1.

(a)

State the meaning of the terms

(i)

relative atomic mass
..........................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii)

mass number
..........................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................
(1)

(iii)

isotopes
..........................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................
(2)

(b)

The isotopic composition of a sample of sulphur is found using a mass spectrometer.
(i)

Explain how atoms of the sample of sulphur are ionised.
..........................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii)

State the type of charge on the sulphur ions formed in the mass spectrometer.
..........................................................................................................................
(1)

(iii)

State how the resulting sulphur ions are then accelerated.
..........................................................................................................................
(1)

(c)

For a particular sample of sulphur atoms the following isotopic composition was recorded.
Isotope

Percentage composition

32

95.00

33

0.76

S
S

4.24
S
Calculate the relative atomic mass of this sample of sulphur. Give your answer to two
34

Chelsea Independent College

1

...... ............................................................... p and d notation........................... (1) (Total 12 marks) 2....................... (2) (d) 34 Predict the electronic configuration of a S atom.................... (3) ........................................................................................................ using s..............................................................................decimal places........................................................................................... ................................................... . ....... (a) State and explain the trend in the boiling temperatures of the noble gases...................................................................... 2 1s ...............................................................................................

.................................................................. . sodium to argon.................. ........................................................................................................................ ...............................(b) The graph below shows the melting temperatures of the elements of Period 3 of the Periodic Table..... (2) (iii) Explain why the melting temperature of magnesium is higher than that of sodium.............................................................................................................................................. (3) (Total 9 marks) Chelsea Independent College 3 ........................................................................................................................................ m e ltin g te m p e r a tu r e / K 1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 N a M g Al Si P S C l Ar e le m e n t (i) Identify one of the elements above that is composed of simple molecules at room temperature............................... .................................. ................................................... .......................................... ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................................................................................. (1) (ii) Silicon has a giant atomic structure................................. plotted against atomic number................. ..................................... Explain how this structure results in the high melting temperature shown on the graph.. ...........................

98% chlorine and the remainder is oxygen.3. (a) Analysis of A shows that it contains 31.84% potassium.00 g of solid A is decomposed completely in this way. Consider the following equations – – A Cl2 + 2I → I2 + 2Cl B Cl2 + 2Br → Br2 + 2Cl C 3ClO → ClO3 + 2Cl – – – – – . 2KClO3 → 2KCl + 3O2 If 1. 3 (One mole of a gas at room temperature and pressure occupies 24 dm ) (3) (Total 6 marks) 4. calculate the volume of oxygen gas produced at room temperature and pressure. 28. A compound A is formed when chlorine is bubbled through hot concentrated potassium hydroxide solution. Show that the empirical formula of A is KClO3 (3) (b) On being heated strongly solid A decomposes completely to give oxygen gas and solid potassium chloride.

...................................................... ................................................................................................................... ................... .......................................... by the use of oxidation numbers................................................................... (1) (ii) Select one of the equations above as an example of disproportionation and show.......................................................... (3) Chelsea Independent College 5 ......................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................. (1) (ii) a species acting as a reducing agent in equation B....................................................................... (a) State the shape of a water molecule and explain why it has this shape... ............................................................................ .................................................................. .................................................................................................................................................................................................. how this reaction fits the definition........ .............................. ....................(a) From these equations identify (i) the equation which represents a useful extraction from sea water............................................................ Explanation ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ (3) (Total 8 marks) 5................... (1) (b) Describe what you would see when the reaction in A occurs...................................... ............................................................................. ...................................... ....................................................................... Shape ........................................................................................ ............................. (2) (c) (i) Define disproportionation.....................................................

................................... . (3) (Total 11 marks) .............................................................................................................(b) + Predict the shape of the H3O ion and draw a diagram to illustrate its shape................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ ....... .................................................................................................................................................................... Shape .............................................. ............................................................. Diagram (2) (c) (i) Use water as an example to explain what is meant by the term hydrogen bond.... ......................................................................................................................................................................................... ............. ..... ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. ................................................................................................................................................................. ....................................................................... (3) (ii) State the difference in density between solid ice and liquid water and describe how the presence of hydrogen bonds accounts for this...................................... ................................................................................................... ............................................................................

.....................................................................................6......................... (i) Write a balanced equation for the reaction between magnesium metal and dilute hydrochloric acid................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... Do not include state symbols..................................... (2) (iii) Suggest why calcium stops reacting with dilute sulphuric acid after a few seconds even though it did react initially......... .......... ........................ ..... (2) (ii) Calcium reacts slightly more vigorously than magnesium with dilute hydrochloric acid.................................................................................................................................................................................................... Potassium nitrate ............. in terms of atomic structure............................................... Suggest..................... Include all state symbols........................................................................... ........................................... ......................................... why this is so.. ........... (2) (b) (i) Write balanced chemical equations for the thermal decomposition of potassium nitrate and calcium nitrate........ (a) Calcium and magnesium react vigorously with dilute hydrochloric acid but with dilute sulphuric acid the calcium stops reacting even though the magnesium continues................................................................................................................................................................................................................. (2) Chelsea Independent College 7 ........ .................... (1) Calcium nitrate .................

........................................................................................................................................................................(ii) State the relative thermal stability of potassium nitrate and calcium nitrate and explain how it is related to the sizes and charges of the ions involved............................. ....................................................................................... ........................................................ (5) (Total 14 marks) .................................................................... ... ................................................................................................................................................... .................................................. ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ...................................... ......................................................................................