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Subject : MAKMAL
KEJURUTERAAN
ELEKTRIK

Subject Code : SEE 3732/3742
Review
Release Date
Last Amendment
Procedure Number
: 2
: 2006
: 2006
: PK-UTM-FKE-(0)-10





SEE 3732/3742

FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN ELEKTRIK
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA
KAMPUS SKUDAI
JOHOR





BASIC COMMUNICATION LABORATORY


FREQUENCY MODULATION (FM)





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FREQUENCY MODULATION (FM)


TITLE OF EXPERIMENT

Generation of FM signal


OBJECTIVES

1) To learn the characteristic of FM modulation.
2) To understand the characteristic of FM spectrum.
3) To understand the Bessel function and bandwidth of FM signal.


THEORY

Frequency modulation is the instantaneous changing of the carrier frequency f
C

proportional to the information modulating signal. The amplitude of the information
signal, E
S
which changes with time, t will change the carrier frequency while the carrier
amplitude remain fixed. The carrier frequency varies linearly with the amplitude of
modulating signal. The higher the amplitude of modulating signal the bigger frequency
difference produced. FM signal can be represented by equation:

FM = E
C
cos ( w
C
t + } m(t) dt )


Frequency modulation process is carried out by an FM modulator as illustrated below:

















FM MODULATOR ÷ ÷
|
Information signal :
m(t) = E
m
cos w
m
t

FM signal :
E
C
cos (w
C
t + k } m(t) dt)
Carrier signal:
E
C
cos w
C
t
3


Figure 1 – a) FM waveform in time domain.
b) FM signal as seen on the oscilloscope

In theory, the FM wave contains an infinite number of sidebands thus suggesting
an infinite bandwidth requirement for transmission or reception. The sidebands are at
( f
C
+ f
m
), (f
C
+ 2f
m
), ( f
C
+ 3 f
m
) ….

The number of sideband components are decided by modulation index value, m
f

or |. The amplitude of sidebands depend on the value of coefficient J
n
(|) as given in the
Bessel table. The sidebands are symmetry at f
C
. Two sidebands at a similar distance to
the f
C
will have the same amplitude. J
n
with negative value shows phase difference of
180
0
.









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Frequency spectrum

Figure 2 shows frequency spectrum which refers to FM signal in frequency domain
which can be seen on the spectrum analyzer.



























Figure 2 – Frequency spectrum of FM signal


Bandwidth

A bandwidth gives the frequency spectrum required for transmission. FM
bandwidth depends on modulation index, |. The higher the modulation index, |, the
greater the required system bandwidth. FM bandwidth is given by the formula: f
max
- f
min
(refer to figure 2)

FM signal bandwidth also can be calculated using the equations below:
Carson Law : 2 ( | + 1 ) f
m

Bessel Law : 2 × nf
m










J
0
(|)E
C

J
1
(|)E
C

J
2
(|)E
C

J
n
(|)E
C

J
-1
(|)E
C

J
-2
(|)E
C

J
-n
(|)E
C


f
min

f
C
- 2f
m

f
C
- f
m

f
C
f
C
+ f
m
f
C
+ 2f
m

f
max

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Bessel table:

| J
0
(|)

J
1
(|)

J
2
(|)

J
3
(|)

J
4
(|)

J
5
(|)

J
6
(|)

J
7
(|)

J
8
(|)

J
9
(|)

0.01 1.0 0.005
0.2 0.99 0.1
0.5 0.94 0.24 0.03
1 0.77 0.44 0.11 0.02
2 0.22 0.58 0.35 0.13 0.03
3 -0.26 0.34 0.49 0.31 0.13 0.04 0.01
4 -0.4 -0.7 0.36 0.43 0.28 0.13 0.05 0.02
5 -0.18 -0.33 0.05 0.37 0.39 0.26 0.13 0.05 0.02
6 0.15 -0.28 -0.23 0.12 0.36 0.36 0.25 0.13 0.06 0.02

Figure 3






Figure 4 - Bessel functions.










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Frequency modulator

The circuit that modulates the carrier frequency according to the changes of
modulating signal.

m(t) = E
m
cos w
m
t
carrier signal = = E
C
cos w
C
t
FM signal = E
C
cos ( w
C
t + k } m(t) dt )


1) w
C
= angular velocity of carrier without modulation.
2) k
f
= k
f
’2t = change in voltage with respect to angular velocity.
3) k
f
’ (Hz/V) = k
f
/2t = (f
max
- f
min
)/ 2E
m
= modulator sensitivity.
4) k
f
E
m
= Aw = maximum change of angular velocity.
5) m
f
= | = modulation index.
6) A] = (f
max
- f
min
)/ 2 = frequency difference




INSTRUMENT REQUIRED

1) Module KL-92001.
2) Module KL-93004.
3) Pico Scope – (Oscilloscope & Spectrum Analyzer)

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES

- Read all procedures before you do this experiment. If you have any problems, get
the technician to help you.










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EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES

Experiment 1 MC1648 Characteristic Measurements.

1- Locate the MC1648 FM Modulator circuit on Module KL-93004. Insert the
connect plug in J2.
2- Connect a 3 Vdc to dc bias input ( I/P2 ) and record the output waveform using
the picoscope. Adjust the VR
1
until a sine wave appears at the output and record
the frequency in Table 1-1.
3- Repeat step 2 for other dc voltages listed in Table 1-1.
4- Using the result of Table 1-1, plot frequency vs. voltage curve.


Experiments 1-2 MC1648 Frequency Modulator

1- Insert connect plugs in J1 AND ALSO J2. Under these conditions, the output
frequency will be the center (carrier) frequency ]
C
. Record this frequency.
2- Connect a 2Vp-p, 3 kHz sine wave of to the audio input (I/P1) and record the
output waveform using the picoscope. Adjust the VR
1
to maximum and plot the
obtained waveform.
3- Using the spectrum analyzer (picoscope), observe and record the output
spectrum in Table 1-2.
4- Repeat step 3 for audio frequencies of 8 kHz.

NOTE: Since the frequency difference between the carrier and modulated signals is too
large to observe and evident variation in time domain on the oscilloscope, therefore we
recommend the use of the spectrum analyzer/picoscope in such a case.



Experiments 1-3 LM566 Characteristic Measurements

1- Locate the LM566 Modulator circuit on Module KL-93004. Insert the connect
plug in J2.
2- Connect a 3.6 Vdc to the dc voltage input (pin 5) and adjust the VR
1
to obtain
and output frequency of 2 kHz. This frequency is the center frequency ]
C
.
3- Change the dc voltages at pin 5 to 2.7V, 3.0V, 3.3V, 3.9V, 4.2V and 4.5V
sequentially. Observe the output frequencies corresponding to the dc voltage
inputs and record the results in Table 1-3.
4- Using the results of Table 1-3, plot the frequency vs voltage curve.
5- Remove the connect plug from J2 and then insert in J3.
6- Repeat step 2 and 3 for an output frequency of 20 kHz. Record the results in
Table 1-4.
7- Using the results of Table 1-4 plot the frequency vs voltage curve.
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Experiments 1-4 LM566 Frequency Modulator

1- Locate the LM566 FM Modulator circuit on Module KL-93004. Insert connect
plugs in J1 and J3. Turn the VR
1
to get the output frequency of 20 kHz.
2- Connect a 500 mVp-p, 1 kHz sine wave to the audio input (I/P1). Using the
picoscope, observe the output waveform (O/P) and record the result in Table 1-
5.
3- Change the audio frequencies to 3 kHz and 5 kHz sequentially. Observe the
output waveforms corresponding to the audio inputs and record the Table 1-5.
4- Repeat step 2 and 3 for the audio input, 1Vp-p, 1 kHz sine wave. Record the
results in Table 1-6.


QUESTIONS FOR DISSCUSSIONS

1. Define modulation index of FM.
2. What happens to an FM signal as you increase the frequency of the modulating
signal?
3. A commercial FM broadcast transmitter has a deviation ratio of 5 and the
frequency of the modulating audio is 15 kHz. Determine:
(a) the amount of frequency deviation
(b) the occupied bandwidth (BW) of the transmission






















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Answer:

Table 1-1











































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Table 1-2
Center frequency ]
C
=
V
m
= 2 Vpp













Input
Frequency
Input Waveform Output Waveform Output Spectrum

3 kHz






8 kHz











11


Table 1-3











































Center frequency ]
C
=
12
Table 1-4













































Center frequency ]
C
=
13


Table 1-5











































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Table 1-6


t will change the carrier frequency while the carrier amplitude remain fixed. THEORY Frequency modulation is the instantaneous changing of the carrier frequency fC proportional to the information modulating signal. The carrier frequency varies linearly with the amplitude of modulating signal. 3) To understand the Bessel function and bandwidth of FM signal. The higher the amplitude of modulating signal the bigger frequency difference produced.FREQUENCY MODULATION (FM) TITLE OF EXPERIMENT Generation of FM signal OBJECTIVES 1) To learn the characteristic of FM modulation. 2) To understand the characteristic of FM spectrum. FM signal can be represented by equation: FM = EC cos ( wCt +  m(t) dt ) Frequency modulation process is carried out by an FM modulator as illustrated below: Information signal : m(t) = E m cos w m t  FM MODULATOR  Carrier signal: EC cos wCt  FM signal : EC cos (wCt + k  m(t) dt) 2 . ES which changes with time. The amplitude of the information signal.

Figure 1 – a) FM waveform in time domain. The number of sideband components are decided by modulation index value. The sidebands are symmetry at fC. The sidebands are at ( fC + fm ). The amplitude of sidebands depend on the value of coefficient Jn () as given in the Bessel table. the FM wave contains an infinite number of sidebands thus suggesting an infinite bandwidth requirement for transmission or reception. Two sidebands at a similar distance to the fC will have the same amplitude. ( fC + 3 fm ) …. 3 . Jn with negative value shows phase difference of 180 0 . (fC + 2fm ). b) FM signal as seen on the oscilloscope In theory. mf or .

2fm fC . the greater the required system bandwidth. J0()EC J-1()EC J-2()EC J-n()EC J1()EC J2()EC Jn()EC fmin fC . . FM bandwidth depends on modulation index.fm fC fC + fm fC + 2fm fmax Figure 2 – Frequency spectrum of FM signal Bandwidth A bandwidth gives the frequency spectrum required for transmission.fmin (refer to figure 2) FM signal bandwidth also can be calculated using the equations below: Carson Law : 2 (  + 1 ) f m Bessel Law : 2  nf m 4 . . FM bandwidth is given by the formula: fmax .Frequency spectrum Figure 2 shows frequency spectrum which refers to FM signal in frequency domain which can be seen on the spectrum analyzer. The higher the modulation index.

02 0.2 0.Bessel table:  0.06 0.12 0.11 0.13 0.01 0.005 0.22 -0.49 0.26 0.13 0.05 0.15 J1() 0.03 0.37 0.33 -0. 5 .31 0.94 0.Bessel functions.24 0.28 J2() J3() J4() J5() J6() J7() J8() J9() 0.36 Figure 3 0.01 0.02 0.34 -0.26 -0.02 0.28 0.77 0.13 0.13 0.25 0.0 0.05 0.35 0.04 0.1 0.13 0.05 -0.44 0.03 0.36 0.43 0.99 0.7 -0.23 0.58 0.39 0.4 -0.5 1 2 3 4 5 6 J0() 1.36 0.02 Figure 4 .18 0.

fmin )/ 2Em = modulator sensitivity. m(t) = E m cos w m t carrier signal = = EC cos wCt FM signal = EC cos ( wCt + k  m(t) dt ) 1) wC = angular velocity of carrier without modulation.Frequency modulator The circuit that modulates the carrier frequency according to the changes of modulating signal. 2) Module KL-93004. If you have any problems. 6)  = (fmax . 2) kf = kf’2 = change in voltage with respect to angular velocity.fmin )/ 2 = frequency difference INSTRUMENT REQUIRED 1) Module KL-92001. 5) mf =  = modulation index. 3) kf’ (Hz/V) = kf/2 = (fmax . 6 . 4) kf Em = w = maximum change of angular velocity. 3) Pico Scope – (Oscilloscope & Spectrum Analyzer) EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES  Read all procedures before you do this experiment. get the technician to help you.

Experiments 1-3 LM566 Characteristic Measurements 1. 3.9V.Repeat step 2 for other dc voltages listed in Table 1-1.6 Vdc to the dc voltage input (pin 5) and adjust the VR 1 to obtain and output frequency of 2 kHz. observe and record the output spectrum in Table 1-2. the output frequency will be the center (carrier) frequency  C . 6. 1.Repeat step 2 and 3 for an output frequency of 20 kHz. Adjust the VR 1 until a sine wave appears at the output and record the frequency in Table 1-1.Connect a 3 Vdc to dc bias input ( I/P2 ) and record the output waveform using the picoscope.Using the result of Table 1-1.0V. plot the frequency vs voltage curve. 2. plot frequency vs. 7 .Using the spectrum analyzer (picoscope).Repeat step 3 for audio frequencies of 8 kHz.5V sequentially.3V. NOTE: Since the frequency difference between the carrier and modulated signals is too large to observe and evident variation in time domain on the oscilloscope. 3 kHz sine wave of to the audio input (I/P1) and record the output waveform using the picoscope. 2. Record the results in Table 1-4.2V and 4. Observe the output frequencies corresponding to the dc voltage inputs and record the results in Table 1-3.Connect a 3.Insert connect plugs in J1 AND ALSO J2.Connect a 2Vp-p.Locate the LM566 Modulator circuit on Module KL-93004. Experiments 1-2 MC1648 Frequency Modulator 1. Under these conditions. 3. 4. 3. Adjust the VR 1 to maximum and plot the obtained waveform. Insert the connect plug in J2. 2. 3.Using the results of Table 1-4 plot the frequency vs voltage curve. Insert the connect plug in J2. 3. Record this frequency. 7.Change the dc voltages at pin 5 to 2.Locate the MC1648 FM Modulator circuit on Module KL-93004.7V.Using the results of Table 1-3. 4.EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES Experiment 1 MC1648 Characteristic Measurements. 3. therefore we recommend the use of the spectrum analyzer/picoscope in such a case. 4. 4. voltage curve. 5. This frequency is the center frequency  C .Remove the connect plug from J2 and then insert in J3.

Repeat step 2 and 3 for the audio input. Turn the VR 1 to get the output frequency of 20 kHz. observe the output waveform (O/P) and record the result in Table 15. Determine: (a) the amount of frequency deviation (b) the occupied bandwidth (BW) of the transmission 8 . A commercial FM broadcast transmitter has a deviation ratio of 5 and the frequency of the modulating audio is 15 kHz.Connect a 500 mVp-p. What happens to an FM signal as you increase the frequency of the modulating signal? 3. Define modulation index of FM. Insert connect plugs in J1 and J3. 2. 1 kHz sine wave. Observe the output waveforms corresponding to the audio inputs and record the Table 1-5. Record the results in Table 1-6. 3.Experiments 1-4 LM566 Frequency Modulator 1.Locate the LM566 FM Modulator circuit on Module KL-93004. 2. 1Vp-p. 4. Using the picoscope. QUESTIONS FOR DISSCUSSIONS 1.Change the audio frequencies to 3 kHz and 5 kHz sequentially. 1 kHz sine wave to the audio input (I/P1).

Answer: Table 1-1 9 .

Table 1-2 Center frequency  C = V m = 2 Vpp Input Input Waveform Frequency Output Waveform Output Spectrum 3 kHz 8 kHz 10 .

Table 1-3 Center frequency  C = 11 .

Table 1-4 Center frequency  C = 12 .

Table 1-5 13 .

Table 1-6 14 .