This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
INTRODUCTION Transformer is a vital link in a power system which has made possible the power generated at low voltages (6600 to 22000 volts) to be stepped up to extra high voltages for transmission over long distances and then transformed to low voltages for utilization at proper load centers. With this tool in hands it has become possible to harness the energy resources at far off places from the load centers and connect the same through long extra high voltage transmission lines working on high efficiencies. At that, it may be said to be the simplest equipment with no motive parts. Nevertheless it has its own problems associated with insulation, dimensions and weights because of demands for ever rising voltages and capacities. In its simplest form a Transformer consists of a laminated iron core about which are wound two or more sets of windings. Voltage is applied to one set of windings, called the primary, which builds up a magnetic flux through the iron. This flux induces a counter electromotive force in the primary winding thereby limiting the current drawn from the supply. This is called the no load current and consists of two components- one in phase with the voltage which accounts for the iron losses due to eddy currents and hysteresis, and the other 90° behind the voltage which magnetizes the core. This flux induces an electro-motive force in the secondary winding too. When load is connected across this winding, current flows in the secondary circuit. This produces a demagnetising effect, to counter balance this the primary winding draws more current from the supply so that
IP.NP = IS.NS
Where Ip and Np are the current and number of turns in the primary while IS and NS are the current and number of turns in the secondary respectively. The ratio of turns in the primary and secondary windings depends on the ratio of voltages on the Primary and secondary sides. The magnetic core is built up of laminations of high grade silicon or other sheet steel which are insulated from each other by varnish or through a coating of iron oxide. The core can be constructed in different ways relative to the windings.
CONSTRUCTION 1- Transformer Core Construction in which the iron circuit is surrounded by windings and forms a low reluctance path for the magnetic flux set up by the voltage impressed on the primary. Fig (1), Fig. (6) and Fig. (7) Shows the core type
Fig (1) core type
The core of shell type is sh own Fig.(2), Fig.(3), Fig.(4), and Fig.(5), in which The winding is surrounded by the iron Circuit Consisting of two or more paths through which the flux divides. This arrangement affords somewhat Better protection to coils under short circuit conditions. In actual construction there are Variations from This simple construction but these can be designed With such proportions as to give similar electrical characteristics.
Fig (2) shell type
Fig.(3) Single phase Transformer
(5) 3.phase Transformer Shell type . Fig. (4) Single phase Transformer .Fig.
Regarding single-phase Transformers. gigantic Transformers of the 1000 MVA class employ five-leg core to prevent leakage flux.phase Transformer core type Fig. Where Transformers to be transported by rail are large capacity. however. which are usually transported by ship and freed from restrictions on in-land transport. three leg cores is used. Practically. and effectively use space inside the tank.Fig. Even among thermal/nuclear power station Transformers. The sectional areas of the yoke and side leg are 50 % of that of the main leg. increase tank strength. minimize vibration. (7) Cross section of a three-phase Distribution Transformer (Core Type) Three-phase Transformers usually employ three-leg core. two-leg core is well known. . five-leg core is used to curtail them to within the height limitation for transport. the core height can be reduced to a large extent compared with the two leg core. (6) 3. four-leg core and five-leg core are used in large capacity Transformers. thus.
which resists both mechanical force during hoisting the core-and-coil assembly and short circuits.Next For core material. In large-capacity Transformers. high-grade. which are likely to invite increased leakage flux. Sturdy clamps applied to front and rear side of the upper and lower yokes are bound together with . Silicon steel strips are stacked in a circle-section. the core is so constructed that the actual silicon strip is held in a sturdy frame consisting of clamps and tie plates. When erecting a core after assembling. with resin-impregnated glass tape wound around the outer circumference. (8) Is used so that no strain due to bending or slip is produced on the silicon steel plate. Fig (8) Fig (9) The steel strip surface is subjected to inorganic insulation treatment. so that magnetic characteristics of the grain-oriented silicon steel remains unimpaired. The core interior is provided with many cooling oil ducts parallel to the lamination to which a part of the oil flow forced by an oil pump is introduced to achieve forced cooling. a special device shown in Fig. keeping the silicon steel strip protected from such force. grain oriented silicon steel strip is used. Each core leg is fitted with tie plates on its front and rear side. All cores employ miter-joint core construction. A computer-controlled automatic machine cuts grain-oriented silicon steel strip with high accuracy and free of burrs. Connected by a core leg tie plate fore and hind clamps by connecting bars. As a result. Yokes are jointed at an angle of 45° to utilize the magnetic flux directional characteristic of steel strip. nonmagnetic steel is used or slits are provided in steel members to reduce the width for preventing stray loss from increasing on metal parts used to clamp the core and for preventing local overheat.
a special device shown in Fig. the core is so constructed that the actual silicon strip is held in a sturdy frame consisting of clamps and tie plates. (10) Thus. Also. electrically isolated turns are brought in contact with each other as shown in Fig. this type is applied to windings ranging from BI L of 350kV to BI L of 1550kV. 2 . When erecting a core after assembling. Comparatively small in winding width and large in space between windings. which resists both mechanical force during hoisting the core-and-coil assembly and short circuits. keeping the silicon steel strip protected from such force.Helical Disk Winding (Interleaved disk winding) In Helical disk winding. Thus. In large-capacity Transformers.12 assume a shape similar to a wound capacitor. which faces to an inner winding of relatively high voltage.Continuous Disk Winding This is the most general type applicable to windings of a wide range of voltage and current Fig.glass tape. it is known that these conductors have very large capacitance. upper and lower clamps are connected by a core leg tie plate. resulting in smaller coil outside diameter and thus reducing Transformer dimension. Unlike cylindrical windings. (9). 1 . . nonmagnetic steel is used or slits are provided in steel members to reduce the width for preventing stray loss from increasing on metal parts used to clamp the core and for preventing local overheat. Helical disk winding requires no shield on the winding outermost side. The core interior is provided with many cooling oil ducts parallel to the lamination to which a part of the oil flow forced by an oil pump is introduced to achieve forced cooling. This capacitance acts as series capacitance of the winding to highly improve the voltage distribution for surge. which are likely to invite increased leakage flux. As a result. the construction of this type of winding is appropriate for the winding. Previous Home Next 2 .4 and conductors 9 . general EHV or UHV substation Transformers employ Helical disk winding to utilize its features mentioned above. According to the purpose of use." Since conductors 1 .Winding Various windings are used as shown below. (8) Is used so that no strain due to bending or slip is produced on the silicon steel plate. (11). this type of winding is also termed "interleaved disk winding. the resin undergoes heating for hardening to tighten the band so that the core is evenly clamped Fig. And then. fore and hind clamps by connecting bars. the optimum winding is selected so as to utilize their individual features.
Helical windings For windings of low voltage (20kV or below) and large current. a helical coil is used which consists of a large number of parallel conductors piled in the radial . (12) Transposed conductor construction Diagram Further. When voltage is relatively low. In this case. whenever necessary. since the number of turns is reduced. (11). while transposed cable Fig. (10) Fig. (12) is applied to large current.Rectangular wire is used where current is relatively small. thereby ensuring adequate dielectric characteristics. Also. a Transformer of 100MVA or more capacity handles a large current exceeding 1000A. potential distribution is improved by inserting a shield between turns. the advantage of transposed cable may be fully utilized. Continuous Disk Winding Fig. Fig. even conventional continuous disk construction is satisfactory in voltage distribution. 3 .
In addition. Fig (12) illustrates the transposing procedure for double helical coil. The other openings are sealed with oil-resistant synthetic rubber joints. over which a cover is sometimes bolted. The tank has two main parts: a –The tank is manufactured by forming and welding steel plate to be used as a container for holding the core and coil assembly together with insulating oil. Each conductor is transposed at intervals of a fixed number of turns in the order shown in the figure.Tank. the tank is designed to withstand a total vacuum during the treatment process. . Finally the tank is designed to withstand the application of the internal overpressure specified. The tank is provided internally with devices usually made of wood for fixing the magnetic circuit and the windings. Adequate transposition is necessary to equalize the share of current among these parallel conductors. The base and the shroud. Sealing between the base and shroud is provided by weld beads. Fig. and as a result the location of each conductor opposed to the high voltage winding is equalized from the view point of magnetic field between the start and the end of winding turn. (13) double helical coil Previous Home Next 3 . whose compression is limited by steel stops.Direction and wound. without permanent deformation. These parts are manufactured in steel plates assembled together via weld beads.
Conservator The tank is equipped with an expansion reservoir (conservator) which allows for the expansion of the oil during operation. Fig.Fig (14) Power Transformer 30 MVA 132 / 11 KV Previous Hom Next b . (15) . The conservator is designed to hold a total vacuum and may be equipped with a rubber membrane preventing direct contact between the oil and the air.
One drain plug for the tap-changer compartment. three basic insulated termination systems is available.Tank Earthing terminals: The tank is provided with Earthing terminals for Earthing the various metal parts of the Transformer at one point. Horizontally split design in degree . 5 .Handling devices: Various parts of the tank are provided with the following arrangements for handling the Transformer. Fully enclosed terminal box for cables Fig. sealing joints. (17&18) Available for either HV or LV side. Besides the open bushing arrangement for direct Connection of bare or insulated wires. And when there is an on-load adjuster: .One isolating valve per radiator or per cooler. .One drainage and filtering valve located below the tank. .Valves: The Transformers are provided with sealed valves.Four locations (under the base) intended to accommodate bidirectional roller boxes for displacement on rails. The Transformers usually include: .Four pull rings (on two sides of the base) . . (16) 4 .Two isolating valves for the "Buchholz" relay.Connection Systems Mostly Transformers have top-mounted HV and LV bushings according to DIN or IEC in their standard version.Fig. The magnetic circuit is earthed via a special external terminal.One conservator drainage and filtering valve. locking devices and position indicators.Two isolating valves for the protection relay.Four jacking pads (under the base) . . . Previous Home Next 6 . . . or for both.One refilling valve for the on-load tap-changer.
Multiple cables per phase are terminated on auxiliary bus structures attached to the bushings removal of Transformer by simply bending back the cables.) Cable installation through split cable glands and removable plates facing diagonally downwards. or spray water.of protection IP 44 or IP 54. with or without stress cones. plus protection against drip. (Totally enclosed and fully protected against contact's With live parts. Fig. (18) HV Side 300 KV . Optional conduit hubs suitable for single-core or three-phase cables with solid dielectric insulation. (17) Fig. splash.
The specifications of the dehydrating breather are shown in Table (1) and the operation of the component parts in Table (2). (19) LV Side (11KV) connection terminal 3-cable for each phase Previous Home Next 7 .Fig. . Construction and Operation See Fig. (20) The dehydrating breather uses silica . and the dehydrating breather removes the moisture and dust in the air inhaled and prevents the deterioration of the Transformer oil due to moisture absorption.The dehydrating breather The dehydrating breather is provided at the entrance of the conservator of oil immersed equipment such as Transformers and reactors.gel as the desiccating Agent and is provided with an oil pot at the bottom to filtrate the inhaled air. The conservator governs the breathing action of the oil system on forming to the temperature change of the equipment.
Peep window 3. Suppression screw 14. Flange 4. Case 2. Wing nut 12.Filter 8. silica-gel 9. Oil (Transformer oil) 11. Set screw 15.Cover Fig. (20) Dehydrating breather 13.Absorbent 10.1 . Oil pot holder 6. Oil pot 5. Oil level line (Red Table . Breathing pipe 7.1.
while it is not performing breathing action.5A Material --. indicates the Extent of moisture absorption by discoloration. it seals the desiccating agent from the outer air to prevent unnecessary moisture Absorption of the desiccating agent.white silica-gel 75% blue silica-gel 25% Table . Oil pot Oil and filter absorbent Previous Home Next Bushing Having manufactured various types of bushings ranging from 6kV-class to 800kV-class.Light purple ----.Type Weight of desiccating agent 4. In addition to the removal of moisture.spherical. In addition.Silica-gel (Main component SiO2) Shape. Toshiba has accumulated many years of splendid actual results in their operation. Size --. (Dry condition) (Wet condition ) Blue -----. Ø4 – Ø5 Mixed ratio --. to Maintain the oil pot in a good operating condition. approx.5 kg Desiccating agent FP4.Light pink Removes moisture and dust in the air inhaled by: the Transformer or reactor. .2 Item Silica-gel Blue silica-gel Action Removes moisture in the air inhaled by the Transformer Or reactor. Absorbs dust and deteriorated matter in the oil pot.
mainly consisting of a condenser cone of oil-impregnated insulating paper. (21). is used . paper insulated condenser bushing.000A rated current.Plain-type Bushing Applicable to 24 kV-classes or below. (21) 24 KV Bushing Oil-impregnated. especially. this bushing is of simplified construction and small mounting dimensions. Fig. this type of bushing is available in a standard series up to 25. this type proves to be advantageous when used as an opening of equipment to be placed in a bus duct Fig. Paperinsulated Condenser Bushing Fig. (22) 800 KV bushing The oil-impregnated. Consisting of a single porcelain tube through which passes a central conductor.
Previous Home Next Fig. • Provided with test tapping for measuring electrostatic capacity and tan δ. 22&23). (24) Cut away view of Transformer bushing type GOE Construction of Cable Connection and GIS Connection Cable Connection In urban-district substations connected with power cables and thermal power stations suffered from salt-pollution.For high-voltage application (Fig. • Provided with voltage tapping for connecting an instrument Transformer if required. This bushing. • Partial discharge free at test voltage. of enclosed construction. cable direct-coupled construction is used in which a . (23) Bushing type GOEK 1425 for direct connection of 420 KV Power Transformer to gas insulated Switchgear or high voltage cable Fig. offers the Following features: • High reliability and easy maintenance.
a coil terminal is connected to the cable head through an oil-oil bushing in the cable connection chamber. with a cable connecting chamber attached to the Transformer tank. Cable connections and oil filling can be separately performed upon completion of the tank assembling. permitting the oil side and the gas side to be completely separated from each other. In keeping with this tendency. The SF6 gas bus is connected directly with the Transformer coil terminal through an oil-gas bushing. (26) Indirect Cable Connection GIS (Gas Insulated Switchgear) Connection There is an increasing demand for GIS in substations from the standpoint of site-acquisition difficulties and environmental harmony.Transformer is direct-coupled with the power cable in an oil chamber. Fig. GIS connection-type Transformers are ever-increasing in their applications. Indirect connection system in which. Oil-gas bushing support is composed of a Transformer-side flange and an SF6 gas bus-side flange. . Construction of the connection chamber can be divided into sections.
Buchholz Relay The Buchholz relay is installed at the middle of the connection pipe between the Transformer tank and the conservator.35Q) or above. In the event of a fault.Fig. upon a fault development inside a Transformer. producing gas or developing an impulse oil flow. the 1st stage contact is used to detect minor faults. When gas produced in the tank due to a minor fault surfaces to accumulate in the relay chamber within a certain amount (0. There are a 1st stage contact and a 2nd stage contact as shown in Fig. thereby actuating the alarm device. the float lowers and closes the contact. an alarm is set off or the Transformer is disconnected from the circuit. a Buchholz relay is installed. . (27) Direct GIS Connection Previous Home Next Buchholz Relays The following protective devices are used so that. (28). To detect these phenomena.3Q-0. oil or insulations decomposes by heat.
With its temperature detector installed on the tank cover and with its indicating part installed at any position easy to observe on the front of the Transformer. the float is lowered to close the contact. (28). In the event of a major fault.Fig. abrupt gas production causes pressure in the tank to flow oil into the conservator. In this case. Previous Home Next Temperature Measuring Device Liquid Temperature Indicator (like BM SERIES Type) is used to measure oil temperature as a standard practice. thereby causing the Circuit Breaker to trip or actuating the alarm device. Buchholz Relay The 2nd stage contact is used to detect major faults. the dial temperature detector is .
there is no possibility of the glass interior collecting moisture whereby it would be difficult to observe the indicator Fig. Winding Temperature Indicator Relay (BM SERIES) The winding temperature indicator relay is a conventional oil temperature indicator supplemented with an electrical heating element. the relay can be fitted with a precision potentiometer with the same characteristics as the search coil for remote indication.used to measure maximum oil temperature. on request a search coil can be installed which is fine copper wire wound on a bobbin used to measure temperature through changes in its resistance. The indicating part. (29) Construction of Winding Temperature Indicator Relay . (30&31). Further. Fig. The relay measures the temperature of the hottest part of the Transformer winding. during remote measurement and recording of the oil temperatures. thus. is of airtight construction with moisture absorbent contained therein. If specified. provided with an alarm contact and a maximum temperature pointer.
sq.Fig (30) Oil Temperature Indicator Fig. The sensing bulb placed in a thermometer well in the Transformer tank cover senses the maximum oil temperature.7 kg/cm. (31) Winding Temperature Indicator The temperature sensing system is filled with a liquid. In this way the instrument indicates the temperature in the hottest part of the Transformer winding.oil temperature. The matching resistance of the heating element is preset at the factory.35-0. which changes in volume with varying temperature. the measuring bellows react to both the temperature increase of the winding-overthe-maximum-oil temperature and maximum oil temperature. The pressure relief device starts automatically to discharge the oil. the device is automatically reset to prevent more oil than required from being discharged. Previous Home Next Pressure Relief Device When the gauge pressure in the tank reaches abnormally To 0. Therefore. The heating elements with a matching resistance is fed with current from the Transformer associated with the loaded winding of the Transformer and compensate the indicator so that a temperature increase of the heating element is thereby proportional to a temperature increase of the winding-over-the maximum. . When the pressure in the tank has dropped beyond the limit through discharging.
2026 (Part 11)-1977 are: (a) Mineral oil or equivalent flammable insulating liquid O (b) Non flammable synthetic insulating liquid L (c) Gas G (d) Water W (e) Air A . (32) Pressure Relief Device Previous Home Next Cooling System METHODS OF COOLING The kinds of cooling medium and their symbols adopted by I.Fig.S.
Fig.Type ONAF Fig. (33 & 34) In this case the core and winding assembly is immersed in oil. 2. the second letter represents the kind of circulation for the cooling medium. Oil Immersed Air Blast .The kids of circulation for the cooling medium and their symbols are: (a) Natural N (b) Forced (Oil not directed) F (c) Forced (Oil directed) D Each cooling method of Transformer is identified by four symbols. Fig. It becomes possible to reduce the size of the Transformer for the same rating and consequently save in cost. (33) Oil Immersed Natural cooled ONAN . The first letter represents the kind of cooling medium in contact with winding. In large Transformers the surface area of the tank alone is not adequate for dissipation of the heat produced by the losses. Cooling is obtained by the circulation of oil under natural thermal head only.Oil Immersed Natural cooled – Type ONAN. Additional surface is obtained with the provision of radiators. (35 & 36) In this case circulation of air is obtained by fans. For oil immersed Transformers the cooling systems normally adopted are: 1. Thus oil immersed Transformer with natural oil circulation and forced air external cooling is designated ONAF. the third letter represents the cooling medium that is in contact with the external cooling system and fourth symbol represents the kind of circulation for the external medium.
(34) Oil Immersed Natural cooled ONAN Previous Home Next Fig.Type ONAF .Fig. (35) Oil Immersed Air Blast .
Except at hydropower stations this would off-set the saving in cost when special means have to be provided for adequate supply of water.Type ONAF 3.Fig. This type of cooling was employed in older designs but has been almost abandoned in favor of the Type OFWF discussed later. Forced Oil Air Blast Cooled . (36) Oil Immersed Air Blast .Type ONWN In this case internal cooling coil is employed through which the water is allowed to flow. Apparently this system of cooling assumes free supply of water. 5. The circulation of oil is only by convection currents.Type OFAF Fig.Type OFAN Fig. Forced Oil Natural Air Cooled . pump is employed in the oil circuit for better circulation of oil. (38) In this method of cooling. Oil Immersed Water Cooled . Previous Home Next 4. . In addition fans are added to radiators for forced blast of air. (37) In this system of cooling also circulation of oil is forced by a pump.
(37) Forced-oil.Type OFAF Fig. (38) Forced Oil Natural Air . Forced-air-cooled .Fig.
. The rating of a Transformer with ONAN/ONAF cooling may be written. the installation costs for OFWF Transformers may increase. As soon as the load exceeds a preset value. On bigger units not only there is a saving in price but also the reduced weights and dimensions. It shall be appreciated that the ONAN cooling has the advantage of being the simplest with no. with other systems of cooling of Transformers. say. Type of cooling has a bearing on the cost of the Transformer. as 45/60 MVA. dimensions and weight in case of type OFWF can be fully realised only where water supply is readily available. These are Switched on automatically when the load on the Transformer exceeds 45 MVA. Previous Home Next INSULATING OIL (SPECIFICATIONS AND DEHYDRATION AT SITE) In Transformers. On smaller units say up to 10 MVA. These determine the type of cooling upto certain loading.Type OFWF In this type of cooling a pump is added in the oil circuit for forced circulation of oil. the fans/pumps are Switched on. fans or pumps and hence no auxiliary motors.Type OFAN 6. Forced Directed Oil and Forced Air Cooling -ODAF. ONAN/ONAF or ONAN/OFAF or sometimes three systems e. 7. For example the advantage of reduced price. This means that so long as the load is below 45 MVA. Site conditions sometimes influence the preferred cooling arrangement. render the transport easy and decrease the cost of Foundations etc. through a separate heat exchanger in which water is allowed to flow.g. the fans will not be working. Forced Oil Water Cooled . the insulating oil provides an insulation medium as well as .Cooled . saving in price in changing from ONAN cooling to other forms of cooling is negligible.. It is quite common to select Transformers with two systems of Cooling e. Where special arrangements have to be made for water supply and disposal of the water.g. ONAN/ONAF/ OFAF. It should be remembered that Transformers cooling type OFAF and OFWF will not carry any load if air and water supply respectively is removed.
Min.. (c) Have low specific gravity-In oil of low specific gravity particles which have become suspended in the oil will settle down on the bottom of the tank more readily and at a faster rate.a heat transferring medium that carries away heat produced in the windings and iron core. (f) Have a high flash point. Various national and international specifications have been issued on insulating oils for Transformers to meet the above requirements. it loses in volume.89 g/cm3 0. Max Interfacial tension at 270°C. 1 characteristic Appearance Requirement The oil shall be clear and transparent and free from suspended matter or sediments.Oil with low pour point will cease to flow only at low temperatures.04 N/m. (g) Not attack insulating materials and structural materials. its viscosity rises. 2 3 4 5 6 7 Density at 29. Flash point Min. will cool Transformers at a much better rate. Since the electric strength and the life of a Transformer depend chiefly upon the quality of the insulating oil. 104 °C . (e) Have low pour point. and an explosive mixture may be formed with the air above the oil. Corrosive Sulphur (in terms of classification of copper strip). When oil vaporizes. Electric strength (breakdown voltage) Min. The insulating oil used for Transformers should generally meet the following requirements: (a) Provide a high electric strength. a property aiding the oil in retaining its homogeneity. The specifications for insulating oil stipulated in Indian Standard 335: 1983 are given below. (d) Have a low viscosity. 0. The flash point characterizes its tendency to evaporate.e. having greater fluidity. it is very important to use a high quality insulating oil. i.9 °C Non-corrosive.Oil with low viscosity. (b) Permit good transfer of heat. (h) Have chemical stability to ensure life long service. The lower the flash point the greater the oil will tend to vaporize.5°C. Pour Point Max. 30 kV (rms) .
The gases (with the exception of N2 and O2) dissolved in the oil are derived from the degradation of oil and cellulose molecules that takes place under the influence of thermal and electrical stresses. It is indeed possible to determine from an oil sample of about one litre the presence of certain gases down to a quantity of a few mm3 .(a) New unfiltered oil (b) After filtration Dielectric dissipation factor (tan ) at 90 °C Max. 8 9 0. a gas volume corresponding to about 1 millionth of the volume of the liquid (ppm). (b) Total sludge. Oxidation stability. i. (a) Neutralization value.4 mg KOH/g 0. This method of monitoring power Transformers has been studied intensively and work is going on in international and national organizations such as CIGRE. after oxidation Max.002 35 X 10 12 cm 12 1500 X 10 cm 10 0. Specific resistance (resistivity): (a) At 9 0 °C Min.g. e. Some typical cases where gas analysis is particularly desirable are listed in the following: . The frequency with which oil samples are taken depends primarily on the size of the Transformer and the impact of any Transformer failure on the network. normal operating temperatures. Different stress modes... Both these kinds of information together provide the necessary basis for the evaluation of any fault and the necessary remedial action. IEC and IEEE. This method is very sensitive and gives an early warning of incipient faults. The relative distribution of the gases is therefore used to evaluate the origin of the gas production and the rate at which the gases are formed to assess the intensity and propagation of the gassing. (b) at 2 7 0 °C Min. 60 kV (rms). Max. 15 ppm Previous Home Next Gases analysis The analysis of gases dissolved in oil has proved to be a highly practical method for the field monitoring of power Transformers.10 percent by weight 11 12 The oil shall not contain antioxidant additives. produce different compositions of the gases dissolved in the oil. APPLICATION. Max. Presence of oxidation inhibitor Water content. hot spots with different high temperatures.e. after oxidation. partial discharges and flashovers.
When a defect is suspected (e. Using calibration gases it is possible to identify the different peaks on a chromatogram. for hydrogen.CARBON DIOXIDE CO2 3 . To assure effective degassing (> 99 per cent). 2 . The result is plotted on a recorder in the form of a chromatogram. followed by a further test some months later. An oil pump provides the necessary circulation. The accumulated gas is injected by means of a syringe into the gas chromatograph.Directly after and within a few weeks after a heavy short circuit 4 . the tan value. A low pressure is maintained by a vacuum pump. which analyses the gas sample. The gas extracted by the vacuum pump is accumulated in a vessel. The following gases are analyzed: 1 .PROPANE C3H6 The detection limits depend partly on the total gas content. Recalculation of the height of a peak to the content of this gas is done by comparison with chromatogram deflections from calibration gases.HYDROGEN H2 4 . The volumes of the gas and the oil sample are determined to permit calculation of the total gas content in the oil.ACETYLENE C2H2 7 . Any water that may have been present in the oil is removed by freezing in a cooling trap to ensure that the water will not disturb the vacuum pumping. Extraction and analysis To be able to carry out a gas analysis. methane and carbon monoxide about 5 ppm and . for hydrocarbons (except methane) the limit lies below 0. the content (in ppm) of the individual gases in the oil is obtained.METHANE CH4 8 .g. Different routines for sampling intervals have been developed by different utilities and in different countries. abnormal noise).ETHANE C2H6 5 .5 ppm.. the gases dissolved in the oil must be extracted and accumulated.In connection with the commissioning of Transformers that are of significant importance to the network. With the composition of the gas mixture and the total gas content in the oil sample known. the neutralization coefficient and other physical quantities is not replaced by the gas analysis. the oil is allowed to run slowly over a series of rings which enlarge its surfaces. 3 . The routine that has been used over a long period of time of checking the state of the oil every other year by measuring the breakdown strength. One sampling per year appears to be customary for large power Transformers (Rated >= 300 MVA >= 220 kV).When a Buchholz (gas-collecting) relay or pressure monitor gives a signal.CARBON MONOXIDE CO 2 .ETHENE C2H4 6 . The oil sample to be degassed is sucked into a pre-evacuated degassing column.1 .
during a heat run test or when oil samples are taken at intervals of only a few days. excessively hot metal surfaces and fast degradation of cellulose. H2 ACETYLENE. but certain care should be observed when making assessments. C2H2 ETHANE..g. H2 METHANE. C3H6 HYDROGEN. until all factors influencing the gassing rate are known. e. electrical discharges. Some schemes give an appearance of great precision. The fault types that can and should be identified are corona. This high sensitivity is necessary in those cases where it is desired to determine a trend in the gas evolution at short sampling intervals. It is possible to obtain an idea of the type of fault by using a diagnosis scheme.for carbon dioxide about 2 ppm. CO2 HYDROGEN. C2H4 PROPANE. If the Transformer tank and the OLTC have a common conservator the warning and fault limits are 30 ppm and 100 ppm respectively for C2H2 . A number of different schemes of this type have been prepared. C2H6 ETHENE. GAS ANALYSIS OF TRANSFORMER Type Of Gas CARBON MONOXIDE. Identification of faults. To avoid having to deal with the contents of the individual gases. CO CARBON DIOXIDE. CH4 Caused By AGEING ELECTRIC ARCS LOCAL OVERHEATING CORONA Gas concentration limits used in the Interpretation of DGA data A statistical survey concerning gas concentrations in Transformer Oil using the results of that survey the following limits have been set: Threshold Warning Fault Unit Limit Limit Limit H2 20 200 400 ppm CH4 10 50 100 ppm C2H6 10 50 100 ppm C2H4 20 200 400 ppm C2H2 1 3 10 ppm CO 300 1000 ppm CO2 5000 20000 ppm The limits above are for a Transformer which are open with a breather and have no OLTC or has a separate conservator for the OLTC. one frequently uses quotients between different gases.
If the neutral point of a star or zigzag connected winding is brought out. 5) The same phase rotation. sixth and seventh conditions in detail. zigzag-delta. delta-delta. d or z for the intermediate and low voltage windings.e. 2) The same percentage impedance.two or more three phase Transformers. These requirements necessitate that any . delta star.. zigzag star. and (2) the load division between the Transformers is proportional to their kVA ratings. 6) The same inherent phase-angle displacement between primary and secondary terminals.Previous Home Next PARALLEL OPERATION OF THREE-PHASE TRANSFORMERS Ideal parallel operation between Transformers occurs when (1) there are no circulating currents on open circuit. 3) The same resistance to reactance ratio. It is the intention here to discuss the last two i. should possess: 1) The same no load ratio of transformation. The above conditions are characteristic of all three phase Transformers whether two winding or three winding. delta or zigzag connection of a set of windings of a three phase Transformer or of windings of the same voltage of single phase Transformers. With three winding Transformers. 7) The same power ratio between the corresponding windings. The fifth condition of phase rotation is also a simple requirement. with anticlockwise rotation. however. 4) The same polarity. It assumes that the standard direction of phase rotation is anti-clockwise. and star zigzag. Displacement of the vectors of other windings from the reference vector. delta-zigzag. is represented by the use of clock hour figure. The first four conditions need no explanation being the same as in single phase Transformers. Connections of Phase Windings The star. depending on the method of . In case of any difference in the phase rotation it can be set right by simply interchanging two leads either on primary or secondary. the following additional requirement must also be satisfied before the Transformers can be designed suitable for parallel operation. star-delta. forming a three phase bank are indicated by letters Y. Displacement of the low voltage winding vector varies from zero to -330° in steps of -30°. Phase Displacement between Windings The vector for the high voltage winding is taken as the reference vector. which are desired to be operated in parallel. D or Z for the high voltage winding and y. the indications are Y N or Z N and y n and z n respectively. IS: 2026 (Part 1V)1977 gives 26 sets of connections star-star.
-180" and -330° (clock-hour setting 0.V. these can be put into parallel operation by connecting H.Yd11. Similarly.V terminals U1. 6 and 11) are shown in Table ( below) Symbol for the high voltage winding comes first. V1 and W1 of one Transformer to HV terminals U1. . 1. -300. followed by the symbols of windings in diminishing sequence of voltage. (39a) and (39b) respectively. Some of the commonly used connections with phase displacement of 0. W of the two being RYB in the anti-clockwise direction are as shown in Figs. percentage impedance) these can be paralleled with each other by connecting together terminals which correspond physically and alphabetically. Hardly any power system adopts such a large variants of connections. with the phase sequence of the supply connected to terminals U. Referring to Table (below) the phasor diagrams of the induced voltages in the h-v and l-v windings of the two Transformers. low voltage terminals U1V1 and of one Transformer should be connected to U1. For example a 220/66/11 kV Transformer connected star.connections. let us consider a three-phase Transformer with vector symbol Dy1 and see how this can be operated in parallel with a three-phase Transformer of similar characteristics but having vector symbol Yd11. If a pair of three phase Transformers have the same phase displacement between high voltage and low voltage windings and possess similar characteristics (Such as no load ratio of transformation phase rotation. For example. Thus taking the case of two three phase Transformers having vector symbols Dd0 and Yy0. V1 and W1 terminals of the second Transformer. V1 and W1 of the other Transformer. Sometimes it may be required to operate a three-phase Transformer belonging to one group with another three-phase Transformer belonging to a different group. This is possible with suitable changes in external connections. star and delta and vectors of 66 and 11 kV windings having phase displacement of 0° and -330° with the reference (220 kV) vector will be represented As Yy0 .
the phase displacement must be the same in the two.Fig.e. (39c) by full lines instead of Connecting 1V to bus Y and 1W to bus B as shown in Fig (39b) by dotted lines. Previous Home Next . This can be achieved by interchanging externally two of the h-v connections of the incoming Transformer to the supply. by connecting 1V to bus B and 1W to bus Y as shown in Fig. However. (39) Example of parallel operation of Transformers of groups 3 and 4 (Transformers having symbols Dy 1 and Yd 11 operating in parallel It may be seen from these diagrams that the phase displacement between the induced voltages in the h-v and l-v windings is -30° in the first Transformer and it is -330° in the second Transformer. for the successful parallel operation of these Transformers.. i.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.