although the equipment may differ. Smaller particle size helps deliver greater flavor impact.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual at equal total fat contents.g. Emulsifies refiner flake with fat and emulsifiers 8. Reduces moisture content 3. shear and agitation. Con ch in g There are many types of conches currently in operation in the chocolate manufacturing industry. Filling • High Mixing • Dehumidification • Degassing Short-Chain Free Fat Acids2 Caramelizing Products3 0 1 2 Relative Coching Time (%) 100 2. The refined chocolate flake is then scraped from the last roller by a refiner blade and deposited onto a conveyor which delivers the flake to conches. Discharging • High Discharge Rate • End of Cycle Time The conching process: 8. Alcohols. atmospheric aeration. Reduces bitterness 6. Removes volatile acids and flavors 5. Furyl. heat and aeration for a specific time. all operate under similar principles: time.

CoCoa & ChoColate Manual F  B C C 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 5 10 15 & g nch din C o a Lo r y” “D Cocoa Butter Pre-dose 2nd Fat Addition Lecithin and Flavour Addition C oo “Wet” Conching Temperature (ºC) l.D ing Unloading Quality Evaluation & Standardization ow n Time (Hours) F  M C C 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 5 10 15 Cocoa Butter Pre-dose Quality Evaluation & Standardization 2nd Fat Addition Temperature (ºC) “Dry” Conching “Wet” Conching Lecithin and Flavour Addition C oo l.D ow Unloading n a Lo din g Time (Hours) 148 .

Typically percent total fat is determined when the viscosity is somewhat higher than the specification and the percent total fat is lower than the specification. Chocolate viscosity is determined by measuring the stress or resistance to flow the chocolate exhibits at various shear rates. Fat content. Measurements are taken by micrometer as the paste is being refined followed by pressure adjustments to the roll refiners until the fineness is within specifications. Cocoa butter exhibits polymorphism. A final measurement of well blended chocolate is taken prior to final approval. gloss. rheology and particle size must be coordinated in order for the percent total fat to fall within specified limits. Then the model is fit and plastic viscosity and yield value can be determined. This process is completed and color values are specified for individual formulations. size and amount of crystals. The range is typically established via a validation process using historical data to determine color ranges that take into consideration the normal variances in the color of cocoa liquors. particle size distribution. cocoa butter can solidify in Total fat (%) The relationship between the formulation. processing conditions. resistance to fat bloom. and moisture content play significant roles in the final viscosity. emulsifier content and type. Color Color is measured by instrumentation. contraction. 149 . manufacturing process and procedures. in-process materials and finished products prior to disposition to ensure that flavor is consistent and that there are no foreign or off-flavors present. Particle size The particle size is controlled during refining.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual 9. and more specifically it exhibits monotropic polymorphism. Flavor Sensory evaluations are conducted on raw materials. Monotropic polymorphism means that eventually all polymorphs or crystal types transform to the most stable form. 1 0 . and is critical to chocolate drop (chip) shape. Stan dard i z at i o n an d Q ua l i t y Con t rol Rheology A chocolate coating’s viscosity or how that product flows is very important for a number of reasons including: proper weight control. and pattern holding on enrobed pieces. Temper i ng At this point in the chocolate process an important procedure of controlled cooling and reheating must be performed in order for a chocolate in a fluid state to crystallize into a stable crystal form. Developing the proper crystalline matrix of solid cocoa butter has dramatic impact upon the quality of a finished solid chocolate piece including: hardness. heat tolerance. flavor release. pace of solidification. Chocolate demonstrates the Casson model for viscosity. Cocoa butter is added until both are within their desired ranges. feet formation. while optimizing development of the proper type. For molded pieces viscosity is critical for air bubble release and mold filling. It is this polymorphic nature which forces one solidifying cocoa butter to develop procedures to control the possibility of unstable or undesirable crystal formation. grinding conditions. and resistance to foreign fat migration. This is the ability of the fat to exist in more than one crystal structure. Depending upon the temperature and cooling rate. Formal sensory evaluations are continuously conducted to assure uniformity and consensus regarding flavor. Tempered chocolate viscosity is also highly influenced by the degree of temper (how much fat is pre-solidified).

these crystals show better contraction and a higher melting point of 83 °F (28 °C).8 (93° F) 36. Beta prime crystals pack more tightly than alpha crystals.3 33. Each polymorph is distinguishable based on crystal structure of triglyceride packing. Cocoa butter is known to exist in six different polymorphs (see the table below). and because of this increased density of the triglycerides. These typically do not last very long during tempering procedures.3 25. and latent heat of fusion.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual Table 4: Cocoa Butter Polymorphs Polymorph Y  b b b b Type I II III IV V VI Latent heat kJ/g – 86 113 118 137 148 Melting point °C 17. or transforming into a more stable beta prime or beta crystals. and show little contraction because of the greater distance between triglycerides.3 various crystal forms. These F  Temperature 1-3% Fat Crystals Melting all crystals Cooling (no crystal formation) Form mix of crystals Heating (polymorph transformation and melting of unstable polymorphs) Solidification Time Time (Hours) 150 .5 27.3 23. melt at below 74 °F (23 °C). In the most unstable forms—alpha and gamma-.the polymorphs pack loosely. melting point. either melting out in the chocolate mass as the chocolate mass temperature may be greater than the melting point of these crystals.

Application of V a r i o u s C ho c o late Pro du c ts Hand dipping A small pool of chocolate is cooled on a marble slab by constant stirring and folding by hand or by a scraper. giving the greatest contraction. and the protocol will be established to target this form. larger crystals diffuse light giving chocolate a more dull appearance.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual crystals may persist during tempering as temperatures of the chocolate mass will be below the melting point of these crystals for some period of time during tempering. The typical size of a crystal in well tempered chocolate is 1 to 2 microns in size. It also gives chocolate a more glossy appearance. This can be done on a very large scale in industrial tempering units or on a small scale by hand. All of these factors should be assessed and proper modifications made to account for their significance. The most significant of these factors is the inclusion of milk fat in the fat phase of the chocolate. it will also be important to create conditions that also control the amount and size of these crystals following tempering. which influence crystallization. Some of these factors are: minor lipid components. These crystals may also transform to more stable beta crystals as well. Lastly. The mass is then subsequently reheated to temperatures above the melting points of the unstable crystals so only beta-V crystals may exist. and many other factors. Milk fat will depress the temperatures at which crystallization occurs and therefore will depress the temperatures at which the chocolate is handled during tempering. Following this procedure only 1 to 3% of the total fat should exist in a solid form and will serve as the seed to help set the rest of the fat in the proper form after the chocolate is deposited or molded and cooled properly. the tempering of chocolate mass is typically accomplished through a complex cooling of chocolate and subsequent reheating of the mass under agitation. minor factors affect tempering procedures. At that point to speed up the creation of many fat crystals. the mass is cooled to temperatures where unstable alpha and beta prime crystals may form. and it is then cooled to the temperature range where solid fat crystals form. Also during this reheat it is possible for less stable crystals to transform into the more stable forms. This is the crystal targeted during tempering. Crystals on the surface that pack tightly act well to reflect light. The tight packing and very small crystal size allows for chocolate to have a characteristic hard snap. There are many ways to temper chocolate and different operations or uses of chocolate may lend themselves to choosing one over another. many of chocolates most distinguishable features are attributable to its crystal form and the size of those crystals. Many other. chocolate is heated so no solid fat remains. In addition to simply achieving this proper crystal type. The general process can be seen in figure 4 on page 152. 1 1 . a small portion of previously melted chocolate is added at 33. and origin of cocoa butter used.34. This means that different chocolate formulations will affect temperature settings.9° . At the point that the chocolate “mushes” or becomes heavy (indicative of being seeded). Melted chocolate will continue to be added in small amounts until all of the chocolate becomes tempered. 151 . such as lecithin or mono or diglycerides. particle size of the nonfat solids. residence times. Beta V crystals illustrate the crystal form with the closest distance between triglycerides. These crystals also melt at the highest temperatures even up to 93 °F (34 °C). Both methods follow the same general principles of fat manipulation to achieve the desired polymorph of cocoa butter.4° C (93°-94° F) to the pool of seeded chocolate. In both industrial chocolate operations and small operations. Many other factors affect how chocolate is tempered.

Tempered chocolate reaches the centers after being spread into one or more parallel curtains by a flow pan with thickness of the chocolate curtain and its height above the wire belt being controllable. The most common types of chocolate molding include: 1. an equal amount of melted chocolate will continue to be added and stirred into the tempered chocolate. Under the wire belt at the flow pan position are rolls or plates to allow a build up of chocolate to guarantee a satisfactory deposit or bottoms of centers. temper the newly added chocolate and maintain a consistent viscosity for dipping. Molding The molding of chocolate is a process by which liquid tempered chocolate is deposited into molds. The fundamentals of enrobing are as follows: Enrobers generally consist of a chocolate reservoir tank. Enrobing Enrobing is a procedure in which confectionery pieces are completely enveloped in a chocolate coating by mechanical means. under the flow pan and under the blower. they next reach a shaker which typically consists of a steel frame vibrating a section of wire belt the width of the machine. As centers travel along the enrober wire belt. Although they may be engineered and designed differently. This will replenish the pool with chocolate. Spaces between plates may be varied to give any degree of bottom flooding desired.4° C (85° F). Extension bottoming rolls can be varied in height below the wire belt to control the thickness of the chocolate puddle during the extra bottoming. Bottoming rolls may also be installed in the extension to further guarantee a suitable film of chocolate on pieces. The enrobed items are transferred to a belt conveying them through a cooling tunnel with controlled temperatures and air flow. a chocolate pump or other device to bring chocolate from the tank to the flow pan or trough mounted above the centers traveling along a wire belt. Blower air temperature is best near 29. Pumps to circulate the water within the jacket are required to control tank temperature rapidly and accurately. The shaker removes excess coating and smoothes ripples caused by the blower. This will set or harden the chocolate in a manner that will achieve the maximum hardness and gloss for appearance and shelf life. To control thickness of coating. the basic principles for the enrobing process remain the same. Shell molding The operation of a classic shell molding plant consists of: • Shell formation by filling molds with tempered chocolate • Partially cooling the chocolate in the molds for a specific time to form the thickness of the shell desired • Inverting the mold to remove the remaining liquid chocolate from the mold leaving the solidified shell • Inverting the mold to the right-side-up position • Scraping the surface of the mold to 152 . The height and angle of the blower produces desired results. cooled and followed by demolding. a blower is a feature of all coaters.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual As chocolate is consumed by the dipped centers. There are many types of enrobers employed in the confectionery industry. The centers then pass over a detailer designed to whip small tails or strings of chocolate hanging from pre-bottomed or enrobed pieces. The reservoir tanks are equipped with slowly moving agitators and are heated or cooled by means of a water jacket with heat or cold being supplied by manually or automatically controlled electric heaters.

One depositor is for tempered chocolate and the other. The “suck back” feature of the center depositor retracts the center material at the end of the deposit cycle allowing the chocolate to fill the bottom of the mold. raisins. The chocolate and the center are deposited simultaneously. Bittersweet (dark/plain) chocolate is most often chosen as it delivers the most chocolate flavor impact. Inclusions such as chocolate chips and chunks in bakery and frozen dessert products are increasingly popular. center filling and bottom capping in one deposit or step. rice crisps. For baked goods such as cookies/biscuits or muffins. Single shot injection molding The single shot injection molding system combines the process of shell forming. chocolate chunks of various sizes and shapes are also used in combination with chips or as an alternative to chips. cooling to solidify and demold for packaging. The chocolate my contain inclusions such as nuts. Unusually. the different layers are built up around the center to the desired thickness and shape of the final product. pumping or spraying the various ingredient components onto the center which are set by applied cool air in a revolving pan. chocolate. fruits. chocolate chips ranging in size from 1300 count/kg to 26. which has a “suck back” feature. The molds themselves may have patterns which impart designs on the molded pieces. A polish and glaze are typically applied as a last step. Hollow molding The basic progression in a hollow molding operation is: • Deposit tempered liquid coating in one side of two-piece hinged molds. jellies. 4.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual remove the residual chocolate • Cooling • Depositing the center into the shell • Capping or sealing the top of the shell with tempered chocolate • Complete cooling of the shell and the sealing cap • Demolding 2. followed by demolding and packaging. These molds may have various designs representing different figures • Close the mold • Rotate the molds in a specific pattern and at a controlled speed within a cold room • After the coating is completely solidified. shaking the mold to eliminate air bubbles and evenly spread the chocolate across the mold. For more indulgent recipes. coffee beans. Chocolate product options have evolved from the traditional tablet bar into many forms. toffee bits or other inclusions. In this manner. is for the center. It has two basic depositors with concentric nozzles. 3. Many times chocolate inclusions intended for use in baking applications Chocolate inclusions 153 . The simplified description of panning is the controlled build-up and solidification of successive layers of pre-coatings. Solid Molding This simply involves the depositing of tempered chocolate into a flat mold. caramels. malt balls. The chocolate stream is on the exterior of the deposit stream and the center is in the middle. cereals and other centers. Panning Chocolate covered items manufactured by the panning process include all nuts. This is accomplished by dribbling. polish and glaze. panning is one of the few chocolate processes that does not rely on the chocolate being tempered. The molds are then conveyed through a cooling tunnel for the chocolate to solidify. remove the hollow chocolate figures • Package Note: Alternate methods are also in use.000 count/kg find application.

12 .6° C (55°-60° F) depending on the relative humidity of 154 .6° . B.18. the unstable crystals will transform to the stable Beta crystal resulting in fat bloom on the surface of the coating. minimum shrinkage and a shortened shelf-life. the chocolate drop paste is high in yield value and relatively low in total fat. too cold of a tunnel can cause very rapid crystallization and formation of Alpha crystals. Although the crystallization rate of the part of the cocoa butter which is still in the liquid state is proceeding very rapidly. the coated centers can be solidified on trays in a 18.18. In order for chocolate chips to hold a defined shape.6° . This situation may be avoided by activating the compressor just prior to enrobing rather than having the compressor cool the tunnel for a substantial period of time.12. Cooling methods and recommendations for hand dipping and enrobing A.2° .65° F) until an insulating skin has been formed followed by convection cooling @ 7.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual is formulated with a small amount of dextrose to provide heat stability and reduce smearing of melted chocolate upon exit from ovens. C ool in g The cooling or solidification process for chocolate products after enrobing is as critical as the tempering phase. A tempered chocolate paste is deposited from a multiple depositor only a metal band through various size nozzles in the form of small pyramids with an overlapping hook and a circular base.18. General conditions and cooling profiles for all convection cooling tunnels for enrobed chocolate products are: • Tunnel Entrance: 15. The enrobed products will be subjected to these colder conditions for a short period of time until the temperature of the tunnel rises from the heat of the product load. These unstable crystals will be incorporated as part of the total crystalline composition before the coated items exit the tunnel.3 °C (60°-65° F) so that hardening gradually progresses and thus allows the maximum escape of subsurface heat before a fully hardened surface layer forms and acts as an insulator. crystallization has progressed far enough that colder air and increased convection can safely be applied until the exit zone where warmer temperatures must be employed to prevent condensation. and provided that hardening has been properly started. Improper cooling conditions will result in poor gloss.15. Chocolate inclusions for frozen dessert applications may include added butter oil or vegetable fat to lower the melting point and improve eating quality at very low temperature. At the entrance of the tunnel. the chips are solidified and ready for removal. This “shocking” commonly occurs at the start-up of the enrobing process when the tunnel is very cold due to lack of product load.15. (45° . This occurs when the temperature at the entrance or the entire tunnel is too cold.8° . The ideal cooling tunnel profile is to utilize radiant cooling @ 15.50° F) with an exit temperature of 12.3° C (60°65° F) • Tunnel Center: 10° . Once the coating is dry on the surface.3° C (60° . Following passage through a cooling tunnel. Great care must be taken to prevent the tempered chocolate on the centers from being “shocked” when entering the cooling tunnel.60° F) to prevent condensation.8° C (50°-55° F) • Tunnel Exit: 12. This will be evident upon exiting the tunnel by poor gloss. For operations that do not utilize a cooling tunnel.20° C (65°68° F) room with a relative humidity of less than 50% until they are dry.3° .6° . C.10° C.8° . the air motion should be minimal with an air temperature of 15. During storage.6° C (55° . tackiness. tackiness and minimum contraction.

Temperature vacillation can accelerate dullness and the formation of fat bloom. printing ink.) or packaging material can easily be absorbed by the chocolate. When the moisture eventually evaporates. Areas must be well ventilated. product and tunnel design. Since this may be impractical in most cases it is advisable to at least pre-cool all packaging supplies by providing room for an advance supply to be kept in the packaging room itself long enough to cool to the temperature of the area. Quality changes observed during storage Sugar bloom . As important as actual storage temperature is the avoidance of temperature vacillation. but are stored in a cool packing room up to 24 hours to allow complete dissipation of the latent heat of crystallization and to allow solidification of the liquid cocoa butter. After storage. it is preferable that products are not packed directly as they come from the tunnel. D. Chocolate goods may also be frozen after 48 hour stabilization for extended shelf life. Frozen product must be staged at progressively higher temperatures and allowed to equilibrate at each stage to avoid condensation until the product stabilizes to room temperature.0% • Tunnel Time: 10-12 minutes depending on what is being enrobed. Caution must be exercised when returning the goods to room temperature. Molding The cooling conditions for molding depend on numerous factors and must be adjusted for the specific operation. out of sunlight and away from other sources of heat. When sub- 155 . • Relative humidity in the tunnel: Less than 50. Odors emanating from glue. S t o r ag e an d Dis tr i b u t i o n Packing room temperatures are typically controlled at a range of 18°-20° C (65°-68° F) with a relative humidity of less than 50 % to avoid condensation on enrobed or molded goods exiting the cooling tunnel. Product is best stored off the floor. Care must be taken to isolate chocolate products from these foreign odors to prevent the acquisition of off-flavors. etc.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual the packing room. Sugar in the coating may dissolve into such surface droplets. Chocolate at 30-35° C (85-95° F) will melt and liquid fat will appear on the surface. This difference may result in condensation of atmospheric moisture on the surface of the chocolate. away from walls. It may also be caused by exposure to high temperatures and return to ambient conditions. cinnamon. Certainly fat bloom may be caused by poor tempering. These factors include: • Mold design and material • (metal. Packagin g . chocolate products must be shipped in temperature controlled vehicles 10°-15. the sugar crystallizes on the surface as a whitish film of sugar crystals.This occurs when moisture condenses on the surface of chocolate as a result of the large temperature difference between exit zone of cooling tunnel and ambient room temperature. butterscotch. Common practice is to ship chocolate product in refrigerated transport unless prevailing outdoor temperatures are lower. chocolate coated candies and chocolate nut bars.This is a grayish discoloration on the surface of chocolate bars. plastic) • Size of mold • Quantity of chocolate in the mold • Hollow mold • Solid mold • Flat mold • Shell molding • Single shot injection molding 13. Sugar bloom is therefore an irreversible process Fat bloom . flavors (mint.6° C (50°-60° F) to avoid complete de-tempering of the chocolate coating. Since about 25 % of the cocoa butter in the coating after cooling is still in the liquid form.

Fat bloom may also occur after long periods of storage as cocoa butter transforms into its most stable crystal form which will appear as bloom on the surface of a piece. this fat crystallizes thus causing a grayish appearance.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual sequently cooled. Cracking or leakage .This is caused by lack of elasticity in the coating to expand and contract during temperature changes or minor changes in moisture content. Yet another cause can be migration of incompatible fats from centers or certain ingredients such as nuts rich in oil. 156 .

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HIV/AIDS prevention. Concerns about the safe use of farming chemicals and child labor on West African cocoa farms — the center of most of the world’s cocoa harvest — are receiving considerable attention from industry groups. The program also offers business training to managers of farmer cooperatives. planting materials and market information. ADM believes that. the program offers farmers financial support for cocoa marketing in the form of seed money at the beginning of the growing season. governments. labor and quality requirements. 11 and help those who may be in inappropriate child labor or forced labor situations. Many cocoa farmers have limited access to the latest agricultural technologies. In addition to its educational component. 159 . ADM works with others along the cocoa supply chain to improve the lives of cocoa farming families and their communities. by working with farmers. The following pages describe some of the initiatives created or supported by ADM. And few have business training to help them effectively market their product and manage their operations.CoCoa & ChoColate Manual Sustainable Cocoa A Better Future for Cocoa Communities As one of the world’s largest cocoa and chocolate manufacturers. operational transparency. ADM pays premiums to cooperatives that deliver products of notably high quality. non-government organizations (NGOs) and interested consumers worldwide. governments. we can help address these complex issues and improve the lives of cocoa farmers and their communities. At harvest. ADM is committed to a sustainable future for cocoa farming. Cocoa farmers around the world face many challenges. academic researchers. NGOs and labor experts to design and implement a process to certify that efforts are in place to measure and report on labor practices An ADM Senior Agro-Economist in West Africa gives a seminar on best farming practices. grower cooperatives. and access to millions of dollars in zero-interest revolving credit throughout the year. Many cocoa farming communities face challenges of poverty and disease. An estimated one-third of the global cocoa crop is destroyed by pests and disease each year. While we are not growers of cocoa. ADM is working with the Sustainable Tree Crops Program to expand the Technical Training Program beyond the Addressing Child Labor: ADM is working with the World Cocoa Foundation. the ADM Technical Training Program educates cocoa growers about labor practices. NGOs. Holistic Sustainability Programs ADM Technical Training Program Builds Cooperatives’ Capacity Working through farmer cooperatives in Côte d’Ivoire. bean quality and environmental stewardship. industry partners and governments. farm safety.

CoCoa & ChoColate Manual

more than 12,000 cooperative-member attendees it has already reached.

The SERAP Program: Encouraging Socially & Environmentally Responsible Practices

In 2008-2009, nearly 5,000 farmers attended these seminars and, based on a average of 10 people per farming household, the farm population indirectly reached is estimated at more than 50,000.

In 2005, ADM launched the Socially & Environmentally Responsible Agriculture Practices (SERAP) Program, which rewards select West African cooperatives committed to implementing sustainable practices. By providing incentives at the cooperative level—at least half of which go directly to individual farmers—SERAP seeks to foster collaboration among growers as they work to address social and environmental issues. The program is based upon specific, transparent criteria in such areas as: • Cooperative Management - Fiscal responsibility & transparency - Acceptance of SERAP and thirdparty audits - Overall adherence to SERAP values • Product Quality Management • Social Environment Management - Responsible labor practices - HIV/AIDS prevention efforts - Training on safe & suitable chemical use - Respect for contract commitments - Action plans for continued education • Physical Environment Management - Use of integrated pest management - Forest protection - Safe & effective use of insect control and crop nutrients During the 2005-2006 growing year, six cooperatives with about 6,000 farmer members participated in SERAP, delivering 4,000 metric tons of cocoa under the program. During the 2008-2009 growing year, the number of participating co-ops grew to 24, representing more than 12,300 farmers who together delivered more than 10,500 metric tons of sustainable SERAP cocoa. At the beginning of each crop, ADM organizes more than 50 sustainability seminars on social norms and the environment.

Cocoa Livelihoods Program: Partnership with the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation

In 2009, ADM and several cocoa and chocolate industry peers joined the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation to fund a $40 million program to improve the lives of 200,000 cocoa farmers and their families throughout Africa. Managed by the World Cocoa Foundation, the program is focusing on enhancing farmer knowledge, improving farm productivity and crop quality, and improving farmer marketing skills on agriculturally diversified farms.

O n- Fa r m Pr ac ti c es

Spreading the Word of Improved Farm Practices: STCP Partnership

Farmer Field Schools operated by the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture’s Sustainable Tree Crops Program (STCP) have educated thousands of cocoa farmers in Cote d’Ivoire, Ghana, Cameroon, Nigeria and Liberia about labor standards, business practices and farming methods. To help reach more farmers with these important messages, ADM provides opportunities for members of participating cooperatives to attend STCP’s Train the Trainer Field Schools. These schools prepare farmer attendees to serve as technical advisors who can disseminate information among thousands more co-op members upon their return home.

Fu tu r e Gener ati o ns

Nourishing Children’s Bodies & Minds: School Meals Program

Political instability over the past several years, disruptions in food supply and access to public education throughout Côte d’Ivoire have presented serious challenges.

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ADM works with the Friends of the World Food Program, a nonprofit organization that focuses on building support for the United Nations World Food Programme by uniting organizations and individuals committed to solving world hunger. Through this partnership ADM provides direct financial support to the School Meals Program in Cote d’Ivoire. Providing nutritious meals to students in school encourages school attendance, which in turn strengthens the future of their families, communities and economies. This program also fosters community development by incorporating fresh vegetables from local gardens, employing local cooks and teaching proper nutrition and hygiene. Since its inception, the World Food Programme has reached 11 million

school children in some 5,000 schools across Africa.

H e alth

HIV/AIDS Program Focuses on Prevention and Treatment

HIV/AIDS continues to have devastating consequences throughout Africa. To help address this issue, ADM offers an HIV/AIDS education, prevention and treatment program in Côte d’Ivoire for all full-time staff members, their families, day laborers and retired employees. Through the program, ADM employees trained in HIV prevention tactics educate colleagues on transmission and prevention. For HIV-positive employees, doctors and nurses provide confidential counseling and treatment. ADM works closely with Treichville University Hospital Center’s Tropical and Infectious Disease Service in the administration of this program, which reaches more than 1,400 full-time and seasonal ADM employees and their families. In Ghana, ADM works with Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) to provide a comprehensive health program to prevent and treat HIV, tuberculosis, malaria and other infectious diseases.

For more sustainability information, visit:
• World Cocoa Foundation www.worldcocoa.org • International Cocoa Initiative www.cocoainitiative.org • Sustainable Tree Crop Program www.treecrops.org • GTZ (Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit) www.gtz.de

As part of the School Meals Program, ADM provides nourishing meals to thousands of Ivorian school children to help encourage school attendance.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY
Abbink, Shelf Life of Compounded Chocolate, Confectionery Manufacture and Marketing, 1984, vol. 10 (21), 16 ADM Cocoa, Sensory Evaluation of Cocoa Products, technical information bulletin, 1997 ADM Cocoa, Cocoa Powders and Ice Cream, technical information bulletin, 1998 ADM Cocoa, Chocolate Milk, a Complicated Product, technical information bulletin, 1998 ADM Cocoa, Cocoa Powder and Compound Coatings, technical information bulletin, 1998 ADM Cocoa, Chocolate Flavored Desserts, technical information bulletin, 1998 ADM Cocoa, Cocoa Powder in Bakery Applications, technical information bulletin, 1998 ADM Cocoa, Cocoa Powder and Dry Mixes, technical information bulletin, 1998 ADM Cocoa, The deZaanTM Cocoa Products Manual, 1999 ADM Cocoa, Nutritional Functions of Cocoa and Chocolate in Human Food, technical information bulletin, 1999 ADM Cocoa, Sol, Lecithinated Cocoa Powders, product brochure Allen, Food Prod. Design, 1998, Jan., 83-86 Anon., Manuf. Confect., 1986, Aug., 12 AOAC, “Official Methods of Analysis of the AOAC,” 15th Edition, 1990, 970.23, 767-77, Washington

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